1 Annual Report 4 3 Environmental report 46 15 years of civil and military air navigation services 4 3.1 Air navigation services and the environment 46 6 Main events in 2016 3.2 The Confederation: “Exemplary in Energy” 48 1.1 9 Key performance statistics 3.3 Ecological impact assessment 49 - Operations - Buildings and renewable energy - In brief - Mobility - Traffic trends - Punctuality - Safety 4 Social report 52 - Technical systems 4.1 Personnel numbers and personnel policy 52 1.2 Military air traffic management 16 4.2 Performance and competencies 52 1.3 Regions – Training – Aeronautical data – Consulting 19 4.3 Leadership 52 1.4 Skyguide in Europe 24 4.4 Corporate culture and working environment 53 1.5 Strategic technology programmes 26 4.5 Personnel marketing 53 1.6 Finances 29 4.6 Diversity 53 4.7 Social partnership 54 2 Mission and organization 30 4.8 Occupational health and safety 55 2.1 Skyguide’s airspace 30 4.9 Salary system 55 2.2 Vision, mission and values 30 4.10 Initial and further training 56 2.3 Strategic alignment and thrust 32 2.4 Board of Directors 34 5 Glossary of abbreviations 58 2.5 Executive Board 36 2.6 Organization 38 2.7 Management systems 41


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 3 06.03.17 15:15 1 Annual Report

15 years of civil and military air navigation services

Skyguide is a High-Reliability Organization. Our product is safety. The aim of the Swiss Confederation’s aviation policy is to ensure that Skyguide was one of the first air navigation services providers to subject is well connected with the world in international air link its safety culture to a close and careful examination when it did so ten terms, and thereby ensure that it remains an attractive place to live, years ago. And in 2016 we conducted our first-ever companywide safety work and do business. The air traffic which skyguide manages and analysis following the international model of , Europe’s monitors at the country’s international makes a major umbrella air navigation services organization. In doing so, we sought to contribution to this, and is a key part of our work. But Switzerland’s gain insightful findings on our safety processes and procedures regional airports, too, play a vital role in ensuring strong transport compared with those of our international counterparts. The results connections with the various parts of the country. And in view of this, we confirm that we are on the right track: skyguide’s safety culture is are pleased to see that a solution is now emerging for the financing of among Europe’s best. air traffic services at Switzerland’s Category II airports (such as , and St Gallen-Altenrhein). Skyguide has concluded individual Skyguide and the also celebrated 15 years of integrated contractual agreements with all such regional airports (except Sion) civil and military air navigation services in 2016. The two organizations which will ensure the continued provision of these key infrastructural and their personnel have grown steadily together over that time. And services. The action plan envisaged will now be gradually put into effect. today we are joined by a genuine partnership that bears particular fruit This will enhance the appeal of the regions concerned in the longer in our reliable performance of special joint missions, such as our term, to the benefit of all customers and of Switzerland as a whole. The activities in connection with the annual in operators, the Federal Office of Civil Aviation and skyguide have and the establishment of a permanent aerial policing capability all played a prominent part in the associated preliminary work. for Switzerland. The Swiss National Council debated Revision 1 + to the Federal Aviation The political mandate behind this integrated civil-and-military air Act in its 2016 winter session. One item here which is of particular navigation services approach dates from 2001. And in 2016 the Swiss importance to skyguide is that the company should continue to be Federal Audit Office evaluated its effectiveness under the HELCO project. reimbursed the costs of the air navigation services which it provides in A previous audit had already confirmed that the accounting for the adjacent airspace areas of neighbouring countries which have been Switzerland’s military air navigation services was entirely transparent delegated to its control. The National Council is keen to give skyguide and correct. The results of this latest HELCO audit will be presented to the requisite planning certainty here, and thereby also help maintain the Swiss Federal Finance Delegation in spring 2017. both the availability and the competitiveness of Zurich and international airports. We hope that the Council of States will be A tragic accident occurred at the end of August 2016 involving an F/A-18 similarly sympathetic to these concerns. fighter of the Swiss Air Force. Shortly after taking off from Air Force Base, the aircraft crashed in the Susten area of the . The Functional Airspace Block Europe Central (FABEC) continues to evolve. pilot did not survive. The military investigation authorities are currently FABEC is Europe’s biggest airspace block, handling over half of the determining the precise events and developments leading up to this continent’s air traffic. The so-called Single European Sky is also taking tragedy, with the support of our air navigation services specialists. increasingly concrete shape. The approval of a new joint airspace policy Parallel to this, skyguide is conducting its own internal investigation, to in the form of “FABEC Airspace Policy 2016” offers clear guidelines for eliminate any weaknesses in air traffic management terms with all overcoming the present fragmentation of Europe’s airspace, to the possible speed. Needless to say, we will be doing our utmost to help benefit of both skyguide and its FABEC partners in France, Germany and ensure the full and exhaustive clarification of this tragic accident. the Benelux states.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 4 06.03.17 15:15 While some setbacks have been experienced along the way, we remain convinced of the benefits and the potential of this international collaboration, which will provide shorter routes for the users of the airspace concerned. We are also pleased to note in this connection that IntACT, the FABEC audit organization which skyguide co-founded, has been honoured with the international CANSO Global Safety Achieve­ ment Award.

Skyguide is also making a particular contribution to the unification of Europe’s airspace through its pioneering work in the “virtual centre” field – an undertaking which is intended to ensure that multiple physical Walter T. Vogel Daniel Weder air traffic management centres can function as a single entity in technical and operational terms. The concept, which is now being adopted in Switzerland, takes skyguide into a new air traffic manage­ ment dimension that is rapidly attracting interest throughout the European continent.

The staff survey conducted in 2016 again confirmed the high levels of workplace satisfaction and the particularly strong motivation and commitment among skyguide employees. We are proud of their professionalism and their dedication to serving Swiss aviation. And on behalf of the Board of Directors and the Executive Board, we offer our sincere thanks to all 1 500 of our colleagues for their outstanding work and performance.

Walter T. Vogel Daniel Weder Chairman of the Board of Directors CEO


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 5 06.03.17 15:15 Main events in 2016


01 03 04 05

APRIL Area control centres adopt all-digital control systems

The Dübendorf area control centre takes the fourth step in the “Stripless” project on the night of 4-5 April, giving air traffic controllers in both Dübendorf and Geneva technical control and support systems that are both paper strip-free and totally harmonized. Skyguide also takes the opportunity to introduce a new version of its Tower Approach Coordination Equipment (TRACE) electronic flight plan data and coordination system for .

JANUARY Geneva and Zurich approach charges reduced by just under 8%

Skyguide further lowers its approach charges for Geneva and Zurich international airports, passing on to customers the benefits of various actions taken over the preceding years.

MARCH MAY New CLA for AOT personnel Board of Directors approves further steps in the Virtual Centre programme The new collective labour agreement (CLA) between skyguide and its social partner Syndicom for the company’s administrative, operational Further progress is made with the Virtual Centre, the programme that is and technical (AOT) personnel enters into effect on 1 March. The new laying the foundation for skyguide’s future core operations. With Phase accord modernizes various contractual provisions while still ensuring One of the programme (which has been devoted largely to harmonizing workplace security and attractive employment terms. For skyguide, the the equipment and procedures) almost complete, attention turns to key aim of the new CLA is to ensure that salaries will remain affordable Phase Two, which will provide the basis for future operations, with the for the company in the longer term. approval of the new Virtual Centre’s organization, procedures and resources by the Board of Directors.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 6 06.03.17 15:15 Main events in 2016

08 09

AUGUST Action plan refined for funding air traffic services at regional airports

In an effort to maintain the high quality of the air traffic services provided at Switzerland’s regional airports despite a new legal ban on its previous cross-subsidization of the services concerned, and while simultaneously reducing the cost of such services to users, skyguide is striving to gradually develop innovative infrastructures and adequate procedures at the airports concerned. A workgroup with representatives from the Federal Office of Civil Aviation, the Swiss Aerodromes Association and skyguide draws up a declaration of intent in August which provides the first authoritative catalogue of the possible actions envisaged. Further discussions will be required, however, before they can be adopted.

Aircraft accident in the Swiss Alps prompts extensive SEPTEMBER investigation SAIP for Zurich Airport calls for less complexity and A Swiss Air Force pilot loses his life on 29 August when his F/A-18 more long-term development fighter crashes in the Susten area of the Swiss Alps shortly after The Federal Office of Civil Aviation presents the new Sectoral Aviation taking off from Meiringen Air Force Base in Central Switzerland. The Infrastructure Plan (SAIP) Object Sheet for Zurich Airport. The document pilots of the Swiss Air Force and skyguide’s air traffic controllers sets out the parameters for the future development of Switzerland’s work as a closely-knit team on all air force missions, and the shock biggest airport. Skyguide maintains that the Plan should prioritize and grief at the loss are correspondingly deep throughout the safety enhancements over noise-reduction measures and actions to company. Skyguide pledges the military investigating authorities raise capacity; that the resources envisaged in the new document will its full support, and simultaneously launches its own internal only achieve such objectives to a limited degree; and that, while it offers investigation. relief in certain current problem areas, the Plan will restrict the airport’s longer-term development.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 7 06.03.17 15:15 Main events in 2016


10 11 12

OCTOBER iStream optimizes Zurich approach wave Project iStream to optimize early-morning arrival sequences at Zurich DECEMBER Airport is adopted in mid-October following successful trials. The new IFR routes for helicopters concept reduces holding patterns by up to 96% and approach route lengths by an average of 30%, with corresponding savings in fuel The GNSS Low Flight Network of lower airspace routes is consumption. The project was co-launched by skyguide, Flughafen expanded to include instrument flight rules (IFR) routes for the Zürich, SWISS and further airline partners in June 2015, and is funded by helicopters of the REGA Swiss air ambulance service, enabling the European Union as part of its SESAR technology programme. REGA rescue flights to be performed in poor visibility, too. The use of such routes is subject to skyguide approval. The Low Flight Network is the product of a collaboration among skyguide, REGA, the Swiss Air Force and the Federal Office of Civil Aviation. The network is based on satellite navigation and connects airports and hospitals, initially via two defined routes.

ATS financing agreement concluded with regional airports

The operators of Switzerland’s regional airports (with the exception of Sion, where a decision is still pending), have all concluded individual agreements with skyguide on the provision of their air traffic services. The accords regulate the scope and the financing of the services at each airport that skyguide should provide – a key prerequisite for implementing the action plan envisaged to reduce the air traffic services costs at the country’s Category II airports.

NOVEMBER Skyguide brings the aviation sector together to discuss “Dealing with Expectations”

The fourth Skyguide Business Day invites delegates from skyguide’s air navigation services customers and further partners, the Swiss Air Force, the authorities, other members of the Swiss aviation community and international specialists to discuss the latest aviation trends and developments. The event puts a particular focus on how to handle the differing demands and expectations of the various airspace users and the public as a whole.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 8 06.03.17 15:15 Main events in 2016 1 198 663 + 1.8% IFR flights Traffic increase

1.1 Key performance statistics

Skyguide provides safe, efficient and cost-effective air navigation services on behalf of the Swiss Confederation, to ensure the optimum use of Swiss airspace and airport infrastructure both within and beyond Switzerland. International air traffic is subject to international rules – in performance measurement terms, too. Skyguide is actively involved in the development of the Single European Sky, and has also adopted the European performance parameters. As a member of FABEC, skyguide reports on its achievement of its performance targets within this grouping in a separate report 1.

The information on Pages 9 to 17 is intended to illustrate how skyguide’s air navigation services, its safety management and the reliability of its technical systems developed in 2016. Further information on the company’s 2016 environmental performance and social policies will be found on Pages 46 and 52.

Operations and at other air navigation services providers. Above all, though, the air traffic volume trends reflect the geopolitical situation. Brussels Airport In brief was closed for two weeks in March 2016 following a terrorist attack, and flights to Egypt, Tunisia, Turkey and Russia suffered clear declines in Traffic growth and fewer delays demand. Other destinations – such as the Canary Islands, Portugal, The combination of low oil prices – as in 2015, crude oil was trading at Greece and Cyprus – saw an increase in their popularity. less than USD 50 a barrel – and Eurozone economic recovery had a positive effect on air traffic volumes. Demand for air travel clearly Traffic trends increased, despite strike actions and the risk of terrorist attacks. But seat load factors remained lower in Europe, at around 85%, than anywhere Instrument flight rules (IFR) flights else in the world. The overall growth in instrument flight rules (IFR) traffic showed differing trends in the course of 2016. In a year-on-year comparison, As it had the previous year, skyguide saw an increase in its air traffic January saw little growth (+ 0.5%), April brought a decline (1.0%) as a volumes, which were 1.8% up on 2015. Once again, too, the increase was result of Easter falling in March, and February witnessed a strong greater in the en-route traffic handled (+ 1.9%, prior year + 2.7%) than in increase (+ 6.2%) thanks to the extra leap day. Year-on-year growth for Swiss airport arrivals and departures (+ 0.9%, prior year + 0.4%). Despite the remaining months ranged between + 1.2% and + 3.0%. The 1.8% IFR the higher volumes handled, skyguide further enhanced the punctuality traffic growth for the year as a whole was 0.7 percentage points below of the flights in its care. En-route delays were reduced by 1.4%, while the + 2.5% Eurocontrol STATFOR projection of February 2016. delays to arriving and departing traffic were cut by 24.6%.

The air traffic growth in Switzerland was comparable to that in Germany (+ 1.8%) and Italy (+ 1.9%), but was smaller than in France (+ 4.1%). Air traffic volumes for Austria were broadly unchanged (+ 0.3%) 2. Traffic was disrupted on numerous occasions during the year by strikes at airlines

1 The annual FABEC Performance Report is available at from May of the following year. 2 All figures from Eurocontrol NMOC.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 9 06.03.17 15:15 1.1 Key performance statistics

Traffic growth also showed strong variations from segment to segment. The seasonal fluctuations in air traffic levels are typified by low volumes The European cargo flight segment for Switzerland saw a 6.3% decline during the end-of-year period and strong increases in June and (compared with 6.5% growth in 2015); the low-cost segment continued September. August tends to see a slight volume decline. Traffic levels can to expand with growth of a further 7.7% (prior year: + 3.0%); the also be directly influenced by further factors, such as the entry into traditional airlines posted less growth (+ 0.4%) than they had in 2015 service of new technical systems (with corresponding temporary (+ 1.5%); the charter segment suffered a further substantial 7.8% decline capacity reductions), strike action or meteorological conditions. (prior year: – 12.7%); and business aviation volumes saw a slight 0.2% increase (prior year: – 2.5%). The graph shows a steady increase in air traffic volumes from 1998 to the first half of 2001, followed by a tangible decline from October 2001 2016 2015 Change and into 2002. After this, the graph shows strong volume growth again Total IFR flights 1 198 663 1 177 365 + 1.8% until the beginning of 2008, and a second visible decline at the end of of which en-route traffic 716 159 703 037 + 1.9% that year which became even more pronounced in 2009, as the impact of the financial crisis began to be fully felt. 2010 saw a modest recovery in traffic volumes, followed by a steep fall as a result of a volcanic Civil IFR traffic trends eruption in Iceland and its ramifications. The first half of 2011 brought a The following graph illustrates the seasonal fluctuations in the daily clear volume increase, but then a further weakening that persisted volumes of IFR flights handled by skyguide between 1998 and 2016. Each throughout 2012 and 2013. 2014 and 2015 saw low traffic levels at the dot represents the number of such flights handled on a particular day. beginning and end of the year and a strong increase in the summer months, whose traffic volumes approached those of the record years of Vols IFR contrôlés par skyguide Source: Eurocontrol NMOC 2007 and 2008. 2016 brought strong increases in traffic volumes in 4500 February, March, July, September and October, and growth of between 4000 1.0% and 1.5% in the other months. The year-on-year decline for April was 3500 due to Easter falling in March in 2016. 3000 2500 Skyguide handled an average of 3 275 flights a day in 2016. (By 2000 comparison, skyguide’s busiest year in traffic volume terms was 2008, 1500 with an average of 3 387 flights a day.) The peak traffic day in 2016 was 1000 1 July, with 4 162 flights – a new daily record that surpassed the previous 500 busiest traffic day in 2008. 0 Flight movements handled Skyguide maintains a range of operating centres and locations. The 01.01.1999 01.01.2000 01.01.2001 01.01.2002 01.01.2003 01.01.2004 01.01.2005 01.01.2006 01.01.2007 01.01.2008 01.01.2009 01.01.2010 01.01.2011 01.01.2012 01.01.2013 01.01.2014 01.01.2015 01.01.2016 01.01.1998 table below shows the sizes of these operations and the corresponding development of their IFR traffic.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 10 06.03.17 15:15 3 275 512 408 Flights per day Landings/departures

A distinction must be made here between a “movement” and a “flight”. Visual flight rules (VFR) flights Generally speaking, one flight will generate multiple flight movements 2016 2015 Change which are registered at the various control centres along its route. It will Bern Belp 32 208 33 505 – 3.9% also generate one or two airport movements for skyguide if its airport of Buochs 9 074 9 248 – 1.9% departure and/or arrival is in the airspace the company controls. Geneva 6 308 6 822 – 7.5% 61 694 65 964 – 6.5 % The two area control centres, which largely manage and monitor en- Les Eplatures 9 096 8 870 + 2.5 % route traffic, registered a 2.0% overall increase in their movement Lugano Agno 10 028 11 482 – 12.7 % volumes. Sion 30 428 33 976 – 10.4 % St. Gallen Altenrhein 17 946 19 468 – 7.8 % 2016 2015 Change Zurich 6 748 7 268 – 7.2 % Area control centres Total DéPARTS/ARRIVéES 183 530 196 603 – 6.6 % Geneva 661 014 645 460 + 2.4% Zurich 766 215 753 388 + 1.7% Total 1 427 229 1 398 848 +2.0% Aeronautical Information Management (AIM) statistics The table below shows the developments for 2016 in skyguide’s AIM Total IFR landings and departures at the Swiss airports under skyguide’s Operations and AIM Data Management activities. responsibility were 0.9% up in 2016 on their prior-year levels. The only exceptions to the upward traffic trend were Les Eplatures (down 0.8%), 2016 2015 Change Lugano Agno (down 3.0%) and Sion (down 7.4%). IFR landings and NOTAMs processed 1 407 187 1 269 566 + 11.2% departures in Geneva and Zurich were up 0.9% and 1.8% respectively. NOTAMs published by NOTAM Office Switzerland 4 227 4 062 + 4.1% (excluding SNOWTAMs) 2016 2015 Change Flight plans processed 42 361 42 859 – 1.2% IFR landings/departures by ARO Switzerland Bern Belp 17 197 16 893 + 1.8% Messages for air navigation 77 702 79 450 – 2.2% Buochs 2 241 1 974 + 13.5% services Donaueschingen 1 468 1 462 + 0.4% Telephone briefings by the 23 293 26 108 – 10.8% Friedrichshafen 14 447 16 426 – 12.0% Dübendorf AIM Service Centre Geneva 183 082 181 450 + 0.9% KOSIF zones 3 353 3 006 + 11.5% Grenchen 4 907 4 871 + 0.7% Firing exercises requiring coordination 372 312 + 19.2% Les Eplatures 2 016 2 033 – 0.8% Lugano Agno 9 918 10 230 – 3.0% Sion 5 393 5 821 – 7.4% St. Gallen Altenrhein 9 210 8 687 + 6.0% Zurich 262 529 257 885 + 1.8% Total 512 408 507 732 + 0.9%


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 11 06.03.17 15:15 97.2% – 1.4% Punctuality En-route delays

1.1 Key performance statistics

NOTAMs (“notices to airmen”) are temporary bulletins and instructions NMOC will intervene to assign specific takeoff slots to the individual that supplement the Aeronautical Information Publication to ensure flights concerned. The smaller the ATFM departure delays are, the safe and fluid flight operations. KOSIF zones are areas of airspace whose easier the flight planning becomes for aircraft operators. So ATFM use is restricted (or even prohibited) at certain times. These include departure delays have a major economic impact for the air navigation Danger Areas, Restricted Areas and Firings (including firing activities services provider’s customers. A flight is regarded as punctual when it that require specific coordination). All such restrictions are published by suffers zero delay. skyguide online in its Daily Airspace Bulletin Switzerland, which is available free of charge at Causes of delays Skyguide has set itself clear and ambitious punctuality goals for both its Skyguide’s AIM Data Management published 38 amendments and a en-route and its airport traffic handling. The delay statistics presented total of 86 publications relating to the AIP and the VFR Manual in 2016 here make no distinction as to the cause of the delay, but are only (1.6% more than in 2015) and distributed these to around 520 AIP and categorized by the place where the delay occurs. To gain a clear and 5 800 VFR Manual subscribers (without skybriefing subscriptions). Some accurate picture of an air navigation services provider’s performance, 75% of AIP subscribers and 5% of VFR Manual subscribers receive these however, the individual causes of the delays incurred must also be amendments in CD-ROM form. Skyguide also issued 16 AICs and considered: ATFM departure delays can have any of a number of causes, distributed some 11 000 ICAO charts, 11 000 TMA charts and 600 glider some of them attributable to the air navigation services provider and charts to customers in the course of the year. others attributable to exogenous factors beyond its control.

