E/2712 E/CN.ll/407

.. ' ...



(19 FEBRUARY 1954-7 APRIL 1955)




PART I. REVIEW OF THE ORGANIZATION AND WORK OF THE COMMISSION INCLUDING ITS SUBSIDIARY BODIES AND THE SECRETARIAT A. Organization Membership .....•...... •..•..•...... •...... •...... •...•...... • 2 1 Meetings .•...••.....•...•...... •...•...•...... •...•..•....•.. , ...... •...... 3 1 The secretariat ...... •...... •...... •...... •...••...•.... 4-7 1 Relations with member and associate member Governments •...... •....•..••...... 8 1 Relations with the Technical Assistance Administration ...... •...... 9-11 2 B. Development of the work Industry and trade : Industry: Industrial development and planning ...... •...... •...•.... 12-20 2 Trained personnel for ...... •.... 21-25 3 Cottage and small-scale industries ..••...... •....•.•..... 26-32 3 Electric power .....•...... •...... •.•.•...•...... •..• , ...... ••.. 33-49 4 Housing and building materials ...... •...••.•....•..••••... , .•..•. 50-58 5 Iron and steel ...... •...... •...... •...••••. 59-61 6 Mineral resources development ...... •...... •.....•...•...... • 62-91 6 Trade: Sub-Committee on Trade ...... 92-108 7 Interregional co-operation in the field of trade .•...... 109 9 Inland Transport ...... •....•...... •.... 110 9 General ....••...... , ...... 111-113 9 Railways ...... •..... : ...... 114-122 9 Highways ...... ••....•...... •...... •...... •...... 123-128 10 Inland waterways ...... •.•..•.....•...... ••.....•...... 129-137 11 control and water resources development : Multiple-purpose river basin development .•...... •...••.. 138 11 Flood control and water resources development of •...... 139 11 Flood control methods ...... •....••....••.....•...... , ...... •.... 140-141 12 Technical advice to Gcvernments on request .....•...... •....•...... •....••.... 142 12 Hydraulic research stations and hydrologic observations .•...... •...•.••.•.•... 143 12 Dissemination of technical information .....•...... •...... •...••. 144 12 Regional Technical Conference on Water Resources Development ...... 145 12 Training centre for water resources development ...... 14{) 12 Economic and Social Council resolution 533 (XVIII) on international co-operation with respect to water resource development ••...... ••....•....•..•.•...... 147 ·12 Research and planning : Economic Survey of Asia and the ...... •.•..••.•..•••..• 148 13 Quarterly Economic Bulletin .•.•...•.•...... ••...... •...••.•.•...••.. 149 13 Statistical compilation and series ....•...... •...•..•...•...... •.••...... • 150-151 13 Regional Conference of Statisticians ...... •...... 152-154 13 Intraregional trade and payments ...•....•.•...•...••...•....•...••.••••....•.. 155-161 13 Financial aspects of economic development ....••...... •.....•.•..•••..•...... 162-168 14 Agriculture ...•...... •.....•.•....•..•••...... •...... •...... 169-171 14 (Continued on page !J of cover)

NOTE Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations document.


------·-·--~·------~ ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE FAR EAST Annual report to the Economic and Social Council, covering the period 19 },ebruary 1954 - 7 April 1955

INTRODUCTION l. This annual report of the Economic Commission and Social Council at its twentieth session in accordance for Asia and the Far East, which covers the period with paragraph 15 of the Commission's terms of reference, 19 February 1954-7 April 1955, was adopted unanim­ which states that "the Commission shall submit to the ously by the Commission at its 15lst meeting on 7 April Council a full report on its activities and plans, including 1955. It is presented for the consideration of the Economic those of any subsidiary bodies, once a year".



A. Organization field and is co-ordinated, especially regarding avoidance of overlapping and duplication, with the programme of MEMBERSHIP work undertaken by other units at Headquarters as well 2. The Economic and Social Council adopted on as with the work of the secretariats of other regional 20 April 1954 resolution 516 (XVII) which included commissions. in the geographical scope of the Commission. 6. Through inter-secretariat consultations several It also adopted on 22 April 1954 resolution 517 (XVII) projects are carried out by co-operation of the secretariat to include , Ceylon, the Republic of , units concerned as well as occasionally through direct , , and Viet-Nam {hitherto associate contribution of papers or reports from other units of members) as members of the Commission "provided that the United Nations Secretariat. The secretariat of the in each case the States apply for such membership and Commission, considered as a part of the Department of agree to contribute annually such equitable amounts as Economic and Social Affairs, continued to work very the General Assembly shall assess from time to time closely with appropriate units o_f this department. in accordance with procedures established by the General Assembly in similar cases". Accordingly, Japan, Cam­ 7. In the course of the year the collaboration with bodia, Viet-Nam, Korea, Ceylon and Laos became the secretariat of the Economic Commission for members of the Commission on 24 June, 20 August, developed further and included the following fields : 23 August, 20 October, 10 1954 and 16 trade and trade promotion, electric power, iron and February 1955 respectively. steel, inland transport, housing and mineral resources. Some of the ECAFE secretariat reports were used by .MEETINGS the ECE secretariat as background material in connexion with the work of the ECE Coal Classification Working 3. The meetings of the Commission and its subsidiary Party and the ECE Electric Power Committee. Co­ bodies, including ad hoc conferences and meetings of operation and exchange of information with the secre­ experts, held during the period under review, are listed tariat of the Economic Commission for America in appendix I. was continued.