Punctuality The list of possible causes of delays has been standardized throughout Europe and comprises: Punctuality statistics (air traffic flow management) The air traffic flow management (ATFM) departure delays attributable Factors affected by ATC Factors not affected by ATC to air traffic control are a key criterion for assessing the performance – Military activities – Accident/incident of any air navigation services provider. ATFM departure delays can – ATC capacity – Weather occur whenever Eurocontrol’s Network Management Operations – Exceptional events – Non-ATC infrastructure Centre (NMOC) predicts that the number of flights scheduled to use a – ATC routings – Airport capacity particular sector of airspace according to the flight plans submitted – ATC staffing – Industrial action (ATC or non-ATC) will exceed the sector’s capacity, i.e. the number of aircraft that can be – ATC infrastructure – Environmental issues handled within it during a certain period of time. In such an event, the – De-icing


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 12 06.03.17 15:15 4.2 flight 25.8 seconds 21.6 ATFM delay en-route/airport airport

Dynamic capacity management Average ATFM delay per flight – airport / en-route (skyguide airspace) Source: Eurocontrol NMOC As in previous years, skyguide achieved a further reduction in its en- 3.0 route delays, which were 1.4% down on 2015. The improvement in ) operational performance to September 2016 is the result of various 2.5 actions taken to increase system capacity. These include: 2.0 – a new traffic management system at the Geneva and Dübendorf area y (in minutes

control centres under the “Stripless CH” project to adopt totally Dela 1.5 digitized systems 1.0 – an effective new system for Operations to predict traffic volumes and complexity 0.5

– increasing the assignment flexibility of air traffic controllers, who are 0.0 now almost all qualified to handle either upper or lower airspace 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

– new “short-term ATFCM measures” (STAMs) to enhance traffic Total 1.40 1.34 1.35 1.41 1.64 1.09 0.74 0.80 0.52 0.52 0.59 0.52 0.56 0.43 management and En-route 0.89 0.70 0.84 1.13 1.12 0.76 0.51 0.48 0.20 0.13 0.13 0.09 0.07 0.07 Airport 0.51 0.65 0.51 0.29 0.52 0.34 0.23 0.32 0.33 0.39 0.47 0.44 0.48 0.36 – developing a new method to detect intruders. Skyguide’s aim in all these endeavours is to further improve its flight plan handling and make even more effective use of the available Average ATFM delay per delayed flight (Europe and skyguide airspace) Source: Eurocontrol NMOC capacity. 25 ) High punctuality of 97.2% 20 Skyguide’s punctuality performance reached a new historic high in 2016, with 97.2% of all flights handled without delays. y (in minutes 15 Dela

Skyguide’s en-route punctuality performance boasted an average delay 10 per flight of just 0.07 minutes (4.2 seconds). 5

The delays that did occur were attributable primarily to short-term 0 capacity shortages (41%), absences or personnel shortages (29%), 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Change (in %) adverse weather conditions (25%) and system maintenance work (3%). Europe −5.1 −1.6 +5.4 +0.1 +0.2 +2.6 +3.3 +22.9 –18.0 –3.4 –1.4 –2.4 +6.8 –8.1 skyguide +10.5 +6.2 −5.3 +0.8 +7.1 –5.4 –2.4 +9.4 –11.8 +1.8 +3.5 –5.7 +6.5 –9.6


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 13 06.03.17 15:15 2003: 263 delayed flights per day


2005 2006 2004 2008

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

2016: 91 delayed flights per day

1.1 Key performance statistics

Average delayed flights per day Delays at declined by 39.2%. The main causes of the (skyguide airspace) Source: OPAL data warehouse - CFMU data delays which were incurred were adverse weather (76%), insufficient 350 runway capacity (12%), personnel shortages (10%) and inadequate 300 approach capacity (2%).

250 Zurich Airport 200 Delays at were down 20%. The delays here were largely Number of flights the result of adverse weather conditions (43%), insufficient runway 150 capacity (35%), environmental constraints (16%) and inadequate 100 approach capacity (6%). 50

0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Safety Change (in %) −7.7 −4.8 +4.5 +2.5 +18.3 −31.9 −32.5 −4.9 −25.4 +3.2 +4.6 −6.1 −0.7 −12.4 A high-level Safety Management System On the safety front skyguide works with its Safety Management System, Average delayed flights per day which equips and enables the company to monitor, analyze and steadily (Europe) Source: OPAL data warehouse - CFMU data further enhance safety in all areas of its organization and activities. 4000

s Safety at skyguide is demonstrably very high. The sophistication and effectiveness of the skyguide Safety Management System and the “just 3000 culture” underlying it are assessed every year by Eurocontrol, the European Aviation Safety

Number of flight 2000 Agency (EASA) and the Swiss Federal Office of Civil Aviation. Skyguide is subject to the European performance system for air navigation services

1000 providers, which has set specific safety targets that must be met by 2019. Skyguide is already close to doing so.

0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Safety audits and improvements Change Skyguide conducted all the safety audits planned for 2016 and (in %) −13.3 +2.4 +11.9 +2.8 +17.4 +8.3 −38.2 +54.5 −26.5 –36.6 –20.3 +19.2 +33.3 +19.3 implemented the vast majority of the improvements identified by the same. In the case of Zurich Airport, the associated political parameters have a major influence over the flight procedures.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 14 06.03.17 15:15 % 100 ILS CAT III availability

Minimum separation violations some cases), no findings were available by press time on air navigation Any violation of the minimum radar separations between two aircraft services’ involvement in the incidents concerned or the risks such – however small – is automatically recorded and investigated if incidents posed. The STSB publishes all its final reports on its www.sust. necessary. Skyguide reported 173 such violations of separation minima website. among the 1.2 million IFR flights it handled in 2016. The small volumes of such incidents do not permit the identification of any meaningful Ambient voice recording equipment (AVRE) statistical trends. All the conversations and further sounds in an aircraft’s cockpit are constantly recorded. The same has not been true to date, however, of Accident and incident investigations conversations in the airport control tower. But the legal foundations for Air accidents are generally investigated by the Swiss Transportation doing so were prepared in 2016. In future, conversations in skyguide’s Safety Investigation Board (STSB). In the case of the tragic loss of a operating rooms will all be recorded. The premises at Grenchen and fighter of the Swiss Air Force on 29 August 2016, it was the Swiss military Buochs will be the sole exceptions. justice authorities who initiated the investigation. Their final report had not been presented by the publication of this Annual Report, so we are unable to provide any details of their findings and conclusions. Technical systems

Every case in which two flights fail to maintain the separation minima Availability of air navigation and instrument landing systems (ILS) required must be reported to the STSB. The reports are submitted by the The availability of an air navigation services provider’s instrument parties involved: skyguide, the pilots, the airline(s) and/or the Swiss Air landing systems (ILS) has a direct impact on its operational safety and Force. If the incident is considered serious 2, the STSB will then collate the capacities. Skyguide’s objective here is to ensure that the aggregate facts, investigate how it occurred and publish its own report. length of all system malfunctions impacting on operations does not exceed 80 hours in any two-year period. In 2016 skyguide reduced its Parallel to the investigations by the STSB or the military justice authori- airspace capacity for a total of 21 hours (compared with six the previous ties, skyguide’s Safety Management unit will conduct its own analysis of year) owing to malfunctions of technical systems or maintenance work. all such accidents and incidents and initiate any improvements required. Further technical problems also occurred, but could be rectified with no The aim of all these investigations is to identify any weaknesses in the impact on flight operations. The company’s instrument landing systems air or on the ground, learn from mistakes and further enhance flight remained fully functional in CAT III mode during planned operating safety. hours throughout the year.

New investigations for 2016 In addition to the investigation by the Swiss military justice authorities mentioned above, the STSB initiated investigations into further incidents 1 in 2016 in eight of which, in skyguide’s view, air navigation services In accordance with ICAO and Eurocontrol regulations, the severity and importance of an incident are defined using a system of points awarded on the basis of various assess- might have been involved. Since the number of such incidents is very ment criteria. Several factors are considered here, such as non-observance of separation small compared to the number of flights handled (i.e. eight in some minima or angle of approach. Eurocontrol’s ESARR 2 Guidance to ATM Safety Regulators 1.2 million), meaningful statistical trends are difficult to discern. As the distinguishes five categories of incident: A (serious), B (major), C (significant), D (not de- corresponding STSB investigations also take several months (or years in termined) and E (no safety effect).


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 15 06.03.17 15:15 86 518 99.2% Military movements Target achievement military IFR trafic

1.2 Military air traffic management

Military air traffic management is one of skyguide’s core duties. By fully Remote towers will not be used for aerial policing activities. An analysis integrating its provision of air navigation services for both the civil and for the air force base at the centre of such considerations – – the military sector, skyguide can optimally coordinate the Swiss Air concluded that this would offer no tangible benefits. But the project’s Force’s demand for unrestricted access to Swiss airspace with civil air findings and conclusions will be of further use for similar evaluations on transport’s operational needs. In doing so, the company makes a major the civil airspace front. contribution to safeguarding the sovereignty of Swiss airspace. Skyguide provides military air navigation services on behalf of the Swiss Air Force. Service agreement regulates performance levels And aerial policing and guiding military aircraft on training exercises The services that skyguide provides for the Swiss Air Force in various from its Air Defence & Direction Centre are among its daily tasks. areas are specified in a detailed agreement between the two partners. This accord was revised in 2016 and renewed for a further four years. Skyguide is responsible for military air navigation services in Switzerland, which it provides on behalf of the Swiss Air Force. This includes aerial Focus on recruiting and training policing and guiding the Air Force’s fighters on training exercises from Staffing levels are a constant challenge to skyguide in its performance its Air Defence & Direction Centre. Swiss civil and military air navigation of its military air traffic management mandate. The company has been services were fully merged in 2001. In doing so, the Swiss Federal Council taking targeted measures to address personnel shortages for several provided a foundation and a framework for the optimum use and years now. management of Switzerland’s limited airspace. The move resulted in a reduction of over 80% in air traffic control-related delays, along with With personnel needs being further increased through the longer more targeted military missions. operating hours deriving from Project LP24, skyguide is making major efforts to recruit and train the personnel required at its Air Defence & Aerial policing now daily Direction Centre in Dübendorf and at the country’s air force bases With skyguide’s support, the Swiss Air Force aims to establish a (particularly Payerne). This will remain one of the company’s prime permanent aerial policing capability for Swiss airspace by 2020. The priorities in the next few years. Once again, training capacities were fully project, which is known as LP24, has its origins in a political motion by utilized throughout the year. former National Councillor Hans Hess in 2009. The first phase of the project was successfully completed in 2016, with skyguide making its Further staffing solutions were also created by adopting more flexible full expected contribution. The second implementation phase, providing training and licensing models. In doing so, skyguide paid due and a daily aerial policing capability, was initiated in January 2017. A third effective regard to the wide and varied range of personnel needs. The phase will follow in 2019. company met the performance objectives agreed with the Swiss Air Force.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 16 06.03.17 15:15 99.9% 2 403 Real target achievement air defence and direction centre Hot Missions

Military aircraft movements First systems handed over to the Swiss Air Force 2016 saw a slight decrease in military air traffic handled. Armasuisse handed over the first systems elements for Payerne Air Force Base which skyguide will use on the Swiss Air Force’s behalf – the 2016 2015 Change direction finder and precision approach radar facilities – in the course of Military aircraft movements 86 518 86 948 – 0.5% 2016. Skyguide is also supporting Armasuisse in the adoption of further such systems and elements at Emmen, Meiringen, and Sion. Tactical air force missions The total number of air force missions handled in 2016 was an increase Multilateration being considered for Locarno on its prior-year level. Skyguide managed 363 live/hot missions and The new multilateration (MLAT) airspace monitoring technology has 2 403 tactical missions for the Swiss Air Force in the course of the year, now reached a degree of technical maturity at which it can be put into compared to 309 and 2 315 respectively for 2015. The relatively high operational use. The Swiss Air Force is currently considering whether number of such missions is attributable to the fact that, in compliance MLAT would be suitable for monitoring the airspace around Locarno with the Swiss Air Force’s instructions, skyguide’s various operating Airport. Skyguide is conducting the feasibility study here, drawing units reported every single violation of the relevant airspace provisions. extensively on its sophisticated simulation and network technology.

Better mission planning Sion control tower workstation upgrades The annual mission planning process together with the Swiss Air Force Skyguide completed the refurbishment of the control tower at Sion is being continually further improved. The detailed weekly planning Airport on schedule in November 2016. The work rectified a number of adopted in 2015 has proved a success, and is being further enhanced. The major technical deficiencies and implemented the findings of a range of process collates the Air Force’s requirements at the country’s various air previous audits and reports. force bases and the resulting specific air traffic management needs. Innovative flight procedures Technical support for “MALS Plus” and communications systems The development of satellite-based approach procedures is becoming Skyguide is also a major partner of the Swiss Air Force on the technical more and more important. Here, too, skyguide and the Swiss Air Force front, in both maintenance and development terms. One example of maintain a successful collaboration. The curved approach to Dübendorf this collaboration is the MALS Plus programme to replace the now- is one successful prototype of such procedures. The curved approach is ageing radar approach guidance systems at Swiss airfields used for 10% shorter than the classic approach to the airport, saving time and military or civil-and-military purposes. Skyguide has been tasked with fuel. Skyguide has also developed and introduced satellite-based supporting the programme by the Swiss Federal Office for Defence approach procedures for Emmen, Meiringen and Alpnach air force bases Procurement (Armasuisse). The mandate entails performing the within the CHIPS innovation programme. technical validation of airfield surveillance radar and direction finders, conducting safety analyses and coordinating the associated legal and institutional requirements. Skyguide is also providing Armasuisse with specific technical expertise for the procurement of the Voice Communication System Air Base (VCS AB) facility.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 17 06.03.17 15:15 Air traffic controller: a mission with a high level of responsibility

With more than two million flight movements each year, the airspace controlled consult reference documents such as the Air Traffic Management Manual1 and by skyguide is the most complex and heaviest used in Europe. Ensuring the safe Letters of Agreement 2. In parallel, each person chooses his or her own options, such transport of people and goods 24 hours a day entails a lot of responsibility for as practising sports, enjoying moments of relaxation or taking care of themselves air traffic controllers. To meet this challenge, they have to acquire very specific in other ways. Concerning the irregular hours, personally, I do not see this as a competencies and ensure that they are maintained at the level required to constraint. Rather something that you get used to. guarantee air navigation safety. Petar Rasic, Deputy Supervisor and ATCO Investigator, sheds light on the various issues that have to be addressed in What steps do controllers take to avoid an incident or risk re-occurring? managing a controller’s responsibilities. Air traffic controllers reduce the risk of incidents by maintaining their competencies and professionalism at a very high level. For example, it is the responsibility of In your opinion, what qualities are necessary to become an air traffic everyone to keep up with new regulations that need to be applied. We also follow controller? continued training to keep our skills to the required level, and in this way reduce Becoming an air traffic controller requires certain qualities. It is clearly the risk of incidents. Skyguide has also introduced two types of report that enable important to have an interest in aviation, but also to have very good concentration controllers to indicate various accidents and those procedures that could be and stress management levels, and to be capable of accomplishing and following improved. This is the Operational Internal Report (OIR) and the Safety Improvement several tasks simultaneously, as well as being able to take decisions rapidly. Added Report (SIR) 3. Each incident and accident is analysed and the necessary measures to that is a vital competence – to be able to visualise, in three dimensions, the taken to avoid any re-occurrence. The resulting recommendations are addressed to two-dimensional space displayed on the controllers’ monitors. Obviously, some users as well as to controllers, and are designed to avoid apportioning blame on a aptitudes, such as stress management, are learned during the training and they given individual. continue to improve with experience. Moreover, the world of aviation is constantly evolving and growing. Air traffic controllers must therefore receive training How does the Just Culture enable air traffic controllers involved in an inquiry to throughout their career, in order to follow these developments. cooperate fully and thus contribute to improving safety levels? The Just Culture is very important for my work as an air traffic controller and ATCO Air traffic control involves human lives. Does working in pairs, and therefore Investigator. Right from the start of my being hired in the Safety and Reporting sharing this responsibility, help to manage stress related to the risk of accidents? department, I worked to gain the trust of my colleagues. They know that each The risk of an incident or accident is always present in our daily work, but the case reported is treated with strict confidentiality. Each inquiry, analysis or sharing professionalism of air traffic controllers enables the reduction of this risk toa of experiences has as its goal to enhance our work and to correct any minimum. While this responsibility applies to each controller individually, it is also problems discovered in our systems. Under no circumstances are these shared – on the one hand between the two controllers looking after the same inquiries used, nor shall be used, against the authors of the reports. It is sector and, on the other, between all the controllers present at the same moment in this climate of confidence and confidentiality that allows employees to be the control centre. The work of an air traffic controller therefore depends to a great very open and cooperative when I conduct an inquiry. extent on those people surrounding him or her. Working in teams encourages 1 Reference manual that establishes the operational procedures to be followed in the management of air traffic. mutual support and help us to correct each other where this is necessary. This 2 An agreement reached between two ATC units that defines the provisions relating to the coordination of their sharing of responsibilities also enables us to reduce stress levels and improve safety. respective responsibilities in terms of air traffic control. 3 OIR and SIR are two methods used to flag safety issues, ranging from simple observation to serious accidents.