THE SECRETARIAT RELATIONS WITH MEMBER AND ASSOCIATE MEMBER 4. The secretariat of the Commission is a part of GOVERNMENTS the United Nations Secretariat and its staff is appointed 8. The secretariat has continued to maintain liaison by the Secretary-General in accordance with the Com­ arrangements with Governments both at their capitals mission's terms of reference. and at the headquarters of the secretariat. Informal 5. The work of the Commission's secretariat is an meetings have continued to be held between the secre­ integral part of United Nations activities in the economic tariat and representatives of Governments acting as liaison officers in 1 to foster close working the types of organization suitable for public under­ relations between the secretariat and Governments. takings , the organizational relationships within the government structure ; the problems of financing public RELATIONS WITH THE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE enterprises ; their commercial and economic aspects ; and ADMINISTRATION the problems of internal administration and public 9. Close co-operation was maintained between the understanding. The documentation on the above subjects secretariat and the United Nations Technical Assistance was prepared by the ECAFE secretariat, liAS, and TAA Administration during the year under review. The experts, and included information memoranda on secretariat, as a result of its various studies, was able experiences of the countries within and outside the to bring to the notice of TAA many regional needs for ECAFE . Some of these papers were subsequently technical assistance. The Technical Assistance Admini­ published by TAA in printed form under the title Some stration also sought the advice of the secretariat in Problems in Organization and Administration of Public preparing its own operational programme and in dealing Enterprises in the Industrial Field and made available with country requests. The secretariat continued to to Governments and interested organizations in and comment on fellowship and scholarship applications, on outside the ECAFE region. Govemments' requests to T AA for technical assistance, 14. The seminar noted that public enterprises had a and on the reports of T AA experts. predominant place, in the countries of the region, in 10. The Technical Assistance Administration colla­ effecting rapid economic development in certain fields. borated with the secretariat in some important regional The problem was how to secure operational and financial projects recommended by the Commission. The regional flexibility along with public accountability. Government Training Centre for Railway Operating and Signalling departmental organizations often failed to provide the Officials established in 1954 at Lahore, , with required flexibility ; public corporations, though providing its assistance, completed its first operating course and a high degree of flexibility, were not sufficiently ac­ commenced the second operating course. A group study countable. Mixed-ownership corporations and the manage­ tour of cottage industry experts of the countries of the ment of public enterprises by private companies under region was organized in May 1954. A seminar on the contracts helped Governments in utilizing the managerial organization and administration of public enterprises in skill and technical knowledge of private enterprises. the industrial field was convened in Rangoon, Burma, in 1954. 15. The seminar noted that public enterprises faced 11. The Technical Assistance Administration made commercial and economic problems similar to those of the services of its experts available to the ECAFE private enterprises, namely, problems of organization, Regional Technical Conference on Water Resources monopoly, competition, accounting procedures, buying Development held in , Japan, in May 1954, to and selling, employment, recruitment, training, super­ the Third Regional Conference of Statisticians on vision, management and wages. income statistics held in New , , in 16. The importance of a proper managerial policy March 1954, and to the ECAFE Working Party of Senior and harmonious internal relationship in public enterprises Geologists on the Preparation of a Regional Geological deserved close study. The need for public understanding, Map for Asia and the Far East, held in Bangkok, Thai­ particularly between the enterprises and the consumers, land, in November 1954. The participation of TAA was stressed by the seminar. experts stationed in the countries of the region in the meetings of the various technical bodies of the Com­ 17. The seminar recommended further research into mission proved mutually beneficial. many of the above subjects, including a closer exami­ nation of the problems of pricing, accounting, taxation, and their commercial and economic aspects. It recom­ B. Development of the work mended that the Technical Assistance Administration INDUSTRY AND TRADE should, wherever possible, assist countries of the region in setting up national management training centres. It Industry emphasized the desirability of extending the training Industrial development and planning facilities available in some countries of the region to the nationals of other countries. 12. On the recommendation of the Committee on Industry and Trade at its fifth session, a seminar on the 18. The secretariat rendered, on request, advisory organization and administration of public enterprises was services to the Government of on suitable convened by the secretariat in co-operation with TAA institutions for promoting industrial development. and the International Institute of Administrative 19. The Committee on Industry and Trade at its Sciences (liAS) in Rangoon, Burma, from 15 to 26 seventh session approved the report and endorsed the March 1954. recommendations of the seminar. It emphasized that the 13. The seminar considered the trends in the develop­ countries of the region should consider the desirability ment of public enterprises in the countries of the region ; of organizing and operating public undertakings with maximum autonomy and minimum administrative inter­ 1 The following Governments at present have representatives ference. It considered that good managerial personnel acting in Bangkok in this capacity : , Burma, Cambodia, was essential to efficient management and that it was , France, India, , Japan, Laos, Netherlands, possible to ensure public accountability without im­ , Thailand, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, (also representing Malaya and British ), United pairing the flexibility necessary to the effective conduct States of America, Viet-Nam. of a public enterprise. 2 20. The Committee noted with satisfaction that in recommendations of the Working Party. It considered recent years there had been a trend towards a clearer it desirable to develop national management institutes definition of the relationship between State undertakings in the countries of the region to provide training in the and government departments. It appreciated the offers commercial and industrial fields, but suggested that made by some member countries to train nationals of smaller under-developed countries of the region co­ the countries of the region in their managerial and operate in establishing one or two special centres for supervisory training institutions. their common use. It requested the ECAFE secretariat to formulate recommendations in this regard. It also Trained personnel for economic cievelopmcnt noted with appreciation the assistance given in this 21. The fourth meeting of the ECAFEfiLO/UNESCO field to the countries of the region by the Inter-Secretariat Working Party on Trained Personnel of America and some other countries under their technical for Economic Development was held in Bangkok from assistance programmes, and the offers made by Australia, 15 to 22 November 1954. The Working Party noted that France, India, Japan, Malaya and the Union of Soviet besides the progress achieved in Burma, Ceylon, Pakistan Socialist Republics to provide training facilities in their and India in carrying out man-power surveys, the countries for trainees from the countries of the region. Governments of the Federation of Malaya, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand were actively considering Cottage and small-scale industries the possibility of undertaking man-power surveys. The 26. As approved by the Committee on Industry and Working Party noted with satisfaction that the ILO Trade at its fifth session held in Bandung, Indonesia, Guide to Man-power Surveys and Employment Infor­ in January 1953, and at its sixth session held in Kandy, mation Programmes drew attention to the basic prin­ Ceylon, in January 1954, a study tour in Japan by a ciples and suggested techniques, procedures and patterns group of cottage and small-scale industry experts from of administrative organization for carrying out man­ the countries of the ECAFE region, sponsored jointly power surveys and employment information programmes. by ECAFE and TAA, took place from 26 April to 22. The Working Party recommended the establish­ 31 May 1954. A comprehensive itinerary was drawn up ment of national productivity centres and national for the study tour, and detailed arrangements were made training-within-industry services. The ILO was requested by the Government of Japan. Twenty experts from to provide increased assistance to Governments to twelve countries of the region, namely, Burma, Ceylon, develop and extend this type of training in the countries the Republic of China, India, Indonesia, the Republic of the region. It recommended that the Governments of Korea, the Federation of Malaya, Nepal, Pakistan, promote management courses at a high level in univer­ the Philippines, Thailand and Viet-Nam participated in sities or special centres. In this connexion, UNESCO the study tour. The group specifically studied production might be consulted for the drawing of suitable syllabuses. techniques, organization and management and financing The working party considered that the management of and marketing methods in respect of , ceramics, small enterprises was a subject of vital importance. It bamboo, wood- and lacquer-ware, hand-made paper and suggested that the three agencies participating in the paper products and engineering industries. Many of the meeting explore the possibility of jointly organizing an industries visited in Japan were found to be much larger ad hoc working party on industrial efficiency and pro­ than the corresponding units in other countries of the ductivity in 1956 or 195 7. region. Specific recommendations on each of the industries 23. The Working Party noted that the current applicable to the countries of the region were made in teaching of engineering in the region was, in many cases, the report on the study tour (E/CN.ll/I&T/108). primarily confined to civil, electrical and mechanical 27. The group recommended the establishment of engineering ; it considered that it should include in­ small industries development co-operatives for providing dustrial engineering, particularly in respect of small­ capital. The importance of setting up common-facility scale industries and other specialized branches, with units to undertake part or the whole of the processing greater emphasis on practical work during the training and manufacturing of a product to achieve quality period. It also recommended that the Governments control and economy in costs was stressed. The need co-ordinate existing training facilities to avoid dispro­ for promoting trade associations by providing incentives portion between the supply and demand for trained such as tax relief was noted. The Japanese credit in­ engineers emerging in the long run. surance system and the activities of the Smaller Enter­ 24. The Working Party noted that the training in prise Agency with regard to industrial efficiency surveys cottage and small-scale industries was not broadly based were commended for closer study by the countries of and did not include such aspects as procurement of raw the region. materials, organization--including co-operatives-stan­ 28. The group recommended the setting up of dardization of quality, sales and management. The need marketing and export promotion organizations like the for a uniform educational policy with a standardized Japan Export Trade Research Organization, the estab­ outline of training procedure for each category of industry lishment of a commercial intelligence service, and the for a country as a whole was stressed. The Working promotion of trade through exhibitions and permanent Party recommended the appointment of travelling displays, with such assistance from the Government as instructors who would train workers in small-scale might be necessary. The group emphasized the importance industries and provide on-the-spot demonstrations and of good designs to the marketing of products of small advice on efficient production methods. enterprises and recommended the establishment, in the 25. The Committee on Industry and Trade at its countries of the region, of industrial arts institutes on seventh session approved the report and endorsed the the model of the Industrial Arts Institute and Central 3 School of Designs in Tokyo. It favoured the introduction countries of the region ; it was indispensable for industries of quality markings, compulsory inspection, and quality like the aluminium industry, and convenient and control of the handicraft products, particularly of those economical for others such as the ferro-alloy industry. for the export markets, and considered that the advantage These industries, consuming large quantities of electrical of this form of control outweighed the difficulties initially energy, would form important revenue-producing loads experienced in enforcing it. for power systems. 29. The group felt that Japanese production tech­ 36. The Sub-Committee stressed that, as large power niques could be adopted by the countries of the region projects involved heavy capital outlay, it would be wise with appropriate changes and adjustments made neces­ to take up industrial projects designed to consume sary by local conditions, and highlighted the facilities electric power along with the power projects. obtainable in Japan such as cheap electric power supply, 37. The Sub-Committee noted that, for countries of transport facilities and control and distribution of raw the region, it might be economical to establish even materials, research and training, common-facility ser­ medium- and small-size metallurgical plants using vices, etc. electricity, for instance, steel-making furnaces with a 30. The Committee on Industry and Trade at its capacity of one ton per charge, or electric pig-iron seventh session approved the report and endorsed the furnaces of six-ton capacity. recommendations of the study group. It considered that 38. The production and utilization of chemical co-ordinated research under government sponsorship fertilizers were of special importance to most countries would contribute towards an improvement in techniques of the region. The Sub-Committee noted that many of production and in design. It stressed the need for countries of the ECAFE region were considering or standardization and quality control of the products of having under execution schemes for the production of these industries, especially for export marketing. It fertilizers. As the economical production of chemical considered that the organization of small-scale industries fertilizers required large-scale units and involved heavy as co-operatives, under proper safeguards, could protect financial outlay, close co-ordination between the chemical them from uneconomic competition with one another. industry and the power-supply industry was considered The Committee recommended that countries of the essential. region should also encourage the formation of trade associations for small-scale industries. It suggested that 39. As chemical industries need large quantities of the ECAFE secretariat undertake a study of the Small electric power, the Sub-Committee stressed that electrical Enterprises Credit Insurance Law of Japan and of energy should be made available at the lowest possible similar laws in other countries. rate in order to keep the production costs of the ultimate products at a reasonable level. To this end, it was 31. The Committee, while recognizing the importance necessary to establish the chemical industry at a suitable of cottage industries to the rural population, particularly power site, rather than transmit power over large as an additional source of employment and income, felt distances. that the countries should bear in mind the need for 40. The Sub-Committee emphasized again the im­ adopting sound labour standards. It stressed the im­ portance of rural electrification in the economic develop­ portance of management skills. ment of countries of the region. There were two aspects 32. The Committee recommended that the secretariat to this problem : first, the introduction of electricity in review new experiences in small-scale industries and rural areas far removed from existing power-supply disseminate the information to the countries of the systems, and secondly, the promotion of the use of region, giving special attention to the hand-loom electric power in areas where supply had been made and ceramic industries. available, with emphasis on improvement in agriculture Electric power and light rural industries. 41. The Sub-Committee agreed that a suitable 33. The fourth session of the Sub-Committee on solution would be to install engine-driven generating Electric Power was held in Tokyo, Japan, from 6 to sets where gas could be produced from local fuel, e.g., 11 October 1954. wood and charcoal. In mountainous areas, with plenty 34. The Sub-Committee considered the following of rainfall, it would be possible to harness the hill streams documents submitted by the secretariat: "Rural electri­ at suitable locations to generate power in small units fication-Village experiment" (EJCN.llfl&T/Sub.l/1), of about 25 kW. to 200 kW. The technical features "Electricity in metallurgy" (E/CN.ll/I&T/Sub.l/2), (such as voltage and ) of the station should "Electricity in chemical industry" (EJCN .llfi&T/Sub. be so designed as to permit its interconnexion with or 1/3), Electric Power Bulletin for Asia and the Far East the change-over of its supply to a larger integrated (ST/ECAFE/SER.L/2), The Australian lignite (brown power system. The countries interested in the village­ coal) industry in relation to the development of low-grade experiment scheme were advised to approach TAA for coal deposits in Asia-Report of the Study Group of assistance. The Sub-Committee recommended that the Lignite Experts on their visit to Australia (STjTAAj secretariat continue its study of the subject, and collect SER.C/15). A number of technical papers on electric and disseminate information on the activities of and power development were also submitted for information the progress made by countries outside the region in by certain member Governments. this field. 35. The Sub-Committee recognized the importance 42. The Sub-Committee was gratified that industrially of electricity in the present stage of development of developed countries like France, Japan, the Union of mineral resources and metallurgical industries in the Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the 4 United States of America were prepared to give or immediately following the United Nations Seminar on continue to provide technical information, make available Housing and Community Improvement, the South-East electrical and other equipment, give facilities for engineers Asia regional conference of the International Federation to visit large and highly developed power projects and of Housing and Town Planning, and simultaneously also provide expert assistance to the countries of the with the Government of India's International Exhibition region in the planning, designing and construction of of Low-Cost Housing, in all of which the ECAI'E power projects. The Sub-Committee hoped that the secretariat participated. countries of the region would take full advantage of 51. The Working Party considered the ECAFE these opportunities. secretariat's "Report on Housing and Building Materials 43. The Sub-Committee felt that the information in Asia and the Far East" (ECAFEfi&TfHBWP/1) and given in the Electric Power Bulletin for Asia and the reports, on their respective activities, of the United Far East was of value for a proper understanding of Nations Department of Social Affairs, ILO, FAO, the present situation and for the planning of future UNESCO and WHO which participated in the meeting, development. The Sub-Committee made several sug­ as well as a paper on the activities of ECE in the field gestions for amplifying the scope and increasing the of housing. Observers from the Governments of India usefulness of the Bulletin. and Indonesia and the Director of the seminar referred 44. The Sub-Committee decided to watch future to above also attended the meeting. developments in the use of wind-power for the generation 52. The Working Party noted the progress made of electrical energy. towards the establishment of a regional building centre 45. The Sub-Committee considered the report of the for the hot and humid of the ECAFE region study group of lignite experts on their visit to Australia at Bandung, Indonesia, as recommended at its first to be of great value from the point of view of the utili­ meeting in 1952. The Working Party noted an offer from zation of lignite for the development of thermal power. the Government of India in regard to the establishment 46. At the conclusion of the session, the delegations in India of a regional centre for the hot and arid climate. participated in a tour of rural electrification centres, The Working Party drew the attention of the TAA to hydro-electric works, and electrical equipment manu­ the importance of the centres and particularly to their facturing plants in Japan, organized by the GoYernment regional character, and stressed the need for appropriate of Japan. assistance from the United Nations and the specialized 47. The Committee on Industry and Trade at its agencies. seventh session approved the report and endorsed the 53. The Working Party emphasized that each of the recommendations of the Sub-Committee. The Committee participating agencies should apply the recommendations considered that the development of electric power should of the United Nations Seminar on Housing and Com­ be closely co-ordinated with the general economic plans munity Improvement in its activities on housing and of the countries of the region, and that balance should community development, and a programme of work be maintained between the production and supply of for each agency was agreed upon. power and its consumption and utilization. It considered 54. The Working Party noted that the secretariat that electric power should be supplied to rural areas disseminated technical information on subjects such as not so much for domestic use as for the development building materials and design of , and co-operated of irrigation and cottage industries, and that due attention with the TAA in the matter of providing technical should be paid to the establishment of small generating assistance to the GoYernments of India and Indonesia sets using local fuels and of small hydro-electric plants towards the establishment of the two regional centres in the hilly or isolated areas. The Committee recom­ mentioned above. mended that countries should give high priority in their 55. The secretariat rendered, on request, advisory development programmes to projects designed to supply services to the Government of Burma on aided-self-help cheaper electric power to villages. projects and designs of small wooden houses. 48. The Committee noted the possibility of export 56. A preliminary study on guiding principles for of electric power between countries of the region. It housing standards and building codes and a report on stressed the need for adopting appropriate standards the survey of building materials in the ECAFE region for electric plant and equipment and for standardizing were prepared for the Inter-Secretariat 'Working Party system practices. on Housing and Building Materials to be held in Bandung, 49. The Committee expressed the hope that T AA Indonesia, in June 1955. would be able to finance in 1956 the proposed group 57. The Committee on Industry and Trade at its visit of electric-power experts of the region to manu­ seventh session considered the report of the Working facturers' plants and power stations in Europe and Party together with the report of the United Nations , and noted the offer made by the Govern­ Seminar on Housing and Community Improvement. It ments of France and the United Kingdom to contribute appreciated the efforts of the Government of India, the towards the expenses of the experts during their stay Government of Indonesia and the TAA towards the in their countries. establishment of the two regional housing centres. The Housing and building materials Committee emphasized the importance of adequate staffing of the building research centres and that of 50. The second meeting of the Inter-Secretariat providing training in construction techniques. It appre­ Working Party on Housing and Building Materials was ciated the co-operation of the TAA and of the Govern­ held in , India, from 18 to 23 February 1954, ment of Denmark in providing special fellowships for the staff of the two regional centres and organizing a 66. It recommended that, w·hile the map should second seminar on co-operative housing. indicate unsurveyed areas, the countries of the region 58. The Committee drew attention to the need for should make every effort to fill blanks in their existing special studies on methods of fire-proofing of organic geological maps by such means as aerial reconnaissance. building materials such as timber, straw, bamboo and 67. The Working Party suggested mutual consul­ waste products, on which research and studies were tations among adjoining States in the region on matters being undertaken for low-cost housing. It considered of correlation along border areas, and joint field parties that the practice of self-help and co-operation among on common problems of survey and mapping. neighbours in building houses should be studied and its 68. The Working Party agreed that the map should application extended together with the use of modern be on the five-millionth scale, and that the stratigraphical construction and financing methods. scale should follow that adopted by the International Iron and steel Geological Congress, with a few suitable exceptions and 59. There was no session of the Sub-Committee on alterations. Iron and Steel in 1954. The secretariat continued the 69. The Working Party agreed that bathymetric study of the problems of the iron and steel industry and contours should be indicated and that the topographical trade in the region (project 35-01) and furnished tech­ background should include all railways, main highways, nical information, upon request, to the countries on the and major towns, navigable canals and lakes. various processes of making iron without coking coal, 70. The Working Party requested the United Nations on sera p classification and on re-rolling mill practices. Cartographic Office first, to transmit the proposals The work on the revision of the directory of laboratory of the USSR delegation and of the Kational Geographic and research facilities, and the preparation of a list of Institute of France on projection to the competent main technical libraries and selected bibliography of national cartographic agencies of the countries of the relevant iron and steel publications, in co-operation region for comments, and secondly, to forward to the with UNESCO, progressed further. co-ordinator for the compilation of the map, a report on 60. Upon request, advisory services were rendered the result of the consultations. The co-ordinator would to the Government of Burma on the processes, types and take the decision on the final projection to be adopted. sizes of equipment and lines of development of the iron 71. The Working Party recommended that the and steel industry in Burma. Advisory services were Governments of the countries should make contributions rendered to the Government of Thailand, at its request, which would be sent to the President of the Commission on its plans for developing an iron and steel industry. for the International Geological Map of the 61. The secretariat collected data in connexion with towards the expenses of preparing the map. The expenses the iron and steel market in the ECAFE region and were estimated at £16,000. furnished the information to the secretariat of the 72. At the conclusion of the meeting, the members Economic Commission for Europe at its request. of the Working Party participated in a study tour of A secretariat staff member attended a session of the tin-producing Phuket , Thailand, organized by Committee on Steel of the ECE. The ECE Committee the Government of Thailand. expressed interest in the work of the ECAFE Sub­ 73. The Committee on Industry and Trade at its Committee on Iron and Steel and in the proposed group seventh session approved the report and endorsed the visit of experts from Asia and the Far East to steel works recommendations of the Working Party, and appreciated in Europe. the co-operation of the International Geological Congress. Mineral resources development It was gratified to note the offer of the Government of India to make available the services of the Geological (a) Geological map Survey of India in the preparation of a regional geolo­ 62. The first meeting of the Working Party of Senior gical map. It also noted that it was the intention to include Geologists on the Preparation of a Regional Map for all the countries of the region in the map as and when Asia and the Far East was held in Bangkok, Thailand, information became available. from 1 to 5 November 1954, in co-operation with the International Geological Congress and the Cartographic (b) Sub-Committee on Mineral Resources Development Office of the United Nations. 74. The first session of the Sub-Committee on Mineral 63. The Working Party considered papers submitted Resources Development was held in Bangkok, Thailand, by the countries of the region, by countries outside the from 8 to 13 November 1954. region, by the International Geological Congress, by 75. The Sub-Committee considered the following the United Nations Cartographic Office and by the secretariat documents : "Mining development in Asia ECAFE secretariat on problems pertaining to the and the Far East, 1953-1954" (ECAFE/I&T/Sub.3/4), preparation of a regional geological map. "Some problems and prospects of the metal mining 64. The Working Party reached agreement on industry in the ECAFE region" (ECAFE/I&TjSub.3/l), technical conventions to be adopted for a regional and "Fuel situation of the region and possibilities for geological map. its improvement" (ECAFE/I&T/Sub.3/2); The Austra­ 65. The Working Party agreed that all countries lian lignite (brown coal) industry in relation to the develop­ of the ECAFE region should be included in the map. ment of low-grade coal deposits in Asia, a report by the However, those areas for which information was lacking lignite study group sent to Australia under joint ECAFE/­ at present might be included later as and when sufficient TAA sponsorship, and a paper by TAA on "Assistance material became available. provided by the United Nations Technical Assistance 6 Administration in the field of mineral resources develop­ 86. The Sub-Committee felt that the activities ofTAA ment in the ECAFE region, 1953-1954" (ECAFEji&T/­ in the field of mineral resources should be expanded to Sub. 3/3). A number of technical papers on fuel and the extent possible and that the assignment of TAA metal problems were also submitted by the Governments experts in various countries should be for an adequate of several members. period. 76. The Sub-Committee made suggestions for improv­ 87. At the conclusion of the session, the delegates par­ ing the annual mining development review issued by the ticipated in a study tour to areas of geological and mining secretariat. interest in northern Thailand, organized by the Govern­ 77. The Sub-Committee agreed to adopt the Standard ment of Thailand. International Trade Classification (SITC) for recording 88. The secretariat, at the request of the ECE secre­ mineral statistics but noted that some countries might tariat, presented a paper on "Classification of coals in the base the statistics on this classification with certain ECAFE region" to the Classification Working Party of adjustments. the ECE Coal Committee, held in July 1954, which noted with satisfaction that a close co-operation was being 78. The Sub-Committee recommended that the coun­ tries of the region should include in their annual reports maintained between the secretariats of ECE and ECAFE, on mining development a statement on definitions of the and emphasized the importance of establishing a uniform terms used by them and the basis for the calculations of world-wide coal classification system for both hard and brown coals. ore content and value. It requested the secretariat to submit a report and recommendations on the improve­ 89. In co-operation with ECE, the secretariat is arrang­ ment of the presentation of mineral statistics. ing for the interregional exchange and laboratoryinves­ tigations on low-grade coals, which occur abundantly in 79. The Sub-Committee emphasized that the possi­ South-. bilities of joint research, joint survey, and other similar projects by the countries of the region should be explored. 90. The Committee on Industry and Trade at its seventh session approved the report and endorsed the 80. The Sub-Committee considered that the compil­ recommendations of the Sub-Committee. The Committee ation and correlation of data on metallogenetic epochs welcomed the proposals for joint aerial survey and joint and metallogenetic provinces of the region with relation geological mapping of areas by adjoining countries, for to geological features would be useful as a guide to future undertaking surveys of neighbouring countries which had prospecting, and recommended that the Working Party no central surveys, and for undertaking joint research on of Senior Geologists consider the matter at its next meet­ low-grade ores, and the proposals for effective co-oper­ ing. It further requested countries of the region to forward ation between exporting and importing countries to ensure available data to the secretariat for use in the preparation a greater degree of correlation between the production of a regional map of the distribution of mineral deposits. and marketing of minerals. 81. Considering the prospects of expanding the alumi­ 91. The Committee stressed the urgent need for co­ nium industry in the region, the Sub-Committee recom­ ordination of the study of all sources of power such as mended that the secretariat compile data on the subject fuel, water power, gas deposits and wind-power. It con­ and obtain information on the new developments in the sidered that a comprehensive list of basic types of mining (Volta River) Scheme and in French overseas equipment appropriate for use in the region, including territories. their prices, would be very useful to the countries of the 82. The Sub-Committee recommended that the secre­ region. It recommended the inclusion of non-metallic tariat concentrate on giving a fuller picture of the fuel industrial minerals in the scope of work of the Sub-Com­ position of the region, by obtaining from Governments mittee on Mineral Resources Development. It recom­ details of the fuel and power needs of different groups of mended further co-ordination between the work of the consumers and potential and actual resources to meet Sub-Committee on Electric Power and that of the Sub­ these needs. It recommended that the secretariat analyse Committee on Mineral Resources Development. It was the problems of particular groups of consumers, and the gratified that arrangements for the study tour of mining economic aspects of the fuel situation in the region, in­ experts and geologists of the region to selected countries including the effects of transport costs on the relative in Europe and to the USSR were progressing satisfactorily prices of different fuels. and appreciated the offer of the Government of France 83. The Sub-Committee also recommended that the to cover the expenses of the experts during their stay in secretariat should consider the possibility of studying on France, and the offer of the Government of the United a comparative basis the production and consumption Kingdom to provide all possible facilities to the group aspects of solid and liquid fuels in the region. during their visit to the United Kingdom. 84. The Sub-Committee commended the report of the Trade study group of lignite experts on their visit to Australia, and noted that several recommendations of the group Sub-Committee on Trade had already been implemented in several countries of the 92. The first session of the Sub-Committee on Trade region. was held in from 6 to 12 January 1955. The 85. The Sub-Committee recommended that the pro­ Sub-Committee considered the following secretariat docu­ posed study tour of mining and geological experts to ments : "Current developments in international trade and selected countries of Europe, and to the USSR, be under­ payments of ECAFE countries" (E/CN.ll/I&T/Sub.4fl), taken in 1955, and noted that TAA was making the "Review of the trade promotion activities of the secreta­ necessary arrangements. 1 riat' (E/CN .11/I &T /Sub. 4/3 and annexes) 1 "Market analy- 7 sis of.hides and skins for Asia and the Far East" (E/CN. and requested Governments concerned to co-operate- with ll /I&TjSub.4/4 and annex: A and Corr. 1), "Commercial the secretariat in the preparation of this study. arbitration facilities" (E/CN .11 /I&T jSub.4/5), "Standard­ 101. The Sub-Committee recommended that Trade ization in the ECAFE region" (E/CN.llji&TfSub.4/2), Promotion News and Trade Promotion Series, which were and a number of papers submitted by the Governments of serving a useful purpose, continue to be published in their several members. Representatives gave an account of the present form. It welcomed the publication of the Glossary current trade developments and trade and commercial of commodity terms. policies in their respective countries. 102. The Sub-Committee requested the secretariat to 93. The Sub-Committee, while noting the improve­ keep under review the problem of the disposal of surplus ments which had taken place in some countries of the commodities in the countries of the region and to assist region, observed that the export earnings of ECAFE coun­ the countries at their request in dealing with this problem. tries were still below the level required for their economic 103. The Sub-Committee felt that the secretariat development programmes. It also noted the changed posi­ study on marketing of hides and skins (E/CN .11/I&T / tion in the market and supply position, the relaxation Sub.4/4 and annex A and Corr.l) served as a useful of control on its export and restoration of normal trade model for Governments to undertake similar studies for channels in rice exporting and rice importing countries. their own use. 94. The Sub-Committee emphasized the problem of 104-. The Sub-Committee felt that the commercial the ECAFE countries' primary dependence on a few arbitration facilities available in the region were still export commodities and the lack of stability of export inadequate, although some progress had been achieved demand and prices at reasonable levels, in the face of their in a few countries. It recommended that the countries expanding demand for capital goods for developmental set up such facilities and enact legislation for the enforce­ needs. It urged countries to consider measures to be ment of arbitral awards. It felt that the establishment adopted, singly or collectively, which would contribute of an international convention could be an important towards price stabilization of important export products step fonvard in making arbitral awards internationally of the region. effective. The Sub-Committee, however, recognized that 95. The Sub-Committee considered that although the a convention of this could be workable only if credit and deferred payment arrangements, particularly a receptive legal atmosphere had been established for the supply of capital goods to ECAFE countries, through domestic legislation. facilitated the speedy implementation of developmental It requested the secretariat to follow the progress of projects, they were no substitute for long-term develop­ commercial arbitration facilities in the region. The Sub­ ment loans and considered that care should be taken to Committee also recommended the establishment of a ensure that they did not involve direct or indirect export working group of experts in arbitration procedures to subsidy or divert trade into uneconomic channels. examine the existing arbitration legislation and facilities 96. The Sub-Committee recommended that the secre­ in the countries of the region and make recommendations. tariat make a study of the trade promotion techniques of 105. The Sub-Committee felt that the subject of the more developed countries, such as export credit standardization deserved the careful attention of the guarantee schemes and export-import banks, and advise countries of the region and recommended that the the countries of the region on their adoption with suitable ECAFE secretariat extend to member countries such modifications. assistance as might be possible, in co-operation with the 97. The Sub-Committee recommended that in the pro­ International Organization for Standardization (ISO) vision of economic aid in kind, the donor countries should and other organizations. It further recommended that attempt to supply commodities not available in the region, countries of the region should establish standards for and that the commodities available in the region should, their products and set up the necessary machinery for as far as possible, be procured within the region. this purpose. It requested the countries to consider the desirability of becoming members of the International 98. The Sub-Committee noted with satisfaction the Organization for Standardization and other organizations. increased participation by countries of the region in inter­ It recommended that countries should, if necessary, seek national trade fairs and exhibitions, and emphasized the assistance in these matters from other countries where importance of follow-up action. It requested the secreta­ standards exist, and from international agencies which riat to report on follow-up action taken by Governments. provide technical assistance, and take note of the The Sub-Committee recommended that the countries of recommendations of ISO. The Sub-Committee recom­ the region should arrange for the training of their exhibi­ mended that the secretariat continue to serve as a tion officers at the international fairs and exhibitions held clearing of information for standardization and in the more experienced countries of the world. submit a report on the progress made in these matters 99. The Sub-Committee recommended that the secre­ in ECAFE countries, to the next session of the Sub­ tariat prepare a report on the extent to which countries Committee. of the region and other countries trading with them have 106. The Committee on Industry and Trade at its simplified their customs, licensing and exchange formali­ seventh session approved the report and endorsed the ties. recommendations of the Sub-Committee. It widely l 00. The Sub-Committee considered that the existence recognized that multilateral arrangements were preferable of differential freight rates might cause unequal competi­ and that bilateral arrangements should be viewed only tion. It recommended that the secretariat make a study of as temporary expedients to meet special circumstances. freight rates affecting the countries of the region, It suggested that countries which had to .restrict their 8 imports on account of balance-of-payments difficulties English version of the Documentation Bulletin of the should further explore with the International Monetary International Union of Railways to the railway admini­ Fund, individually and in consultation with one another, strations of the region. The Transport Bulletin continued the possible solutions for overcoming these difficulties. to appear on a quarterly basis. The annual Railway It agreed that, as a general principle, the issue of single­ Statistics Bulletin was being issued. The Bulletin for country licences was inadvisable, as it would militate 1953 summarized and analysed basic statistical data on against the expansion of multilateral trade. It suggested railway operation for the year 1953, and compared that Governments review their trade policies and modify operating results obtained that year with those of the restrictive practices to the minimum dictated by the previous year. The Inland Transport Committee at its need for economic development. It drew attention to fourth session approved the Bulletin. the desirability of facilitating transit trade of land­ locked countries. On the problem of commodity surpluses Co-ordination of transport in the countries of the region, the Committee suggested 112. The secretariat prepared a report (EJCN .II/ that producer and consumer countries should, con­ TRANS/105) in which it reviewed the present develop­ sistently with their commitments under inter-govern­ ment of various modes of inland transport and the steps mental agreements and arrangements, if any, confer taken for their co-ordination, and suggested further with one another with a view to finding solutions on a lines of study. The Inland Transport Committee con­ long-term and mutually beneficial basis, and that the sidered that further work on this subject could best be good offices of the ECAFE secretariat might be used carried out through a working party of experts. It for this purpose. agreed that due note should be taken of the work already 107. In view of the wide fluctuations in the prices done by the Economic Commission for Europe and the of the export products of the countries of the region, International Chamber of Commerce and other organi­ the Committee reaffirmed the urgent need for stabili­ zations, and that the first tasks of the working party zation of commodity prices, and requested the Executive should be: Secretary to follow the progress and activities of the 1. To analyse : Commission on International Commodity Trade esta­ (a) The principles and methods of co-ordination of blished by the Economic and Social Council. It considered different modes of transport, statutorily or otherwise, that due care and caution should be exercised by donor in the countries of the region as well as in some countries countries in the disposal in the region of their agricultural outside the region, and surpluses under economic aid schemes so as to avoid (b) The existing machinery of co-ordination in those unfair competition, to foster trade, to avoid disruption countries; of normal trade patterns, and to arrange ordinarily 2. To recommend certain basic principles of costing procurement ·within the region of commodities available for each mode of transport ; on a competitive basis. 3. To make a detailed study of the unit cost of various 108. The Committee endorsed the recommendation forms of transport in each country of the region and in that the ECAFE secretariat should study the effect of a few selected countries outside the region and the ocean freight rates on the expansion of intraregional measures taken in the latter countries to keep down trade, and in this regard should seek the assistance of the unit cost to the minimum level. the United Nations Transport and Communications Commission and of appropriate international organi­ Statistical study of performance of transport systems with zations. a view to obtaining maximum efficiency and full utili­ zation of all available resources Interregional co-operation in the field of trade 113. A progress report on the subject (E/CN.ll/ 109. The Committee on Industry and Trade at its TRANS/I 06) was prepared, reviewing the information seventh session considered the question of interregional so far received from Governments on the measures co-operation in the field of trade in the light of the adopted for the collection, analysis and interpretation technical report prepared by the Secretary-General of transport statistics. Suggestions for further develop­ under resolution 535 B (XVIII) of the Economic and ment of work were also made. The Inland Transport Social Council. It did not make any recommendation Committee approved the outline prepared by the secre­ on this question. tariat for further study on this subject and felt, that, although it was desirable to concentrate initially on a INLAND TRANSPORT study of railway statistics, a detailed study of road and 110. The fourth session of the Inland Transport inland waterway statistics should also be undertaken Committee was held in Bangkok, Thailand, from 24 to as far as possible. 28 January 1955. The Committee's deliberations covered Railways library service, co-ordination of transport, and statistical study of performance of transport systems with a view 114. The third session of the Railway Sub-Committee to obtaining maximum efficiency and full utilization of was held in Tokyo, Japan, from 13 to 18 October 1954. all available resources, railways, highways, and inland The Sub-Committee considered the following secretariat waterways. documents : "Railway Training Centre for Operating and Signalling Officials-Progress report" (EJCN .11/ General TRANSJSub.l/37), "Note on the latest developments Ill. In connexion with the project on library service, concerning the Railway Training Centre for Operating TAA continued up to the end of 1954 to supply the and Signalling Officials" (ECAFE/TRANS/Sub.l/8), 9 "Prevention and speedy disposal of claims" (EICN .11 I of freight cars and the need for intensive use of existing TRANSISub.ll38), "Improved methods of track con­ equipment. It recommended a study by the secretariat struction and maintenance (EICN.lliTRANSISub.ll39), on refrigerator transport. It noted that the publications "Economics of building methods adopted on the railways of the railway research centres in Japan and India would and modern trends in the building of bridges" (EICN .11 I be available to other countries. TRANSISub.ll43), "Railcars" (EICN.lliTRANSISub.ll 41), "Locomotive boiler water treatment" (EICN .11 I Highways TRANSISub.l 140), and "Diesel locomotives" (EICN.ll I 123. With the concurrence of the Governments, the TRANSISub.l 142). third session of the Highway Sub-Committee, due in 115. The Sub-Committee reviewed the progress 1954, was postponed until the end of 1955. made by the ECAFEITAA regional Railway Training 124. During the year substantive work was mainly Centre for Operating and Signalling Officials at Lahore, concentrated on the following two studies. Pakistan, since its opening on 3 Aprill954. The question of demonstration equipment and teaching staff was Macadam construction reviewed. The Sub-Committee recommended that Govern­ 125. A large percentage of the roads in the ECAFE ments send the full quota of trainees allocated to them region are of the macadam type of pavement with or for the operating course. The improvement in attendance without bituminous surfacing. Even in the case of higher at the second operating course was noted with satis­ types of bituminous or concrete pavements, macadam faction. The difficulty experienced by some countries serves as the main base course and as a necessary and in meeting the expenses of the trainees was examined important step in stage construction. In its report and the recommendation of the Advisory Board of the (EICN .11 ITRANSISub.2l25) the secretariat examined centre regarding provision of scholarships by the host different techniques of macadam construction with a country under the Plan was endorsed. view to ensuring efficiency, economy and long service 116. China and Thailand were elected by the Sub­ life. Various techniques of macadam design and construc­ Committee to serve on the Advisory Board for 1955 tion, including characteristics of suitable road-building to replace India and Burma retiring. materials, particularly as regards the toughness, hardness, 117. The Sub-Committee examined the possibility of cementing value, grades, and design principles, formulae using concrete sleepers but expressed the desire that and graphical charts for thickness of pavements, were the secretariat undertake further studies on such sleepers, discussed. Draft standard specifications were also as well as on the question of relaxing specifications for suggested. wooden sleepers, in co-operation with F AO. A working Engineering aspects of highway-safety Lay-out of junctions group was appointed to suggest the lines for further and other aspects of road design in relation to highway studies on railway track sleepers. safety 118. Regarding the secretariat study on locomotive 126. The secretariat document (EICN.lliTRANSI boiler-water treatment, the Sub-Committee requested Sub.2l26) principally dealt with the various problems a further report indicating the possibilities of adapting connected with geometric design of road junctions at the various processes to the needs of the countries of the level, without signalized control, and made specific region. In view of the special interest and high technical recommendations for the guidance of highway traffic value of the report, the secretariat was requested to engineers. The other important design elements discussed print it and distribute it to the countries of the region. were related to extra widths required, turning lanes, 119. The Sub-Committee indicated the lines on which acceleration and deceleration lanes, flaring at inter­ further studies on railcars and locomotives should be sections, traffic , their types, functions and carried out with the assistance of the committee of shapes, channelization, alignment, sight distance, loc­ experts established at the second session. ation of signs, pedestrian and cycle crossings, segregation 120. A working group on prevention and speedy of traffic, and other traffic engineering problems. To disposal of claims considered the technical information, ensure a common understanding of traffic engineering conclusions and suggestions contained in the two terms, a glossary of important definitions was appended. secretariat reports (EICN.lliTRANSISub.ll29 and 38) Application of the general principles to actual designs and recommended that the countries of the region care­ was illustrated for the more common types of intersec­ fully study these documents and adopt such measures tions in use in the region. as considered feasible. 127. Data were being collected for other projects 121. After the session, the delegates made a study included in the work programme, namely, construction tour of important railway installations in Japan and and maintenance of low-cost roads and soil stabilization, observed the techniques and equipment used by the bituminous construction, highway administration, high­ Japanese National Railways. The group submitted a way financing, national systems of highways for promo­ report on its observations and on the possibility of tion of the development of international highways, adopting some of the Japanese techniques and equipment traffic aspects of highway safety, and possibility of hold­ on the railways of the region. ing a seminar on engineering and traffic aspects of 122. The Inland Transport Committee approved the highway safety. report of the sub-committee. It recommended that the 128. The Inland Transport Committee noted the secretariat's study on concrete sleepers should include facilities available for training technical personnel at the preservation of steel sleepers from corrosion. It the Highway Development Training Centre organized stressed the importance of improving the turn-round with UNTAA assistance in . It noted that a lO simplified instructional manual for drivers and mechanics certain assistance towards the establishment of the would be published by the ILO, and distributed to the centre, and expressed the wish that if ILO could not countries of the region. do so, the Executive Secretary should explore other avenues of assistance, including assistance by the ECAFE Inland waterways secretariat. 129. The second session of the Inland Waterway 134. The Sub-Committee recommended that the Sub-Committee was held in Saigon, Viet-Nam, from comparative study of various types of marine engines 3 to 8 :May 1954. be printed after the incorporation of additions or amend­ 130. The Sub-Committee considered the "Report of ments which member Governments might suggest. the Working Party on Craft Measurement Draft Conven­ tion" (EJCN.lljTRANSJSub.3/12) together with a note 135. The Sub-Committee recognized that the gradual on the" Amended draft convention regarding the measure­ introduction of a uniform system of buoyage for inland ment and registration of vessels employed in inland waterways in the region was desirable in principle. It " (ECAFEJTRANSJSub.3/25) incorporating suggested some minor alterations in the system proposed suggestions of the United Nations Legal Department. by the secretariat and requested that a draft description In addition, the Sub-Committee considered the following with illustrations be prepared for the next session of the documents : "Report on the trials of the Joint Steamer Sub-Committee. It further requested a similar study on Companies in East Pakistan" (ECAFE/TRANSjSub. shore marks, for both day and night navigation, the 3/11 Rev. 1), "Demonstration/pilot project" (ECAFE/ unification of which was also considered desirable. TRANS/Sub. 3/20 Rev. 1), "Training centre for IWT 136. Noting that the Commission had agreed to personnel" (ECAFEJTRANSjSub.3/21), "Draft compara­ enlarge the terms of reference of the Inland Waterway tive study of various types of marine engines" (ECAFE/ Sub-Committee, the Sub-Committee included a project TRANS/Sub.3/22), "Influence of 'Channel Depth/Fleet on coastal shipping under group 3 in its proposed Draught Ratio' on resistance" (E/CN.ll/TRANSJSub. programme of work and priorities (project 43-07- 3/19), "Uniform system of buoyage for inland waterways" Siltation in small ports). (ECAFE/TRANSJSub.3/17), "Current inland waterway 137. The Inland Transport Committee approved the developments" (ECAFE/TRANSJSub.3/13) and "Recom­ report of the Inland Waterway Sub-Committee. It noted mendations and conclusions of XVIIIth International the progress made to date in India and Pakistan in Navigation Congress, of interest to the countries of the carrying out the demonstration/pilot projects. It also region" (ECAFEjTRANSJSub.3/18). noted with satisfaction that the International Labour 131. The Sub-Committee accepted in principle the Organisation had received approval from the United draft convention regarding the measurement and regis­ Nations Technical Assistance Board for the establishment tration of vessels employed in inland navigation as of a national centre for advanced training of diesel prepared by the Working Party, with a few minor marine mechanics in Burma, upon the request of the alterations; some Governments reserved their position Government of Burma, and that the centre would be as regards some articles mostly of a legal nature. The later on expanded into a regional one as indicated in secretariat was asked to prepare the final text, after paragraph 133 above. obtaining further comments of the Governments, take appropriate steps for the signing of the convention at FLOOD CONTROL AND WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT an early date, and encourage the subsequent accession of as many States as possible. M~tltiple-purpose river basin development 132. The Sub-Committee expressed disappointment 138. A manual describing the principles involved at the delay in the implementation of the demonstration/ and steps to be followed in the planning of multiple­ pilot projects in India and Pakistan. However, the purpose river basin development projects, was prepared Government of India had decided to finance its own by the Bureau of Flood Control and Water Resources scheme on the Ganga and Ghogra rivers on the lines Development of the secretariat; after the various proposed by a T AA consultant. In the case of Pakistan, suggestions from experts attending the Regional Tech­ the equipment specifications dravm up by the consultant nical Conference on Water Resources Development and were acceptable ; but owing to the budgetary limitations the additional information contained in papers presented of T AA, the Government itself decided to work out an to the conference had been incorporated, the manual alternative scheme. The Sub-Committee noted progress was published early in 1955. In addition to the manual, in other countries, particularly Viet-Nam and Burma, a country-wise survey of water resources, present status in experiments to assess the suitability of push-towing. of utilization, future plans and problems of development, 133. The Sub-Committee agreed that the proposed was under preparation. Surveys for Ceylon, China: centre for advanced training of diesel marine mechanics , India, Japan and the Philippines will be might suitably be established in Rangoon, Burma. It published in 1955. prepared a modified outline for the organization of the centre, together with equipment lists and financial Flood control and water resources development of estimates. Several delegations indicated the number of international rivers trainees likely to be sent from their country. The 139. Further to the studies on the lower basin of Governments of some members made tentative commit­ the Mekong river carried out in 1953, a field investigation ments as regards contributions of (a) equipment, (b) was scheduled to be made in 1955, jointly with national services of instructors, or (c) expenses of trainees. The authorities of the countries concerned, to ascertain the Sub-Committee noted that ILO would be willing to give possible use of the potential resources of the river for 11 irrigation, water power and navigation. All relevant data Flood Control Journal, giVmg information on water were being collected. resources development in the region, were issued. The sixth and seventh numbers of the Flood Control Series, Flood control methods entitled Standards for Methods and Records of Hydrologic 140. This project involved the study of methods Measurements and Multiple-P~trpose River Basin Deve­ employed in earthwork construction with particular lopment, were published. emphasis on the use of manual labour, its more efficient use and reduction of costs. India, which has an abundant Regional Technical Conference on Water Resources labour supply, and Japan, with its mechanized earthwork Development and relatively high wages, were chosen for the initial 145. The Regional Technical Conference on Water study. Data on methods of handling earthwork and its Resources Development was held in Tokyo, Japan, from cost in India and Japan were being analysed. A con­ 17 to 22 May 1954, and was followed by visits to water sultant on management engineering would undertake, resources development projects in Japan from 23 to in co-operation with national technical organizations, 30 May 1954. Besides member and associate member investigations with a view to evolving efficient methods countries, a number of specialized agencies, international of handling earthwork. technical organizations and non-governmental organi­ 141. Studies on the silting and scouring of rivers zations participated in the conference. Papers were and canals by the Bureau, in co-operation with hydraulic submitted on subjects covering economic and technical research stations in India and Thailand, were continued. aspects of multiple-purpose river basin development, as well as the programme of work of the Bureau. In its Technical advice to Governments on request report to the Commission (E/CN .11/391) the conference 142. The Bureau rendered technical advice to the presented its conclusions on standards for use in benefit­ Ganga and Brahmaputra River Commissions on flood cost analysis of projects, on the selection of types of control problems. Studies carried out by the Bureau hydraulic structures; and recommended, inter alia, that were extensively used by the authorities of the Govern­ the secretariat carry out studies to determine the major ment of India in the preparation of a scheme to control deficiencies in hydrologic data, call a working group the flood flow of the River Kosi. The Bureau advised of experts for finalizing the proposed hydrologic ter­ the Government of the Republic of China, at its request, minology and undertake further study on the best form on the revision of its Water Law. The Bureau also or forms of organization for comprehensive, co-ordinated assisted in making a general review of the water resources river basin development in the region. development in Taiwan, and made recommendations on Training centre for water resources development multiple-purpose use of reservoirs, priorities amongst the major projects and the rotational instead of continuous 146. Discussions with the Government of India and supply of water to irrigated fields. A proposed flood the Roorkee University revealed the possibility of control scheme in the Brantas river basin (in East Java, organizing a training centre to be available to other Indonesia) was reviewed at the request of the Govern­ countries by utilizing the existing facilities at the ment of Indonesia. The Bureau's advice and suggestions University, in co-operation with ECAFE. It is anticipated were all accepted by the Government. that the centre may open before the end of 1955.