How do you maintain your competencies at the required level to exercise your profession and thereby avoid stress, fatigue or other factors threatening safety? Air traffic controller, Deputy Supervisor and ATCO Investigator, Aviation is a sphere in permanent evolution. Air traffic controllers must therefore Petar Rasic is a versatile figure in the world of air traffic control, remain aware of all changes taking place and be familiar with all the established which he has been involved in for 27 years. The ATC training enabled procedures, in order to perform their work with safety in mind. In that vein, we him to follow his vocation in civil aviation. regularly follow refresher courses and – on an individual level – we frequently


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 18 06.03.17 15:15 14 3 Newly licensed ATCOs Newly licensed ANSE

1.3 Regions – Training – Aeronautical data – Consulting

Skyguide’s organzational form is specifically aligned to its customers’ Training: the skyguide training center varying needs. “skyguide national”, the “skyguide training center”, For the initial and further training of its air traffic controllers, its air “skyguide AIM services” and “skyguide solutions” are all lean and focused navigation services specialists and its air traffic safety electronics entities that put a particular emphasis on maintaining the closest personnel (ATSEPs), skyguide relies on its own skyguide training center customer relations and delivering optimum service quality. (STC). As well as meeting the company’s own training needs – for both its civil and its military air traffic management activities – the STC also Regions: skyguide national offers its training services to external customers, i.e. airports and other “skyguide national” is the competence centre for military air traffic air navigation services providers. management and air traffic services focused on Switzerland. Fourteen (prior year: 19) controllers and three (prior year: six) air A solution to financing air traffic services at regional airports navigation services specialists completed their STC training, were Switzerland adopted a new financing model for the provision of air awarded their licences and entered skyguide service in 2016. In addition, traffic services at the country’s regional airports at the end of 2016, a one student from an external customer completed his basic training in year later than originally planned. The new model transfers responsibility the course of the year. Two classes with a total of 23 (prior year: 23) for financing such services to the operators of the airports concerned. students began their basic controller training. And 112 (prior year: 95) persons completed their basic ATSEP training or qualification course. The new regulations under which skyguide is no longer permitted to cross-subsidize the services it provides at different categories of airport The STC provided some 30 000 training days in 2016, compared to 29 000 posed a financing problem for the country’s regional airports. In view of the previous year. International customers account for around 10% of this, skyguide has conducted extensive discussions with their operators the STC’s total training activity. to help make the transition to the new financing system as smooth as possible and ensure a fair sharing of the funding required between the Tailored training airports and itself. The STC intends to continue to conduct quality training that is closely tailored to the specific needs of the operating units concerned. And These talks also looked at the type of services which are currently skyguide will make further investments to this end over the next few provided, and at any cost savings that could be identified and achieved. years. A strategy analysis conducted with external support has And they resulted in a joint “roadmap” which was signed by all the concluded, however, that the STC’s training costs could be reduced parties involved. Work on adopting the terms of this roadmap – which through increased efficiencies. includes introducing an Aerodrome Flight Information Service or AFIS at three regional airports – has already begun, and the subprojects are currently being evaluated in terms of their feasibility.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 19 06.03.17 15:15 1.3 Regions – Training – Aeronautical data – Consulting

A Europe-compatible curriculum AIM Operations The European Union’s Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/340, which was AIM Operations has a number of areas of responsibility. On the one approved by the European Parliament and the European Council at the hand it is responsible for publishing aeronautical information for beginning of 2015, specifies the technical provisions for the licensing of immediate national and international dissemination; and on the air traffic controllers. The STC has modified its own curriculum in line other it is charged with providing flight advisory services (including an with these provisions, and meets all the relevant requirements. Expert Service Centre offering integrated flight advisory services and the platform with its state-mandated and commercial Basic training harmonized within FABEC services). All these services are available 24 hours a day. Harmonizing the training among its members is a milestone FABEC objective on the way to the Single European Sky. Skyguide has developed The core competence of AIM Operations lies in its global procurement, a course for basic air traffic controller training together with its FABEC evaluation and preparation of the data which flights require, and in partners. The new course has already been certificated and introduced. accepting and further processing flight plans. The unit also provides further services such as the ATS/AIS Reporting Office (ARO) and the Active on the international training market international NOTAM Office (NOF), which is responsible in Switzerland The STC is developing a new training model together with Integra of for publishing and globally distributing NOTAM data and for evaluating Denmark. The course has already been adopted by a first customer – the NOTAMs from its fellow NOFs all over the world and passing these Avinor, Norway’s air navigation services provider – and should now be on to Swiss customers. offered in further markets, too. The SmartNOTAM Database Service provides an up-to-date database Aeronautical data: Skyguide Aeronautical Information Management containing SmartNOTAMs and standard NOTAMs that can be obtained Skyguide’s Aeronautical Information Management (AIM) consists of via system interfaces, enabling SmartNOTAMs to be easily incorporated two production units: AIM Operations and AIM Data Management. Each into flight planning applications. This unique database service won a provides both state-mandated services and commercial services, the high-profile customer in autumn 2016: Rockwell Collins, the globally latter of which are increasing in importance. New customers were active US-based flight support service provider. acquired in this area in the course of the year. Skyguide’s AIM is also pursuing further opportunities to collaborate with other air navigation Skyguide put the “eAIP online” facility onto its skybriefing platform services providers and industry partners, with the aim of contributing its in autumn 2016. And VFR customers can now download the entire operational expertise and experience, exploiting the resulting synergies, “eVFR Manual online” document from this platform. Some 9 600 further reducing costs and enhancing the customer benefit. registered users made regular use of the services and facilities of in 2016.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 20 06.03.17 15:15 117 809 »skybriefings«

skybriefing user statistics Skyguide has also put the European AIS Database (EAD) production 2016 2015 Change environment into operation, enabling EAD customers to obtain quality- Total sessions 257 045 300 574 – 14.5% assured Swiss aeronautical information from an authorized database. Briefing service requests 117 809 106 763 + 10.3% The preparations for adopting data collection services for Switzerland in Meteorological service requests 357 076 340 456 + 4.5% line with European requirements were also completed, and the Flight plan processing requests 24 379 23 652 + 3.1% corresponding project is now under way. The project meets all European requirements.

AIM Data Management Consulting: skyguide solutions Skyguide’s Data Management Services unit produces official aeronau­ For some years now, a dynamic global market has been evolving for tical manuals (the AIP and the VFR Manual), charts and specific sets of various air navigation-related services. Skyguide is keen to put its third- data on behalf of the Swiss Confederation. It also provides the party business on a successful footing. And to this end it has been twice-yearly MIL OM-C and MIL FLIP flight manuals for and in close steadily strengthening its marketing and sales structure under the collaboration with the Swiss Air Force. “skyguide solutions” banner.

The AIP and the VFR Manual were made available on the operationally- The approach enables skyguide to market its innovative and tailored used “skypods” and the briefing platform in 2016. solutions in all ANS areas, particularly: CD-ROM production of the VFR Manual will cease in 2017. Following a • projects and commercial services in the satellite navigation field change made in January 2017, the Swiss Air Force also obtains all such • the development and maintenance of technical infrastructure, ANS manuals electronically via software, flight procedures and airspace structures • the training of air traffic controllers and technical personnel The electronic data recording project could not be continued. But some • the collection and processing of static and dynamic aeronautical data small progress was still made with regard to the implementation of for flight planning purposes, and the conducting of the same. Commission Regulation (EU) 73/2010 on the quality of aeronautical data. The way ahead here will be assessed again in 2017, once the Despite strong competition and adverse currency movements, skyguide associated political issues have been clarified. solutions secured around 10% more new commissions in 2016. Skyguide aims to further cement and expand skyguide solutions’ market position.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 21 06.03.17 15:15 Just culture in aviation: relevance and challenges

A Just Culture contributes significantly and measurably to improving safety, in that it encourages the reporting of incidents that could be concealed in a “blame” culture. It also fosters a full contribution in safety enquiries by those employees involved in a given incident. In this way, a Just Culture maximises the chances of extracting learnings from a safety incident, thus enabling corrective measures that help to avoid any repetition. Francis Schubert, Head of Corporate Development and a Doctor of Law, explains the challenges and obstacles resulting from this concept.

A Just Culture is based on two key concepts: negligence and real dangers. Are these concepts not subject to subjective interpretation? These two concepts are indeed highly subject to interpretation. It is a judge’s responsibility to decide on these questions. The concept of negligence applies to the behaviour of the persons involved. It is necessary to determine whether – in a given situation – an individual behaved as a “reasonable” professional, taking account of his training and professional experience. The difficulty here is that behaviour that seems to be irresponsible from a layman’s point of view can be considered as perfectly reasonable by a professional working in the area. Training for prosecutors and the judges themselves in the operational and technical realities of air navigation is a very promising undertaking. It facilitates The same problem applies with regard to the concept of danger. This condition the determination of that which concerns negligence or a dangerous situation is always present when an accident occurs, but the assessment is much more in a particular case. The training programme – led jointly by EUROCONTROL difficult in the case of an incident. In this case, it is necessary to determine and IFATCA, and whose goal is to bridge the gap between the world of aviation whether one is facing a situation of hypothetical danger (non-punishable professionals and that of the judicial authorities – has been successfully given to by definition) or one of real danger (where only good fortune prevented the a number of European magistrates responsible for cases linked to aeronautical accident). Here also, a situation that can seem dangerous to the layman may be issues, including several magistrates in the cantons of Zurich, Geneva and considered as a controlled routine for professionals in this area. Neuchâtel.

What means are envisaged to bridge this gap between the judicial authorities What obstacles remain between the theoretical concept of a Just Culture and and the aviation experts? its practical application? A significant problem in the implementation of a Just Culture policy is that the It is important to distinguish between two dimensions: internal and external. judicial authorities do not generally have the necessary expertise to determine For a Just Culture internal to the company, whose application is largely under what is considered as danger or negligent behaviour. The investigators the control of management, the main obstacle arises from the fact that certain responsible for preparing safety reports should be systematically made aware of events that are adequately handled internally must also be reported to external the risks of a “judicial” reading of their reports that would imply conclusions that authorities in accordance with the applicable regulations. These bodies are are not their own. But the key to this dilemma lies in the training of the judicial sometimes subject to their own rules and procedures, which can lead to decisions experts. Tribunals rely on the views of aviation professionals when drawing their considered to be incompatible with the principles of a Just Culture. conclusions and passing judgment.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 22 06.03.17 15:15 Concerning the external – or systemic – Just Culture, the biggest obstacle What resources are being made available within skyguide to promote a Just is linked to the fact that there are still too many people who confuse a Just Culture? Culture with a culture of impunity. The Just Culture approach aims to establish a The resources being made available are considerable. In skyguide, a framework delicate balance between two competitive public interests: public safety and the has been defined in the form of a company policy that is rigorously applied by administration of justice. Both these interests are equally legitimate. management. The compatibility of their decisions with the principles of a Just Culture is systematically and actively verified. The introduction of a Just Culture implies the respect of the work of the judicial authorities, and an attitude of calling into question the principle of the However, the efforts of the company are not limited to internal activities. legitimacy of this work has a counter-productive effect on the establishment of Skyguide is also driving this philosophy both internationally and nationally for a Just culture. There also remains a considerable amount of work to do to avoid the promotion of a regulated framework that is favourable to the objectives or limit the risk that incident or accident reports produced by the inquiry office of a Just Culture. The company has also been engaged – from the outset – be diverted from their original vocation to serve the needs of judicial procedures. in the design of the training programme mentioned above, run jointly by Safeguards to this effect can and must be implemented. EUROCONTROL and IFATCA.

What is then the difference between a Just Culture and a culture of impunity? The success of a Just Culture depends on the building of trust and confidence, not The objective of a Just Culture is not to avoid all sanctions, but to guarantee only with regard to the aeronautical personnel, but also the judicial authorities. that only those situations that really call for sanctions be the object of a judicial The latter must be reassured as to the fact that this concept is not inquiry and be punished. In practice, these situations are extremely rare, and invoked abusively to dissimulate inacceptable behaviour. The education relate to cases of serious negligence or deliberate acts. and awareness-creation of all the interested parties is essential. This also requires a continuous communication effort. The judicial authorities have sometimes been sceptical with regard to the concept of a Just Culture because of often clumsy messages from aviation professionals which, on the one hand, seemed more focused on the legitimacy of a judicial procedure than on the need to correctly establish the threshold below which such a procedure is not appropriate.

On the other hand, they have confused the legitimacy of the judicial procedure with that of the use of safety reports to judicial ends. A coherent and responsible attitude on the part of aviation professionals, in line with the genuine sense of a Francis Schubert, Head of Corporate Development and Deputy CEO, Just Culture is essential in consolidating the latter. It is also important to keep in originally began his career as an air traffic controller with skyguide. mind that a Just Culture does not come about overnight. It is the result of a long He teaches international aviation law at the Institute of Air and Space Law at McGill University in Montreal, and at the Faculty of Law of the process that includes sometimes unpleasant stages, but that tests the concept University of Lausanne. in a practical context.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 23 06.03.17 15:15 IntACT International Audit Cooperation Team.

Hamburg ■

■ ■ ■ Bremen

■ ■ Berlin Hannover ■ ■ ■ Münster Paderborn ■ ■ Cottbus ■ Niederrhein Weeze Dortmund ■ ■ ■ Leipzig ■ Mönchengladbach Düsseldorf ■ ■ ■ ■ Dresde ■ Brussels Cologne ■ ■ Erfurt Lille Maastricht ■ ■ ■ ■ Francfort ■ ■ Langen ■ ■ ■ Luxembourg ■ CANSO Nuremberg ■ ■ ■ Reims Saarbrücken ■ ■ ■ ■ Paris Karlsruhe ■ ■ Stuttgart ■ ■ ■ Strasbourg Brest ■ ■ Munich ■ ■ ■

■ ■ Basel-Mulhouse Dübendorf ■ St. Gallen-Altenrhein ■ ■ Grenchen ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Les Eplatures Zurich

■ ■ Bern Buochs ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Geneva Sion ■ Lugano ■ ■ ■ Clermont-Ferrand Lyon ■ ■ ■

Bordeaux ■ ■ ■ ■

Avignon ■ ■ ■ ■ Nimes Global Safety Aix-en-Provence ■ ■ ■ ■ Marseille

■ Calvi Bastia ■ ■ ■ Safety Management System (SMS) ■ ■ Ajaccio ■ Area Control Center (ACC) / Upper Area Center (UAC) Figari ■

■ Tower (TWR)

■ Tower/Approach (TWR/APP)

■ Communication, Navigation, Surveillance (CNS) ■ Aeronautical Information Services (AIS) Award 2016

1.4 Skyguide in Europe

Some 40% of the airspace that skyguide manages and monitors is European performance targets for Switzerland, too actually above Switzerland’s national neighbours. So skyguide already To serve as a form of waypoints towards a single European airspace, the practises daily what the European Commission is seeking to achieve European Commission now defines specific performance targets for the through its Single European Sky (SES) project: to provide cross-border continent’s air navigation services providers in terms of safety, capacity, civil air navigation services that are based not on political criteria but on operational efficiency, environmental performance, economic efficiency operational considerations. The SES, in which Switzerland and skyguide and civil/military collaboration. The achievement of these targets is the are also participants through Switzerland’s bilateral agreements with joint responsibility of the FABEC member states and providers. the European Union, is intended to meet the needs of all airspace users in safety, capacity, cost-efficiency and sustainability terms, and to do so The interpretation of these targets has been the subject of intensive even with growing traffic volumes. discussions and negotiations which have revealed substantial dif­ ferences of opinion of both a political and a technical nature. Skyguide is For skyguide, the realization of the SES centres on three areas, in all of a strong advocate of the sustainable development of air navigation which the company is actively involved: services. And in view of this, the company feels that these performance – the implementation of the Eurocontrol-led programme to harmonize targets should be equally weighted. An overconcentration on costs, for national air traffic management systems example, will damage the industry. Charge reductions only marginally – the European Commission’s programme to amalgamate the airspace affect the end-user; but if the funds required to invest in new ATM above Europe into a Single European Sky technologies are simply unavailable, the very future of air transport can – the further development of the Single European Sky programme be put at serious risk. For skyguide, the cost pressures are a particular SESAR. challenge in view of the euro’s recent weakness against the Swiss franc. To add to the difficulties, Switzerland has only limited access to European Optimized air traffic management through greater collaboration sources of funding for operational research and development projects. Europe’s air traffic management system should be based not on national borders but on technical and operational criteria. This entirely justified Complex organization hinders strategy pursuit demand has been voiced by the civil users of the continent’s airspace for The organization and the division of powers within the SES and some decades now. It is to achieve this that the European Commission FABEC are extremely complex and ultimately hinder the effective has opted for the SES initiative, which should see the development of implementation of the strategy resolved. What Europe currently lacks is functional airspace blocks (FABs) that promote the collaboration the political will to push viable projects through despite particular between groups of states and between their respective air navigation interests. As a result, the two most important modifications to the services providers. Since 2006 Switzerland has been involved in the present airspace structure, which would have saved thousands of Functional Airspace Block Europe Central or FABEC programme, to which tonnes of kerosene, have not been adopted owing to local resistance. six countries – Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands Skyguide will continue to lobby for a pragmatic small-step approach and itself – are affiliated along with their ANSPs and Eurocontrol’s here, and will be putting a stronger emphasis on binational and Maastricht control centre. FABEC is Europe’s biggest airspace block, and trinational collaborations to achieve the desired results. handles over half the continent’s air traffic. Some progress Skyguide has been involved in two FABEC projects – Free Route Airspace (for flexible upper airspace use) and Extended Arrival Management (for cross-border approach control) – that have improved routings and


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 24 06.03.17 15:15 punctuality to the benefit of both air travellers and the environment. Skyguide decided to end its collaboration on the Coflight FDPS at the Elsewhere, SESAR Deployment Coordination is simplifying the end of 2015. Coflight is being jointly developed by the ANSPs of France application of the new procedures and technologies developed under and Italy – the DSNA and ENAV respectively – together with two Europe’s SESAR technology programme in the FABEC region. And further industry partners. Instead of participating in its development, skyguide collaborations are also under way on the operational procedures, now intends to become a customer of the new facility. “Coflight as a performance planning, safety, training and auditing fronts. Service” has been under evaluation since mid-2014. The first prototype trials were conducted in 2016, in which MATS, Malta’s air navigation IntACT, the international audit collaboration which was jointly services provider, was also involved. The project has now entered its established by skyguide and its fellow ANSPs DFS (of Germany) and the development phase, and introduction is currently slated for 2020. DSNA (of France), also continues to deliver. The collaboration has now been extended to ANA Luxembourg, Belgocontrol and MUAC/ A member of the SESAR JU Eurocontrol; and it was honoured with this year’s CANSO Global Safety The SESAR Joint Undertaking (SESAR JU) is a joint initiative by Eurocontrol Achievement Award. and the European Commission to develop the latest generation of air navigation services infrastructure and simultaneously develop an Introduction of direct routes innovative and more ecofriendly air traffic management concept for Airspace users want to fly as directly and unrestrictedly as possible. In Europe. The SESAR JU brings ANSPs, industry partners and the authorities view of this, FABEC has committed itself to creating Free Route Airspace. together in a public/private partnership. Its financing is secured partly And in a first step towards this, skyguide will be introducing Direct by members and partly by the EU. Routing Airspace at the beginning of 2018 for the airspace areas above Flight Level 305. Skyguide became a full SESAR JU member in March 2016. As a result, the company and its SkySoft-ATM subsidiary can now participate in selected The action will entail creating vertical and lateral connections between research and development projects. This should be of particular interest existing airspace entry and exit points on the existing route network. in terms of a possible joint development of the Virtual Centre concept or Users will then be able to improve their flight profiles on the basis of other skyguide projects that are already under way. Skyguide’s full SESAR these, to give them shorter flights with lower fuel consumption. For the JU membership should also promote the continuation of the joint air navigation systems involved this will mean extensive modifications, efforts that have so far been conducted together with DFS and the for which investments of some CHF 3 million are planned. DSNA.