Hydraulic research stations and hydrologic observations Economic and Social Council resolution 533 (XVIII) on international co-operation with respect to water resource 143. The Flood Control Journal continued to include development information on programmes of research and important changes in equipment of hydraulic research stations in 147. The Bureau's programme of work took fully the region. The Regional Technical Conference on Water into account the recommendations of Economic and Resources Development, held in Tokyo in May 1954, Social Council resolution 533 (XVIII), particularly with considered the standards for hydrologic observations respect to assembly of hydrologic data and the prepa­ prepared by the Bureau in three parts, namely, methods ration of standard methods of hydrologic observations. of hydrologic measurements, standard forms for The Regional Technical Conference on Water Resources hydrologic year-book and hydrologic terminology. The Development urged the Governments to provide sufficient proposed standards, revised according to the recom­ financial and other resources for hydrologic obser­ mendations of the conference, were published in December vations and to embark on a comprehensive plan of 1954. Regarding hydrologic terminology, the conference hydrologic measurements including training of hydro­ recommended that it be reviewed and completed by a logists, and requested the secretariat to carry out studies working party consisting of a small number of experts. to determine the major deficiencies in hydrologic data The working party would meet some time in August in the region. The World Meteorological Organization 1955, and, in the meantime, specialized agencies and was consulted on the subject. The planning of sediment international technical organizations concerned were control was discussed at the conference. It has been being consulted with a view to securing uniformity in informally agreed among the secretariats that F AO the definitions of hydrologic terms. should be mainly responsible for the study of methods of sediment control in headwater areas. In the manual Dissemination of technical information of river basin planning prepared by the bureau, attention 144. The bureau distributed publications and reports had been given to the question of increased demand for and supplied data on specific subjects at the request of water for domestic, industrial, agricultural and other national technical organizations. Four numbers of the uses. 12 RESEARCH AND PLANNING Regional Conference of Statisticians Economic Survey of Asia and the Far East 152. The Third Regional Conference of Statisticians, 148. The Economic Survey of Asia and the Far East, convened jointly with the United Nations Statistical 1954, consisted of two parts : part I gave an analysis of the Office, was held in New Delhi, India, from 1 to 11 March economic development in the region as a whole, and part 1954. II gave a review of these developments separately for 153. The conference discussed statistics of ·national countries of the region including for the first time Afgha­ income, including capital formation. It stressed the im­ nistan. Part I focused attention on important economic portance of national income statistics in planning eco­ developments, and did not attempt a comprehensive nomic development. Attention was given to problems review of all economic activities. Its central theme was involved in making national income statistics internation­ the problems of economic development and the strain ally comparable. The conference also dealt with the need experienced by the countries of the region in implement­ for key statistics required for policy making. ing their development plans, owing especially to a lower 154. The report of the conference (E/CN.ll/390) was level of exchange earnings than prevailed during the submitted to the Commission with a request to transmit Korean-war boom. This part was divided into five sec­ it, through the Secretary-General, to the Statistical Com­ tions as follows: (1) Agricultural production: a review of mission. the changes in the production and trade in foodstuffs and other commodities ; (2) Industrial production and trans­ I ntraregional trade and payments port: the improvement in industrial capacity and pro­ 155. In accordance with the recommendation of the duction, and developments in inland transport; (3) Inter­ Commission at its tenth session, the Executive Secretary national trade and payments, including changes in con­ convened a Working Group of Experts on Payments Pro­ trols and restrictions ; (4) Monetary and fiscal develop­ blems of the ECAFE Region in Bangkok, Thailand, from ments : a review of government expenditures and trends 19 to 28 July 1954. Experts from the central banks of in tax systems; and (5) Progress of development pro­ Burma, Ceylon, the Republic of China, India, Indonesia, grammes. Japan, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand, from the Quarterly Economic Bulletin International Monetary Fund and from the ECAFE secretariat, participated. The Working Group considered 149. The publication of the quarterly Economic papers contributed by the secretariat, by several of the Bulletin for Asia and the Far East was continued. The central banks and by the Fund. Governments of the countries of the region, especially 156. The Working Group considered, among others, their statistical offices and departments, co-operated in problems connected with both bilateral and multilateral the regular supply of current data required for (i) the trade and payment arrangements. It dwelt on (a) national preparation of the half-yearly review of economic develop­ measures for improved payments such as monetary sta­ ments in the region, and (ii) the compilation of statistics bility, diversification of production and exports and the on production, transport, trade, prices, money and bank­ liberalization of trade, and (b) international measures for ing. Regular compilation of information on trade agree­ improved payments such as the promotion of multilate­ ments was also continued. The May and November issues ralism by the Fund, the fuller transferability of open of the Bulletin included the following special articles : accounts, the possible participation of ECAFE countries "Scope for multilateral compensation payments in in the European Payments Union (EPU), the wider use ECAFE countries", "Gains from trade in ECAFE coun­ of sterling in international payments, the possibility of a tries, July 1950-June 1953", "Some commercial and regional payments union, etc. economic aspects of public enterprises in certain Asian countries", "Def1cit financing for economic development 157. Taking note of the predominance of sterling pay­ with special reference to ECAFE countries", and "The ments in the region and of the relatively small significance application of the multiple exchange rates system in of bilateral payments, the 'Working Group considered selected Asian countries". that while some improvement of existing bilateral trade and payments agreements would benefit ECAFE coun­ Statistical compilation and series tries, these agreements were at best merely temporary 150. The keeping up-to-date and expansion of files of expedients and the resumption of convertibility of cur­ basic statistical series on production, transport, trade, rencies and the removal of obstacles to multilateral trade fmance, prices etc., was continued in collaboration with should be regarded as the long-run objectives of policy.y the statistical authorities of Governments, the United It expressed the view that the removal of discriminatory Nations Statistical Office and the specialized agencies import restrictions among members of the region should including the International Labour Organisation, the form an integral part of any measure for the solution of and Agriculture Organization and the International the payments problems of the region. Monetary Fund. The number of tables compiled for pub­ 158. The Working Group reviewed the efforts of the lication continued to increase. Fund to promote a multilateral system of trade and pay­ 151. The assembling of data relating to concepts, ments and noted that the resources of the Fund were definitions and methods used in the collection and com­ available to all its members to assist them in attaining pilation of statistical series regularly published by the or maintaining the convertibility of their currencies and secretariat was completed for internal use. A comprehen­ in liberalizing their trade. sive classified index of all major economic statistical series 159. The Working Group noted that the scope for regularly published in the ECAFE region was being com­ increased participation of ECAFE countries in the EPU piled. was limited as many countries of the region participate 13 already in the clearing facilities offered, without being the general scope for non-inflationary deficit finance, the members of the EPU. possible effects of inflation, and relations between foreign 160. The Working Group considered that while a trade and deficit finance. regional payments union would bring about an economy 166. The Working Party studied measures to reduce in the use of foreign exchange resources and promote the rate of inflation and its harmful effects. It considered closer economic co~operation among the participating that the authorities should be able to detect as rapidly members, its scope would be limited in view of the already as possible the threat of an inflationary situation and available multilateral compensation facilities in the region. its source. The various indicators of inflation such as They thought that the relations of ECAFE countries with estimates of potential supply against probable demand their respective currency areas might be an obstacle to and descriptive indicators were discussed. The Working their participation in a regional payments union. It was, Party also stressed that while no accurate forecasting however, felt that if the mimimum working capital for of potential supply against probable demand was feasible, the union could be provided by sources outside the region, it was desirable and possible to obtain fairly reliable several countries might be willing to consider favourably indicators of inflation with reasonable speed in specific a scheme for regional clearing and it would be possible circumstances. to establish satisfactory relations with the existing cur­ 167. The Committee on Industry and Trade at its rency areas. However, the prospects of such a working seventh session approved the report and endorsed the capital's becoming available appeared uncertain. recommendations of the Working Party, including those 161. The Committee on Industry and Trade at its requesting the secretariat to carry out further studies seventh session considered the report of the Working on the concept of budget deficit and reclassification of Group as a scholarly and illuminating document, and government accounts. The Committee considered that appreciated the co-operation between the ECAFE secre­ a budget deficit was not necessarily undesirable in itself tariat, the central banks of the countries of the region and that under certain conditions a moderate budget participating in the meeting and the International Mone­ deficit might be valuable in financing economic develop­ tary Fund. The Committee noted the conclusions of the ment. It felt, however, that a policy of deficit financing Working Group and agreed that the secretariat should, for economic development, if chosen, should be adopted in consultation with the Fund, keep under review the with extreme caution. The Committee believed that the payments problems of the countries of the region. It hoped current accounts of the Government should be that the countries would take early steps, with the assis­ in balance or in surplus before such deficit financing is tance of the Fund, to fill in the gaps in their balance-of­ to be considered. The Committee emphasized psycholo­ payments data, especially as regards invisibles. gical factors, as the success of deficit financing depends, among other things, on the Government's awakening Financial aspects of economic development the consciousness of the masses so that they will accept 162. The second meeting of the Working Party of sacrifice for economic progress. The Committee noted Experts on Financial Aspects of Economic Development that deficit financing might lead to a lowering of the Programmes in Asia and the Far East was held in Bang­ standard of living if money in circulation was increased kok, Thailand, from 25 to 30 October 1954. beyond a certain limit. 163. The Working Party considered papers prepared 168. The Committee recommended that deficit financ­ (a) by the ECAFE secretariat on "Deficit financing for ing should not result in undue emphasis on short-term economic development with special reference to ECAFE development projects and that a proper balance between countries" (ECAFE(I&T(FED.2/4) and "Economic indi­ short-term and long-term projects should be maintained. cators of inflation in ECAFE countries" (ECAFE/­ It further recommended that the projects to be started I&T/FED.2/5) ; (b) by the United Nations Secretariat should be those for which the resources of material and at Headquarters; (c) by staff members of the Inter­ man-power, in addition to finance, were available, and national Monetary Fund ; (d) by countries of the region ; that Governments continue to study the problem of (e) by some countries outside the region; and (f) by the creating further favourable conditions, consistent with International Chamber of Commerce. their own national economic policies, under which 164. The Working Party concluded that while no foreign public and private investment could be brought single concept of a budget deficit would fully indicate in to a part in the over-all development programme. the economic impact of Government transactions, the money supply concept was most appropriate and useful AGRICULTURE for its discussions of deficit finance, since inflationary or 169. The joint ECAFE/FAO Agriculture Division, deflationary tendencies are closely associated with the through a mutually agreed work programme, continued changes in the supply of money. The Working Party its review of agricultural and food developments in the stressed the need for a reclassification of government region for the use of both F AO and ECAFE. The division expenditures and receipts by major economic categories prepared chapters on agricultural production for the and endorsed a proposal to convene in 1955 a working half-yearly and annual economic surveys of ECAFE. party on this subject. It assisted FAO in preparing sections of the State of Food 165. The Working Party noted that deficit finance and Agriculture relating to the Far East. A report was was resorted to in several countries not to combat a prepared on "Agricultural development of Thailand" recession, but to provide finance for the development (ECAFE/L.88). Reports on rice price policies of several programmes. Deficit finance was not necessarily un­ countries of the region included, as part II, a general desirable in itself and had to be considered in the light study entitled "Rice and rice price policies in the Far of the general economic situation. It also reviewed Eastern countries, 1949-1954" (ECAFEJL.87) and under- 14 taken in co-operation with F AO headquarters staff. The assisted FAO in the F AO Centre on Land Problems study analysed the rice price movements and price in Asia and the Far East held in Bangkok, Thailand, in policies in countries of the region, particularly of paddy November-December 1954. rice ; the farm wholesale retail export or import prices, 171. Consultations were held with the Governments and their relationship with those of other agricultural of Burma, Pakistan and India, in co-operation with products and certain consumer goods. representatives of F AO headquarters, on selective 170. The division participated in the special tech­ expansion of agricultural production, as a follow-up nical meeting on economic aspects of the rice industry, action arising from the FAO Conference of November held in Rangoon, Burma, in November 1954, and also 1953 and from the FAO Council of October 1954.



A. Specialized agencies prepared by the ECAFE Bureau of Flood Control and Water Resources Development. The Food and Agriculture 172. Close and extensive co-operation with specialized Organization contributed papers to the United Nations agencies was maintained during the period under review. Seminar on Housing and Community Improvement, to Periodic informal meetings were held by the secretariat the second meeting of the Inter-Secretariat Working with the representatives of agencies stationed in Bangkok, Party on Housing and Building Materials, and to the including the Food and Agriculture Organization of the Third Regional Conference of Statisticians on national United Nations, the United Nations Educational, Scientific income statistics. It advised with respect to the section and Cultural Organization, the World Health Organization, on agricultural production for the Economic Survey of the International Civil Aviation Organization as well Asia and the Far East, 1954, to the study of "Market as the United Nations Children's Fund and the High Analysis of Hides and Skins in Asia and the Far East", Commissioner for Refugees. Consultations were also to the collection of data on standardization of sizes and held with the International Labour Organisation, the specification of wooden railway sleepers, and to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, proposed study on railway track sleepers. the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the World Health Organization on 176. The Economic Commission for Asia and the all projects involving joint participation or mutual Far East participated in the FAO Centre on Land co-operation of a broader character. Problems in Asia and the Far East held in Bangkok, Thailand. The Food and Agriculture Organization was INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION represented at the meetings of the Inter-Secretariat Working Party on Housing and Building Materials, the 173. The ILO participated in the Inter-Secretariat United Nations Seminar on Housing and Community Working Party on Housing and Building Materials, Improvement, the Working Party of Experts on Financial the United Nations Seminar on Housing and Community Aspects of Economic Development Programmes in Asia Improvement and the ECAFE/ILOjUNESCO Inter­ and the Far East, the Regional Technical Conference Secretariat Working Party on Trained Personnel for on Water Resources Development, the Third Regional Economic Development. It exchanged statistical data Conference of Statisticians, the seventh session of the on cost of living, wages, and unemployment with the Committee on Industry and Trade and the eleventh secretariat. The ILO was represented at the third session session of the Commission. of the Railway Sub-Committee, the Regional Technical Conference on \Vater Resources Development, the seventh UNITED NATIONs EDucATIONAL, SciENTIFic AND session of the Committee on Industry and Trade and the CuLTURAL ORGANIZATION eleventh session of the Commission: 177. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and FooD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED Cultural Organization participated in, and contributed NATIONS papers to, the United Nations Seminar on Housing and Community Improvement, the Inter-Secretariat Working 17 4. Working relations with FA0 continued to be Party on Housing and Building Materials, and the very close, particularly through the joint ECAFE/FAO ECAFE/ILO/UNESCO Inter-Secretariat Working Party Agriculture Division. The Director-General of F AO and on Trained Personnel for Economic Development. The the Executive Secretary had an opportunity to review ECAFE secretariat participated in the eighth session of the work programme for 1955/1956 of the joint Agri­ the UNESCO Advisory Committee on Arid Zone culture Division during the former's visit to Thailand Research and in an international Symposium on Wind in December 1954. The joint Agriculture Division and Solar Energy, and has agreed to participate in the assisted FAO in the F AO Centre on Land Problems in UNESCO Seminar on in South and South­ Asia and the Far East held in December in Bangkok, East Asia in 1956. The ECAFE secretariat assisted the Thailand. UNESCO Mission to South-East Asia on the development 175. Papers contributed by FAO to the Regional of adult education, especially workers' education, in Technical Conference on \Vater Resources Development accordance with resolution 1222 of the seventh session were incorporated in the manual on river basin planning of the General Conference of UNESCO, and UNESCO 15 was represented at the Regional Technical Conference INTERIM COMMISSION FOR THE INTERNATIONAL on Water Resources Development. TRADE 0RGANIZATION 183. The ECAFE secretariat continued to supply the WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION Interim Commission secretariat with advance copies of 178. The World Health Organization participated in, the quarterly summaries of trade agreements concluded and contributed papers to, the United Nations Seminar or negotiated by the countries of the region. The secre­ on Housing and Community Improvement, the Inter­ tariat furnished information to the Interim Commission Secretariat Working Party on Housing and Building secretariat in connexion with the review of the General Materials, and the Regional Technical Conference on Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. \Vater Resources Development. B. Other inter-governmental organizations INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRGCTION AND 184. Close working relations between the ECAFE DEVELOPMENT secretariat and the Consultative Committee for Co­ 179. The Bank participated in the fourth session of operative Economic Development in South and South­ the Sub-Committee on Electric Power. It submitted a East Asia (Colombo Plan) were maintained. The Exe­ memorandum to the Commission at its eleventh session. cutive Secretary attended, as an observer, the sixth session of the Consultative Committee at ministerial INTERNATIONAL MoNETARY FuND level, held in Ottawa, , in October 1954.