Buying-in services The first phase of the SESAR programme ended in 2016. The next phase It is common practice within the air navigation services community to – SESAR 2020 – is intended to promote air traffic management projects physically own every system used, and in many cases to want to develop in certain focus areas. Total investment in SESAR amounts to some EUR such systems in-house. Needless to say, this approach is a major obstacle 1.6 billion. to the Europewide harmonization of ANS systems. Development and maintenance costs can be tangibly improved if certain services are bought-in from elsewhere on the continent. Flight data processing systems (FDPSs) correlate plan and real-time data from various sources and combine these into summary displays on the controller’s screen. The complexity of such systems is a major cost driver.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 25 06.03.17 15:15 DATA CENTRE

“One sky by one system”

1.5 Strategic technology programmes

Air traffic management today is performed in a highly dynamic inter­ Smartradio: a new radio infrastructure national environment. Changed and changing regulations, new techno- Radar and radio are air traffic management’s most vital tools of all. logical possibilities and cross-border alliances are all paving the way for Skyguide’s “Smartradio” project is designed to renew the entire radio new business models. Skyguide makes a substantial contribution to the transmission and reception infrastructure throughout Switzerland. It is financing, the groundwork and the projects that promote the further also intended to ensure that in future, the various radio facilities can be development of Switzerland’s aviation systems. remotely maintained. These are distributed throughout the country, including at hard-to-access sites such as mountain peaks; and this has a Virtual Centre Switzerland: en route to reality correspondingly adverse effect on both malfunction rectification times Skyguide embarked back in 2011 on a programme that was intended and the associated costs. The pilot phase in this project – the biggest to standardize and modernize the tools and methods used in all the that skyguide has ever undertaken in the communications, navigation airspace sectors handled by its Geneva and Dübendorf control centres. and surveillance (CNS) field, with a total budget of some CHF 26 million The programme is designed to gradually effect a “virtual merger” of the – was completed in 2016. All stations will have been renewed by 2020. two centres, a move that should enhance the safety (through redundancy), the flexibility and the cost-efficiency of the company’s air Primary radar still indispensable at and around airports traffic management operations. At the same time, the airspace structure Civil air traffic management relies largely on secondary radar of Switzerland’s entire air traffic management system is being gradually surveillance, in which information is constantly exchanged between the harmonized under the motto of “One sky by one system”. transponders on the aircraft and the ATM stations on the ground. “Virtual Centre Switzerland” is creating a new business model. The Skyguide has now conducted an extensive analysis of the operation of possibility of managing and monitoring skyguide’s airspace from either primary radar systems. The study revealed that primary radar systems (or both) of two locations is a revolutionary one, and will lead to a new are still indispensable to safety at airports with particularly high traffic ANS organizational culture. volumes. The existing radar facilities at Geneva Airport will be replaced One fundamental aspect of the Virtual Centre programme is the separa- by new-generation successors in 2017, and those at Zurich Airport will tion of the air traffic management function from the technical processing follow in 2018. The new facilities will permit a better analysis of the and dissemination of the data required, while using advanced middle- interference profiles generated by wind power installations, which in ware to ensure adequate integration and the full service orientation of turn will help the cantonal authorities and the Swiss Confederation in the architecture and the infrastructure involved. This should also permit the pursuit of their new energy-source objectives. The total cost of these more efficient international collaborations with other ANSPs: skyguide is replacements will amount to CHF 15 million. seeking to increase its international collaborations in the longer term. As part of Tranche 1 in its Virtual Centre programme, Skyguide was able Airport systems safety and capacity to complete its “Stripless CH” project in 2016. As a result, all the sectors Improving safety at an airport with intersecting runways calls for a in its Dübendorf and Geneva area control centres have now abandoned holistic approach. The Advanced Runway Safety Improvement (ARSI) the previous paper strips. The controllers’ work has been further project pursues this with a focus on Zurich Airport. The project is enhanced with automatic medium- and long-term conflict alert examining what impact the procedures entailed have on the working systems (MTCAs and LTCAs) and with analysis scanning tools (ASTs) to methods of air traffic controllers. To this end, it records the clearances analyze possible conflicts. Work on Tranche 2 also began in 2016. This will and other instructions given from the tower. If this makes the planning be concerned with creating a service-oriented architecture and work and the situational awareness of the tower controllers easier to infrastructure for the new Virtual Centre. understand, safety systems can issue automated warnings in response to a safety-critical or contradictory instruction. The approach will both enhance safety and raise capacity. And following the conclusion of its


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 26 06.03.17 15:15 “New primary radars for CHF 15 million”

development phase, the new system should come into operation for innovations, and should provide the Swiss Aviation Research Center between autumn 2017 and summer 2018. The investment cost of some (SARC) , the aviation innovation competence centre that is currently CHF 9 million is being shared equally by the Swiss Confederation (from being established, with scientific support. its special aviation financing), Flughafen Zürich and skyguide. December saw the certification by Eurocontrol of the Airport- Controlled airways in lower airspace Collaborative Decision Making (A-CDM) coordination system for Geneva One particular application of satellite navigation is the Low Flight Airport. The new facility better connects the airport and air traffic Network or LFN, which is of particular importance to the Swiss Air Force management systems. This enhances the precision of pre-departure and the REGA air ambulance service. The LFN is a fixed network of air information; and this in turn improves both capacity and efficiency, and routes in lower airspace which permits helicopter operations even in ultimately results in fewer airport delays. adverse weather. Skyguide supports the pilots here and adopts a special management and monitoring infrastructure for such operations. The CHIPS platform coordinates the adoption of innovative technologies network currently extends to hospital landing sites and military In the aviation world, the adoption of new technologies has to be a installations. Following conclusion of its trial phase, the network is now collaborative and a coordinated affair. And this is what CHIPS – the officially in operation, and is being continually improved. With the LFN, CH-wide Implementation Programme for SESAR-oriented Objectives, skyguide, the Swiss Air Force and REGA have successfully turned one of Activities and Technologies – is intended to ensure for Switzerland 1. With their most useful projects into operating reality. the successful introduction of satellite-based navigation – known as Performance Based Navigation (PBN) – the platform has proved its worth. Further research projects The CHIPS programme also extends to other innovative technologies The four most important applications of PBN are: and concepts that should be further developed and brought to fruition • the “Curved Approach”: adopted at Dübendorf with a satellite-based in the next few years: augmentation system or SBAS • IFR in Uncontrolled Golf Airspace: A pilot project is currently being • “Radius-to-Fix Legs” departure routes to minimize deviations: adopted prepared for that will provide a foundation and at Zurich framework for uncontrolled IFR flight operations at regional airports • satellite approach systems with signal correction on the ground (the and smaller airfields. The project should establish under what “Ground-Based Augmentation System” or GBAS): in Zurich, this could conditions IFR operations can be safely conducted without air traffic supersede the traditional ILS technology control. The approach could conceivably be extended to airports and • approaches to a “Point-in-Space” (PinS): already adopted for Bern’s airfields with or without a control tower, to landing sites such as Inselspital. hospitals, to air force bases and elsewhere, too, as well as to certain en-route airways. Together with the Remote Tower concept, IFR in The CHIPS 2.0 follow-up project is intended to identify, structure and act Uncontrolled Golf Airspace offers a tool that can help reduce air in further innovation areas. CHIPS 2.0 should serve as the triage point traffic management costs at regional airports. • Remote Tower: Providing aerodrome control services via remote moni- 1 The programme has been under the overall aegis of the Federal Office of Civil Aviation tors offers a further means of reducing air traffic management costs. since 2009. Further programme partners include the Swiss Air Force, Swiss Internatio- • Multilateration Surveillance: On the surveillance front, the current nal Air Lines, the REGA Swiss air ambulance service, the Aeroclub, Switzerland’s airports airspace situation should additionally be monitored by a range of and skyguide. 2 The SARC is a foundation that has evolved from the collaboration among the Federal cooperative sensors. The first concept and preparatory work here have Institute of Technology in Lausanne, the Zurich University of Applied Sciences, St. Gallen already been completed. University and the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, and is intended to support and promote the research and development work at aviation companies. 27

E_sky_RA_2016.indd 27 06.03.17 15:15 Safety by Design: when technical design and safety go hand in hand

Commonly associated with operations, ensuring safety in the area of air traffic What challenges will this area face in the near future? control also relies significantly on technical infrastructures. Well before systems Let’s take the example of the Virtual Centre. In this project, we are not only are implemented, it is during the conceptual phase that reflection in terms of witnessing a turning point in technology, but also in the way the service is their reliability begins. With its strong technical base requiring a great degree provided. It is therefore necessary to intervene very early on in the conception of technical expertise, and being an evolving area, the aeronautical industry in- of the project to enable the technical services to make a positive contribution volves highly qualified employees whose technical competencies must be regu- to safety. The technical aspects related to the controller’s environment have larly renewed, in order to respond to the demands of new concepts such as the until now been maintained internally. With the Virtual Centre, we will delegate Virtual Centre. Patricia Bomme, Head of Safety and Compliance Management, part of the maintenance of the infrastructure to an external company. This tells us more about what is at stake in this area. new model will require that we integrate the service provider. The collaboration with external providers is therefore becoming an important factor in ensuring What are the characteristics of a Safety by Design approach, and safety. It is essential to make them aware of the environment that they are what are its benefits? contributing to, in order to have a positive influence on the reliability of the “Safety by Design” means being capable of taking into account safety technical aspects of systems. We also check how they build their systems and requirements very early on in the design of a system, which means train their personnel. The objective is to foster a climate of confidence and at the first stage of conceptualisation. The objective is to ensure that all the dialogue between professionals. factors connected with safety have been taken into account in the design of the system before its implementation, and so to avoid having to compensate What advances are being made in the contribution of technical services to for risks or flaws afterwards. It is therefore important to engage in this kind of safety? thinking as early as possible, as the more one advances in the development of An initiative is underway with a view to improving our safety culture and technical equipment, the more difficult it is to go back. A change made too late the culture of reporting, in the form of closer ties between operations and will have repercussions, in terms of cost for instance. the technical area, and this results in an improved mutual understanding. Progress has also been accomplished thanks to better processes and increased In practice, what does this mean for skyguide? technical reliability. The very high reliability of systems means that we need It means that we must take account of various factors such as safety, cost, highly qualified employees who must maintain their skills at a high level in environmental aspects, human factors, and so on, so we have to compromise an environment comprising systems that require action at irregular intervals. between the available resources. The engineers build systems directly with Improvements and the contribution of technical services to safety the future users. The goal is to ease the tasks of technicians as well as air therefore lie in system design, and in the reliability of those systems, traffic controllers by designing an adequate environment. The reliability of a as well as in the strengths of the employees and in our safety culture. system is paramount, but on its own is insufficient: the system may be highly reliable, but if the users are not working in adequate conditions, there can be consequences. Questions of ergonomics and access to the machine therefore play a role at this level, as a good design contributes to reducing the risk of error. Moreover, with new technologies, new competencies are required. This renewal PhD in Civil Engineering and in Artificial Intelligence, Patricia of competencies must also be part of up-front reflection, and so we strive Bomme joined skyguide in 2003 and then became Head of Safety to proceed in such a way that the impact on resources is minimised. Lastly, I and Compliance Management. Her function consists in ensuring that the working methods used by technical staff allow for the would say that standardised procedures and the process of risk evaluation are provision of safe technical services. also important in the implementation of a new system.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 28 06.03.17 15:15 455.0 MCHF 15.3 MCHF Operating revenue Net result

1.6 Finances

Thanks to the higher traffic volumes handled, skyguide’s operating Cumulative cost underrecovery revenue for 2016 was a CHF 4.4 million increase on the previous year. In line with projections, the cumulative unrecovered costs up to 2011 for With operating costs remaining stable, this led to a CHF 4.4 million en-route traffic amounted to CHF 34.4 million on 31 December 2016 improvement in the operating result. Real traffic volumes were higher (compared with CHF 39.8 million a year before). For airport traffic than the values projected in the 2015-2019 Performance Plan on both the cumulative cost overrecovery amounted to CHF 8.5 million on the en-route and the airport traffic fronts. 31 December 2016 (compared with CHF 10.0 million a year before). The cost overrecoveries achieved in 2014 through traffic volume fluctuations Traffic trends and inflation were utilized in 2016. Some CHF 2.2 million will be credited Skyguide handled just under 1.2 million flights in 2016, 1.8% or around to the users of skyguide’s en-route services and CHF 1.8 million will be 21.000 more than in the prior-year period. The actions taken to raise charged to its airport traffic customers as over- and under-recoveries for system capacity again proved their worth. On the punctuality front, 2016 relating to the European Performance Plan and its distribution 97.2% of all flights were handled without delays, compared to 96.8% in mechanism for traffic and cost risks. 2015. Cash flow The European Performance Plan Liquidity levels remained above the minimum threshold specified by Since 2015 not only en-route traffic but also Category I airport traffic the Board of Directors. And in accordance with the requirements of (i.e. to and from Geneva and Zurich airports) has been economically the company’s owners, long-term debt is lower than double the amount regulated under the European Performance Plan. For 2016, the second of earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (i.e. year of Reference Period 2 (2015-2019), en-route traffic was 1.6% above two times EBITDA). projections, while Category I airport traffic was as much as 4.8% above its projected level. En-route traffic costs were lower than projected, Outlook for 2017 while airport traffic costs were broadly in line with Plan projections. Skyguide expects to see moderate further growth in traffic volumes of 1-2% for 2017. This projection also tallies with the assumptions made for The 2016 economic cost-efficiency indicator for en-route traffic amount- Reference Period 2 of the European Performance Plan, which runs from ed to CHF 107.20 (compared with CHF 109.90 for 2015). Skyguide achieved 2015 to 2019. this at CHF 97.20 (2015: CHF 105.90). The strength of the Swiss franc will continue to burden airspace users, The 2016 economic cost-efficiency indicator for Category I airport traffic since skyguide’s charges are calculated in francs and converted into amounted to CHF 346.00 (2015: CHF 377.50). Skyguide achieved this, too, euros. The present currency trends also compromise the company’s at CHF 329.80 (2015: CHF 366.40). competitive credentials in the broader European ANS environment.

Financial responsibility for the air traffic services provided at Switzer- land’s Category II regional airports passes to the airport operators in 2017. Skyguide will thus now charge these operators for the services it provides. Each airport will form its own charge zone and set its own air traffic management charges.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 29 06.03.17 15:15 2 Mission and St.Gallen Zurich Kloten Altenrhein organization Dübendorf Grenchen

Emmen Buochs Alpnach

Payerne Bern Belp Meiringen

Geneva Cointrin Sion Locarno

2.1 Skyguide’s airspace Lugano Agno

Civil and military air navigation services Ensuring that Switzerland’s airspace is safely and efficiently managed entails the closest possible collaboration between the country’s civil and military air navigation services. By providing integrated civil-and- military services here (as it has done since 2001), skyguide equally meets both the civil aviation community’s demand for cost-efficient air traffic services and the Swiss Air Force’s need to remain sufficiently effective to fulfil its mission of maintaining the country’s airspace sovereignty. Skyguide’s integrated civil-and-military air navigation services enhance the flexibility of airspace use, to the benefit of all its users.

Airspace control draws different borders The airspace that skyguide manages and monitors extends beyond Switzerland’s borders into France, Italy, Austria and Germany. In fact, over 40% of the airspace that skyguide controls is outside Switzerland. All these factors create a highly complex airspace area that can only be At the same time, part of Southern Swiss airspace is controlled by Italy’s effectively managed in numerous sectors. The coordination required air navigation services provider, and the air traffic of EuroAirport Basel- here is correspondingly more work-intensive and demanding than the Mulhouse-Freiburg is managed by skyguide’s counterpart in France. handling of en-route traffic, which accounts for only 30% of skyguide’s total traffic volumes. Skyguide also manages the visual flight rules (VFR) As a result of its particular position within the international airways traffic in the airspace under its control. network, Swiss airspace is the most complex and heaviest used in Europe, and is also home to two of the continent’s busiest airway intersections. The high volumes of en-route traffic are supplemented by 2.2 Vision, mission and values sizeable numbers of climbing and descending flights that are generated by the numerous intercontinental airports located close to the Swiss A public-service mandate border in neighbouring countries. And Swiss airspace also includes Skyguide provides its services under a legal mandate issued by the extensive areas which are reserved for the use of the Swiss Air Force at Swiss Confederation and the Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA), certain times. Switzerland’s national aviation authority. This mandate requires skyguide to ensure the safe, fluid and cost-effective management of air Small country, sizeable complexity traffic in Swiss airspace and in the adjacent airspace of neighbouring As a result of its geographical location, Switzerland is at the crossroads countries that has been delegated to its control. of numerous north-south and east-west traffic flows within Europe’s airways network. With several major airports such as Frankfurt, Munich Skyguide’s legally-prescribed duties and tasks entail providing civil and and Milan close to the country’s borders in addition to its own airports, military air navigation services, aeronautical information and tele­ around 70% of the flights handled in skyguide’s airspace are climbing or communications services and the technical services required to install, descending traffic. Due regard must also be paid to the needs of the operate and maintain the associated air navigation systems and Swiss Air Force and to the flexible use of military training areas. facilities.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 30 06.03.17 15:15 St.Gallen Zurich Kloten Altenrhein Dübendorf Grenchen

Emmen Buochs Alpnach

Payerne Bern Belp Meiringen

Geneva Cointrin Sion Locarno

Lugano Agno

Civil locations Cross Border Area (CBA), military flight zone used in common with France and Italy Military locations Instrument landing systems (ILS) Airspace managed by skyguide VOR/DME beacons Delegated airspace Non-directional beacons and marker systems Flight Information Region (FIR) Switzerland Direction finder systems Flight zones used primarily by civil traffic with main airways Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (ASMGCS) Flight zones available for military traffic according to the Air Force’s needs and reservations Approach/departure radar systems Mixed flight zones used according to the priorities of civil Long-range radar systems or military traffic

Skyguide is fully committed to its public-service mandate. Skyguide is an A sustainable approach entrepreneurially-minded and customer-focused joint-stock company Skyguide strives to achieve and maintain a dynamic balance between under Swiss private law which has its head office in Geneva and safety, capacity, costs and sustainability in the services it provides. The maintains further operations in Alpnach, Bern Belp, Buochs, Dübendorf, last of these components – sustainability – extends to skyguide’s Emmen, Grenchen, Locarno, Lugano Agno, Meiringen, Payerne, St. Gallen corporate responsibility in both social and environmental terms. Altenrhein, Sion and Zurich. The company also provides air traffic Environmental care is a major issue throughout the aviation industry. services at the temporary Davos Stilli heliport during the annual World Economic Forum in Davos. Skyguide pursues a progressive and social personnel policy that is based on reciprocal respect and an appreciation of every individual, whatever Our vision role or position they may have within the company. Skyguide further On a daily basis, we provide safe and reliable air navigation and related creates highly specialized jobs in a demanding technical field, and thereby services. For our customers and partners, we embody continuous helps develop tomorrow’s skills and expertise within the Swiss economy. improvement in an innovative and entrepreneurial spirit. Military mission effectiveness, i.e. the Swiss Air Force’s ability to perform Our mission its mandate to maintain the sovereignty of Swiss airspace, is a further • As a high reliability organization, we are totally committed to safety. integral part of skyguide’s overall brief. • Together with our civil and military partners, we continuously improve our air navigation and related services. Code of ethical conduct for integrity in business activities • Within the European aviation network, we are a focused innovator Skyguide conducts all its business in compliance with the highest and act as a creative co-operator. ethical standards and with due and full observance of all applicable • In this role, we create value-adding solutions in our core competence laws and regulations. The company also maintains clear principles that areas and help to implement and improve on them. serve as overall guidelines for applying its ethical values to its day-to-day business. Skyguide’s personnel are consistently honest, maintain the utmost integrity and act in the best interests of the company in all their business and operating activities.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 31 06.03.17 15:15 2.3 Strategic alignment and thrust

Skyguide’s basic strategic alignment and thrust are derived from its Two prime strategic axes: performance and innovation government mandate. The quality of the company’s services should be Skyguide’s strategy has two main focuses. First, the company strives to continuously improved, because it is the services which skyguide provides maintain its high level of performance, and to continuously and that largely determine the position it holds in Europe’s air traffic sustainably further improve the quality of its services. And secondly, management landscape. skyguide aims to consolidate its activities within Europe, and secure and maintain a strong position within the European air navigation services Political mandate and strategy market. The company also puts a key strategic emphasis on innovation The Swiss Federal Council prescribes clear strategic goals for skyguide in all its technical developments. every four years (the latest such period runs from 2016 to 2019). These are based on government aviation policy, and are submitted for Air navigation services are one element in the integrated aviation value comment to all the stakeholders involved. Skyguide’s strategy translates chain. In view of this, skyguide must align all its planning and strategic these government specifications into approaches and actions which decision-making to the customer benefits that such decisions (and the also pay due and full regard to additional operational, performance and resulting actions) will bring. market considerations. The resulting strategy is thus an expression of the Swiss government’s political will that also fully accommodates Europe’s air navigation services must be fundamentally overhauled. The technical and business perspectives and concerns. move forward now needed can only be achieved through a paradigm shift to providing the services required collaboratively and internationally within a seamless airspace area. This is why skyguide is striving to promote and effect maximum industry standardization and jointly operable and/or jointly-operated air traffic control centres.

A cultural change of such dimensions can only be achieved, however, if it is socially acceptable and enjoys adequate political support. And it is with these needs in mind that the company is pursuing a “virtual merger” of its Geneva and Zurich centres. The Virtual Centre Switzerland programme is a core element in skyguide’s corporate strategy. And, once the concept has proved its viability, the company aims to promote its further evolution through international collaborations with and among other air navigation services providers.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 32 06.03.17 15:15 “Constant endeavours to further enhance reliability are at the heart of any high-reliability organization.”

What does “performance” mean in air traffic management terms? The process of defining such targets and the criteria used therein have Skyguide views performance as achieving an optimum balance between prompted various controversies in Europe: in a sector as strongly safety, capacity, cost-efficiency and sustainability within the overall regulated as air navigation services, it is not easy to reduce costs while requirements of a high-reliability organization. The company also simultaneously making substantial investments in new technologies regards military mission effectiveness – the Swiss Air Force’s ability to and meeting the further targets set under Europe’s ANS performance perform its mandate to maintain the sovereignty of Swiss airspace – as assessment system. a further integral part of its performance brief. Skyguide sees its performance as a vital yardstick of its ability to play a prominent and Cost-efficiency, corporate structure and customer alignment effective part in Europe’s future air navigation services sector. Skyguide pursues a consistent policy that is aimed at further improving its performance, propagating a safety culture companywide, further Skyguide is required to demonstrate its high performance of its mandate raising the capacity of Swiss airspace and sustainably enhancing its and mission not only towards its owner and airspace users in Switzerland cost-efficiency. In adopting its more modular business structure, the but also (since 2012) to the European Commission. In a procedure that company is also putting a strong emphasis on getting closer to its also involved skyguide and the FOCA, the Commission set the customers – in the regional airports, aeronautical information and performance targets for its second reference period, known as Reference training segments, to name just three. Period 2, at the end of 2014. Reference Period 2 runs from 2015 to 2019.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 33 06.03.17 15:15 2.4 Board of Directors

Walter T. Vogel – Member since 2015 Jean-Yves Bonvin – Member since 2012

Born in 1957. Walter T. Vogel holds a degree in mechanical engineering Born in 1951. Jean-Yves Bonvin is an attorney who holds degrees in law from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich and further (from the University of Geneva) and economics (from St. Gallen qualifications in business administration from St. Gallen University and University). A partner in a law firm, he was elected to the Board of INSEAD Fontainebleau. After eight years as CEO of the Aebi-Schmidt Directors in 2012. He chairs the Board’s Safety Committee, and is a Group, he became Chairman of its Board of Directors in autumn 2015. He member of its Finance & Audit Committee. was elected Chairman of the Skyguide Board of Directors in 2015. He also Further mandates held: member of the Board of Directors of IRMC chairs the Board’s Compensation & Nominations Committee, and is a Monthey; President of the Valais Aero Club; President of the 2017 Sion Air member of its Finance & Audit Committee. Show; Deputy President of the Users’ Association; Treasurer Further mandates held: Chairman of the Board of Directors of the ASH of the Association Sion Airport Technology Center. Group; Deputy Chairman of the Board of Directors of St. Gallen- Dominik Hänggi – Member since 2015 Appenzell Power Stations; member of the Board of Directors of Kardex; member of the Board of Directors of FAI Air Sports Marketing & Events Born in 1966. Dominik Hänggi joined skyguide in 1988, and currently AG; President of the Swiss Ballooning Association; member of the serves as a Geneva-based air traffic controller/watch supervisor. He was Central Committee of the Aero Club of Switzerland. Deputy President of the Association du Personnel de la Tour de Contrôle (APTC) staff association, and was actively involved in several collective Bernhard Müller – Member since 2009 labour agreement negotiations in this capacity. He was elected to serve Born in 1957. Major General Bernhard Müller is Chief of Operations and as the employees’ representative on the Board of Directors in 2015. He is Deputy Commander of the Swiss Air Force. After completing teacher also a member of the Board’s Projects and Safety committees. training and studying history and philosophy at Zurich University, Further mandates held: none. he went on to hold various senior functions within the Swiss Air Force. Cristina Feistmann – Member since 2015 He was elected to the Skyguide Board of Directors as its Deputy Chairman in 2009. He is also a member of the Board’s Projects and Born in 1966. Cristina Feistmann is an attorney at law and the holder of Safety committees. an M.B.L. degree from St. Gallen University. After a number of years as an Further mandates held: member of the Executive Committee of external lawyer and legal advisor, she entered the aviation sector in 1998 Aerosuisse (as the Swiss Air Force’s representative). – initially joining the Swissair Group, and later becoming General Counsel to Swissport. In 2007 she moved into the insurance sector, Anne Bobillier – Member since 2014 where she is currently Company Secretary to the Swiss Reinsurance Born in 1965. Anne Bobillier is the Managing Director of Bechtle Suisse Company Ltd. She was elected to the Skyguide Board of Directors in 2015. Romande, and previously served in further executive functions with She is also a member of its Compensation & Nominations Committee. various well-known companies. The holder of a master’s degree in Further mandates held: member of the Board of Trustees of the Swissair information technology from the University of Geneva, she was elected Staff Foundation for Children in Need. to the Board of Directors in 2014. She also chairs the Board’s Projects Hans-Peter Strodel – Member since 2007 Committee and is a member of its Safety Committee. Further mandates held: member of the Board of Directors of Romande Born in 1943. Hans-Peter Strodel holds a doctorate in business Energie Holding and of Romande Energie SA. administration and was Head of Finance and a member of the Executive Management of until mid-2008. Elected to the Skyguide Board of Directors in 2007, he chairs the Board’s Finance & Audit Committee and is a member of its Compensation & Nominations Committee. Further mandates held: none. 34

E_sky_RA_2016.indd 34 06.03.17 15:15 “We aim to be a sound and innovative air navigation services provider for our customers in Switzerland and the rest of Europe. And we make up for our modest size through the quality of our services, the skills of our people and our closeness to the customer.”

Walter T. Vogel Chairman of the Board of Directors

Dominik Hänggi, Cristina Feistmann, Jean-Yves Bonvin, Anne Bobillier, Walter T. Vogel, Bernhard Müller, Hans-Peter Strodel


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 35 06.03.17 15:15 2.5 Executive Board

Daniel Weder – CEO Alex Bristol – Operations

Born in 1957. Having had a long and varied career with Swissair and Born in 1968. Alex Bristol earned a bachelor’s degree from the University Swiss International Air Lines, ultimately serving as the latter’s Managing of Exeter before joining NATS (the UK’s air navigation services provider) Director Airport Services & Operations Steering, Daniel Weder can draw as an air traffic controller in 1992. He went on to serve NATS as an on an extensive knowledge of the aviation sector. The holder of an MBA instructor, watch supervisor, Head of Operations and ultimately Head of from IMD Lausanne, he joined skyguide as its CEO in 2007. He is also a Development & Investment Strategy. He joined skyguide as Chief member of the Board and Executive Committee of Aerosuisse, Swiss Operating Officer and a member of the Executive Board in September aviation’s umbrella organization. 2011.

Francis Schubert – Corporate Development and Deputy CEO Simon Maurer – Safety/Security/Quality

Born in 1961. Francis Schubert is a qualified air traffic controller and Born in 1968. Simon Maurer holds a degree in physics from the University holds a doctorate in law. He joined the company in 1982 and has been a of Basel and a post-graduate diploma in business administration from member of the Executive Board since 2001. He also teaches aviation law the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. After several years with at the Institute for Air & Space Law at McGill University in Montreal, Swissair and Swiss International Air Lines as both a short- and a long- Canada, and at the law faculty of Lausanne University. haul pilot and as a project leader within Flight Operations, he was appointed Deputy Aviation Safety Officer at the Swiss Federal Marc R. Bohren – Finance & Services Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications. He joined skyguide as Head of Safety/Security/Quality and a member of Born in 1956. Marc R. Bohren holds a master’s degree from the CPCG the Executive Board at the beginning of 2009. together with various US commercial and stock-exchange qualifications. After working in the banking sector in Switzerland and the USA for Klaus Meier – Engineering & Technical Services several years, he was appointed CFO of an international food corporation. He joined skyguide in 1999, and has been a member of the Executive Born in 1965. Klaus Meier has been skyguide’s Chief Information Officer Board since 2000. and Director of Engineering & Technology (CIO) since 2014. Prior to joining skyguide, he served as CIO Americas for the Schindler corporation, Hans Bracher – Human Resources based in the USA. He is also well familiar with the aviation world through his years with Swissair, where he promoted process enhancements and Born in 1962. Hans Bracher, who is a qualified attorney, can draw on over technological innovation in various executive capacities. Klaus Meier is a 20 years of experience as an HR specialist in the industry and technology qualified electrical engineer, and also holds a doctorate from the Swiss sectors. He assumed his duties as skyguide’s Head of Human Resources Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. in August 2012. Prior to this, he had been Head of Corporate Human Resources and a member of the Executive Board of RUAG Holding AG and a member of the Supervisory Board of RUAG Aerospace Services GmbH in Germany. He also held various functions during many years with Ascom, ultimately serving as Head of Corporate Human Resources and a member of the Extended Executive Board. He was appointed to the Skyguide Executive Board with effect from January 2015.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 36 06.03.17 15:15 “Skyguide is a byword for safety and reliability. And this is something we will continue to work on with all our energies and conviction.”

Daniel Weder CEO

Hans Bracher, Simon Maurer, Marc R. Bohren, Jeannette Haus (Chief of Staff), Daniel Weder, Alex Bristol, Klaus Meier, Francis Schubert, Roger Gaberell (Communications)


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 37 06.03.17 15:15 2.6 Organization

Legal form Capital structure Skyguide is a joint-stock company under Swiss private law, and performs The company’s share capital amounts to CHF 140 million and consists a legal mandate bestowed upon it by the Swiss Confederation. of 14 000 000 fully-paid-up registered shares with a nominal value of Skyguide’s mandate requires the company to ensure the safe, efficient CHF 10 each. and cost-effective management of Switzerland’s air traffic. The mandate, which is specified in Article 40 of the Federal Aviation Act and Article 2 The company’s capital structure remained unchanged in 2016. No of the Ordinance on Air Navigation Services, extends to providing civil preference shares were issued. and military air navigation services, an aeronautical information service, telecommunications services and the technical services required to The General Meeting install, operate and maintain the associated air traffic management and The General Meeting is the highest body of the company and has the air navigation systems. Being a non-profit-oriented company, skyguide following non-transferable powers and authorities: to adopt and amend does not distribute dividends. the Articles of Incorporation; to elect and dismiss the Board of Directors, its Chairman and the statutory auditors; to approve the annual report Group structure and shareholders and financial statements; to discharge the Board of Directors and the The Skyguide Group includes skyguide subsidiaries SkySoft-ATM SA, Executive Board from their responsibility for the conduct of business; to Meyrin (founded on 25 January 2001 and 95.46% owned), swisscontrol pass resolutions on any other issues which are assigned to its sole SA, Meyrin (founded on 20 April 2001 and 100% owned) and skynav SA, authority by law or under the company’s Articles of Incorporation or are Awans, Belgium (founded on 3 January 2001 and 100% owned). All of presented to it by the Board of Directors; and to wind up the company. skyguide’s subsidiaries are unlisted companies subject to private law. The General Meeting is quorate if a minimum of two thirds of the company’s shares are represented. By law and under the company’s Articles of Incorporation, at least 51% of skyguide’s share capital must be held by the Swiss Confederation. The The Board of Directors Confederation currently holds 99.94%. The Board of Directors comprises a maximum of seven members, each elected by the General Meeting for a three-year term of office. Members Shareholding in the ESSP SAS satellite technology company may be re-elected. No Board member may serve more than four three- Skyguide has been one of the seven shareholders in the European year terms. The majority of Board members must be Swiss nationals Satellite Services Provider (ESSP SAS) company, with a holding of 8.33%, resident in Switzerland. since 2008. ESSP SAS operates Europe’s EGNOS satellite navigation system for the continent’s air navigation services. The Board of Directors is empowered to pass resolutions on any business which is not the sole preserve of the General Meeting or another corporate body. The Board of Directors is responsible for the ultimate management of the company.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 38 06.03.17 15:15 “The European Performance Plan covers the areas of safety, the environment, capacity and cost-efficiency.”

Under the company’s bylaws, the Board of Directors may delegate The CEO individual business to committees within its ranks. The Board currently The CEO is responsible for leading the company and thus for developing has four such committees: and achieving the corporate objectives specified by the company’s – the Projects Committee, which is commissioned, inter alia, to advise owners and its Board of Directors. The CEO also represents the company and support the company’s Engineering & Technical Services and towards the authorities, the public, its customers, its shareholders, its Operations project teams and draw up corresponding recommen­ ­ suppliers, its unions and staff associations and others. dations for the full Board’s consideration and decision – the Finance & Audit Committee, which is tasked with preparing Board Compensation policy business in these fields (relating to the budget, the annual accounts The compensation to be paid to the CEO and the further members of and financial statements, financing issues, the external auditors, the Executive Board is devised by the Board of Directors’ Compensation analyses of the internal control system and internal audits) & Nominations Committee and submitted to the full Board of Directors – the Compensation & Nominations Committee, which devises the for decision. The compensation paid to the Chairman of the Board and compensation to be paid to the CEO and the further members of the the further members of the Board of Directors is fixed by the company’s Executive Board and submits these to the full Board of Directors for owners (in accordance with a federal resolution of 21 December 2007), decision, and which also supports the process of nominating new and the compensation paid to the CEO is also approved by the owners. members of the Board of Directors and the Executive Board The compensation paid to the Chairman of the Board for his work and – the Safety Committee, which deliberates on safety-relevant issues activities in 2016 amounted to CHF 135 000, while the compensation and prepares the associated business for the full Board’s consideration. paid to the further members of the Board of Directors for 2016 amounted to CHF 48 333 on average. Expenses are reimbursed separately. The Executive Board Skyguide’s Executive Board consists of the CEO and the heads of the The total compensation paid to all members of the Executive Board Operations, Engineering & Technical Services, Finance & Services, Safety/ including the CEO for 2016 amounted to CHF 2 050 679, plus short- and Security/Quality, Corporate Development and Human Resources long-term performance-based compensation and other compensation divisions. The CEO is also empowered to appoint further management amounts totalling CHF 802 796. The highest fixed compensation paid to members to form an Enlarged Executive Board. an individual Executive Board member amounted to CHF 372 213, plus short- and long-term performance-based compensation and other The Executive Board is responsible, under the leadership of the CEO, for compensation amounts totalling CHF 128 103. Expenses are reimbursed the management of the company within the parameters of its statutory separately. duties and authorities.