180. The staff members of the Fund prepared a C. Non-governmental organizations general paper as well as several papers for each country in the region, and the Fund was represented at the 185. The International Institute of Administrative meeting of the Working Group of Experts on Payments Sciences (liAS) co-sponsored, with ECAFE and TAA, Problems of the ECAFE Region, convened by the the Seminar on the Organization and Administration of secretariat. The Fund staff also prepared papers on Public Enterprises in the Industrial Field, held in Ran­ "Economic concept of budgetary deficits" and "Tax goon in March 1954. The International Federation for burden and expansion of revenue in the Far East Housing and Town Planning (IFHTP), at the request countries" for the Working Party of Experts on Financial of the Executive Secretary, agreed to hold its regional Aspects of Economic Development Programmes in Asia conference so as to synchronize it with the United and the Far East, held in Bangkok, Thailand. It supplied Nations Seminar on Housing and Community Improve­ regularly, through United Nations Headquarters, balance­ ment and the Inter-Secretariat Working Party on of-payments statements of ECAFE countries. The Fund Housing and Building Materials. Consultations were was also represented at the Third Regional Conference held with the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) of Statisticians, the seventh session of the Committee and the International Organization for Standardization on Industry and Trade and the eleventh session of the (ISO) on projects of mutual interest pertaining to trade Commission. promotion, standardization, commercial arbitration, and certain problems of transport. ICC submitted papers INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION for the Working Party on Financial Aspects of Economic Development Programmes in Asia and the Far East. 181. The ECAFE secretariat co-operated with ICAO The International Geological Congress (IGC) co-operated on the questionnaire on intemal air services in connexion with ECAFE in, and contributed papers to, the Working with the project on "Co-ordination of transport". A Party of Senior Geologists on the Preparation of a regional office of ICAO was opened in Bangkok early Regional Geological Map for Asia and the Far East, in 1955, which will provide opportunity for closer held in Bangkok in November 1954. It agreed to follow contacts with the ECAFE secretariat. The International up the recommendations of the Working Party on the Civil Aviation Organization was represented at the preparation of a regional map. fourth session of the Inland Transport Committee. 186. The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) was represented at the Regional Technical Conference WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION on Water Resources Development, the Working Party 182. Several papers contributed by WMO to the of Experts on Financial Aspects of Economic Develop­ Regional Technical Conference on Water Resources ment Programmes in Asia and the Far East, the fourth Development were incorporated in the manual on river session of the Sub-Committee on Electric Power, the basin planning, prepared by the ECAFE Bureau of third session of the Railway Sub-Committee, the first Flood Control and Water Resources Development. It session of the Sub-Committee on Trade, the fourth assisted in finalizing the bureau's publication Standards session of the Inland Transport Committee, the seventh for kfethods and Records of Hydrologic Measurements. session of the Committee on Industry and Trade and The World Meteorological Organization agreed to a the eleventh session of the Commission. The International joint project with the bureau on the study of the major Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) was deficiencies in hydrological data in the ECAFE region, represented at the Regional Technical Conference on to be undertaken in 1955 (see part V, project 21-04). Water Resources Development, the seventh session of It was represented at the Regional Technical Conference the Committee on Industry and Trade and the eleventh on Water Resources Development, the fourth session of session of the Commission. The International Co-operative the Sub-Committee on Electric Power, and the eleventh Alliance (ICA) was represented at the Regional Technical session of the Commission. Conference on \Vater Resources Development, the 16 seventh session of the Committee on Industry and Trade Japan-ECAFE Association, convened a seminar on and the eleventh session of the Commission. The Inter­ ECAFE in Tokyo during the eleventh session of the national Organization of Employers (IOE) was repre­ Commission. The International Union of Official Travel sented at the Regional Technical Conference on Water Organizations {IUOTO) was represented at the seventh Resources Development, the seventh session of the session of the Committee on Industry and Trade and Committee on Industry and Trade and the eleventh the eleventh session of the Commission. The International session of the Commission. The World Federation of Organization for Standardization {ISO) was represented Trade Unions {WFTU) was represented at the eleventh at the first session of the Sub-Committee on Trade. The session of the Commission. The World Federation of International Statistical Institute (ISI) was represented United Nations Associations {WFUNA) was represented at the Third Regional Conference of Statisticians. The at the Regional Technical Conference on \Vater Resources World Power Conference {WPC) was represented at the Development, the Working Party of Experts on Financial fourth session of the Sub-Committee on Electric Power Aspects of Economic Development Programmes in Asia and the Regional Technical Conference on \Vater and the Far East, the fourth session of the Sub-Committee Resources Development. Also, the International Asso­ on Electric Power, the first sessions of the Sub-Committee ciation of Hydrology, the International Association of on Mineral Resources Development and of the Sub­ Hydraulic Research, the International Commission on Committee on Trade, the fourth session of the Inland Large Dams of the WPC, and the Permanent Inter­ Transport Committee and the eleventh session of the national Association of Navigation Congresses were Commission. The WFUNA in conjunction with, inter represented at the Regional Technical Conference on alia, the United Nations Association of Japan and the Water Resources Development.


ELEVENTH SESSION OF THE COMMISSION A. Membership, attendance, organization of work development depended upon the economic prosperity and the improvement of standards of living in Asia and the OPENING AND CLOSING MEETINGS Far East. The countries concerned were already doing 187. The eleventh session of the Commission opened their best and were receiving foreign assistance; Japan on 28 March 1955 at Sankei Kaikan, Tokyo, Japan. also was determined to make active efforts for furtherance were delivered by His Mr. Ichiro of economic co-operation in order to achieve mutual pros­ Hatoyama, Prime of Japan, by Dr. P. S. Loka­ perity. In this connexion, he was painfully aware of the nathan, Executive Secretary of the Commission, and by obstacle to full economic co-operation which was due to Mr. Martin Hill, Deputy Under-Secretary for Economic the fact that, because of a on reparations, Japan and Social Affairs. did not yet have normal diplomatic relations with certain 188. His Excellency Mr. Ichiro HATOYAMA, Prime members of the ECAFE . It was the Government's Minister of Japan, welcomed the representatives. Now desire to settle as soon as possible the various pending that it had acquired full membership, Japan, which had problems. In concluding, he wished complete success to always enthusiastically supported ECAFE, would be able the Commission and declared open the eleventh session to participate even more closely in its work. The notable of the Commission. achievements of the Commission in many fields were due 189. Dr. P. S. LoKANATHAN, Executive Secretary, to the fact that the member and associate member coun­ reviewed the development of ECAFE during the eight tries fully realized the importance of the task entrusted years of its existence and emphasized its distinctive fea­ to ECAFE and worked in close co-operation in order to ture that, while retaining its regional character, it was a bring about the desired results. No modest part of the truly international organization and that in accordance credit was also due to the secretariat for its constant with the understanding (Lahore Agreement) 2 reached at efforts, its efficient operation and its creative planning. the seventh session, the non-regional members had agreed In spite of their enormous wealth in manpower and that their role was to help and assist but not necessarily natural resources, the countries of the region had been shape or determine the economic policies of the countries unable to develop their economy in a satisfactory manner, of the region. As a part of the United Nations, ECAFE had owing to a shortage of capital and of technical skills. been able to count upon the resources of the whole United However, they were to be congratulated for the arduous Nations Secretariat and thus draw from experience in efforts they were making to overcome the obstacles with all fields of economic development accumulated in the which they were confronted. Although, in the ten years world. Being primarily concerned with economic and which had elapsed since the end of the war, Japan had related social problems, ECAFE had, through its technical made substantial progress towards economic rehabilita­ meetings and other activities, contributed to the under­ tion, it was facing various difficulties in stabilizing and standing and co-operation between Asian countries and developing its economy. Its population was huge, its ter­ had an increasing impact upon their policies and actions. ritory was limited and poor in natural resources. It 190. The activities of the Commission in the various had to rely almost entirely on the expansion of its fields, such as flood control and water resources, mineral external trade ; the possible development of its commerce with the other countries of the region was of paramount 2 See Annual Report of the Economic Commission for Asia and importance for its economic future. However, such a the Far East, seventh session (E/1981-EJCN.ll/306), para. 341. 17 resources, iron and steel industry, electric power, trans­ in the economic and social fields had resulted in the secre­ port, international and interregional trade, methods of tariat's activities being increasingly intensified in respect mobilizing financial resources, had made it clear that of the economic and social development of under-deve­ development plans in any particular sector could not be loped countries. The Secretary-General attached much framed in isolation. The time had come for making an importance to the recently established Economic Develop­ analytical appraisal of the factors and problems of econo­ ment and Planning Unit in the ECAFE secretariat, and mic growth in the region. In view of the possibility of welcomed proposals to devote a larger part of the Com­ large resources being available both domestically and mission's resources to the promotion of concrete inter­ internationally for economic development, the work of national co-operation and the rendering of advisory ser­ the Commission in dealing with investment criteria, priori­ vices to Governments. In this connexion, he also referred ties and techniques of programming was likely to be to the growing unity of purpose of all United Nations highly rewarding. The Commission had gathered varied activities, and was gratified to note the close co-operation experience so that it might be ready for the next stage between the Commission and the specialized agencies. The involving co-ordinated and integrated planning of econo­ Economic and Social Council would review the world mic development in the region. economic situation and it had decided to consider the 191. Dealing with the economic situation in Asia, he World Economic Report in conjunction with the regional emphasized the need for an assured supply of whatever economic survey. He thanked the Prime Minister, the financial resources could be made available, the lack of Government and the people of Japan for their hospitality. which would prevent properly co-ordinated planning and 193. The Commission passed a vote of thanks to His the development of suitable machinery for implementing Excellency, Mr. Ichiro Hatoyama, Prime Minister of projects. He pointed out that countries were willing to Japan, for inaugurating the eleventh session. co-operate with each other in a number of ways, and that 194. The closing meeting of the session was held on the various subsidiary bodies had indicated the direction 7 Aprill955 and at that meeting the Commission adopted in which regional co-operation promised practical results, unanimously its annual report to the Economic and Social such as proposals to conduct joint surveys for two or Council. three neighbouring countries or a joint aerial survey and geological mapping of contiguous countries, development MEMBERSHIP AND ATTENDANCE of water resources to serve the needs of several countries Attendance through which a river flows, and measures to expand intra-regional trade. He hoped that the Commission would 195. Representatives of all member and associate give special attention to the work to be done in the field member countries except Nepal attended the session. In of programming economic development and to efforts for accordance with paragraph 9 of its terms of reference,.the furthering regional co-operation. He reported that co­ Commission invited at their request the representatives operation with specialized agencies had been maintained of Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia to attend the and strengthened, particularly with the International session in a consultative capacity. Also in attendance were Labour Organisation, the Food and Agriculture Organiza­ representatives of the International Labour Organisa~ion, tion and the International Monetary Fund. the Food and Agriculture Organization, the Internat10nal Monetary Fund and the World Meteorological Organiza­ 192. Mr. Martin HILL, Deputy Under-Secretary for tion, as well as representatives of the following non­ Economic and Social Affairs, conveyed the greetings and governmental organizations : International Chamber of best "Wishes of the Secretary-General and stated that this Commerce International Confederation of Free Trade regional body had grown in stature and its work had met Unions, International Co-operative Alliance, International with strong support from the Economic and Social Coun­ Organization of Employers, World Federation of Tra.de cil and the General Assembly. He pointed out that the Unions World Federation of United Nations Associa­ latest Economic Survey revealed that per capita real tions a~d International Union of Official Travel Organi­ incomes of the region as a whole were probably still zations. below the pre-war level. Some of the problems of economic A list of the delegations is given below. development had to be attacked from a world-wide as

well as a regional angle. In this connexion, he mentioned MEMBERS the progress made towards the establishment of an inter­ national finance corporation (IFC) and the current exami­ Afghanistan nation of the question of integrating the operations of the Representative: H.E. Mr. Abdul ::Yialik proposed special United Nations fund for economic deve­ Alternates: Mr. M. H. Karimi, Mr. M. Abdul Wahab, Mr.M. G. Alizo lopment (SUNFED) with the development plans of the Australia recipient Governments and of how SUNFED should be related to other organs, including the regional economic Representative: H.E. Dr. E. R. Walker commissions. On the question of fluctuation in the over­ Alternate: Mr. G. N. Upton demand for and prices of primary products of the Adviser: Mr. M. de L. P. Hill region, he referred to the action taken by the Economic Burma and Social Council in establishing a Commission on Inter­ Representative: U Thet Su national Commodity Trade. He further stated that at the Alternate: U Myat Tun international level, both the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council were attacking the same Cambodia problems as the Commission. The Secretary-General's Representative: H.E. Oum Chheang Nguon review of the organization and work of the Secretariat Alternate: M. Sok-Chhong 18 Ceylott Philippines Representative: H.E. Sir Susanta de Fonseka Representative: The Hon. Dr. Perfecto E. Laguio Alternates: Dr. B. B. Das Gupta, Mr. V. L. B. Mendis Alternates: Dr. Amando M. Dalisay, Mr. Agustin P. Mangila, lVrr. Luis Ablaza, Dr. Eusebio S. Garcia China Advisers: Mr. Manuel S. Rustia, Mr. Hermeuegiido A. Gonzaga Representative: Mr. Chien Chang-tsu Alternates: Mr. King Ke-ho, Mr. Li Kwoh-ting, Mr. Chang Jen-kan Thailand Advisers: Mr. Sun Yu-shu, Mr. Wang Liang-ching, Mr. Lee Nan- Representative: Mr. Sunthorn Hongladarom hsing Alternates: Luang Prakit Sahakorn, lVrr. Jumchet Charaljavana­ France phet, Mr. Pooh Prabhailakshana Representative: M. F. de Menthon Alternate and Secretary: lVrr. Suphot Phiansunthorn Alternates: M. H. Bouffanais, M. F. Geoffroy-Dechaume, M. H. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Corson Advisers: M. E. Mayolle, M. H. Lavaill, M. G. Mornand, M. R. Representative: H.E. Mr. M. A. Menshikov Gorse Alternates: Mr. V. B. Spandaryan, Mr. B. M. Volkov Secretary: Mlle M. de Beauvais Advisers: Mr. A. I. Dominitzky, Mr. L. A. Razin, Mr. A. V. Golubkov, Mr. N. B. Adyrkhaev, Mr. N. I. Ageev, Mr. V. V. India Benevoiensky, Mr. A. G. Putilin, Mr. B. M. Pichugin Representative: H.E. 1\:[r. D. P. Karmarkar Secretary: Mr. A. N. Mamin Alternates: H.E. Mr. B. R. Sen, Mr. K. B. Lall, Mr. B. R. Bhagat, Mr. V. B. Gandhi, Mr. S. L. K. Simha, lVrr. S. Swayambu United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Secretary: Mr. Harbans Singh Representative: Mr. A. A. Dudley Alternate: lVrr. H. N. Brain Indonesia Advisers: Mr. J. E. Chadwick, Mr. R. T. D. Ledward, Mr. H. B. Representative: H.E. Dr. R. A. Asmaoen Shepherd, Mr. 0. L. Williams, Mr. J. I. McGhie Alternates: Dr. Ali Budiardjo, Dr. Y. Ismael, Mr. Soerodjo Ranoe­ koesoemo, Mr. Soedoro Mangoenkoesoemo, Mr. Adnan Kusuma, United States of America Dr. Tan Tong Joe, Mr. Arifin Soeria-Atmadja, Mr. Iman Representative: H.E. Mr. John M. Allison Soemadi, Mr. Soemarto, Mr. Agus Jaman Advisers: Dr. Frank A. vVaring, Mr. Frederic P. Bartlett, Dr. Eugene M. Braderman, Mr. Harry Conover, Dr. William W. japan Diehl, Mr. Herbert D. Spivack, Mr. Leonard S. Tyson, Dr. H. Representative: H.E. Mr. Tatsunosuke Takasaki Lawrence Wilsey Alternates: Mr. Koichiro Asakai, Dr. Koichi Aki, Dr. Ryokichi Minobe, Mr. Shoichi Inoue, Mr. Ichiro Kawasaki, Mr. Toru Viet-Nam Nakagawa, Mr. Gengo Suzuki, Mr. Takei Tojo, Mr. Toichi Representative: H.E. Nguyen-Van-Thoai Ohtsubo, Mr. Osamu Itagaki, Mr. Koichi Amari, Mr. Masabumi Alternates: M. Phan-Khac-Suu, M. Huynh-Van-Diem, M. Nguyen­ Yoneda, Mr. Saburo Okita, Mr. Atsushi Uyama, Mr. Takeo Van-Khai, M. Vu-Van-Thai, M. Nguyen-Duy-Lien, M. Pham­ Ozawa, Mr. Yoshihiro Nakayama, Mr. Shunzo Kawai, Mr. Huy-Ty Yusuke Kashiwagi, Mr. Ichiro Miyoda, Mr. Tadatomi Ishimaru, Mr. Tetsuo Ban, Mr. Shinji Arima ASSOCIATE MEMBERS Advisers: Mr. Ichiro Ohta, Mr. Nobutane Kiuchi, Mr. Hisanori Hong I