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Financial control, strategic control and reporting Performance is measured over periods ranging from three to five years. Financial planning and the controlling of corporate performance are The first reference period (Reference Period 1) ran from 2012 to 2014, and the responsibility of the company’s Management Controlling & Fees the second (Reference Period 2) extends from 2015 to 2019. Despite unit, which monitors observance of the Finance Plan (annual budget intensive negotiations between FABEC and the European Commission, and five-year financial plan) in collaboration with the divisional and the Reference Period 2 Performance Plan could still not be approved by departmental heads. the end of 2016, and will need to be worked on further in 2017. The route charges and the approach charges for Geneva and Zurich airports have, The Executive Information System (EIS) provides comprehensive however, entered into effect. Any modifications needed here would be quarterly assessments of the projected annual results. The annual made in 2018. budget is the prime foundation on which route and approach charge levels are determined. Management Controlling & Fees and the Closer customer partnerships through an effective consultation process Executive Board conduct monthly assessments of the company’s Skyguide conducts regular exchanges with its customers and further financial and operational targets and objectives. These permit the partners on cost trends, traffic projections, investments and service appropriate monitoring of all business developments, together with quality as part of its charge-setting process. In addition to the timely decision-making on any corrective action required. These multilateral consultations on route charges organized by Eurocontrol in assessments are documented in the Monthly Business Review, which is June and November, informal exchanges were held with skyguide’s submitted to the Board of Directors and the Executive Board. social partners on 27 October and with airspace users on 6 December 2016. The key agenda items here were the results for the first year of A European performance system Reference Period 2 and the current outlook for the years ahead. With its Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No. 390/2013 the European Commission has created a performance system for the The military air navigation services which skyguide provides are continent’s air navigation services providers. The new system covers the remunerated annually in accordance with the service agreement areas of safety, the environment, capacity and cost-efficiency. concluded between the company and the Swiss Air Force. This agreement is reviewed regularly by the contractual parties.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 40 06.03.17 15:15 “Well-functioning safety management and a just culture that is genuinely practised are the prime foundations for enhancing safety performance.”

2.7 Management systems

Safety management in a high-reliability organization – Constantly improving Safety is skyguide’s paramount objective and concern. And the An HRO will focus on constantly and sustainably improving its company’s safety culture, together with a safety management system processes, and on using its understanding and appreciation of all the (SMS) that is certified to comply with all European norms, are the complexities involved in its operations to create and maintain foundations on which skyguide bases all the services it provides. processes that are as simple and straightforward as possible. It will also prepare itself to cope with malfunctions; and it will take the For any high-reliability organization (HRO), the constant improvement steps required to ensure that routine never leads to complacency and of its reliability is the focus of all its endeavours. An HRO will continuous­ the negligence this can bring. ly improve the balance between safety requirements, capacity, cost- efficiency and sustainability in all the processes and structures – Striving to be flexible and incorporating reserves throughout the institution. And the centralized maintenance of the An HRO will ensure that its personnel notice and respond to any signs organization’s values enjoys a high priority in all such activities. of an operational malfunction as early as possible. It will not suppress or conceal problems, but will identify them and address them An HRO recognizes that problems and malfunctions can always arise promptly, to minimize their negative effects. An HRO will also in complex organizations and parts thereof. And an HRO will develop empower its employees to respond appropriately to any malfunctions and maintain the skills and capabilities required to anticipate or identify that occur. And it will incorporate the reserves required to protect the unexpected situations, and will respond to these in such a way that system as a whole. their undesired ramifications can be eliminated or kept to a minimum. – Respecting specialist expertise An HRO acquires such skills, capabilities and responsiveness by: In unexpected situations, an HRO will be unafraid to delegate decision-making authority to persons with the requisite specialist – Constantly identifying the causes of problems and malfunctions expertise, and will promote high levels of self-confidence among its An HRO regards problems and malfunctions as unavoidable. It employees by giving them autonomy and decision-making authority, promotes and protects the systematic identification and reporting of by ensuring that they understand and appreciate its decisions and by observations, problems and malfunctions, endeavours to learn from providing and permitting adequate and effective feedback. An HRO these systematically and effectively and integrates the lessons will also create and maintain an organization that is as transparent as learned into its organization. possible and permits direct communications between front-line personnel and top-management staff. – Rejecting simplistic interpretations An HRO will strive to find out what it does not know. It will endeavour to promote as complete and sophisticated an understanding as possible of the system and its problems, and will avoid simplistic interpretations.


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Safety policy The Safety Performance Cockpit Skyguide’s safety policy lays down a number of key principles that are Skyguide operates a “Safety Performance Cockpit” that uses some 30 firmly anchored companywide. The company has also formulated a varied indicators to assess the current safety situation and track safety corresponding safety commitment: trends. This enables the company to identify any deviations from its • Priority of safety – continuous improvement safety objectives in good time and define any corrective action required. We are committed to making safety our paramount priority in all our The results and developments here are reported to and discussed by the business decisions and activities, and we continuously further Executive Board on a quarterly basis. A summary of the Cockpit’s improve our safety performance. findings and the key indicators involved is also presented every quarter • Responsibility – delegating authority to the Board of Directors’ Safety Committee. Our employees are fully aware of their individual responsibilities in safety terms, and we are all fully involved and empowered to make Continuous improvement of the safety management system (SMS) appropriate decisions as and when required. The safety process is a core element in the skyguide process landscape, • Risk-based approach – managing complexity enabling the company’s safety management system to be continuously We meet and master complexity by adopting a risk-aware approach. improved. New methods and worktools are also to be introduced to • Transparency – maximum protection further enhance the system’s efficiency, especially in the areas of safety We strive to maintain transparent internal and external risk management, incident investigation and the early and systematic communications, and we protect our employees as comprehensively inclusion of human factors and human performance considerations. as possible. Dealing with serious incidents 2013-2019 safety strategy “Serious incidents” are incidents that entail a risk of collision. Any air Skyguide has adopted a safety strategy that is intended to help maintain traffic controller involved in such an incident is immediately relieved and its position as one of Europe’s leading air navigation services providers in offered assistance and support by trained specialist personnel. Skyguide safety terms. The strategy pursues three key objectives: investigates the causes of all serious incidents and supports the • Improving safety culture authorities in their inquiries. Together with its unions, the company has Skyguide promotes and constantly refines a proactive, constructive, also developed a process for providing the controllers involved with risk-aware, learning and non-penalizing safety culture among all its optimum support and helping to reintegrate them into ATM operations. employees. The process again proved its worth in 2016. • Further developing safety performance management and continuous improvement endeavours Reporting and analyzing separation minima violations Skyguide monitors and systematically evaluates its safety Any alerts triggered by radar systems through a violation of the aircraft performance, and identifies critical areas to continuously further separation minima prescribed are automatically recorded. But it is only improve the safety of its services. through the reports of the controllers involved that all the weak points • Developing a new and systemic safety risk management in the system can be thoroughly understood. In view of this, an Skyguide monitors its safety risks with the efficiency and the agreement has been concluded between skyguide’s Safety Management comprehensiveness required to maintain them all at acceptable and the controllers’ staff associations which enshrines the principles of levels. an open reporting culture. This approach has raised the level of the corresponding operational reporting to almost 100%.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 42 06.03.17 15:15 Unit safety surveys The specialists in skyguide’s Safety unit have since conducted numerous Skyguide’s unit safety surveys offer a means of assessing individual or safety analyses of such key projects as Stripless Step 4 for Dübendorf, systemic safety risks within and throughout a particular unit (such as the management of all the airspace controlled by skyguide from a single Approach or aerodrome control at an operating location). Having location at certain times (copflex1), IFR flights from and to Grenchen analyzed the air traffic management processes and procedures at the Airport with no local air traffic management and RNAV IFR approach joint-civil-and-military-use Sion Airport in 2015, skyguide turned its procedures for during the World Alpine Ski attention in 2016 to the ATM processes and procedures for Switzerland’s Championships in February 2017. Mittelland region, and also embarked on an analysis of the air traffic services provided at St. Gallen Altenrhein Airport. These surveys enable Human factors and human performance the parties responsible to better monitor safety risks and thus initiate The terms “human factors” and “human performance” (HF/HP) are used any improvements required in good time. to describe the psychological, cognitive and social factors influencing the man/machine system. In the air navigation services world it is The integrated Safety Management System (iSMS) essential that these factors are also given due, full and timely This skyguide initiative is based on the company’s safety strategy and is consideration when developing new procedures or technological intended to ensure its implementation. The system is designed to worktools, as they can have a strong influence on product design. develop a safety risk management approach that is based on Eurocontrol’s Integrated Risk Picture model. iSMS allows all the ATM- Skyguide has its own 2013-2017 HF/HP Strategy. 2016 saw several human relevant aspects of a flight to be closely modelled and the various risk factors studies conducted, particularly in connection with the Virtual factors of the system’s components to be calculated using genuine Centre programme. A number of methods were used here, including flight plan, radar and incident data. A central safety database has also some based on Eurocontrol’s HF Case Methodology or SESAR HP been established. This will also permit a risk-based approach to be Assessment Methodology. adopted with the integrated analyses and studies conducted by the Safety Management. Skyguide also uses “eyetrackers” to study the cognitive capabilities of its air traffic controllers in response to planned system developments. And A method for assessing safety risks the company conducts regular in-house workshops to further raise Skyguide and the FOCA presented a joint vision in 2015 of the method to awareness of HF/HP issues, and visits other European ANSPs with be employed for assessing the safety risks associated with technical and extensive experience in the field to further enhance its own HF/HP operational projects, along with the corresponding implementation expertise. guidelines. This was then used as a basis to further develop skyguide’s Safety Assessment Framework, which was successfully adopted in Protection of sensitive safety data and information spring 2016 once its project owners and project managers had been The free availability and the media use of personal data are symptomatic appropriately trained. of today’s interconnected world. In collaboration with its social partners, skyguide has devised an internal directive regulating the protection of sensitive safety data and information. The directive specifies that the identity and the rights of any persons involved in operational or technical incidents must be protected.


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Implementation of a European ordinance on civil aviation occurrences All the steps in the skyguide ERM process are clearly defined and Skyguide has modified its operational and technical reporting processes described, and form an integral part of the company’s process landscape. and procedures in response to the European Union’s Regulation (EU) No. ERM is also closely coordinated with the corporate planning process, and 376/2014 on the reporting, analysis and follow-up of occurrences in civil with strategic planning in particular. Key risks are regularly reassessed, aviation. The company also developed and published a “just culture” and appropriate adjustments are made if required. These key risks are policy in 2016 that ensures full protection against disciplinary action for also formally appraised twice a year by the Board of Directors and the anyone reporting an incident (except in cases of gross negligence or Executive Board. wilful intent). For cases in which an action or a failure to act may be subject to different interpretations, skyguide has also established a new Process enhancement and the Skyguide Management System Safety Arbitration Process, which will be adopted in 2017 once the To perform its mandated mission, skyguide requires a management internal specialists selected for it have been duly trained. system which pays full regard to all the needs and demands of its customers, the requirements of the supervisory authorities and the An operations safety culture needs of further stakeholder groups. The Skyguide Management System Skyguide has created a forum in which management and the company’s is an integrated system that is based on skyguide’s Process Map, which unions and staff associations can exchange their views on safety and describes all the company’s business processes. All these processes are the corporate culture totally “off the record” and thus as openly as aligned to ensure that skyguide can fully meet its responsibility to possible. The reciprocal trust that this approach has generated has ensure safe, smooth and cost-effective air traffic flows. The Skyguide resulted in a number of concrete improvements to the processes and Management System extends throughout the company and its procedures for dealing with serious incidents. operating environment.

Risk management Constant further improvement – particularly in the form of sustainable Skyguide’s integrated and systematic risk management has been improvements to its effectiveness and efficiency – is a cornerstone of helping ensure the company’s sustainable business success for several skyguide’s endeavours to achieve its corporate objectives. To this end, years now. The Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) corporate governance the company conducts management reviews to assess the Skyguide tool makes a key contribution to maintaining risk transparency, and Management System’s usefulness, appropriateness and overall effect. enables the company’s management to make appropriate business Corrective action is subsequently initiated if required. decisions in risk terms. The Skyguide Management System has been ISO 9001 certificated In its methodology, procedures and implementation, Enterprise Risk companywide since autumn 2005. The company’s Aeronautical Management adopts a pragmatic approach. The ERM process consists Information Management (AIM) unit has been certificated for some of four main steps. Step 1 (risk identification) and Step 2 (risk evaluation) time now, and will retain such certification until further notice. are also known as “risk assessment”, while Step 3 (risk treatment) and Step 4 (risk monitoring and review) are regarded as “risk response”. Risk Corporate Audit assessment is intended to identify and assess what might happen, with Corporate Audit has reported directly to the Board of Directors since what probability and with what possible effects; risk response defines mid-2016. The new reporting arrangement complies with international how these risks can be reduced, and reports regularly thereon in standards and ensures that the Board’s Finance & Audit Committee is dedicated reports. now informed directly of all audit results.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 44 06.03.17 15:15 The rules and regulations specified in the Audit Charter with regard to – information security, which protects all the company’s requisite the information exchanges and reporting flows between Corporate information resources to ensure that it can maintain its services at all Audit, the Finance & Audit Committee and the CEO have been modified times, defines all the protective, detective and reactive actions, accordingly, and the duties and responsibilities of the Corporate Audit processes and technologies required to adequately protect skyguide unit have been correspondingly expanded. from information security threats, and involves all skyguide personnel in the company’s security concept through continuous training and Corporate Audit conducted a number of internal audits in 2016. These sensitization to information security issues; looked at both processes and projects and at operational and technical – security clearance, which ensures the provision of security checks for units, with a particular emphasis on Information Security and employees and third-party personnel. Procurement. The International Audit Cooperation Team (IntACT), which has been Foundations of an Environmental Management System laid created as part of the FABEC programme, earned the CANSO Global Skyguide has maintained an Environmental Policy since 2008. This Safety Achievement Award in 2016. Skyguide played a leading role in the policy ensures that the issue of sustainability is adequately considered successful establishment of this collaborative body, which conducts in all the company’s actions and activities, and that the corresponding cross-border audits at its participating partners Deutsche Flugsicherung responsibilities are assigned and understood. With a view to further (DFS), Direction des Services de la Navigation Aérienne (DSNA), enhancing its sustainability credentials on the ecological front, skyguide Belgocontrol, Maastricht UAC, ANA Luxembourg. resolved in 2011 to lay the foundations for an Environmental Management System that permits a more structured approach to the The audits and inspections of skyguide conducted by the Swiss Federal entire issue. Skyguide’s aims in establishing such a system are to Office of Civil Aviation in 2016 were concerned primarily with measure the company’s environmental footprint and reduce this where determining whether skyguide continued to comply with European possible, and to develop a clearer understanding of what opportunities legal requirements. are available to air navigation services in ecological terms. Skyguide has also been reporting annually on its energy efficiency since 2013 as part Corporate security management of the Swiss Confederation’s “The Confederation: Exemplary in Energy” Skyguide takes targeted action to protect its premises and IT systems initiative. against wilful damage or force majeure. The company also adapts its security concept constantly to the threats and dangers posed. Its External auditors Corporate Security Management has, for instance, intensified its PricewaterhouseCoopers AG have been skyguide’s statutory auditors contacts with the Federal Office of Civil Aviation and the Federal Office since 1996 and its group auditors since 2001. The lead auditor is Mr. Marc of Police in view of the recent terrorist attacks elsewhere in Europe. Secretan, who has held this position since 2012.

Skyguide’s corporate security management is founded on three pillars: – physical security, which regulates the physical access to control centres and field stations and sites and defines protective measures against threats such as vandalism, sabotage and force majeure;


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The European Commission’s Performance Plan for the establishment of the Single European Sky has declared environmental efficiency to be a key objective in air traffic activities. As both a member of FABEC and a government-related company, skyguide is closely involved in implementing environmental strategy. And improving the ecological credentials of the air traffic it manages and monitors and reducing its own ecological footprint are both high priorities.

3.1 Air navigation services and the environment

Sustainability and environmental care are an integral part of air traffic the aviation sector must also act to improve their infrastructures and management’s basic mandate and mission. In committing itself to their working methods. Skyguide is involved in various collaborative handling the air traffic assigned to it efficiently, skyguide undertakes to projects both within and beyond Switzerland that are seeking to better guide the flights concerned as directly as possible to their desired understand climate change and respond to its ramifications. destinations, to minimize their fuel consumption and their emission of greenhouse gases. Environmental objectives As part of the aviation value chain, skyguide is dedicated to improving A two-track environmental policy approach the sustainability of air traffic operations, and thereby helps ensure that Skyguide pays due and full regard to environmental concerns in most of aviation has as little adverse environmental impact as possible. Skyguide its activities. The company’s environmental policy is based on a two- is committed to both national and European environmental objectives. track approach: 1. Skyguide’s consistent strategy of further enhancing the services it The European Commission’s Performance Plan, which skyguide is provides has a direct impact on air traffic’s environmental effects: the implementing together with its FABEC partners, includes a quantitative more punctual flight operations are and the more direct the routes environmental performance target for horizontal flight efficiency. This flown, the better will be the eco-credentials of the customers target specifies the desired minimum difference between the routes concerned. flown and the corresponding Great Circle routes (the shortest distance 2. Skyguide also takes actions to reduce its own environmental impact. between two points). The work here to shorten flight routes enables And to do so, it has developed its own Environmental Management airspace users to plan shorter flights and thus both carry less fuel and System and sets itself concrete enhancement goals. Skyguide is also a reduce their fuel consumption. Skyguide has been collaborating here on member of the Swiss government’s “The Confederation: Exemplary in the development of a tool to measure flight efficiency that should help Energy” programme, and is devising a “general goals agreement” on identify further improvement potential. its energy consumption to comply with cantonal requirements. Skyguide has also been a strong advocate of adopting the “continuous Air navigation services providers have a major influence on their descent approach”. By throttling back the engines and abandoning the customers’ greenhouse gas emissions. Any new routes or procedures previous “stairstep” procedure, pilots can make their airport approaches which are submitted to skyguide for evaluation should reduce both the substantially quieter and less fuel-consuming. Skyguide is also working fuel consumption of the flights which will use them and their noise on a project within Europe’s SESAR technology programme that is emissions over densely-populated areas. Skyguide strives constantly to intended to improve the approach profiles for Geneva and Zurich guide each flight to its destination as efficiently as possible while paying airports. Seasonal operational agreements between FABEC members on full and consistent regard to all safety considerations. The satellite- the use of each other’s airspace can also help cross-border flights based approach procedures that the company has developed – which achieve substantial fuel savings. now already number 21 in Switzerland – substantially shorten routings by permitting curved segments to be flown. Skyguide also defined a corporate goal for its infrastructure back in 2012: to stabilize and limit its energy consumption, despite the growing Efficiency slows climate change automation of various business processes. This goal has also been Climate change can already be seen today in such meteorological achieved. But it was superseded at the end of 2014 by the energy phenomena as heavy rains, higher temperatures and changes to upper efficiency targets specified in the Swiss Confederation’s own action wind patterns. To help minimize these effects, the various partners in plan.