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE BOARD 202. The representatives of the Philippines and the United States of America, stating that the question Sir Alexander MacFarquhar under discussion was beyond the competence of the Commission, supported the position of the represen­ NoN-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS tatives of China and of the Republic of Korea. Category A btternational Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Question of membership of the Nether lands Mr. Hisaakira Kana, Mr. Lalji Mehrotra, Mr. S. K. Sen, Mr. 203. The representative of Indonesia stated that D. V. Virmani, Mr. S. C. Bose, Mr. M. K. Mookerjee, Mr. A. Picard, Mr. C. Correns, Dr. K. Meissner, Mr. Tomo Abe, since the admission of Indonesia as an independent Mr. Keiji Mori, 1\:Ir. T. Okumura, Mr. S. Okamatsu State to membership in the United Nations in 1950, Indonesia had become a member of the Commission. International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (I CFT U) Mr. Y. Haraguchi, Mr. Cipriano C. Malonzo, Mr. D. Mungat, The membership of the Netherlands, therefore, had long Mr. T. Nishimaki, Mr. F. Takaragi ceased to be on the basis of a member holding responsi­ bility for the international relations of a country or terri­ International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) Mr. Yasushi Hasumi, Mr. Toyohiko Kagawa tory under its administration. He strongly opposed the participation of the Netherlands in the Commission if it International Organization of Employers (JOE) was based on its alleged sovereignty over West Irian Mr. Akio Mishiro (West New ). He went on record that, in the World Federation of Trade Unions (W FT U) opinion of his Government, the continued participation Mr. Li Chi Po, :Mr. Yoshida Sukeharu, Mr. B. N. Mukherjee, Mr. Chen Yu, Mr. Tsai Ying-ping, Mr. Chang Yang, Mr. Sun of the Netherlands in the membership of the Commission Sheng-chuan, Miss Chang Wan-fu did in no way imply the assumption of rights and respon­ sibilities by the Netherlands Government in regard to World Federation of United Nations Associations (WFUNA) Mr. Eiji Amau, Mr. Seishi Idei, Mr. Fujio Minoda the territory of West Irian (West ). 204. The representative of the Netherlands stated Category B that having territory in the region was not a prerequisite International Union of Official Travel Organizations (I U 0 TO} for membership in the Commission and that the Economic Mr. D. Majima and Social Council was the only authority to take decisions Credentials pertaining to the terms of reference by virtue of para­ graph 3 of which the Netherlands was a member of 197. The Chairman, in accordance with rule 12 of the ECAFE. He further stated that the sovereignty over rules of procedure, reported to the Commission that he West New Guinea had been explicitly excluded from and the Vice-Chairmen had examined the credentials the transfer of sovereignty by the Netherlands to the of the delegations to the eleventh session and had found Republic of Indonesia in December 1949 and that at them to be in order. present only the Netherlands bore responsibility for West New Guinea, subject to the rules of the United Representation of China, Korea and Viet-Nam Nations on Non-Self-Governing Territories, as laid down 198. The representative of the Union of Soviet in Article 73 e of the United Nations Charter, but that Socialist Republics, expressing the view that the repre­ this political question was beyond the competence of the sentative of "Chiang Kai-shek's clique" was illegally Commission. occupying the seat of China, stated that China could only be represented by a delegate appointed by the Central Question of the statement and representation of the World People's Government of the People's Republic of China. Federation of Trade Unions He also requested that a representative of the Viet-Nam 205. The representative of the Philippines stated Democratic Republic be invited, as the representative that the composition of the World Federation of Trade of South Viet-Nam attending the session did not, in his Unions delegation, having a majority of members from view, represent the whole of Viet-Nam. He further stated China, was highly improper. He pointed out that the presence of the representative of Syngman Rhee that the WFTU delegates from mainland China had was illegal as he did not really represent Korea. already begun political propaganda for their country 199. The representative of China stated that the by distributing a political statement. He therefore reques­ Government of the Republic of China, which he repre­ ted the Chairman and Vice-Chairmen to scrutinize the sented, was the only legal Government of the country credentials of the delegates of the WFTU. and the Chinese people, including those on the mainland 206. The representative of China moved that the and living overseas. delegate of WFTU be expelled from the meeting, as 200. The representative of Korea stated that the the WFTU had violated the rules governing the parti­ Government he represented had been recognized by cipation of non-governmental organizations in the work the General Assembly as the only legal Government of of the Commission. Korea, and that in 1954 it had been granted full member­ 207. The representative of Korea supported the ship in the Commission ; he supported the position remarks of the representatives of the Philippines and of the representative of China. China. 20 208. The representative of the USSR opposed these "Rule 14 views and supported the right of the WFTU to select its "If the Chairman is absent from a meeting, or any own team of observers. part thereof, the Vice-Chairman designated by the 209. The representative of the United States, while Chairman shall preside. agreeing that the WFTU had the right to be represented by persons of its own choice, stated that these represen­ "Rule 15 tatives had no right to utilize the services of the secre­ "If the Chairman ceases to represent a member of tariat to circulate political documents. the Commission, or is so incapacitated that he can no longer hold office, the First Vice-Chairman shall become 210. The proposal of the representative of China Chairman for the unexpired portion of the term. If the was not pressed further after the Executive Secretary First Vice-Chairman also ceases to represent a member explained that as a non-governmental organization in of the Commission, or is so incapacitated that he can category A having consultative status with the Economic no longer hold office, the Second Vice-Chairman shall and Social Council, the WFTU was fully entitled to send become Chairman for the unexpired portion of the term." observers to the Commission, and that the terms of reference and rules of procedure of the Commission did B. Agenda of the session not permit the Commission to make any decision con­ cerning the composition of delegations of non-govern­ 216. The Commission adopted the following agenda: mental organizations. As far as the circulation of docu­ DoC'IIment No. ments was concerned, the Executive Secretary assured 1. Opening addresses that no papers or statements would be circulated to the 2. Election of the Chairman and Vice­ conference without his authorization. Chairmen 3. Adoption of the agenda EJCN.1lf396 211. In answer to points raised in the same connexion Rev.2 by the representative of the Philippines and supported by 4. Economic situation in Asia Economic Survey of the representatives of Korea and China, he stated further Asia and the Far that under rule 49 of the rules of procedure, he had to East, 1954 circulate, on the request of organizations in category A 5. Report of the Committee on Industry EJCN.llj404 orB, documents presented by such organizations on sub­ and Trade (EJCN.ll/I&Tf jects in which they have competence, and at his discre­ 115) tion he could consult with the organizations and make 6. Inter-regional co-operation in the field EJCN.l1j403 comments regarding their statements. This was a delicate of trade (E/CN.l1/I&T/ task which he had to perform according to his best 114) judgment. 7. Report of the Third Regional Confer­ E/CN.ll/390 ence of Statisticians (EJCN.llfSTAT/ ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK OF THE ELEVENTH SESSION Conf.3/5) 8. Flood control and water resources deve­ 212. In accordance with rule 13 of the Commission's lopment: rules of procedure, the Commission at its 138th meeting (a) Report of the Bureau of Flood EfCN.ll/397 unanimously elected Mr. Tatsunosuke Takasaki (Japan) Control and Water Resources Deve­ (E/CN.11/ as Chairman. lopment FLOOD/13) (b) Report of the Regional Technical E/CN.ll/391 213. Dr. R. A. Asmaoen (Indonesia) and Mr. A. Kha­ Conference on Water Resources (EfCN.Ilf leeli (Pakistan) were elected Vice-Chairmen. Development FLOOD/12 214. The Commission appointed an ad hoc Drafting 9. Report of the Inland Transport Com­ EfCN .11/399 Committee consisting of Australia, Burma, India, Japan, mittee (EfCN.Ilj Pakistan, the United States of America and Viet-Nam to TRANSfl09) draft the Commission's report to the Council ; several 10. Activities of the Joint ECAFEJFAO ECAFEJL. 86 other members of the Commission also participated in the Agriculture Division work of the Drafting Committee. The Committee elected 11. Reports of the specialized agencies : Mr. A. Khaleeli (Pakistan) as its Chairman. It held five {a) Report by the Food and Agriculture E/CN.l1J401 meetings and submitted a draft report to the Commission Organization (b) Activities of the International La­ E/CN.11/400 at its !51st meeting. bour Organisation of special inte­ rest to Asia and the Far East AMENDMENTS TO RULES OF PROCEDURE (c) UNESCO activities in 1954 and E/CN.ll/402 work plans for 1955/56 of interest 215. The Commission at its !38th and 15lst meetings to the Economic Commission for amended rules 13, 14 and 15 of the rules of procedure of Asia and the Far East the Commission to read : (d) Memorandum from the Internatio- E/CN.ll/405 nal Bank for Reconstruction and "Rule 13 Development "The Commission shall, at its first meeting of each 12. Technical assistance activities in the region: year, elect from among its representatives a Chairman (a) Technical assistance activities in EJCN.ll/398 and two Vice-Chairmen, designated as First and Second economic development and public Vice-Chairmen, who shall hold office until their succes­ administration in the ECAFE sors are elected. They shall be eligible for re-election. region, 1954 21 Document No. region. However, looking at the region as a whole, the (b) Expanded Programme of Technical ECAFE/INF/9 Commission felt that more elaboration was needed of Assistance for economic develop- the technique of programming economic development, ment 13. Programme of work and priorities adapted to the needs of the countries and based on their experience. It was desirable that the review of 14. Date and place of the next session existing plans and programmes of the countries of the 15. Annual report of the Commission to the region and the implications of their fulfilment be conti­ Economic and Social Council nued by the secretariat through the annual Economic Survey of Asia and the Far East. A stage had now been C. Account of proceedings reached when the Commission could undertake an 217. Bearing in mind that four years had elapsed extensive survey and give an analytical appraisal of since the Commission had last undertaken a general factors and problems of and develop­ evaluation of its record, outlined prospects for its further ment in the region. The Commission, accordingly, wel­ development and formulated general guiding principles comed and supported the establishment of the Economic for the work of the Executive Secretary and his staff, Development Section in the ECAFE secretariat as from the Chairman of the Commission, in consultation with the current year. It should : the Executive Secretary, convened on 28 March 1955 (a) Undertake an extensive and analytical survey of an informal meeting of the heads of delegations of the economic development in the countries, in agreement member and associate member countries and their and co-operation with the Governments concerned ; advisers. This meeting assisted the Commission in (b) Develop in the course of the country studies a formulating its views on the direction of the work which body of techniques of programming economic develop­ will further promote economic co-operation among ment adapted to the conditions of the countries in the countries in Asia and the Far East through ECAFE. ECAFE region; 218. Ever since the Commission's establishment, (c) Study basic economic development problems (in­ ECAFE has been looked upon, in the words of its annual cluding problems of population and man-power, natural report of the seventh session held at Lahore, as "an resources, technology and productivity, capital formation, effective and favoured instrument for further economic financing of development, institutional factors, essential development of the countries in the region". The Com­ statistical indicators) and analyse basic development mission had steadily grown in stature and has come, policies with special reference to the ECAFE region ; and on account of its valuable contribution to economic (d) Study methods of projecting economic trends of development, to occupy a place in the hearts and minds countries in the region with a view to assisting the of the people in the region. Governments in the preparation of future development programmes or the revision of existing ones. 219. In the early days, the Commission had to concentrate its very limited resources on fact-finding of 221. The secretariat of the Commission was now in a very broad nature. Gradually, it became possible to a position to offer, if so requested, its services to the do the fact-finding work in greater detail and to give countries of the region to assist Governments in examining more attention to analysis. The Commission's work their economic development programmes in a regional programme included more and more projects on many context. While it was recognized that Governments technical and economic problems in the fields of economic themselves were considering these problems and acting development, industry and trade, inland transport, on them in accordance with what they judge to be their agriculture, flood control and water resources develop­ best interests, the secretariat could, if requested by the ment. Committees, sub-committees, conferences, expert Governments concerned, help in providing the necessary working parties, and other ad hoc subsidiary bodies have information and preliminary analysis as a basis for been established, thus developing an effective technique such action. for carrying out much of its technical and economic 222. It was important to devote a larger part of activities. The work of the subsidiary bodies in their the resources of the Commission to those activities which respective fields has had its impact upon the policies strengthen the economic co-operation of countries in the of the Governments and has resulted in the promotion region both among themselves and with other countries of appropriate action. However, it was desirable to have of the world. Projects of this character, planned or a further concentration of efforts, and to develop the already initiated, were incorporated in the Commission's Commission's work intensively rather than extensively. programme of work and priorities for 1955/56 (see part V). With this in mind and in line with the policy of the There is no doubt that other concrete opportunities for General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council, regional co-operation will emerge in due course and will the Commission laid further emphasis in its work pro­ be brought to the attention of the Commission. gramme on enabling more of its resources to be devoted, 223. While regional problems were undoubtedly by agreement of the countries concerned, to the appraisal important and should continue to be the main concern and promotion of economic development, the promotion of ECAFE, it was noted that most of the countries of specific measures of international co-operation and in the region were at a stage of development where the rendering of advisory services to Governments. national projects loomed naturally large in their scheme 220. There is in the region a burning desire to of things. For this reason, ECAFE should give due improve the living standards of the peoples through emphasis to projects relating to national problems, economic development. Economic development plans especially those which are common to several countries. and programmes have been formulated and put into According to its terms of reference it is the responsibility effect, in varying degrees, by many countries of the of ECAFE to perform advisory services to countries of 22 the region at their request. The inclusion of this function time, some members considered that there was need in its terms of reference after ECAFE had been in for an equitable relationship between the prices of rice existence for four years constituted recognition of the and other export commodities and those of manufactured fact that by reason of the experience gained in its work goods imported into the countries of the region. The and of its knowledge of conditions in all countries in conclusion of international commodity agreements, for the region, ECAFE was in a good position to render example, on wheat and sugar, aimed at stabilizing prices certain advisory services to Governments. In order to of major agricultural exports, was generally welcomed. assist the national development of countries in the The Commission noted that the Commission on Inter­ region, ECAFE should continue and strengthen its national Commodity Trade had started its operations, advisory services, to be performed within the framework and looked forward to the results of this work. The of its work programme and in co-operation with the Commission also noted the action taken by F AO in its United Nations Technical Assistance Administration and meeting on the economic problem of rice, held in Rangoon the specialized agencies. in 1954, calling for a special study on problems involved 224. A team of senior staff members of the ECAFE in the stabilization of the rice market. Several represen­ secretariat headed by the Executive Secretary might, tatives voiced concern over the possible effects of the at the request of interested Governments, pay visits to agricultural surplus disposal policies of the United States their countries in 1955 and 1956, with a view to rendering of America, under which, in addition to certain provisions further technical ad·visory services, especially in connexion for commodity grants, agreements were being negotiated with the formulation and implementation of their with various countries of the region for the sale of economic development programmes. surplus agricultural products for local currency. In this 225. The Commission noted with special appreciation connexion, the representative of the United States the statement made on behalf of the Secretary-General pointed out that the United States Agricultural Trade that he is "ready and anxious to strengthen, in any Development and Assistance Act provided specifically way within his power, the secretariat resources available for reasonable precautions to assure that such sales to assist ECAFE in meeting the responsibilities placed would not unduly disrupt world prices of agricultural upon it". commodities. The Commission noted the assurance by the United States representative that the legislation 226. The Commission highly appreciated the support would be administered with that provision fully in mind. which the Economic and Social Council gives it in the discharge of its functions. The Commission also expressed 230. The Commission observed that while export its deep appreciation for the support given to it by the earnings in countries of the region had declined during United Nations General Assembly. the year, the level of imports of many ECAFE countries had risen as a result of governmental policies to maintain and even expand exchange outlays on imports needed EcONOMIC SITUATION IN ASIA for economic development. Imports, together with the 227. The Commission considered the economic situa­ normal deficit on current account, exceeded export tion in the region with the help of the background earnings in many countries ; in consequence, they drew information provided by the Economic Survey of Asia down their exchange reserves in addition to receiving and the Far East, 1954, prepared by the secretariat on external aid. This unsatisfactory position in the region's its own responsibility. This included for the first time international balance of payments resulted in a number a chapter on Afghanistan and a section on mainland of countries in the region having to maintain, or at best China. The Commission commended the secretariat for relax only moderately, their trade controls and restric­ the Survey, which was deemed to be highly useful to tions, in order to economize their scarce exchange the Governments of the region. Some members of the reserves for meeting development requirements. In many Commission emphasized that it would be desirable for cases, countries also adopted export promotion measures the secretariat to express its own judgments, in inter­ to enhance their exchange earnings. Bilateral payments preting the developments v.>i.thin the region, more boldly arrangements were used by some countries in their in future than it had done heretofore. search for outlets for exports and sources of supply of 228. The Commission expressed satisfaction at the capital equipment and other essential goods, and a general progress in the region's agricultural and industrial considerably larger number of bilateral trade agreements production achieved during the past year. Note was remained in effect. However, the Commission noted with taken of the difficulties that most Governments were approval the findings of the Working Group of Experts experiencing in attempting to increase or even maintain on Payments Problems of the ECAFE Region, which their development expenditures. pointed to multilateral trade and payments arrangements 229. The Commission noted as a matter for attention as ultimately desirable for countries of the region. and concern the continued difficulties regarding some of 231. The Commission noted the progress being made the region's major agricultural exports, especially rice. throughout the region in the formulation and implemen­ The demand for Asian rice was kept down not only tation of development programmes. It expressed concern, by the improved supply position in deficit countries, however, over the fact that, despite the strenuous efforts but also by the relatively higher export prices of rice made in the post-war years to increase output and raise as compared with other foodgrains, and by other factors. levels of living, most countries of the region still found The Commission commended the efforts of rice-exporting themselves, nearly a decade after the end of the war, with Governments to adjust prices of export rice to the per capita real incomes that were either lower than before changes in demand and to bring them in line with lower the war or barely at pre-war levels. For this, many prices for other foodgrains, notably wheat. At the same factors were responsible, including a shortage of financial 23 resources. It would be a function of the proposed made to ensure the participation of private foreign capital Working Party on Economic Development and Planning in particular ventures and financial institutions. to assess the significance of the various aspects of this 235. The Commission noted with appreciation the con­ problem and to analyse the policies being applied by tribution that intergovernmental and international grants Governments to expedite progress. The Commission heard and loans were making to the region's economic develop­ the views of numerous member Governments to the effect ment : loans from the International Bank for Reconstruc­ that, at the present stage, economic development in their tion and Development ; assistance provided under the respective countries should be a balanced process placing United Nations Expanded Programme of Technical due emphasis on the utilization of unemployed and under­ Assistance and the Colombo Plan; aid-sometimes on a employed labour for labour-intensive projects, including large scale-from countries outside the region, and ar­ cottage and small-scale industries and community deve­ rangements for bilateral assistance between Governments lopment programmes. The social values of the latter pro­ inside the region as well. It welcomed resolutions 822 (IX) grammes were stressed by some representatives. At the and 823 (IX) adopted by the United Nations General same time the Commission considered that the long-term Assembly on 11 December 1954, looking towards the objectives of economic diversification and industrializa­ early establishment of an international finance corporation tion should be kept in view. (IFC) and, as soon as practicable, of a special United 232. On the subject of the capital urgently required Nations fund for economic development (SUNFED). for development purposes, the Commission took account 236. The Commission noted with satisfaction that of the need for increased efforts both in mobilizing domes­ there was general agreement that the economic develop­ tic capital and in bringing public and private foreign ment of the under-developed countries of the region was capital to the ECAFE region. With regard to domestic a co-operative endeavour in which the efforts of the Asian capital, some progress was being achieved in the mobili­ countries were being reinforced by help from the more­ zation of savings by means of government bonds, postal developed countries of the world. savings and bank deposits, as well as through the invest­ ment of corporate savings and through the establishment INDUSTRY AND TRADE of new financial institutions for development financing. 237. The Commission endorsed the report of the The Commission also considered, however, that Govern­ seventh session of the Committee on Industry and Trade ments should seek to secure larger surpluses on current (E/CN.ll/404) and commended the Committee for the account to finance development expenditures, especially useful work it had done. through improved tax administration and collection and 238. The Commission noted that while much had been new methods of taxation. The Commission endorsed the achieved by the countries of the region in the agricultural views on deficit financing expressed by the recently held and industrial sectors, this should not give rise to com­ Working Party on Financial Aspects of Economic Deve­ placency as the pace of development in the countries of lopment Programmes in Asia and the Far East, to the the region was less than required and much slower than effect that deficit financing might properly be used by that in the economically advanced countries of the world ; Governments as a means of financing economic develop­ every effort should therefore be made to speed up the ment in certain circumstances but that such a policy pace of progress. should be adopted with extreme caution lest inflation, with all its undesirable social and economic consequences, 239. The Commission noted with satisfaction that due should result. attention was being given by the Committee to the impor­ tant problem of training of personnel for economic deve­ 233. The Commission strongly emphasized once again lopment and to the part played by public enterprises in that, given the low levels of national income in countries the economic development of countries of the region. It of the region, domestic capital alone was insufficient to noted with appreciation the offers made by some coun­ meet their capital requirements for development (estim­ tries in and outside the region to provide training facilities ated in the Survey for 1954 to be of the order of $5,000 to nationals of the countries of the region. million annually for the ECAFE region, exclusive of Japan 240. As countries of the region have vast human and mainland China) and would have to be supplemented resources, the Commission emphasized the need to awaken by foreign capital if the vicious circle of low productivity the consciousness of the people so that they would be and poverty was to be broken in a reasonable period of prepared to make immediate sacrifices for future economic time. The foreign capital now being made available to progress. It felt that in the choice of techniques and prio­ the countries of the region, of the order of $1,000 million rities, the human factor should receive special consider­ annually, fell short of the amount required. ation, although the question of mechanization should not 234. The foreign capital being supplied to Asia and be neglected. the Far East took the form mainly of inter-governmental 241. The Commission noted with interest the existence grants and loans rather than of private capital. The Com­ in the countries of the region of the traditional method of mission noted with concern that the inflow of private self-help and co-operation among the people, and con­ foreign capital into the region in post-war years had been sidered that the application of this practice in conjunction small and that, in some countries, there had in fact been with mechanical equipment should be extended to various a net outflow of private foreign capital, taking into fields of economic development. account the transfer of interest and profits. The Commis­ 242. The Commission noted with satisfaction the sion welcomed the tendency on the part of Governments increasing recognition by the countries of the region of in recent years to review their laws and regulations con­ the usefulness of regional and international co-operation cerning private foreign investment, and the special efforts m the implementation of national programmes of 24 development, especially in the field of mineral resources developed by the Economic Commission for Europe development, joint aerial surveys and joint geological but believes that methods and procedures should be mapping of adjoining areas, joint research on low-grade more fully explored ; ores and co-operation between exporting and importing "3. Considers that these consultations should not countries. be limited to members of the three regional commis­ 243. The Commission agreed with the recommen­ sions inasmuch as this would have the effect of dation of the Committee on the urgent need for stabili­ excluding other interested Member countries of the zation of commodity prices in view of the serious diffi­ United Nat ions ; and culties encountered by the countries of the region, owing "4. Recomtmends that consideration be given at the to wide fluctuations in the prices of their export products. next session of the Economic and Social Council to In this connexion some members considered that there the most effective means of exploring and developing was need for an equitable relationship between the prices new techniques and a venues for the expansion of of primary products and the prices of manufactured international trade." goods as referred to in paragraph 229 above. 244. In regard to the disposal in the region of REPORT OF THE THIRD REGIONAL CONFERENCE OF agricultural surpluses by donor countries under economic STATISTICIANS aid schemes, the Commission noted with appreciation 249. The Commission commended the report of the the recognition by the donor countries of the need for Third Regional Conference of Statisticians (E/CNll/390) exercising due care and caution to avoid unfair com­ and approved the recommendations concerning national petition with the countries of the region and to avoid income statistics. It requested the Executive Secretary disruption of normal trade patterns. to transmit the report, through the Secretary-General, to the United Nations Statistical Commission for consi­ 245. The Commission endorsed the recommendation deration. of the Committee that a study of ocean freight rates affecting the countries of the region should be made. It 250. The Commission endorsed the proposal to felt that a study of railway freight rates might also be convene, in co-operation with the United Nations made as this question was of importance to land-locked Statistical Office, a fourth regional conference of sta­ countries. tisticians in 1956, with a view to considering, inter alia, the draft recommendations of the Secretary-General for 246. The Commission noted that countries of the the 1960 world programme of population and related region were keenly interested in the use of atomic energy censuses. It took note of an offer from the Government for industrial and peaceful purposes. It noted with of Japan to act as host for the conference, leaving the appreciation that some countries outside the region were prepared to co-operate at the international level in the decision on the venue of the conference to the Executive Secretary. sharing of available fissionable materials and in the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. It noted with 251. The Commission noted the suggestions from interest that the United Nations conference on the use some Governments for the expansion of advisory services of atomic energy for peaceful purposes would be convened by the secretariat staff to Governments on statistical shortly. It considered that the secretariat should keep matters. in touch with further developments in the matter in FLOOD CONTROL AND WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT order to disseminate information to the countries of 252. The Commission considered the annual report the region. of the Bureau of Flood Control and Water Resources INTERREGIONAL CO-OPERATION IN THE FIELD OF TRADE Development (E/CN.ll/397) and the report of the Regional Technical Conference on Water Resources 247. The Commission considered the question of Development (E/CN.ll/391). It commended the work interregional co-operation in the field of trade as re­ done by the Bureau, and endorsed the recommendations quested by resolution 535 B (XVIII) of the Economic of the Conference. and Social Council in the light of the technical report 253. The Commission welcomed the two recent (E/2674) prepared by the Secretary-General on the publications of the Bureau, namely, Multiple-Purpose practical conditions under which effect might be given River Basin Development and Standards for !vi ethods and to resolution 5 (IX) of the Economic Commission for Records of Hydrologic !vi easurements, which were con­ Europe. sidered useful handbooks and guides for experts in the 248. The Commission unanimously adopted resolution countries of the region. 14 (XI) on interregional trade consultations, reading as 254. The Commission attached importance to the follows (E/CN 11/406) : Bureau's work on flood control and water resources "The Economic Commission for Asia andtheFar East, development of international rivers, and approved the Bureau's project to undertake, at the request of the "Having considered resolution 535 B (XVIII) of the interested Governments, studies on the development of Economic and Social Council and the report prepared the Mekong river basin. by the Secretary-General in this connexion (E/2674), 255. The Commission noted \\ith satisfaction the "I. Records the earnest desire of its members to Bureau's participation in the proposed training centre promote trade on a multilateral basis ; for water resources development being organized by the "2. Endorses in principle the concept of trade con­ Government of India at Roorkee University, and sultations between interested countries on specific appreciated the extension of the Centre's facilities to problems ; expresses its interest in the technique trainees from other countries. 25 INLAND TRANSPORT countries of the region to raise agriculture production 256. The Commission took note of the report of the and the standard of living of the rural masses could be fourth session of the Inland . Transport Committee more effectively co-ordinated. It felt the need for the (E/CN.ll/399). It was gratified that the work of the countries of the region to review, from time to time, committee in the various fields of inland transport was their plans and programmes in the field of agricultural progressing satisfactorily to the benefit of the countries development, including techniques of programming, of the region. The Commission appreciated that in regard co-ordination of such plans and programmes with the to co-ordination of transport the problem of ECAFE industrialization programmes, diversification of agri­ region was one of co-ordinated development of adequate cultural production, problems of land reform and other transport facilities of all types on a rational and integrated related matters. In order to ensure the above, the Com­ basis. The Commission therefore endorsed the opinion mission felt that opportunity should be provided for of the Inland Transport Committee that the best way discussion and exchange of information at joint meetings of pursuing the study further was through a working of FAO and ECAFE. The Commission requested the party of experts from countries both within and outside Executive Secretary to consult the Director-General the region. It agreed that, in carrying out this study, of F AO with a view to exploring the possibility of in­ due note should be taken of the work already done by creasing further the effective co-operation between the Economic Commission for Europe and the Inter­ ECAFE and FAO, and for this purpose accepted his national Chamber of Commerce and other organizations. proposal that the Commission postpone action on the draft resolution submitted by the representative of 257. In the field of inland waterways, the Commission India on this subject (ECAFE/L.92 of 2 April 1955). noted the progress made concerning the draft convention on the measurement and registration of vessels employed REPORTS OF SPECIALIZED AGENCIES in inland navigation. It hoped that the draft convention would be put in final form at the third session of the 263. The Commission noted with appreciation the Inland Waterways Sub-Committee. reports of the specialized agencies: "Activities of the 258. Owing to the increasing number of road vehicles, International Labour Organisation of special interest not only were most of the countries experiencing diffi­ to Asia and the Far East" (E/CN.ll/400), "Report by culties in the regulation and control of traffic, but the Food and Agriculture Organization" (E/CN.ll/401), inadequate highway safety was becoming a serious "UNESCO activities in 1954 and work plans for 1955/56 problem. Therefore the Commission attached great of interest to the Economic Commission for Asia and the importance to the study of highway safety. Far East" (E/CN.ll/402) and "Memorandum from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop­ 259. In view of the fact that the Governments in ment" (E/CN .11/405). the region were engaged in rehabilitating and expanding their railway systems to meet the increasing demand on 264. Many representatives appreciated the activi­ their capacities, the Commission attached importance ties of the specialized agencies as directly and indirectly to the studies being carried out by the secretariat on assisting their Governments in their efforts to improve diesel locomotives and railcars and railway track sleepers. the general economic and social conditions of their 260. In view of the fact that telecommunication was countries and felt that these activities of the specialized essential to the economic development of the region, it agencies in the region should be further increased. was suggested that a study could be initiated by ECAFE 265. The Commission commended the close and in consultation with the International Telecommuni­ useful collaboration which has continued between the cation Union on the following problems : secretariat and the specialized agencies in many of the (a) Promotion and improvement of public communi­ projects of the Commission and its subsidiary bodies. cation systems for domestic and commercial purposes; The practice of formulating an agreed work programme (b) Establishment of better telecommunication faci­ for each agency, as, for example, in regard to housing lities for various industrial activities, such as development and building materials, training of personnel and man­ of transport, electric generation, water resources develop­ power problems, has yielded useful results. It felt that the ment and agriculture. secretariats of ECAFE and ILO should undertake a The Commission at its next session might consider study of the problems of under-employment and unem­ expanding the terms of reference of the Inland Transport ployment in under-developed countries of the region, Committee to cover this subject. and study the methods of raising the productivity of labour at least to a point where labour costs per unit of production would permit their products to compete AcTIVITIEs OF THE JmNT ECAFE/FAO AGRICULTURE in world markets. The Commission welcomed the colla­ DIVISION boration between ECAFE and UNESCO on the problems 261. The Commission noted that the joint ECAFE/ of urbanization and social aspects of industrialization. F AO Agriculture Division was performing useful work in regard to the economic problems of agriculture. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE REGION 262. The Commission emphasized the importance 266. The Commission noted with appreciation the of studying the problems of agriculture in the setting report of the Technical Assistance Administration, of the general economic conditions of the countries "Technical assistance activities in economic develop­ of the region, with a view to identifying those problems ment and public administration in the ECAFE region, which could be solved by concrete action of the Govern­ 1954" (EfCN.ll/398), and the information paper pre­ ments, and those spheres in which the efforts of the various pared by the secretariat of the Technical Assistance 26 Board, "Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance 269. The Commission was highly satisfied with the for economic development" (ECAFE/INF/9). co-operation between ECAFE and TAA, and noted that 267. The Commission emphasized that the programme the role of the ECAFE secretariat in connexion with of technical assistance was one of the most effective United Nations technical assistance would increase, as means of achieving the aims of the United Nations in the Secretary-General was anxious that all resources the economic and social fields. The countries of the region of the United Nations and its specialized agencies should appreciated the significant role of the United Nations contribute towards the effectiveness of the programme. technical assistance in their economic and social develop­ In this connexion, the Commission indicated the useful ment. They expressed the hope that all Members of part which the ECAFE secretariat could play in guiding the United Nations would do their best to increase their and directing technical assistance to useful channels. contributions to the Expanded Programme and that 270. The Commission noted that the Technical larger funds would be available for this region in the Assistance Administration continued to receive assis­ coming years. The Commission emphasized that along tance from the ECAFE secretariat which, in particular, with the provision of experts and training facilities, provided comments on the reports of the T AA experts in equipment for the projects was often necessary. the countries of the region in respect of those fields which were of interest to the Commission. 268. The Commission was also impressed by the increasing evidence of the keen desire on the part of the 271. The Commission also noted with satisfaction countries of the region to help one another by provision the large volume of technical assistance being provided of direct technical assistance on a bilateral basis. Many by member countries outside the United Nations frame­ member and associate member countries had contri­ work. buted funds to the United Nations Expanded Programme 272. The Commission considered the invitation of of Technical Assistance, made experts available and the Government of India to hold the twelfth session of provided facilities for study tours. Training facilities the Commission and the eighth session of the Committee in the national institutions of these countries were being on Industry and Trade in India. It also noted the state­ opened to trainees of the countries of the region. The ment of the representative of the Union of Soviet Socia­ Commission attached great significance to the regional list Republics that his Government would welcome a projects, such as study tours, seminars, training centres session of the Commission to be held in the , and demonstration pilot plants as contributing to the in or , when circumstances permit. increased co-operation between countries of the region. 273. The Commission decided that, subject to the The Commission was glad to note that the Technical approval of the appropriate United Nations bodies, the Assistance Board had decided that 10 per cent of the invitation of the Government of India be accepted and funds available to it would be earmarked for regional that the dates and the venue of the meetings be deter­ projects, and it hoped that this policy would be continued mined by the Executive Secretary in consultation with in future. the Government of India.



274. The Commission adopted the following draft Commission for Asia and the Far East for the period resolution for submission to the Council : 19 February 1954 to 7 April1955, of the recommendations contained in the account of the proceedings of the Draft resolution for action by the Economic and eleventh session of the Commission and of the pro­ Social Council gramme of work and priorities contained therein. ADoPTED BY THE CoMMISSION oN 7 APRIL 1955 The Economic and Social Council 4 Resolution 14 (XI) and other recommendations of the Takes note of the annual report of the Economic Commission are included in part III C, "Account of proceedings".

PART v PROGRAMME OF WORK AND PRIORITIES Introduction Transport Committee (E/CN.ll/399), the annual report of the Bureau of Flood Control and Water Resources 275. The Commission approved unanimously the pro­ Development (EfCN.ll/397), the report of the Regional gramme of work and priorities set out below at its 151st Technical Conference on Water Resources Development meeting held on 7 April 1955. (EjCN .11/391), the programme of work of the joint 276. This programme was adopted in the light of the ECAFE/FAO Agriculture Division as agreed between the recommendations contained in the report of the seventh Executive Secretary and the Director-General of FAO, session of the Committee on Industry and Trade (E/CN. and on the basis of consultations with the ILO, UNESCO, 11/404), the report of the fourth session of the Inland WHO, WMO and the International }fonetary Fund. 27 277. As in the past, in reviewing its programme of completion was shown for virtually every ad hoc project work and priorities, the Commission continued to follow in this group. Within this group, projects were listed in the directives and decisions of the Economic and Social order of priority; i.e., if and as resources became available Council and of the General Assembly as well as the recom­ group 3 projects should be taken up, in each division or mendations of the Advisory Committee on Administra­ sub-division, in the order listed. tive and Budgetary Questions regarding programmes and 283. The criteria used in proposing the distribution of priorities, concentration of efforts a~d resources, c_ontrol projects in the above three groups included, among other of documentation and related questwns. In particular, factors an estimate of the basic importance of each pro­ the Commission adopted, as the guiding principles and ject co~cerned, as well as an estimate of the most effective criteria in its appraisal of the future work programme, way to utilize available resources. the recommendations contained in Council resolutions 324 284. As in the past, the Commission closely examined (XI), 362 B (XII), 402 B (XIII), 451 A (XIV), 497 C the possibility of further concentration of efforts in the (XVI), 553 (XVIII), and 557 A and B (XVIII). light of the United Nations priority programmes est~b­ 278. The programme of work was divided into five lished by the Economic and Social Council. In formulatmg broad divisions, namely: I. General projects (including the proposed work programme, it had particularly borne A. Research and planning, and B. Technical assistance in mind Council resolution 557 B (XVIII) referred to above. and advisory services) ; II. Agriculture; III. Flood con­ 285. The programme contemplated the extension, upon trol and water resources development; IV. Industry and request by Governments, of advisory s~rvices by ~he trade; and V. Inland transport. secretariat within its available resources, m consultatwn It was not found practicable or useful to attempt a with TAA and in connexion with approved projects in determination of priorities between these broad divisions the work programme. This type of secretariat activity, or between their sub-divisions. 6 in connexion with projects in all parts of the programme, 279. Within each division (I, II, III etc.) or within was referred to in project 04-01, and to avoid repetition, each sub-division (A, B, C etc. or 1, 2, 3 etc.), projects were the detailed description of each advisory service was not listed, in accordance with the established practice, in included under individual projects. The Commission also three groups as follows : suggested that in 1955 and 1956, more of the secretariat's resources be devoted to the rendering of advisory services GROUP 1. CONTINUING PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES OF HIGH PRIORITY to Governments at their request, and to the furtherance of those projects which would strengthen economic co­ 280. This group was defined as consisting of projects operation among a group of countries. and activities in which the responsibility of the Commis­ 286. The Commission was gratified to note that as in sion and its secretariat, pursuant to the Commission's previous years, TAA has agreed to co-operate in some terms of reference and resolutions, was of a continuing projects. These projects included primarily region~l l_lro­ character. The studies and reports contemplated therein jects 6 usually initiated and developed by the_Commissi.on, were to be presented from time to time. Each study might such as training centres, seminars, study tnps and pilot differ from and supplement the others in scope (country plants. In addition, at some ECAFE ?onfere_nces a~d coverage), substance (different aspects of major proble~s), meetings of experts, T AA agreed to provide assist~nce m and time (developments during a given period). No relative the form of services of a few experts from outside the priorities were assigned to projects within this group, or region. as between group 1 and group 2. 287. The Commission noted that many of the projects GROUP 2. Ad hoc PROJECTS OF HIGH PRIORITY listed below were to be carried out jointly or in co-opera­ 281. This group was defined as consisting of non­ tion with the specialized agencies. Overlapping ':"ith the recurrent projects, for which an approximate duration work of the specialized agencies had been avoided by could be estimated. It included projects outside the broad closely following their work in related _fields: and by planning work with them so that co-operatwn with app:o­ scope of the continuing projects (group 1) ~s :vell as ?cca­ sional topics within the scope of such contmumg proJects. priate agencies took place wherever a co-op~~ve Pursuant to the recommendation of the Council and its approach promised better results and bette: utihzat~on Co-ordination Committee, an estimate of the probable of international funds. It was also the established pohcy duration of virtually all projects in group 2 was indicated. of the Commission and the Executive Secretary that no No relative priorities were assigned to projects within this requests were addressed to a specialized agency for _a new group, or as between group 2 and group 1. study or project unless the groundwork had been lmd and agreed to by the respective secretariats. In the work pro­ GROUP 3. OTHER PROJECTS gramme for 1955-1956, no new studies or projects had been proposed to be undertaken by ~he specializ~d age~­ 282. This group was defined as consisting of projects cies which would require substantial changes m their which, in view of staff and budget limitations, would have work programmes or additional budgetary provisions. to be deferred for the present and probably could not be undertaken in 1955 or 1956. An estimated duration for 288. The work programme was drawn up on the assumption that the size of the ECAFE secretariat would ~art from Technical Assistance and Advisory s~rvices, these remain during 1955 at approximately the level approved broad divisions of projects correspond to work ass1gned to the for 1955 by the General Assembly at its ninth sessi?n. five substantive divisions of the secretariat, namely, the Research and Planning Division, the joint ECAFE/FAO Agriculture The Commission had the assurance of the Executive Division the Bureau of Flood Control and Water Resources Develop:Uent, the Industry and Trade Development Division, • As distinct from technical assistance rendered to individual and the Transport Division. countries. 28 Secretary that he maintained rigid economy in all parts (b) Development, in the course of the country studies, of the secretariat. Almost all fields were served by a very of a body of techniques of programming economic small staff, and quite a number of important fields were development adapted to the conditions of the each handled by only one or two officers. While the Exe­ countries in the ECAFE region ; (c) Studies of basic economic development problems cutive Secretary would not in 1955 request additional (including problems of population and man-power, staff, it was his considered view that the substantive staff natural resources, technology and productivity, of the secretariat should be so strengthened as to enable capital formation, financing of development, insti­ it to achieve a higher degree of intensity in its work and tutional factors and essential statistical indicators) to deal effectively with the basic economic development and analysis of basic development policies with problems of the region. The Commission noted that this, special reference to the ECAFE region ; as well as other problems relating to the work and orga­ (d) Studies of methods of projecting economic trends of nization, would be carefully reviewed by the Secretary­ countries in the region with a view to assisting the General and his Survey Group. Governments in the preparation of future develop­ ment programmes or the revision of existing ones ; 289. As in the past, the Commission authorized the (e) Working Party on Economic Development and Executive Secretary, in dealing with the work projects, Planning: first meeting to be held in November 1955 to convene, within available resources, such conferences, to consider selected aspects of (b), (c) and (d) above. expert working parties, meetings or panels of specialists 02-02 Financial aspects of economic development. Studies of as he might deem necessary, provided he obtained prior (s) financial aspects of economic development, including approval of the Governments concerned and had appro­ domestic and foreign availability of capital, problems of priate consultations with specialized agencies. It also inflation and deflation, tax structure, fiscal and monetary noted with approval that the Executive Secretary, with policies, establishment and development of capital the concurrence of Governments, had deferred the meetings markets, etc. In co-operation with the Fund and the Bank. Four working parties have been held : on mobiliza­ of one or two sub-committees and working parties ; unless tion of domestic capital in 1951 and 1952, and on financial work justified the convening of such meetings, he pro­ aspects of economic development in 1953 and 1954. posed to continue this policy. Further studies in this field to be undertaken in 1956. 290. While it was desirable to have as firm a pro­ GROUP 2. Ad hoc PROJECTS OF HIGH PRIORITY gramme as possible, the Commission doubled that the programme given hereinafter could be definitive, as un­ 02-03 Relationship between and economic (s, t) development. Analysis of the interrelationship between foreseeable factors might later make it necessary to alter population growth and economic development in Asia. or abandon certain projects or establish different priori­ Duration, three years. Preliminary work to be started in ties. For this reason, the Commission left it to the dis­ 1955. Participation in a seminar, with emphasis on orga­ cretion of the Executive Secretary to modify or defer nization of research and training of personnel in the projects, or establish different priorities, should develop­ field, to be convened in November 1955 by TAA and the ments not foreseen at the time of the eleventh session United Nations Bureau of Social Affairs, and in a seminar make this, in his opinion, necessary, provided such alter­ on urbanization to be convened in 1956 by UNESCO. ations remained within the framework of the approved 02--04 Econom·ic and legal aspects of foreign investments: programme. (a) Revision of earlier secretariat study, with an intro­ ductory analysis (Foreign Investment Laws and Regulations of the Countries of Asia and the Far East; Programme of work and priorities for 1955 and 1956 United Nations publication, Sales No.: 195l.II.F.l). (Note: The letter "s" indicates projects involving co­ Date of completion, 1955-1956; operation with one or more of the specialized agencies ; (b) Studies of actual foreign capital participation in the letter "t" indicates projects on which the co-opera­ combination with domestic private capital, and tion of the United Nations Technical Assistance Admini­ Government or public capitaL Date of completion, stration has been agreed to or is to be sought.) 1955-1956. 02--05 Rote of expanded self-help measures in economic develop­ I. GENERAL PROJECTS (s) ment. Analysis of the actual and potential contribution to capital formation and to economic development gener­ A. RESEARCH AND PLANNING ally of community development and other similar meas­ 1. Review and analysis of current economic situation ures of co-operation. With the assistance of the United Nations Bureau of Social Affairs. Date of completion, GROUP 1. CONTINUING PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES OF HIGH 1956. (See also project 11-02.) PRIORITY 01-01 Economic Survey of Asia and the Far East (annual). GROUP 3. OTHER PROJECTS 01-02 Economic Bulletin for Asia and the Far East (quarterly). 02-06 Census of foreign investments. Compilation and dissemi­ Includes periodic reviews of the economic situation in nation of information to be supplied by Governments on Asia and the Far East, current economic statistics, and foreign investments in the countries of the region. Dura­ special articles. tion of work, two or three years. 2. Economic development 3. Statistics GROUP 1. CO::-ITINUING PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES OF HIGH GROUP l. CONTINUING PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES OF HIGH PRIORITY PRIORITY 02-01 Economic development and planning: 7 03-01 Maintenance of basic statistical (a) An extensive and analytical survey of economic Statistical compilation. series on population, national income, production, trans­ development in the countries, in agreement and port, trade, labour, prices, finance, etc., in ECAFE co-operation with the Governments concerned ; ----- countries for publication in the quarterly Economic 7 In co-ordination with projects 11-02 and 31-01. Bulletin, and preparation of tables and charts for the 29 annual Economic Survey and other projects of the secre­ ation with TAA on the planning and implementation of tariat. regional technical assistance projects recommended by 03-02 Statistical methods. Study of methods used in the collection the Commission; and (c) assistance to Governments, at (s, t) and compilation of statistics in ECAFE countries, and their request, in the preparation or formulation of their evaluation of statistics, with special reference to com­ applications for technical assistance. parability and conformity to international standards. II. AGRICULTURE Close liaison with statisticians in the region with a view to effecting methodological improvements. The above GROUP 1. CONTINUING PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES OF HIGH activities to be carried out in collaboration with the PRIORITY Statistical Office and other units of the United Nations 11-01 Continuing review of current developments in the field of Department of Economic and Social Affairs, ILO, FAO, (s) food and agriculture in Asia and the Far East. Supply of the Fund and occasionally other specialized agencies. information on food and agricultural matters required for: The fields of statistics to be covered include production, (a) All ECAFE studies with food and agriculture implica­ prices, trade and balance of payments, currency and tions, particularly the annual Economic Survey and banking, public finance, national income, labour, popula­ the quarterly Economic Bulletin ; tion, etc. A workshop to be convened in August 1955 (b) FAO Regional Office and Headquarters, including on budgetary classification in co-operation with the material for State of Food and Agriculture and regional Fiscal Branch of the United Nations Bureau of Economic conferences ; Affairs and TAA. (c) Occasional reports on significant developments in 03-03 Statistical organization and activities. Survey of changes agrarian reform in individual countries of the region; in statistical organization and activities in ECAFE (d) Material on the disposal of agricultural surpluses, countries with special reference to improvements in the with special reference to the utilization of agricultural availability of statistics, in methods of collection and in surpluses for economic development. (In co-ordination coverage. First report issued in 1951, second in 1953. with projects on trade.) Next report planned to appear in 1956. 11-02 Agricultural development and planning. 8 Studies of agri­ (s) cultural development and plans, including : GROUP 2. Ad hoc PROJECTS OF HIGH PRIORITY (a) The agricultural aspects of economic development Regional Conference of Statisticians. Three conferences 03-04 planning; have been held: on trade and payments statistics in 1951, (b) Relation between agricultural and industrial develop­ on price and production statistics in and on national 1952, ment; income statistics in 1954. A fourth conference will be (c) The role of the village community in agricultural held in 1956, in co-operation with the United Nations development and economic aspects of community Statistical Office, to consider the proposed 1960 world development. programme of population and related censuses with reference to countries of Asia and the Far East. GROUP 2. Ad hoc PROJECTS OF HIGH PRIORITY 03-05 Index of Asian economic statistics. Arising from projects 11-03 Agricultural development financing and agricultural credit. (s) 03-01 and 03-02. A study of concepts, definitions and (s) Studies on agricultural credit and on the financing of methods relating to major economic statistical series has agricultural development. Seminar on agricultural devel­ been completed for use by the secretariat. A compre­ opment financing and credit. Date of completion, 1956. hensive classified index of statistical series regularly 11-04 Studies of the price and income elasticity of demand for published in the ECAFE region is in course of compilation, (s) rice and other cereals in the region. Date of completion, in co-operation with the United Nations Statistical Office 1956. and FAO, ILO, the Fund and other specialized agencies 11-05 Marketing of agricultural products.8 Studies of marketing concerned. Date of completion, 1955-1956. (s) problems of selected agricultural products, including the GROUP 3. OTHER PROJECTS role of the middlemen and the co-operative. Collection 03-06 Methods for the estimation of capital formation. Study of and study of selected successful regulations and practices problems connected with the estimation of capital forma­ in the marketing of major commodities. Date of com­ tion in countries of the ECAFE region, with a view pletion, 1955. to rendering assistance to Governments as and when III. FLOOD CONTROL AND WATER RESOURCES required. Duration of work, two or three years. DEVELOPMENT

B. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND ADVISORY GROUP 1. CONTINUING PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES OF HIGH SERVICES PRIORITY 21-01 Multiple-purpose river basin development. 10 Investigation GROUP 1. CONTINUING PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES OF HIGH (s) and promotion of multiple-purpose river basin develop­ PRIORITY ment in the region. 04-01 Advisory services. The secretariat, within available (a) Country-by-country survey of water resources, present (s, t) resources, and in consultation with TAB, TAA and the status of utilization and future plans of development, specialized agencies, will upon request of Governments and study and analysis of problems and difficulties and in connexion with projects in the work programme, encountered; provide expert advisory services to countries of the region. (b) Preparation of detailed reports on various specific 04-02 Co-operation in the United Nations technical assistance subjects; (t) programme, including (a) assistance to the United Nations (c) Analysis of planning and execution of selected mul­ Technical Assistance Administration at its request, e.g., tiple-purpose projects in the region, e.g., the Damodar providing comments on fellowship and scholarship Valley Project, India. applications submitted to TAA by Governments of the 21-02 Flood control and water resources development of inter­ region, commenting on the reports of TAA experts in national rivers. Study of technical problems of flood ECAFE countries whose work lies within the fields of the Commission's interest, and participating in explor­ 8 In co-ordination with projects 02-01 and 02-05. atory and other missions organized under the United 9 In co-ordination with project 37-06. Nations technical assistance programmes; (b) co-oper- 10 In co-ordination with projects 33-03 and 43-01. 30 control and water resources development of international GROUP 2. Ad hoc PROJECTS OF HIGH PRIORITY rivers in the region and promotion of co-operation among 31-04 National management institutes and training centres. countries concerned. (s, t) Assistance to countries of the region in the establishment 21-03 Flood control methods. Improvement of flood control of national management institutes and training centres methods, including joint study with technical organiza­ in co-operation with ILO, UNESCO and TAA. Duration tions of the region on various specific problems. The 1955 of secretariat work, 1955-1957. work programme will be a continuation of the study, GROUP 3. OTHER PROJECTS initiated in 1954, of methods employed for earthwork construction, with particular emphasis on the use of 31-05 Study of productivity and efficiency in industrial enterprises. labour, with a view to increasing efficiency and reducing (s, t) TAA co-operation to be sought if necessary. Possibility costs. of organizing a joint ECAFEJILOJUNESCO Working Party to be explored. Duration of work, two to four 21-04 Hydrologic observations and hydraulic research stations: years. (s) (a) Study of major deficiencies in hydrologic data (joint ECAFEjWMO project). 2. Cottage and small-scale industries (b) Finalization of hydrologic terminology by a working GROUP }. CONTINUING PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES OF HIGH group of experts. 11 PRIORITY (c) Promotion of existing facilities in hydraulic research work and programmes of hydraulic research stations. 32-01 Diss.~mination of technical information concerning methods of production, equipment, lay-outs, processes, and stand­ 21-05 Dissemination of technical information on flood control ards used in various industries. Continuing emphasis to works and water resources development. Publication of be gi:ven to the co-ordination of studies by countries on Flood Control Series and Flood Control journal, and the type of textiles suitable for hand-loom production. distribution of technical reports and publications. 32-02 Promotion and co-ordination of research and experiments GROUP 2. Ad hoc PROJECTS OF HIGH PRIORITY by countries of the region. Report to be submitted to each (21-06) 12 working party meeting. Reports on various aspects of 21-07 Training centre for water resources development. Co-opera­ the ceramics industry to be submitted by countries to tion in the or-ganization and operation of the training the next meeting of the working party to be held in centre to be set up in 1955 at the University of Roorkee November 1955. by the Government of India. Duration of secretariat 32-03 Economic aspects of cottage and small-scale industries. work, 1955-1957. (s) Studies of the economic aspects of cottage and small­ 21-08 Organizations for the execution of river basin development scale industries, including the problem of protection from in different countries of the region. Study of existing orga­ imports and studies of competition with large-scale nizations for the planning of river basin development and domestic manufacturers, and the distinctions between administrations for the construction and operation of marketing the products of these industries for export and river valley projects in the region. Work to be started for domestic consumption. In co-operation with ILO. in 1955. Date of completion of study, 1957. (Related to Date of completion of first report, 1955. Case study of project 21-01.) selected industries to follow.