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An international approach which should be developed by the end of the decade. It will enable pilots Skyguide already meets all the requirements of all national and to select their own routings in upper airspace between specific entry international environmental law. Through its active collaboration within and exit points, a facility that will permit substantial fuel savings. international organizations such as CANSO, its participation in the FABEC programme and various technical projects, the company ensures Wind power facilities that it retains an extensive expertise in environmental matters. The Skyguide has seen a striking increase in the numbers of requests for environmental impact of aviation is an international concern, and its wind power facility impact assessments since the Swiss Federal Council minimization demands a similarly international approach. decided to switch to alternative energy sources in the medium term. As these facilities are categorized as a hazard to aviation, the Federal Supporting European efforts to further raise efficiency Office of Civil Aviation commissions skyguide to conduct such impact FABEC and SESAR initiatives such as the “Night Network”, “City Pairs”, assessments. In doing so, skyguide examines how the structures “Hot Spots”, “WE-FREE”, “FAIRSTREAM”, “iSTREAM” and “Optimized envisaged will encroach into controlled airspace, and whether the Descent Profile”, in which skyguide has also been involved in both electromagnetic signals they generate might interfere with ATM development and operational implementation terms, shorten flight equipment: wind power facilities can compromise the efficacy of radar, routes and improve the entire ATM system’s overall ecological instrument landing, navigation and communications systems through credentials. Skyguide has also been participating, together with Swiss their reflections and other electromagnetic effects. Skyguide makes International Air Lines and Flughafen Zürich (the Zurich airport every possible effort here to help the Swiss Confederation and authority), in the Atlantic Interoperability Initiative to Reduce Emissions Switzerland’s cantons implement their energy policies, and to use its (AIRE) programme, which is working under the aegis of the SESAR Joint expertise to find the best possible solutions for an adequate coexistence Undertaking into ATM research to help improve the efficiency of Zurich- of wind power and ATM facilities. bound transatlantic flights. The programme has reduced holding times by 90%, which translates into an annual reduction of 2 100 tonnes in The present wind power project approval process is a complex and carbon dioxide emissions. challenging one. To facilitate matters here, skyguide has teamed up with the Federal Office of Civil Aviation and the Federal Office of Energy to Under FABEC leadership, the “Greener Wave” project has extensively establish a new competence centre. The “Wind Energy Facilitation Team” trialled the principle of managing flights by specifying their arrival was created by skyguide in 2016 to conduct studies into the possible (instead of their departure) time. The project has been described by the impact of planned wind farms on air navigation facilities and IFR Air Transport Action Group (ATAG) as an innovative response to the procedures, in coordination with the authorities and the farms’ climatic impact of aviation activities, and was duly lauded at the group’s promoters. Global Sustainable Aviation Summit in September 2015. The project was also shortlisted for the IHS Jane’s ATC Award for 2016. The skyguide competence centre’s specialists are developing improved measurement and simulation methods to perform such impact Through its membership of the SESAR Joint Undertaking, skyguide is assessments. As a result of the progress that it has made already here, also helping to reach the environmental objective of SESAR 2020: to use the skyguide team can now conduct far more differentiated analyses, new procedures and technologies to achieve a 10% reduction in air and this in turn is enabling more such projects to be approved than was traffic emissions. the case in the past. A first-ever conference on “Wind Energy and Air Navigation Services” was also held in Dübendorf in November 2016, and In a further project within FABEC, skyguide is working to define and was attended by numerous specialists from within Switzerland and introduce direct routes. This project is a cornerstone of ATM in Europe beyond.


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3.2 “The Confederation: Exemplary in Energy”

The Swiss Federal Council approved the country’s Energy Strategy Performance report 2050 in 2013. Under it the federal administration, the Department of Skyguide, like other government-affiliated companies, has been involved Defence, the Federal Institutes of Technology and government-affiliated since 2014 in the Swiss Confederation’s “The Confederation: Exemplary companies (including skyguide) have committed to demonstrating that in Energy” programme. The programme sets out the various parties’ substantial energy savings are achievable and to showing how this can commitments in energy saving terms, chronicles progress and presents be done. As a result, skyguide has been involved in devising a raft of the projects that have been completed, are under way or are currently energy-saving and energy-efficiency-raising actions. being planned. The programme’s reports to date reveal that of the seven members of the “Exemplary in Energy” Group, skyguide uses the least Skyguide Energy Efficiency energy of all.

45 Federal Action Plan Implementation 40 90 35 Forecasted 80 30 Forecasted % Increase / 2006 70 Target 25 60 20 Target % Implementation 50 15 40 10 30 5 20 0 10 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 0

2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Under these endeavours, energy efficiency should be improved 25% by 2020 compared to the reference year of 2006. Skyguide is active in three The Swiss Confederation has specified 39 actions for the three action action areas here: “Buildings and renewable energies”, “Mobility” and areas covered. Skyguide has selected 36 of these which it aims to at least “Computer centres and green IT”. Thanks to substantial improvements 80% implement. The company is making good progress in doing so: a to its building energy management, skyguide has achieved the 2020 59% implementation was achieved in 2015, and a 70% figure was target already. expected to have been achieved by the end of 2016.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 48 06.03.17 15:15 “skyguide strives for maximum energy efficiency”

3.3 Ecological impact assessment

Skyguide strives to be as efficient as possible in its energy use within its Electricity consumption own facilities. To this end the company collects and maintains reliable Skyguide has had energy provision agreements in place since the data on its use of natural resources. And it is continually improving its beginning of 2015 which ensure that all its electricity is generated from environmental management, with due and full regard to the Swiss renewable sources. Some 20% of this is “Naturemade Star” certificated. Confederation’s “Exemplary in Energy” action plan. Particular attention Other actions were also taken in the course of 2016 – such as the is also paid to energy consumption considerations in all the company’s installation of new lighting systems at the Dübendorf facility and other projects and in its procurement activities. building technology enhancements – that have further reduced the electricity consumption at the company’s control centres. Buildings and renewable energy Skyguide used 14.8 gigawatt-hours (GWh) of electricity in 2015. The 0.2 Energy consumption 1 GWh reduction from 2014 levels is the equivalent of the electricity The technologies to optimize energy use have made rapid strides in the needed to power the Geneva Airport control tower for a five-month last few years. Skyguide set out in 2016 to make active use of the latest period. advances in the field, and will be exploiting these to the full in the refurbishment of its Geneva computer centre over the years ahead. Use of fossil fuels Waste heat recovery and improved building management systems have The Dübendorf control centre, which commenced operations in 2009, is both helped to reduce skyguide’s use of fossil fuels. The company’s use one of the newer generation of energy-efficient premises. In addition to of such fuels is now limited to heating the Geneva centre and control purely construction features such as insulating materials, the centre tower (via district heating), its company car fleet and the diesel boasts movement sensors to save on lighting and air-conditioning, generators installed to provide emergency power if required. A policy on light-activated window blinds, energy-efficient lights, heat recovery the use and renewal of company cars is also being devised to reduce from extracted air, a centralized “smart” building master control system their petrol and diesel consumption. And further improvements, such as and the use of the warmth generated by the building’s computer centre the use of electric cars and the provision of e-fuelling points, have been for heating purposes, all to ensure that energy consumption can be made under the action plan of the Swiss Confederation. reduced in all areas. Some 67% of the “Buildings and renewable energy” actions within the The relocation from Kloten to Dübendorf improved energy efficiency by “Exemplary in Energy” initiative had been taken by the end of 2015. 43%. This largely explains why the target specified in “The Confederation: Exemplary in Energy” of raising energy efficiency 25% by 2020 compared to its 2006 level has already been achieved (with an improvement of 29.7% by 2015).

Skyguide launched a multi-phase project in 2013 to modernize the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems at its La Dôle radar and radio communications facility. When the work is completed in 2017, 1 The data on skyguide’s environmental performance are obtained under the reporting for the facility will be largely cooled by “free cooling”, with corresponding the Swiss Confederation’s “The Confederation: Exemplary in Energy” programme, whose reductions in its energy consumption. annual reports are published in the summer following the year to which they refer. Fi- gures for 2016 will thus be available in July 2017. (


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Green IT Water consumption Green IT is intended to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions from the The company’s sanitary facilities, air humidifiers and staff restaurants company’s IT systems. On the office computer front, virtualization – are the prime consumers of water at skyguide. reducing the use of physical servers – is already well advanced, with corresponding substantial savings. The same approach should now be Waste recycling adopted with the company’s air traffic management and monitoring Skyguide is committed to reducing the volumes of waste produced at its facilities, through the development of the Virtual Centre. The recent various operating locations, and also promotes waste separation and refurbishment of the Geneva control centre’s technical facilities has also recycling. The company changed both its waste disposal methods and included the installation of the very latest cooling systems. its waste collector for its Dübendorf site in 2016. The changes have improved the sorting and re-use of specific materials, and the remaining As a result of these activities, the Swiss Confederation’s goal has been waste is now compacted on-site. The reduction in waste volumes has met four years ahead of schedule. Some 43% of the “Exemplary in halved the number of waste collection trips required, with corresponding Energy” initiative’s green IT actions had been taken by the end of 2015. reductions in the fuel consumption of these refuse truck operations.

Economizing on paper Staff restaurants Skyguide has achieved greater control of its paper consumption by Skyguide has concluded a partnership with the operator of its Dübendorf centralizing its printer facilities and standardizing their settings. The staff restaurant, SV (Schweiz) AG, to help care for the environment in company generally uses only FSC-certificated paper, in its corporate this area, too. Under the partnership, an individual sustainability plan is publications, too. Skyguide saved almost a tonne of paper in 2015, largely being developed together with the appropriate specialists to minimize by using a thinner printer paper quality. The company is currently carbon dioxide emissions on the logistics, operations, sourcing and working to further reduce its annual paper consumption to five kilos per product range fronts. The SV Group is itself committed to using local employee. and seasonal produce and to reducing the proportion of meat products on its menus. These actions allowed the carbon dioxide generated by Land use and conservancy the Dübendorf staff restaurant and its operations to be cut by 2.6% Skyguide has reduced its total office requirements in Geneva, and this in between 2012 and 2015. turn has enabled it to vacate one of its three buildings there. The building concerned is currently being replaced by a new construction. Mobility

Some of skyguide’s facilities stand on the company’s own land, and The duty travel and daily work commutes by skyguide’s personnel some are on (or in) leased property. Wherever possible, skyguide adopts collectively consume more energy than the company’s entire facilities. a joint approach to providing the associated utilities – such as joint Almost 83% of the total 15 GWh of mobility-related energy consumption access roads or shared sites – with the partners involved, who include is attributable to daily work commutes. airport authorities, , Armasuisse, the Swiss Air Force and the cantonal police. The company also works closely with regional and Promoting public transport cantonal environmental specialists and (on a case-by-case basis) with Skyguide encourages all its personnel to use public transport by private environmental protection organizations. subsidizing their annual season tickets, be it by issuing SBB half-fare railcards or contributing to the costs of local and regional season ticket


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 50 06.03.17 15:15 products. The company also promotes the use of public transport by The carbon dioxide emissions generated by such activities increased 6% providing only limited car parking at its various premises and making its in 2015 to almost 390 tonnes, after falling 2% in 2014. Almost 29% of use subject to a fee. In addition to the employee’s working hours, the these emissions are generated by travel within Switzerland, largely distance of their commute and the availability of alternative public through flights between Geneva and Zurich. Rail remains the prime transport are also considered in the allocation of the parking spaces means of transport, however, for journeys of less than five hours (mainly concerned. on the Geneva-Zurich, Geneva-Paris, Zurich-Paris and Zurich-Frankfurt routes). Some 63% of all journeys were made by train in 2015 (two Vehicle fleet percentage points fewer than the previous year). The total volume of Skyguide currently owns around 60 vehicles, which are used mainly in duty travel trips rose 5.5% to 4 331. Skyguide aims to achieve the Swiss connection with maintenance work at remote technical installations. Confederation’s target under which 80% of such journeys should be The company introduced new guidelines in 2016 that make energy made by rail by 2020. efficiency a key criterion in new vehicle procurements. It has also acquired its first electric car, which is based in Geneva. Dynamic Working Environment and teleworking Skyguide is taking a number of actions under its “Dynamic Working Electric car charging stations and cycle stands Environment” programme to raise both energy efficiency and work Skyguide’s endeavours to encourage ecofriendly mobility have seen the quality, and to permit and promote more mobile working arrangements. company install six electric car charging stations in Dübendorf in The pilot actions here have included creating open office areas in collaboration with Elektrizitätswerke Zürich. The cycle stands at its Geneva and Dübendorf to facilitate interpersonal communications. Geneva and Dübendorf centres have also been enlarged. The company further maintains its “FlexWorks” programme, which Duty travel and videoconferencing allows more flexible working from home or elsewhere. Today’s With its various operating locations and the international scope of communications technologies also permit more unrestricted working many of its activities, skyguide inevitably incurs a sizeable volume of and help eliminate unnecessary travel. Since both programmes reduce staff duty travel in its business and operations. Such activity has been the volumes of heated office space required on its premises, they also reduced, however – especially between its two main operating sites in enhance skyguide’s ecological credentials. Geneva and Dübendorf – by the further development of the company’s videoconferencing facilities, which have also been extended to its Bern- Skyguide extended the option of working from home to all its Belp premises. administrative, operational and technical personnel in 2016. The energy savings resulting from this will be studied in 2017. In cases in which physical travel cannot be avoided, skyguide always urges its employees to use public transport where possible. The company’s centralized administration of all duty travel also offers further opportunities to monitor and control such activities, such as by calculating their carbon dioxide emissions.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 51 06.03.17 15:15 4 Social report

Motivation, competence and high ethical standards are vital to the accomplishment of any air navigation services provider’s mandate and mission. Skyguide offers a working environment that supports and inspires all its employees in their performance of their tasks. In doing so, the company is firmly committed to both equal opportunities and providing attractive working terms and conditions.

4.1 Personnel numbers and personnel policy

Personnel numbers as of 31 December 2016 (in full-time equivalents) Competency management further refined Kloten/ Regional A high-reliability organization makes substantial demands on its By unit Geneva Dübendorf airports Total employees in both professional and personal terms. Skyguide offers a Directorate * 15.5 17.2 32.7 structured evaluation process for its performance and competency Operations 319.6 451.1 127.3 898.0 management activities. Engineering & Technical Services 153.1 168.9 1.0 323.0 Performance and goalsetting Corporate Development 19.5 5.0 24.5 Performance reviews play a major role in skyguide’s performance Human Resources 12.3 8.7 21.0 management. Managers at all levels were trained in the course of 2016 Finance & Services 58.5 24.6 83.1 in assessing individual performance, giving constructive feedback, Safety, Security, Quality 17.4 26.2 43.6 behavioural development, coaching and setting motivating goals. Total 595.9 701.7 128.3 1 425.9 Structural adjustments to pension plans Temporary staff 1.3 1.3 A number of structural adjustments were made to the company’s Simulator pilots 6.2 15.6 21.8 occupational pension arrangements in 2016, in response to demographic trends and the uncertainties on the financial and investment markets * includes Corporate Communications and Innovation & Change and their adverse impact on employee’s pension plans. The Skycare Personnel numbers 2012-2016 (in full-time equivalents) occupational pension scheme has already modified its contribution plans for administrative, operational and technical personnel and for Women Men Total management staff, with the new arrangements coming into effect from 2012 312.0 1 064.0 1 376.0 1 January 2017. Similar modifications will be made to the pension plans 2013 314.5 1 076.6 1 391.1 for the company’s air traffic controllers in early 2017. 2014 310.5 1 087.0 1 397.5 2015 314.2 1 097.7 1 411.9 2016 308.9 1 117.0 1 425.9 4.3 Leadership

Management training at all levels Skyguide’s tailored multi-level management training programmes are 4.2 Performance and competencies conducted in collaboration with leading management specialists and institutes. They all help to promote an integrative and shared understand- For skyguide’s Human Resources, the prime focuses in 2016 were on ing and appreciation of the company’s business issues and concerns, and performance management, employee and management development also help to propagate and cement skyguide’s values and philosophy. and the social partnership with the company’s unions and staff associations. Workplace health, promoting diversity and personnel Leadership Principles marketing were further key emphases throughout the year. Skyguide regards leadership as a linchpin of its corporate culture, and defines empowerment, delegation and responsibility as the prime constituents thereof. 2016 saw the company’s Leadership Principles further anchored at all management levels through initial and further training activities and management meetings.