GROUP 2. Ad hoc PROJECTS OF HIGH PRIORITY GROUP 3. OTHER PROJECTS 21-09 Group visit of experts to water resources development 32-04 Common facility services for cottage and small-scale indus­ (t) schemes in Europe and North America. Co-operation of tries. Study of experience and examination of poten­ TAA to be sought. Duration of work, four months. tialities of common facility services for groups of inde­ pendent producers as a technique for the improvement of quality, expansion of production and reduction of IV. INDUSTRY AND TRADE cost of selected cottage industries. Date of completion, A. INDUSTRY AND MINING 1955. 32-05 Studies on production and marketing techniques. Studies 1. General (t) on production and marketing techniques of selected cot­ GROUP 1. CONTINUING PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES OF HIGH tage industries. Follow-up action on the report and PRIORITY recommendations of the study group visit of cottage 31-01 Industrial development and planning. In co-ordination industry experts to Japan in 1954. (See also project 37-08.) with project 02-01. Report on the ceramics industry to be completed in 1955. 31-02 Dissemination of technical information on organization and 32-06 Standardization. Study and working party concerning administration of industrial establishments. possible methods of standardizing materials used in cottage industries, to ensure maximum and predictable 31-03 Trained personnel for economic development. Assistance durability of products and thus enhance marketability. (s, t) to the International Labour Office and the United Nations Duration of study, two years. (To be co-ordinated with Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in project 37-10.) man-power and training facilities surveys, including the furnishing to the specialized agencies concerned of 3. Electric power economic data relating to these fields on countries in the GROUP 1. CONTINUING PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES OF HIGH region. ECAFEJILO/UNESCO Inter-Secretariat Working PRIORITY Party, fifth meeting to be held in October 1955. (Joint project with ILO and UNESCO.) 33-01 Review of progress of electric power development in Asia and the Far East. To include preparation of tables of comparable statistics and data on generation and capacity 11 Preparatory to the formulation of a terminology on a global by types of plants, lines by length and basis; see Economic and Social Council resolutions 345 (XII) and 417 (XIV). voltage, consumption of fuels by types and quantities, 19 The Regional Technical Conference on Water Resources efficiencies and load factors attained, and utilization by Development was held in May 1954. No regional conference is heavy and light industries. To be published annually in contemplated to be held in 1955 or 1956. This project number the Electric Power Bulletin for Asia and the Far East. is reserved for future regional conferences. Emphasis to be placed on the introduction and use within 31 ECAFE countries of international standard reporting generating, transforming and transmission equipment so methods. Progress of rural electrification to be covered as to obtain the maximum efficiency and economy. by population, area and number of domestic and indus­ Determination of the principles of a sharing of the load trial users ; special articles of regional interest also to be demand as between the different power stations of an included from time to time in the Bulletin. Dissemination inter-connected system and of the scheduled loading of of information on uses of atomic energy for industrial individual plant units in a power-station with reference purpose. to (a) the fuel consumption, (b) the pattern of daily load demand etc. Duration of work, two years. GROUP 2. Ad hoc PROJECTS OF HIGH PRIORITY 33-07 Electricity in mining. Study of the possible exclusive 33-02 Rural electrification. Follow-up action on the secretariat's application of electricity in deep mining and of potential (t) reports on technical and economic aspects of rural elec­ benefits in increasing production and improving product trification. Assistance to the countries in preparing pro­ quality. Duration of work, two years. grammes of rural electrification with particular reference to the application of electricity in rural industries. The 33-08 Regulation and control of public-utility electricity industry. co-operation of TAA on specific schemes may be sought Comparative study of the legal and legislative enactments by the countries concerned. Date of completion of secre­ controlling and regulating the electric-power supply tariat work, 1956. industry in the countries of the region. The regulations to be studied with reference to (a) the safety of persons 33-03 Hydro-electric potential of each country of the region and dealing in or handling electrical equipment, (b) the its gross, technical and economic limits. l3 Study of the development of power as a means of promoting economic basic principles and methods for assessing "theoretical development, and (c) financial and other related measures. gross potential", "technical potential" and "economic Duration of work, two years. potential". Assistance to countries of the region in assess­ ment of the hydro-electric potential. A preliminary 4. Housing and building materials report setting forth the principles and methods of assessing the hydro-power potential would be prepared in the first GROUP }. CoNTINUING PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES OF HIGH instance. In the second stage, these principles and methods PRIORITY would be applied to the basic data collected by the 34-01 Housing and town and country planning and building: countries to determine the hydro-electric power potential (s, t) (a) Co-ordination at the regional level of the work of of the countries of the region. The period required for various agencies on the basis of work projects and completing this work would depend in a large measure programmes of the Social Commission and the on the assistance and co-operation extended by the Economic and Social Council, through periodic inter­ countries. Duration of work, four years. secretariat working parties in which government 33-04 Group visit of electric-power experts from the region to experts shall also be invited to participate, composed (t) manufacturers' plants and power stations in Europe, and of ECAFE, the United Nations Bureau of Social if possible in North America. The broad objectives of the Affairs, TAA, ILO, FAO, UNESCO and WHO. First group visit would be : meeting held in November 1952. Second meeting (a) Review of the manufacture of heavy electric power held in February 1954. Third meeting proposed to plants in European countries and North America; be held in June 1955; (b) Study of the standards and specifications adopted by (b) Collection and dissemination of information on the various European countries and ::-

GROUP 2. Ad hoc PROJECTS OF HIGH PRIORITY 43-06 Model government organization to deal with IW T and river and canal conservancy. Study of advantages and 42-02 International highways. Study, review and recommen­ disadvantages of existing systems in the world ; recom­ dations regarding national systems of highways for mendations of suitable structure and terms of reference promotion of the development of international highways for government organization. Date of completion of connecting the countries of the region for economic interim report, 1955; and final report, 1956. development. Date of completion of interim report, 1955; and final report, 1956. GROUP 3. OTHER PROJECTS 42-03 Highway safety. Studies and recommendations with 43-07 Siltation in small ports. Study of various methods of particular reference to traffic congestion and accidents combating siltation in small ports for coastal vessels, in in urban areas, with regard to : order to stimulate intra-State transport. Duration, two (a) Engineering aspects of highway safety ; lay-out of years. junctions and other aspects of road design in relation 43-08 Model IWT legislation. Study of advantages and dis­ to highway safety. Report completed in 1954, to be advantages of existing I\VT legislation in the world ; submitted to the third session of the Highway Sub­ formulation of model legislation. Duration, two years. Committee in 1955; (b) Traffic aspects of highway safety ; traffic control, 43....()9 Classification of inland waterways. Study of the possi­ education and enforcement of traffic regulations. bility of establishing a standard schedule for classification Date of completion of report, 1956 ; of waterways and determination of desirable standard (c) Seminar in engineering and traffic aspects in highway dimensions of waterways, structures and craft for each safety, 1957. class. Duration, two years. 42....()4 Uniform design standards and specifications, for : (a) Roads; D. RAILWAYS (b) Bridges. GROUP 1, CONTINviNG PROJECT OF HIGH PRIORITY Date of completion of first report, 1956 ; and final (See project 41-01) report, 1957.

GROUP 3. OTHER PROJECTS GROUP 2. Ad hoc PROJECTS OF HIGH PRIORITY 42-05 Mechanization of road construction and maintenance. 44....()1 Railway Training Centre for Operating and Signalling (I) Examination of the possibility of a demonstration project (t) Officials. In co-operation with TAA. Annual report to using mechanized equipment. Co-operation of TAA to be submitted to each session of the Railway Sub-Com­ be sought. Duration, two years. mittee. Duration, 1955-195R 42....()6 Road life studies and control sections. Duration, two years. 44....()2 Diesel locomotives and railcars. Further studies in ac­ 42-07 Uniform standards of specifications for machinery for cordance with the recommendations made by the Railway Sub-·Committee at its third session. Duration, road projects. Duration, two years. 1955-1958. 44-03 Improved turn-round of rolling stock. Study and recom­ C. INLAND WATERWAYS mendations on measures to improve turn-round of rolling GROUP 1. CONTINUING PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES OF HIGH stock, thereby increasing the carrying capacity of the PRIORITY railway system. Duration, 1955-1956. (See also project 41-01) 44-04 Railway track sleepers. Study and recommendations on ; (s) (a) Wooden sleepers; in co-operation with FAO; 43-01 Improvement of inland water transport. 16 (t) (a) Examination of improved methods of river and canal (b) Concrete sleepers; conservancy for navigation; (c) Preservation of steel sleepers. (b) Dissemination of information regarding methods of Duration, 1955-1956. improving efficiency of inland water transport. GROUP 3. OTHER PROJECTS Co-operation of T AA to be sought, if necessary. 44-05 Incidence of railway accidents and measures for pre­ GROUP 2. Ad hoc PROJECTS OF HIGH PRIORITY vention. Duration, one year. 43-02 Improved design and operation of craft, including use of 44-06 Standardization of rolling-stock, with a view to facilitating (t) pusher craft and towing methods. Demonstration/pilot production, improving availability, reducing costs per projects. In co-operation with TAA. Duration, 1955-1956. units and facilitating interchange of traffic between 43....()3 Uniform methods of craft measurement. Completion of certain railways of the region. Duration, two years. draft convention regarding the measurement of vessels 44....()7 Repairs and maintenance of rolling stock in workshops. employed in inland navigation ; arrangements for signing Study and recommendations. Duration, one year. of the convention. Date of completion, 1955. 44-08 Hot axles of wagons. Study of causes and remedies, with 43--04 Training centre for IW T personnel. Preparatory work special reference to construction, materials used, lubri­ (s) for establishing a regional centre for the advanced cating practices and automatic warning devices. Dura­ training of diesel marine mechanics. In co-operation tion. one year. with ILO. Centre expected to open in 1955. __, ___ _ 44-09 Study of railway freight rates affecting the trade of land­ 15 In co-ordination with project 21-01. locked countries. (See also project 37-12).



291. Following is the tentative calendar of meetings from the eleventh session of the Commission to the end of 1956, arising from the programme of work and priorities and including the FAO seminar on agricultural develop­ ment financing and credit which is of direct concern to the ECAFEJFAO Agriculture Division.

1955 Meeting Date Site 1. Inter-Secretariat Working Party on Housing and 20-29 June Bandung Building Materials (ECAFEjUN.ESA/ILO/FAO/ UNESCO/WHO) (third meeting) 2. Study Tour of Geologists and Mining Experts to July/August Europe Selected Countries in Europe 3. Workshop on Problems of Budgetary Reclassification August Bangkok (sponsored by the Fiscal Branch, of UN .ESA, in co-operation with T AA. ECAFE participating) 4. Sub-Committee on Iron and Steel (sixth session) 24-29 August Bangkok 5. Population Seminar (sponsored by ECAFE and November Djakarta the Bureau of Social Affairs of UN .ESA and in collaboration with the International Social Science Council) 6. Working Party on Hydrologic Terminology 12-24 September Bangkok 7. Highway Sub-Committee (third session) 21-28 November or Bangkok 8. Inter-Secretariat Working Party on Trained Personnel 10-1 7 October Bangalore for Economic Development (ECAFE/ILO/ UNESCO) (fifth meeting) 9. Inland Waterway Sub-Committee (third session) 24-31 October Dacca 10. Working Party on Economic Development and 1-11 November Bangkok Planning 11. Working Party on Small-Scale Industries and ­ 14-21 November Bangkok craft Marketing (Market Clinic for Ceramic Pro­ ducts) (fourth meeting) 12. Railway Sub-Committee (fourth session) 5-12 December New Delhi or Bombay 13. Sub-Committee on Electric Power (fifth session) Open Open

1956 1. Inland Transport Committee (fifth session) January Open 2. Committee on Industry and Trade (eighth session) Open India 3. Commission (twelfth session) Open India 4. Working Party of Senior Geologists on the Prepa­ May Tokyo ration of a Regional Geological Map for Asia and the Far East (second meeting) 5. Sub-Committee on Mineral Resources Development June Open (second session) 6. Fourth Regional Conference of Statisticians on 1960 July Open Population Census (sponsored jointly by ECAFE and the United Nations Statistical Office) 7. Sub-Committee on Electric Power (sixth session) August India, Pakistan or Malaya 8. Inter-Secretariat Working Party on Trained Person­ October Bangkok nel for Economic Development (ECAFE/ILO/ UNESCO) (sixth meeting) 36 Meeting Date Site 9. Sub-Committee on Trade (second session) October Out of Bangkok 10. Highway Sub-Committee (fourth session) October/November Bangkok 11. Working Party on Industrial Efficiency and Pro­ November Bangkok ductivity 12. Working Party on Economic Development and November Open Planning (second meeting) 13. Railway Sub-Committee (fifth session) November/December Out of Bangkok 14. Inter-Secretariat Working Party on Housing and December Bangkok Building Materials (ECAFEfUN.ESAJILO/FAO/ UNESCO/WHO) (fourth meeting) 15. F AO Seminar on Agricultural Development Financing Open Out of Bangkok and Credit (ECAFE likely to co-operate) 16. Seminar on Urbanization (sponsored by UNESCO, Open Bangkok ECAFE participating)