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1 - Safety, Security, Quality - 47.9 2 - Operations - 898 3 - Finances & Services - 93.4 4 - Engineering & Tech Services - 295.2 full-time equivalents 5 - Corporate Development - 24.5 1425.9 6 - CEO Staff - 34.1 7 - Human Resources - 18.8

4.4 Corporate culture and working environment

High staff satisfaction Futures Day, 50 youngsters each were offered an insight into their General job satisfaction, identification with the company and a shared parents’ or their godparents’ working world in Geneva and Dübendorf. focus on joint goals and concerns are all encouragingly high among skyguide’s personnel. This was confirmed in the companywide staff Skyguide also supports the LIFT project that helps young people with survey which was conducted by an external institute with full anonymity difficulties gain a foothold in the working world. The company accepted for respondents in autumn 2016. Some 85% of respondents were content its first intern here in autumn 2016. with their skyguide work situation – 60% “very or largely satisfied” and 25% “satisfied”. Identification with the company (and the associated willingness to perform) were also encouragingly high at 81%. But the 4.5 Personnel marketing highest marks were awarded to the company’s organization, its promotion of its people and their ability to help influence actions and HR marketing and employer branding decisions. The Executive Board will now study the survey results in detail Recruiting qualified specialists and future air traffic controllers is crucial and initiate any appropriate improvements. to skyguide’s further development. And with the continued progress in the Virtual Centre programme, the demand for well-trained engineering skyguide:hro and technical professionals is growing all the time. Skyguide strives to achieve the ideals of a high-reliability organization (HRO) and, in doing so, to further strengthen its safety culture through a In view of this, skyguide put a major emphasis in 2016 on raising the process of continuous learning and improvement. And it was to actively profile and the contours of its image as an employer. A new “Help us to align the skyguide corporate culture to the principles of an HRO and organise the sky” tagline, regular appearances at trade and careers fairs anchor its basic values and behaviours among all its employees that the throughout Switzerland and an enhanced presence on online platforms, company devised its “skyguide:hro” programme. at rail stations and in bus and cinema advertising have sharpened the company’s profile and positioned it as an interesting employer. A The programme consists of three sequential modules, and is intended to particular effort is being made here to attract potential trainees to the sensitize participants to the HRO values and philosophy, to transfer HRO various air navigation services professions via social media channels. principles to the work situation within their teams and to encourage action to be taken to improve concrete situations. The introductory A Top 100 employer module was launched at the end of 2015; and all the company’s employees Skyguide was ranked among Switzerland’s 100 best employers in 2016 in should have attended the multi-day workshops by the end of 2018. the “Universum Top 100 Switzerland’s Most Attractive Employers” market study. This is a first for the company. A number of regionally-tailored HRO training courses have also been developed for the company’ air traffic controllers, to assist them in the licence renewal process. HRO principles are well transferrable to the 4.6 Diversity work of an air traffic controller, and are already well established in their daily operations, as they are within the other skyguide occupations. A multicultural employer Skyguide is determined to remain a committed and people-minded Career insights for youngsters employer. And its personnel policy explicitly calls for the promotion of Skyguide organizes a number of events each year to present its work diversity and a harmonious collaboration among the wide range of and activities to younger generations. On Switzerland’s 2016 National cultures within its ranks. The company’s diversity management is


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committed to the equal treatment of all employees. It permits access for 4.7 Social partnership all to a position and a career within the company, and demands reciprocal respect in all daily work. Employees of 33 nationalities Dialogue currently work for skyguide. The company also offers employment to Skyguide seeks and cultivates a direct dialogue with its personnel. both those embarking on their working career and older individuals: Genuine dialogue and co-determination help maintain a positive 21% of the workforce is either under 29 or over 55. working atmosphere; and the requisite trust and transparency are cornerstones of the skyguide corporate culture. Promoting women’s careers Skyguide’s diversity strategy also extends to promoting women’s careers Skyguide also ensures that its unions and staff associations are closely within the company and eliminating some of the obstacles that women and actively involved in the shaping and development of its overall face in their daily working lives. The company’s “Skywomen” initiative corporate strategy. To this end, within the framework of the offers actions specifically to female staff who are interested in furthering corresponding strategic committees, an exchange of views and ideas is their personal development, along with an internal network to conducted twice a year between the associations’ heads and the encourage regular exchanges among women in management positions. Executive Board. The former also meet once every year with the The company has also had good experiences to date with its women’s Chairman of the Board of Directors for a frank and open discussion. mentoring programme. The social partnership is further cultivated through regular meetings with Helping to balance family and work the company’s unions and staff associations at the divisional level. This Skyguide supports a number of measures that are designed to help its permits an exchange of thoughts and views, and a discussion of operational employees better balance their work duties and their family lives. These matters, safety and security issues and the collaboration in general. include part-time employment, various forms of leave and teleworking from home. A partnership has also been concluded with the Swiss Red Regular meetings were also held in 2016 to discuss various implementa- Cross that offers employees short-notice care services if their child tion provisions of the collective labour agreements. falls ill. Skyguide’s social partners comprise five professional associations and Extended maternity and paternity leave trade unions. The company’s air traffic controllers are represented by Skyguide offers mothers-to-be the option of taking voluntary pregnancy Aerocontrol, Skycontrol, the Association du Personnel de la Tour de leave on a full salary from two months before the birth of their child Contrôle (APTC) and the Personalverband des Bundes (PVB); and its onwards. Taking such pregnancy leave has no impact on the four-month administrative, operational and technical (AOT) personnel are represent- maternity leave to which the employee is entitled after the child’s birth. ed by the nationwide Syndicom union. All mothers at skyguide are also basically entitled to take unpaid leave of up to one year after the birth of their child, or to return to work on a Collective labour agreements part-time basis. Skyguide further grants paternity leave to its male The further development and the implementation provisions of the two employees. collective labour agreements (CLAs) for skyguide’s air traffic controllers and its AOT personnel are the subject of the regular meetings of the Integration of employees with disabilities relevant CLA commissions, which provide a platform for a full and frank Skyguide maintains close collaborations and exchanges with its social exchange of views between the Executive Board, Human Resources and security partners and strives to integrate people with disabilities into its the representatives of skyguide’s unions and staff associations. working environment. The company also modifies the workplaces of any disabled personnel to best meet their specific needs. A new CLA for AOT personnel Skyguide and its social partner Syndicom formally signed a new collective labour agreement covering the company’s AOT personnel on


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12 February 2016. Skyguide’s AOT personnel corps comprises the Any skyguide employee may make use of the services of the two company company’s administrative staff, its operational specialists and its doctors and/or further advisory centres. These specialists are mandated, technicians and engineers, some 700 individuals in all. among other things, to assist and advise the company’s employees on medical, psychological or social problems, with the additional help of The new CLA entered into effect on 1 March 2016 and is valid for three external psychologists or further social instances if necessary. Skyguide years. Its innovations over the previous CLA include flexible workhours has also established clear processes and procedures to be followed for models (with teleworking options), increased supplementary compen- resolving conflicts or dealing with “mobbing” situations. sation, days off for further training, an attractive severance benefits plan and firm co-determination rights. The new CLA also features a new sala- Case Management ry development system which is based on the demands of the position Skyguide’s Case Management system offers employees systematic and the individual competencies and performance of the employee, and assistance and support in the event of longer illness- or accident-related which will be gradually adopted in the course of 2017. absences. In such cases the company works closely with doctors, insurance companies and the employee concerned to determine the The employee co-determination rights specified in the new CLA will be best ways and means for the employee to return to the workforce, and assured in future through a newly-created seven-member companywide devises appropriate solutions. Personnel Commission, which has replaced the previous regional personnel commissions. The newly-elected body held its first meeting “No Burnout” campaign with the Executive Board in November 2016. The Health Unit launched a campaign at the end of August 2016 that is specifically designed to help prevent burnout among employees. The The CLA for air traffic controllers campaign provides information on how to cope with work pressures Negotiations on a new collective labour agreement for the company’s and how to avoid burnout and recognize the associated risks. In doing air traffic controllers were a further key feature of 2016. But after five so, it puts a prime focus on reinforcing the employee’s own sense of months of intensive negotiations, no agreement could be reached responsibility, maintaining their ability to perform and ensuring their among the social partners. The Executive Board’s proposal that the continued workplace well-being. current CLA, which was due to expire at the end of 2016, should remain in force for a few more months was also rejected by the staff associations. Workplace health and safety In view of this, skyguide has had no valid CLA for this personnel category The company’s endeavours in the workplace health and safety field are since 1 January 2017. The negotiating process continues. intended to protect employees from occupational accident or illness. Skyguide seeks to maintain its high levels of health and safety here, and to sustainably develop these further. All such endeavours are based on 4.8 Occupational health and safety the standards issued by the Suva and Switzerland’s Federal Coordination Commission for Occupational Safety. Health Unit Ensuring the physical and psychological well-being of its employees is a prime skyguide concern. The company’s Health Unit addresses health- 4.9 Salary system related issues, takes actions to protect and promote employees’ health and conducts health drives and campaigns. The Health Unit consists of Maintaining a salary and bonus system that is in line with market levels representatives from the company, its employees and Safety at Work, is a vital element in the purposeful collaboration between employer and and the company doctors. The unit also works closely with external employee. Skyguide’s salary policy is based on conducting analytical occupational health institutes, and enlists further outside expertise and assessments of the functions concerned, determining salary levels professional support as and when required. through domestic and international market comparisons and adding an individual, unit and corporate performance-based component.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 55 06.03.17 15:15 24.0 hours 43 Annual training hours per employee ATCOs in training

Following the negotiations on their new collective labour agreement, Variable salary component scheme for management staff skyguide is currently revising the career models and salary bands for its Skyguide adopted a new system for its management personnel’s AOT personnel. The innovations here will be gradually adopted by the variable salary component at the beginning of 2011. The new system is end of 2017. based on a two-year performance evaluation in terms of individual and corporate goals, and applies the Swiss Confederation’s requirements in Experience and individual responsibility permit development within the this regard for state-owned organizations. The first such two-year period career path chosen. And attractive, contemporary and competitive social ran from 2011 to 2012. The final goal achievement evaluations for the benefits and the autonomously-managed Skycare company pension 2015-2016 period were conducted at the beginning of 2017, together scheme complete the compensation package. (For further information with the setting of new goals for the 2017-2018 period. on Skycare please see Page 33 of the Financial Report.)

Skyguide’s total personnel cost (including social-security contributions) 4.10 Initial and further training for 2016 amounted to CHF 307.0 million. – Employees subject to the company’s collective labour agreement for ad- 2016 training activities ministrative, operational and technical (AOT) personnel received an aver- (in hours) age annual salary of CHF 131 843. This amount includes a corporate per- Personnel development 22 477 formance-based variable salary component which is derived from the Basic and further Engineering & Technical Services training 11 767 degree of achievement of the corporate goals set at the beginning of the Total companywide 34 244 year and accounts for a maximum of 5.5% of the basic salary. For 2016, (excluding further operational training) this variable component was awarded on the basis of an 85% achieve- ment of the relevant corporate goals and amounted to 4.66% of the ba- Average annual training hours sic salary. The cash amount paid out averaged CHF 5 768. Further com- per employee 24.0 hours pensation may also be paid for irregular working hours, night and Sunday work and other specific activities. All expenses are reimbursed separately. Operational trainees and apprentices – Employees with air traffic controllers’ contracts of employment received Regional an average annual salary of CHF 185 546 in 2016. This amount includes (in full-time equivalents) Geneva Dübendorf airports Total an annual allowance averaging CHF 25 352 for the special responsibilities Commercial/IT they bear. Further compensation is also paid for irregular working apprentices and interns 10.8 5.0 15.8 hours, night and Sunday work and other specific activities, and expenses Trainee air navigation 0.0 0.0 are paid on top of this, too. services employees (ANSEs) – The average annual salary paid to employees with management Trainee air traffic 7.0 29.0 7.0 43.0 contracts of employment (excluding the Executive Board) in 2016 controllers amounted to CHF 193 565. This figure includes a performance-based Total 17.8 34.0 7.0 58.8 salary component derived from the degree to which corporate, unit and individual goals were achieved. This variable salary component can Average years of service make up 12%, 18% or 24% of the employee’s basic salary, depending on Women Men Companywide their function and responsibilities. The average variable salary 15.1 13.5 13.9 component paid to management employees in 2016 amounted to CHF 22 539. All expenses are reimbursed separately. Skyguide’s by personnel category AOT Management Controllers Companywide management salaries fully comply with the corresponding guidelines 12.3 14.0 15.9 13.9 laid down by the Swiss Confederation.


E_sky_RA_2016.indd 56 06.03.17 15:15 Information Security: new trends, new challenges

In the past, information systems of Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSP) In an increasingly interconnected and automated world, can we really operated in silos and, thus, were barely exposed to external threats. Nowadays, prevent cyberattacks from happening and what is being done on a national the trend is toward data sharing and increased interactions with the aim and an international level? of boosting capacities and operational efficiency. As reflected by the Single We cannot prevent cyberattacks from happening. The question is just how European Sky, the Virtual Centre and satellite-based navigation technologies, successful will they be. That is primarily depending on how prepared we are systems tend to break out of isolation and gather into a wide interconnected and how well we have embedded security into our environment to achieve and interdependent network. Yet, this shift brings new challenges for safety resilience. Information security is clearly being recognized as an important at skyguide, and especially for information security. Peter Merker, Head of topic in the aviation industry, including ANSPs and the regulators. On the Information Security, shares his thoughts on this constantly evolving issue. national level, the Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA) as well as different agencies from the national cyber defense environment are involved. On the Is information security more critical in the aviation industry, and espe- international level, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) is forging cially for an ANSP such as skyguide, than in other industries? ahead together with the Civil Air Navigation Services Organization (CANSO) to In the aviation industry, we do not only transport goods, but we also address this topic and adapt regulations. transport passengers and I believe that as soon as lives of people are at stake, it is extremely important. As such, information security, especially as On a company scale, how can each staff member help skyguide strengthen its it supports the safety, has a higher relevance than maybe in other industries. information security? Skyguide, as the ANSP of Switzerland, is part of the critical infrastructures Staff members are the ultimate protection against security threats. Vigilant and our primary mandate is precisely to transport passengers and goods and security-conscious employees not only protect our environment, but in a safe way. One can see that information security has not been given the also help us to identify potential attacks early and allow us to take same priority as the safety topic in the aviation industry, and this for obvious countermeasures quickly. With this in mind, security campaigns are reasons. However, due to the technology shift we are witnessing today, where being held regularly with the aim of educating our staff and combining information technologies are becoming increasingly interconnected and much personal and professional interests whenever possible. more consumer devices are being used, information security is gaining in importance and I am expecting it to be more regulated in the future.

New realities such as the Virtual Centre and satellite-based navigation have emerged. Do these innovations bring new information security risks to sky- guide on a daily basis? Yes, they do. They bring risks of a different kind because they are involving new information technologies at the base. As a result, the threat landscape and threat exposure are very different from what they used to be in the past, when monolithic technical solutions left no room for interconnectivity. Nowadays, new threats arise from the interconnectivity of systems, the dependency of the different systems between each other and the potential collateral damages After many years working in the field of information security for resulting from it. We are exposed to cyberattacks on a daily basis. Our perimeter consultancies and a manufacturing company, Peter Merker joined is constantly being poked and checked if it is penetrable or not. This is because skyguide as Head of Information Security. In accepting this role, he wished to put his skills at the service of an organization of critical cybercriminals and cyber-actors are using automation to try to find weak spots importance. and gain access.

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A – CDM ATS EMS ILANA QMS Airport – Collaborative Air traffic services Environmental Management Aerial police intervention Quality Management Decision Making ATSEP System facility outside normal System ACC Air traffic safety electronics ERM working hours Area control centre personnel Enterprise risk management ILS RAM ACE AVRE ESARR Instrument landing system Radar monitoring ATM cost-effectiveness Ambient Voice Recording Eurocontrol Safety IMD RP ADBS Equipment Regulatory Requirement International Institute for Reference period Aeronautical Database ESSP Management Development, Switzerland BMS European Satellite Services Lausanne SALT ADQ Business Model Skyguide Provider IntACT Swiss Aviation Leadership Aeronautical Data Quality ETHZ International Audit Team AFIS CANSO Federal Institute of Cooperation Team SARC Aerodrome Flight Service Civil Air Navigation Services Technology, Zurich IV Swiss Aviation Research AIC Organisation Eurocontrol Invalidenversicherung (Swiss Center Aeronautical Information CDA Europe’s umbrella air state disability insurance SBAS Circular Continuous descent navigation services scheme) Satellite-based AIM approach organization augmentation system Aeronautical Information CFMU KOSIF SES Management Central Flow Management FAB Koordinationsstelle für Single European Sky AIP Unit (Eurocontrol) Functional airspace block Schiessen und Flugsicherung SESAR (JU) Aeronautical Information CHIPS FABEC (coordination service for Single European Sky ATM Publication CH-wide Implementation Functional Airspace Block firing activities and air traffic Research (Joint Undertaking): AIRE Programme for SESAR- Europe Central control) a programme to upgrade Atlantic Interoperability oriented Objectives, Activities FDPS KPI Europe’s aviation Initiative to Reduce and Technologies Flight Data Processing Key performance indicator infrastructure Emissions CLA System SMS AIS Collective labour agreement FIS LAN Safety Management System Aeronautical Information CMR Flight Information Service Local area network SNOWTAM Service Corporate Management FLIP LFN NOTAM on winter runway ANS Review Flight Information Low Flight Network conditions Air navigation services CNS Publication LP24 STAM ANSE Communication, navigation FOCA Luftpolizeidienst 24/24 Short-term ATFCM measures Air navigation services & surveillance Federal Office of Civil (formerly ILANA) STATFOR employee CPCG Aviation (Switzerland’s Eurocontrol Statistics and ANSP Centre de perfectionnement aviation authority) MALS+ Forecast Service Air navigation services des cadres, Geneva FSC A military approach STC provider CTR Forest Stewardship Council guidance system skyguide training center AOT Control zone MEZ STSB Administrative, operational GNSS Militärisches Element im Swiss Transportation Safety and technical personnel DDPS Global Navigation Satellite Zivil (Military Element in Investigation Board APP Swiss Federal Department of System Civil) (formerly the Swiss Accident Approach Defence, Civil Protection & MLAT Investigation Board or SAIB) APTC Sports HF/HP Multi-Lateration Association du Personnel de DETEC Human factors/human TMA la Tour de Contrôle et du Swiss Federal Department of performance NATS Terminal manoeuvring area Terminal Genève the Environment, Transport, HRO The UK’s ANSP TWR ARFA Energy & Communications High-reliability organization NMOC Tower ACC Regional Sector DF Network Management Friedrichshafen Altenrhein Direction Finder IAS Operations Centre VCS AB ARO DFS International Accounting (Eurocontrol) Voice Communication ATS/AIS Reporting Office Deutsche Flugsicherung Standards NOF System Air Base ASB (Germany’s ANSP) IATA NOTAM Office VFR ANSP Strategic Board DSNA International Air Transport NOTAM Visual flight rules (FABEC) Direction des Services de la Association Notice to Airmen VFSD ASR Navigation Aérienne ICAO Swiss Federal Ordinance on Aerodrome Surveillance (France’s ANSP) International Civil Aviation OSCE the Provision of Air Radar Organisation Organization for Security and Navigation Services ATC EAD ICT Cooperation in Europe VOR Air traffic control European AIS Database Information and Very-high-frequency ATCO EASA communications technology PAR omnidirectional radio range Air traffic controller European Aviation Safety IFR Precision Approach Radar ATFCM Agency Instrument flight rules PBN XMAN Air traffic flow and capacity EGNOS IFRS Performance Based Cross-border arrival management European Geostationary International Financial Navigation management ATFM Navigation Overlay Service Reporting Standards PVB Air traffic flow management EIS Personalverband des Bundes ZHAW ATM Executive Information (union for federal employees) Zürcher Hochschule für Air traffic management System angewandte Wissenschaft 58

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Contact and publishing details

Contact details

Media Relations Phone + 41 22 417 40 08 Fax + 41 22 417 45 86 Email: [email protected]

Corporate Communication Roger Gaberell Phone + 41 22 417 40 15 Fax + 41 22 417 45 86 Email: [email protected]

This report is also available in German and French. The original German version shall prevail.

© 2017 skyguide, swiss air navigation services ltd

Annual Report 2016/en/3.2017

Editor-in-chief and project manager Raimund Fridrich Corporate Communication

Translations English: Paul Day, Zurich French: Jean-François Cuennet, Palma de Mallorca

Design Publium, Trélex