APPENDIX I Mining Development in Asia and the Far East, 1953-1954 (United Nations Publication, Sales No.: (1954.II.F.2) (E/CN.11f393). List of meetings of the Commission and its subsidiary bodies Glossary of Commodity Terms (United Nations Publication, 19 FEBRUARY 1954-7 APRIL 1955 Sales No.: 1954.II.F.4) (EjCN.ll/394). Commission Standards for Methods and Records of Hydrologic Measurements Eleventh session: Tokyo, 28 March-7 April 1955 (United Nations Publication, Sales. No. : 1954.II.F.3)(ST/ Committee on Industry and Trade ECAFE/SER.F/6). Seventh session: Tokyo, 15-24 March 1955 Multiple Purpose River Basin Development (United Nations Inland Transport Committee Publication, Sales No.: 1955.II.F.1) (ST/ECAFE/SER.F/7). Fourth session: Bangkok, 24-28 January 1955 PERIODICALS (mimeographed) Sub- Committee on Trade First session: Hong Kong, 6-12 January 1955 Flood Control journal, ST/ECAFE/SER.C/18-21. January­ Sub- Committee on Mineral Resources Development December 1954 inclusive. First session: Bangkok, 8-13 November 1954 Trade Promotion Series, ST/ECAFE/SER.J/114-118, 16 Decem­ Working Party of Senior Geologists on the Preparation of a ber 1953-15 September 1954. Regional Geological Map for Asia and the Far East Trade Promotion News, ST/ECAFE/SER.H/36-41. January 1954- First meeting: Bangkok, 1-5 November 1954 December 1954 inclusive. ECAFEfiLOjUNESCO Inter-Secretariat Working Party on Transport Bulletin, STfECAFE/SER.E/13-15, January-October Trained Personnel for Economic Development 1954 inclusive. Fourth meeting: Bangkok, 15-22 November 1954 Electric Power Bulletin, ST/ECAFE/SER.L/2. August 1954. Working Party on Financial Aspects of Economic Development Industrial Development Series, ST/ECAFE/SER/M/1-4, May 1954- Programmes in Asia and the Far East January 1955 inclusive. Second meeting: Bangkok, 25-30 October 1954 Railway Sub- Committee B. PRINCIPAL DOCUMENTS Third session: Tokyo, 13-18 October 1954. COMMISSION Sub- Committee on Electric Power EjCN.11j389 Official records of the tenth session. Fourth session: Tokyo, 6-11 October 1954 Working Group of Experts on Payments Problems of the ECAFE Eleventh session Region EjCN.11f390 Report of the Third Regional Conference of Bangkok, 19-28 July 1954 and Corr.1 Statisticians. Regional Technical Conference on Water Resources Development E/CN.11f391 Report of the Regional Technical Conference Tokyo, 17-22 May 1954 on \Vater Resources Development. EjCN.11f397 Annual report of the Bureau of Flood Con­ Inland Waterway Sub- Committee trol and Water Resources Development. Second session: Saigon, 3-8 May 1954 E/CN.l1/398 Technical Assistance activities in er.onomic Seminar on the Organization and Administration of Public Enter­ development and public administration in prises in the Industrial Field the ECAFE region, 1954. Rangoon, 15-26 March 1954 EjCN.11f399 Report of the Inland Transport Committee Third Regional Conference of Statisticians (fourth session). New Delhi, 1-11 March 1954 E/CN.11j400 Activities of the International Labour Orga­ Inter-Secretariat Working Party on Housing and Building nisation of special interest to Asia and the Materials Far East. Second meeting: New Delhi, 18-23 February 1954 E/CN.11f401 Report by the Food and Agriculture Orga­ nisation. APPENDIX II E/CN.11j402 UNESCO activities in 1954 and work plans for 1955-1956 of interest to the Economic List of publications and principal documents Commission for Asia and the Far East. issued since the tenth session EjCN .11/403 Inter-regional co-operation in the field of A. PUBLICATIONS trade. EjCN.l1/404 Report of the Committee on Industry and MAJOR STUDIES (printed) Trade (seventh session). Economic Survey of Asia and the Far East, 1953 (also issued as E/CN.11/405 Memorandum from the International Bank vol. IV, No. 4, of the Economic Bulletin for Asia and the Far for Reconstruction and Development. East). EjCN.11f407 Annual Report of the Commission to the Economic and Social Council. Economic Survey of Asia and the Far East, 1954 (United Nations E/CN.ll/NG0/9 Note on the economic situation in Asia in Publication, Sales No. : 1955.II.F.3). 1954 by the delegation of the World Economic Bulletin for Asia and the Far East, vol. V, Nos. 1-3 Federation of Trade Unions. (May, August and November 1954). E/CN.11/NG0/10 Note on the report of the Committee on Rural Electrification (United Nations Publication, Sales No. : Industry and Trade by the International 1954.II.F.1) (E/CN.11/392). Union of Official Travel Organizations. 38 ECAFEfL.86 Activities of the Joint ECAFE/FAO Agri­ annex A Problems and prospects of the metal mining culture Division. industry in India. ECAFEfL.87 Food and agricultural price policies in Far annex B The copper, gold, and silver industries in Eastern countries with special reference to China : Taiwan. rice. annex c Problems and prospects of the metal mining ECAFEfL.88 Agricultural development of Thailand. industry in Burma. annex D The aluminium industry in Taiwan Province, CoMMITTEE oN INDUSTRY AND TRADE China. EjCN.ll/I&T/101 Official records of the sixth session. annex E Problems and prospects of the metal mining Seventh session industry in Thailand. EfCN.ll/I&T/102 Report of the Working Party on Housing annex F Problems and prospects of the metal mining and Building Materials (second meeting). industry in the Philippines. Report of the Seminar on the Organization E/CN.ll/I&T/103 ECAFE/I&Tj Fuel situation of the region and possibilities and Administration of Public Enterprises Sub.3/2 for its improvement. in the Industrial Field. annex A Work on coal carried out at the Fuel E/CN.ll/I&T/104 Report of the Sub-Committee on Electric Research Institute, India. and Corr.l Power (fourth session). annex B Coal situation and coal problems in Korea. Report of the Working Party of Experts on E/CN.llji&T/106 annex c Coal situation in the Union of Burma. Financial Aspects of Economic Develop­ annex D Coal mining industry in Pakistan and pos- ment Programmes in Asia and the Far sibilities for its improvement. East (second meeting). annex E Coal situation of China and possibilities for Report of the Working Party of Senior E/CN.ll/I&Tjl07 its improvement. Geologists on the Preparation of a Regional annex F Thailand-Lignite project. Geological Map for Asia and the Far East annex G Fuel position of Thailand. (first meeting). annex H A brief survey of the coal situation in India. E/CN.llji&Tt 108 Report of the Study Group of Cottage ECAFE/I&Tf Assistance provided by the United Nations Industry Experts on their Visit to Japan. Sub.3/3 Technical Assistance Administration in Report of the Sub-Committee on Mineral E/CN.llji&T/110 the field of mineral resources development and Corr.l Resources Development (first session). in the ECAFE region, 1953-1954. E/CN.ll/I&Tjlll Report of the ECAFEjiLOjUNESCO Inter­ ECAFE/I&T/ Mining development in Asia and the Far Secretariat Working Party on Trained Sub.3/4 East, 1953-1954. Personnel for Economic Development ECAFE/I&T/ Possible programme of work and priorities (fourth meeting). Sub.3/5 and in the field of mineral resources develop­ EjCN.ll/I&Tjll2 Report of the Working Group of Experts Add.! ment. on Payments Problems in the ECAFE ECAFE/I&T/ Terms of reference of the Sub-Committee on Region. Sub.3/6 Mineral Resources Development. EjCN.llji&Tjll3 Report of the Sub-Committee on Trade ECAFE/I&T/ Methods of investigation, evaluation, and (first session). Sub.3/7 classification of coal deposits in the Union EjCN.ll/I&T /114 Interregional co-operation in the field of of Soviet Socialist Republics. (E/CN.ll/403) trade. EjCN.ll/I&Tjll5 Report of the Committee on Industry and SUB-COMMITTEE ON TRADE (EjCN.ll/404) Trade (seventh session) to the Commission (eleventh session). First session EjCN.J!ji&Tj Conclusion of the delegation of the Inter­ E/CN.l!ji&T/ Standardization in the ECAFE region. NG0/1 national Chamber of Commerce about Sub.4/2 international commercial arbitration. Review of the trade promotion activities of EjCN.J!ji&Tj Statement of the International Confederation EfCN.ll/I&T/ Sub.4/3 and the secretariat. NG0/2 of Free Trade Unions on the report of Corr.l the ECAFE Working Party of Experts annex A and 's trade promotion activities. on Financial Aspects of Economic Deve­ Corr.l lopment Programmes in Asia and the Far East. annex B and Export trade promotion activities of Japan. Corr.l I&Tfl5 Note by the Executive Secretary trans­ annex C and The export trade promotion activities of mitting the report of the United Nations Corr.l Thailand. Seminar on Housing and Community annex D and A review of the export trade promotion Improvement in Asia and the Far East Corr.l activities in Ceylon. (TAAfNS/AFE/1). annex E and Export trade promotion in the Republic of SUB-COMMITTEE ON ELECTRIC POWER Corr.J China. Fourth session annex F Note on trade development in Cambodia. E/CN.llfi&T/ Possible programme of work and priorities annex G Trade promotion activities in the Federation Sub. I/! in electric power. of Malaya. E/CN.llji&T/ Electricity in metallurgy. annex H Trade promotion activities in Australia. Sub.l/2 annex I Philippine foreign trade promotion activities. E/CN.llji&T/ Electricity in chemical industry. EjCN.ll/I&T/ Market analysis of hides and skins for Asia Sub.l/3 and Corr.l Sub.4/4 and and the Far East. and Add.! Corr.l annex A and Marketing of hides and skins in Pakistan. SUB-COMMITTEE ON MINERAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT Corr.l First session EjCN.!!ji&Tf Commercial arbitration facilities. ECAFE/I&T/ Some problems and prospects of the metal Sub.4/5 Sub.3/l and mining industry in the ECAFE region. ECAFE/I&T/ Possible programme of work and priorities Corr.l Sub.4/l in the field of trade. 39 WoRKING PARTY ON FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF EcoNOMIC WoRKING GROUP OF SENIOR GEOLOGISTS ON THE PREPARATION D¥VELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN AsiA AND THE FAR EAST OF A REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL MAP FOR ASIA AND THE FAR EAST Second meeting First meeting ECAFEji&T/ Economic concept of budget deficits. ECAFE/I&T/ Problems relating to the preparation of a FED.2/2 and GMWP.1/2 regional geological map for Asia and the Corr.1 Far East. ECAFEji&T/ The economic concept of budgetary deficit ECAFE/I&T/ Status of geological mapping in Ceylon. FED.2/3 (with particular reference to countries in GMWP.2/3 the ECAFE region). ECAFE/I&T/ Status of geological mapping in China. ECAFE/I&T/ Deficit finance for economic development GMWP.1/4 FED.2/4 and with special reference to ECAFE countries. ECAFE/I&T/ Status of geological mapping in Japan. Corr.1 GMWP.l/5 ECAFE/I&T/ Economic indicators of inflation in ECAFE ECAFE/I&T/ Status of geological mapping in Malaya. FED.2/5 countries. GMWP.l/6 ECAFEji&T/ Some aspects of the tax systems in certain ECAFE/I&T/ Status of geological mapping in the British FED.2/6 ECAFE countries in relation to economic GMWP.l/7 Territories in Borneo. development. ECAFEJI&T/ Status of geological mapping in Cambodia,· ECAFE/I&T; Tax burden and expansion of revenue in GMWP.1/8 Laos and Viet-Nam. FED.2/7 the Far East countries. ECAFEji&Tf Notes on the preparation of a regional ECAFE/I&T/ Impact of budget deficits in Indonesia. GMWP.1/9 geological map for Asia and the Far East. FED.2/8 ECAFE/I&T/ Some information pertaining to the prepara­ ECAFE/I&T/ The limits to deficit financing in Ceylon. GMWP.l/10 tion of a regional geological map for Asia FED.2j9 and the Far East. ECAFEji&T/ Budgetary classification and the economic ECAFE/I&T, Projection system for a regional geological FED.2;10 concept of a deficit in Ceylon. GMWP.1/11 map for Asia and the Far East. ECAFEji&T/ The limits to non-inflationary deficit financ­ and Corr.l FED.2/11 ing with special reference to China. ECAFE/I&T/ StatUI! of geological mapping in Burma. ECAFEji&T/ Budget classification and the economic GMWP.l/12 FED.2/12 concept of a deficit. ECAFE/I&T/ Status of publication of the international ECAFE/i&T/ Foreign exchange budgeting and its relation GMWP.1f13 one-millionth map : Asia and the Far East. FED.2/13 to the domestic financial situation in ECAFE/I&T/ Status of geological mapping in Thailand. Japan. GMWP.l/14 ECAFEfi&T/ Tight money policy in Japan. ECAFE/I&T/ Status of geological mapping in India. FED.2j14 GMWP.1/15 ECAFE/I&Tj Economic forecasting for policy formulation ECAFE/I&T/ Status of geological mapping in the Philip­ FED.2j15 in Japan. GMWP.l/16 pines. ECAFEji&T/ Foreign exchange budgeting in Indonesia. ECAFEfi&T/ Geological mapping in the Union of Soviet FED.2j16 GMWP.1j17 Socialist Republics. ECAFE/I&T/ Deficit finance: concept and limits (India). ECAFE/I&T/ Cartographic projection for the geological FED.2/17 GMWP.1/18 map of Asia and the Far East. ECAFE/I&T/ Tax structure and expansion of revenue in ECAFE/I&T/ Suggestions on the preparation of a regional FED.2t18 the Philippines. GMWP.1/19 geological map for Asia and the Far East. ECAFE/I&T/ Budget classification and reclassification in ECAFEji&T/ Conventional indications in the geological FED.2/19 Japan and the four different aims to be GMWP.l/20 map of the USSR on a scale of 1 : 5,000,000 achieved by the budgetary system. INTER-SECRETARIAT WORKING PARTY ON HOUSING AND ECAFE/I&T/ Forecasting over-all demand and supply of BUILDING MATERIALS FED.2j20 loanable funds in Japan and measures of inflationary pressure. Second meeting ECAFE/I&T/ Some aspects of deficit financing (]apan). ECAFEji&T/ Housing and building materials in the FED.2/21 HBWP/1 ECAFE region-Second report by ECAFE. ECAFEfi&T/ The classification of budgets and the econo­ ECAFE/I&Tf Activities of the Economic Commission for FED.2/22 mic concept of deficits in Laos. HBWP/2 Europe in the field of housing and build­ ECAFE/I&T/ Budget reclassification and derivation of ing-Report by ECE. FED.2t23 deficits in Thailand. ECAFE/I&T/ United Nations activities in housing, building ECAFE/I&Tf Structure fiscale et expansion du revenu. HBWP/4 and town and country planning-Report FED.2j24 by the United Nations Department of ECAFE/I&T/ Deficit financing and inflation in under­ Social Affairs. FED.2j25 developed countries. ECAFE/I&T/ Problems of hygiene and sanitation in rela­ ECAFEji&T/ Economic indicators of inflation in under­ HBWP/5 tion to housing-Study by the World FED.2j26 developed countries. Health Organization on types of latrines ECAFE/I&T/ The tax structure in under-developed coun­ in use in various countries of the region. FED.2/27 tries. ECAFE/I&T/ Workers' housing in Asia-Report by the ECAFE/I&T/ Foreign exchange budgeting and its relation HBWP/6 International Labour Organisation. FED.2j28 to economic development in the Philip­ ECAFE/I&T/ Scientific research in housing and building pines. HBWP/8 materials-UNESCO Survey of research ECAFEfi&T/ Economic indicators of inflation, their use and laboratory facilities in relation to FED.2/29 for policy formulation in the Philippines. housing and building materials. ECAFE/I&T/ The tax structure of Thailand and its ECAFEji&T/ Utilization of agricultural materials such as FED.2/30 relationship to economic growth. HBWP/9 timber for housing construction-Report ECAFE/I&T/ Secretariat work programme in the field of by an FAO expert on the standardization FED.2j31 finance, 1955-1956. of wood and timber. 40 INLAND TRANSPOR'r. CoMMITTEE EGAFEfTRANS/ · . :curtent iriland v.'ateiway developmcilt. Sub.3j13 EitK .i 1/TRAKS/ Official records of the third session. ECAFEjTRANS/ DraJt convention regarding the measure­ 101 Sub.3/14 ment of cargo vessels employed in inland Fourth session navigation. EJCX.11/TRANS/ Report of the Inland Waterway Sub-Com­ ECAFE/TRANS/ t; niform system of buoyage for inland 102 mittee (second session). Sub.3fl7 waterways. E/CN.11(fRANS/ Report of the Railway Sub-Committee (third ECAFE/TRANS/ Recommendations and conclusions of the 104 session). Sub.3/l8 XVIIIth International Navigation Con­ EfCN .II /TRANS/ Co-ordination of transport. gress, of interest to the countries of the 105 region. EJCN.11/TRANS/ Statistical study of performance of transpor't ECAFE(TRANS/ Influence of "channel depth/fleet draught 106 systems with a view to obtaining maximum Sub.3/19 ratio" on resistance. efficiency and full utilization of all avail­ ECAFEJTRANS/ Demonstration/pilot project on improved able resources. Sub.3f20 and design and operation of craft, including EJCN.11/TRANS/ Library service. Rev.1 use of pusher craft and towing methods­ 107 Progress . report. EfCN.llfTRANS/ Assistance provided by the United Nations ECAFE/TRANS/ Training centre for inland waterway trans­ 108 Technical Assistance Administration in Sub.3j21 port personnel-Progress report. the field of inland transport in 1954. ECAFE/TRANSf Draft comparative study of various types of EJCN.llfTRANSf Report of the Inland Transport Committee Sub.3f22 marine engines. 109 (E/CN.ll/ (fourth session) to the Commission (ele­ ECAFE/TRANS/ Possible programme of work and priorities 399) venth session). Official records of the Sub.3f23 in inland waterways. fourth session. ECAFE/TRANS/ Comments by the Government of the E/CN.11/TRANS/ Possible programme of work and priorities Sub.3/24 Republic of China 'On the draft convention 110 (ECAFE/ in inland transport. regarding t4.1'\ measurement of cargo TRANS/8) vessels employed in inland navigation. ECAFEfTRANS/ Amended draft convention regarding the RAILWAY St:rB-COMMITTEE Sub.3/25 measurement and registration of vessels employed in inland navigation. Third session Railway Training Centre for Operating and EJCN.Jl /TRANS/ THIRD REGIONAL CoNFERENCE OF STATISTICIANS Sub.1/37 Signalling Officials-Progress report. E/CN .11 /TRANS/ Prevention and speedy disposal of claims. EfCN .11/ST AT/ A national accounting system for use by Sub.1/38 Conf.3J2 ECAFE countries. E/CN.II/TRANS/ Improved methods of track construction and E/CN.11/STAT/ ::Vleasurement of income originating in· agri­ Sub.1/39 maintenance. Conf.3/3 culture. E/CN.11/TRANS/ Locomotive boiler water treatment. E/CN.11/STAT/ Methods of national income statistics in Sub.l/40 Conf.3/4 ECAFE countries. E/CN.ll/TRANS/ Railcars. E/CKli/STAT/ Report to the Commission (eleventh session) Sub.1J41 &Corr.l Conf.3/5 of the Third Conference of Statisticians. E/CN.l1/TRANSJ Diesel locomotives. (E/CN.ll/390) Sub.1/42 ECAFEJSTAT/ The national income of Burma. E/CN.11/TRANS/ Economics of building methods adopted on Conf.3/l Sub.l/43 the railways, and modern trends in the ECAFE/STAT/ A note on some problems in national income building of bridges. Conf.3J2 estimation (Ceylon). EfOU 1/TRANS/ Report of the Railway Sub-Committee (third ECAFE/STATI Preliminary· report on the estimation of Sub.l/44 session) to the Inland Transport Committee Conf.3/3 national income in Taiwan, China. (fourth session), ECAFE/ST AT/ Xational income estimation in India. ECAFEfTRANSf Possible programme of work and priorities in Conf.3/4 Sub.l/7 railways. ECAFEjSTATf Notes on national income estimation in ECAFE/TRANS/ Note on the latest development concerning Conf.3/5 and Japan. Some sources of statistics foi: Sub.1/8 the Railway Training Centre for Operating Add.1 national income estimation in Japan. and Signalling Officials. ECAFE(STATJ National income estimation in Korea. Conf.3/6 INLAND WATERWAY SUB-COMl\UTTEE ECAFE/STAT/ Methods ·of national income estimation in Malaya. Secmzd session Conf.3/7 ECAFEfSTAT/ National income of Pakistan : methodology, E/CN.li/TRANS/ Report of the Inland \Vaterway Sub-Com­ Conf.3/8 sources of statistical data and difficulties Sub.3/ll mittee (second session) to the Inland encountered in computation. (E/CN.11/ Transport Committee (fourth session). ECAFE/STAT/ National income and product of the Philip­ TRANS/102) Conf.3t9 pines, 1946-1952. EfCN.li/TRANS/ Report of the Working Party on Craft ECAFE/STAT/ Problems and techniques of measuring the Sub.3/12 Measurement. Draft Convention to the Conf.3/l0 volume of national output. and Corr.l, 2 Inland Waterway Sub-Committee (second ECAFE/STAT/ A system of national accounts. session). Con£.3/11 ECAFEJTRANS/ Report on the trials of the Joint Steamer ECAFE/STAT/ The relation· between national income and Sub.3f11/Rev.l Companies in East Pakistan. Conf.3/13 financial accounts in the structure of a ECAFE/TRANSf Simplified system of accurate craft measure­ system of social accounts with special Sub.3/12 ment as proposed by the Indonesian reference to under-developed economies. delegation at the first session of the Inland ECAFE{STAT/ Le riJvenu national du Viet-Nam. Waterway Sub"Committee. Conf.3/15 41 ECAFEfSTATJ ~ote on a simple system of eapitalaccounts. ECAFE/FLOOD/ · Is the probability theory a suitable means Conf.3j16 \VRD/11 for predicting river discharges especially ECAFEtSTAT/ Comments on draft income/expense table peak-discharges of the Indonesian rivers ? Conf.3j18 for agriculture. ECAFE/FLOOD/ Utilization of water resources-A constitu­ WRD/12 tional study with special reference to \VORKING GROUP OF EXPERTS ON PAYMENTS PROBLEMS OF l"HE India. ECAFE REGION ECAFE/FLOOD/ Development of irrigation structures for First meeting WRD/13 water control in Malaya.' ECAFE/FLOOD/ Salient features on multiple-purpose water PAYMENTS/2 Scope fm; multilateral compensation pay- WRD/14 resources development projects in the & Corr.I ' ments of ECAFE countries. Philippines. PAYME~TS/3 Payments problems of Burma. ECAFE/FLOOD/ A preliminary study on multiple-purpose P A YI;IENTS/4 Payments problems of the Philippines. WRD/15 reservoirs of the Cho-Chui ri,·cr in Taiwan. PAYMENTS/5 Payments arrangements and procedures of ECAFE/FLOOD/ \Vater power development in the Philip­ Cambodia, Laos, and Viet-Nam. WRD/16 pines, its justification, financing and PAYMENTS/6 Payments problems of Pakistan. benefits. PAYMENTS/7 Payments problems of the ECAFE region. ECAFE/FLOODf The estimation of run-off based on rainfall PAYMENTS/8 Intra-regional and extra-regional payments WRD/17 data for the MePing river basin, Thail.;,nd. arrangements and trade agreements of ECAFE/FLOODf Some thoughts on the design of fl.oodways. the ECAFE countries. WRD/18 I'A YMENTS/9 Payments problems of British Borneo. ECAFE/FLOOD/ \Vhy not reinforced stone construction ? PAYMENTS/10 Payments problems of Burma. WRD/19 PAYMENTS/ll Payments problems of Ceylon. ECAFEfFLOOD/ Time-lag in rivers. PAYMENTS/12 Payments problems of China (Taiwan). WRD/20 PAYMENTS;l3 Payments problems of Hong Kong. ECAFE/FLOOD/ Historical development of criterion for PAYMENTS/14 Payments problems of India. WRD/21 justification of irrigation projects in India. PAYMENTS/IS Trade and payments agreements of India. ECAFE/FLOOD/ Relationship between cost and period of PA YMENTS/16 Payments problems of Cambodia, Laos and WRD/22 construction of river valley projects. Viet-~am. ECAFE/FLOOD/ Couraitt de de1tsite. - Etudes experime1tlales PAYMENTS/17. Payments problems of Indonesia. WRD/23 Ml canal vitnf. PA YMENTS/18 Payments problems of Japan. ECAFE/FLOOD/ Importance of hydrological and climatolo­ PAYMENTS/19 Payments problems of the Republic of WRD/24 gical records to water resources develop­ Korea. ment projects of the Bureau of Recla­ I';\YMENTS/20 Payments problems of Malaya. mation. PAYMENTS/21 Payments problems of Pakistan. ECAFE/FLOOD/ Investigations on the indirect computation PAYMENTS/22 Payments problems of the Philippines. WRD/25 of run-off from rainfall records in Uttar PAYMENTS/23 Payments problems of Thailand. Pradesh, India. PAYMENTS/24 The exchange system of Thailand .. ECAFE/FLOOD/ Justification of projects, selection of a P A Y:MENTS/25 Report of the Working Group of Experts WRD/26 project from amongst alternatives, a and Rev. 1 to 3 on Payment.~. discussion of methods of reimbursement, (E/CN.ll/I&T/ Problems of the ECAFE Region to the and a procedure for benefit-cost analyses. 112) . Committee on Industry and Trade. ECAFE/FLOOD/ Flood control and power plant project for P AYMENTS/26 Trade and payments agreements of Japan. WRD/27 the Namgang river, Korea. PAYMENTS/27 International payments development in ECAFEfFWODj · A study on maximum flood discharge China: Taiwan. WRD/28 formula. REGiciNAL TEcHNICAL CoNFERENCE oN \.VATER ResouRcEs ECAFE/FLOOD/ Flood control in relation to the justification DEVELOPMENT WRD/29 of a multiple-purpose project. ECAFE/FLOOD/ 1953 flood and improvement plan for the First session WRD/30 Chikugo river. ECAFE/FLOOD/ Indirect benefits of irrigation. ECAFE/FLOOD/ Progress on multiple-purpose projects in · WRD/2 WRD/31 Japan and the criteria for justification of ECAFE/FLOOD/ Integrated flow curves. each project. · WRD/3 ECAFE/FLOOD/ Manual for river improvement programmes. ECAFE/FLOODf Some statistical aids in stream-flow pre- WRD/32 WRD/4 diction. ECAFEfFLOOD/ Justifiable expenditure for hydro-electric ECAFEJFLOOD/ The silt problem in Taiwan. WRDJ33 power plants in overall river development. WRD/5 ECAFE/FLOOD/ Criteria for the economic appraisal of japan's ECAFE/FLOOD/ Multiple-purpose projects in Ceylon. WRDt34 agricultural land development projects. WRD/6 ECAFEJFLOOD/ Allocation of the construction cost of mul­ ECAFE/FLOOD/ · Salient features of important water resources WRD/35 tiple-purpose dam. WRD/7 development projects in Taiwan with ECAFE/FLOOD/ The Numazawanuma pumped storage hydro­ speci~eference to multiple-purpose pro­ WRD/36 power station. jects. , ECAFEJFLOOD/ About the choice of the type of hydro· ECAFE/FLOOD/ Qrganiza: i® ·for the development of water WRD/37 electric power plant. WRD/8 stralia. ECAFEfFLOODf· A method to estimate run-off from rainfall. ECAFE/FLOOD/ ent of control of the waters WRD/38 WRD/9 of the River ·Murray under the River ECAFE/FLOOD/ Variation in storm rainfall over mountainous Murray Agreement. WRD/39 basin. ECAFEfFLOOD/ Selection of types of structures in water ECAFE/FLOODJ Approximate analysis of run-off. WRD/10 resources development with special refe­ WRD/40 rence to the availability of labour and ECAFE/FLOOD/ Statistical method of predicting the run-oft material in India. WRDf4l'' !rom rainfalL ECAFE/FLOODi On the treatment of discharge data for the ECAFE/FLOOP/ Hydrological studies ·of some Indian. ca.tch­ WRD/42 power investigation on the Kumano and WRD/73 ments. the Kuromata rivers. ECAF/EFLOOD/ Sand control of channels taking off frorh ECAFE/FLOOD/ Treatment of discharge records in: water WRD/74 alluvial rivers. WRD/43 power. ECAFE/FLOOD/ Note on the extension of further flood ECAFEfFLOODf Computing and estimating method of the WRD/75 . control of the delta. WRD/# flow in the upper portion of the River ECAFE/FLOOD/ Quelques considerations sur le pouvoir ivapo­ Tone for hydro-electric development. WRD/76 rat~t de !'atmosphere, le deficit d'icoulement ECAFE/FLOOD/ Ishibuchi darn. e!Jectif et le deficit d' icottlement inaximum. WRD/45 ECAI

Rule 10 CHAPTER VI. CONDUCT OF BUSINESS A representative may be accompanied to the sessions of the Rule 23 Commission by alternate representatives and advisers and, when A majority of the members of the Commission shall constitute absent, he may be replaced by an alternate representative. a quorum. 45 Rule 24 CHAPTER VII. VOTING

In addition to c.xercising the power~ conferred upon him Rute 35 elsewhere by these rules, the Chairman, shall declare the opening .Each member of the Commission shall have one vote. and closing of each meeting of the Commission, shall direct the discussion, ensure the observance of these rules, and shall accord Rule 36 the right to speak, put questions to the vote and announce Decisions of the Commission shall be made by a majority of decisions. The Chairman may also call a speaker to order if the members present and voting. his remarks are not relevant to the subject under discussion. Rule 37 Rule 25 The Commission shall take no action in respect of any country During the discussion of any matter a representative may without the agreement of the Government of that country. raise a point of order. In this case the Chairman shall immediately state his ruling. If it is challenged, the Chairman shall forthwith Rule 38 submit his ruling to the Commission for decision and it shall The Commission shall normally vote by show of hands. If stand unless overruled. any representative requests a roll call, a roll call shall be taken in the English alphabetical order of the names of the members. Rule 26 During the discussion of any matter a representative may Rule 39 move the adjournment of the debate. Any such motion shall All elections shall be decided by . have priority. In addition to the proposer of the motion, one representative shall be allowed to speak in favour of, and one Rule 40 representative against the motion. If a vote is equally divided upon matters other than elections, a second vote shall be taken at the next meeting. If this vote Rule 27 also results in equality, the proposal shall be regarded as rejected. A representative may at any time move the closure of the debate whether or not any other representative has signified CHAPTER VIII. LANGUAGES his wish to speak. Not more than two representatives may be granted permission to speak against the closure. Rule 41 English and French shall be the working languages of the Rule 28 Commission. The Chairman shall take the 'Sense of the Commission on a Rule 42 motion for closure. If the Commission is in favour of the closure, Speeches made in one of the working languages shall be inter­ the Chairman shall declare the debate closed. preted into the other working language. Rule 29 CHAPTER IX. RECORDS The Commission may limit the time allowed to each speaker. Rule 43 Rule 30 Summary records of the meetings of the Commission shall be Upon the request of any member, any motion and amendment kept by the secretariat. They shall be sent as soon as possible thereto made by any speaker shall be given to the Chairman to the representatives of members and to the representatives in writing and shall be read by him before any further speaker of any other government agency or organization which parti­ is called upon and also immediately before a vote is taken on cipated in the meeting concerned. Such representatives shall such motion or amendment. The Chairman may direct that any inform the secretariat not later· than -two hours after motion or amendment be circulated to the members present the circulation of any summary of any changes they wish to before a vote is taken. have made. Any disagreement concerning such changes shall This rule shall not apply to formal motions such as one for be referred to the Chairman, whose decision shall be final. closure or adjournment. Rule 44 Rule 31 The corrected version of the summary records of public Principal motions and resolutions shall be put to the vote in meetings shall be distributed as soon as possible in accordance the order of their submission unless the Commission decides with the usual practice of the United Nations. This shall include otherwise. distribution to non-governmental organizations in category A Rule 32 and to the appropriate non-governmental organizations in category B and on the register, and on appropriate occasions to When an amendment revises, adds to or deletes from a proposal, consultative members. the amendment shall be put to the vote first, and if it is adopted, the amended proposal shall then be put to the vote. Rule 45

Rule 33 The corrected version of the summary records of private meetings shall be distributed as soon as possible to the members If two or more amendments are moved to a proposal, the of the Commission, to any consultative member participating Commission shall vote first on the amendment furthest removed in the meeting concerned, and to the specialized agencies. They in substance from the original proposal, then, if necessary, on shall be distributed to all the Members of the United Nations the amendment next furthest removed and so on, until all the if and when the Commission so decides. amendments have been put to the vote. Rule 46 Rule 34 As soon as possible the text of all reports, resolutions, recom­ The Commission may, at the request of a representative, mendations and other formal decisions made by the Commission, decide to put a motion or resolution to the vote in parts. If its sub-commissions or other subsidiary bodies and its committees this is done, the text resulting from the series of votes shall shall be communicated to the members of the Commission, to be put to the vote as a whole. the consultative members concerned, to all other Members of 46 tbe United Nations, to the specialized agencies, and to the non­ Rule 51 governmental organizations in category A and to the appropriate (a) The Commission and its subsidiary bodies may consult non-governmental organizations in category D and on the with organizations in category A or B either directly or through register. a committee or committees established for the purpose. In all CHAPTER X. PUBLICITY OF :\IEETINGS cases, such consultations may be arranged on the invitation of the Commission or the subsidiary body or on the request of Rule 47 the organization. The meetings of the Commission shall ordinarily be held in (b) On the recommendation of the Executive Secretary and public. The Commission may decide that a particular meeting at the request of the Commission or one of its subsidiary bodies, or meetings shall be held in private. organizations on the register may also be heard by the Com· mission or its subsidiary bodies. CHAPTER XI. RELATIONS WITH NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Rule 52 Rule 48 The Commission may recommend that an organization which Non-governmental organizations in categories A and B and has special competence in a particular field should .undertake on the register may designate authorized representatives to sit specific studies or investigations or prepare specific papers for the Commission. The limitations of rule 50 (d) shall not apply as observers at public meetings of the Commission. in this case. Rule 49 CHAPTER XII Written statements relevant to the work of the Commission or its subsidiary bodies may be submitted by organizations in Rule 53 categories A and B on subjects for which these organizations After discussion with any specialized agency functioning in have a special competence. Such statements shall be circulated the same field, and with the approval of the Economic and by the Executive Secretary to the members and associate members Social Council, the Commission may establish such continually of the Commission except those statements which have become acting sub-commissions or other subsidiary bodies as it deems obsolete, e.g., those dealing with matters already disposed of. necessary for the performance of its functions and shall define the powers and composition of each of them. Such autonomy R1tle 50 as may be necessary for the effective discharge of the technical The following conditions shall be observed regarding the responsibilities laid upon them may be delegated to them. submission and circulation of such \lrritten statements : {a) The written statement shall be submitted in one of the Rule 54 official languages ; The Commission may establish such committees and sub­ (b) It shall be submitted in sufficient time for appropriate committees as it deems necessary to assist it in carrying out consultation to take place between the Executive Secretary and its tasks. the organization before circulation , Rule 55 (c) The organization shall give due consideration to any comments which the Executive Secretary may make in the Sub-commissions or other subsidiary bodies and committees course of such consultation before transmitting the statement and sub-committees shall adopt their own rules of procedure in final form ; unless otherwise decided by the Commission. (d) A written statement submitted by an organization in category A or B \lri!l be circulated in full if it does not exceed CHAPTER XIII. REPORTS 2,000 words. Where a statement is in excess of 2,000 words, Rule 56 the organization shall submit a summary, which will be cir­ culated, or shall supply sufficient copies of the full text in the The Commission shall submit to the Economic and Social two working languages for distribution. A statement will also Council a full report on its activities and plans, including those be circulated in full, however, upon the specific request of the of any subsidiary bodies, once a year. Commission or of one of its subsidiary bodies ; {e) The Executive Secretary may invite organizations on the CHAPTER XIV. AMENDMENTS AND SUSPENSIONS register to submit written statements. The provisions of para­ Rule 57 graphs {a), (c) and (d) above shall apply to such statements; (/) A written statement or summary, as the case may be, Any of these rules of procedure may be amended or suspended will be circulated by the Executive Secretary in the working by the Commission provided that the proposed amendments or languages and, upon the request of a member or associate suspensions do not attempt to set aside the terms of reference member of the Commission, in any of the official languages. laid down by the Economic and Social Council.