Volume 38, Number 1 Published by Alexandrine Press and edited by Peter Hall and David Banister Built EnvironmentVolume 38,Number

Railway Station Mega-Projects and The Re-Making of Inner Cities in Europe


Volume 38, Number 1, 2012 RAILWAY STATION MEGA-PROJECTS AND THE RE-MAKING OF INNER CITIES IN EUROPE © 2012 Alexandrine Press. Guest Editors: DEIKE PETERS and JOHANNES NOVY Writt en permission of the publishers is required for the reproduction of editorial matt er. Rail Station Mega-Projects: Overlooked Centrepieces in the Complex Puzzle of Urban Restructuring in Europe ISSN 0263-7960 DEIKE PETERS and JOHANNES NOVY 5 Published by Alexandrine Press Train Station Area Development Mega-Projects in Europe: Alexandrine Press 1 The Farthings Towards a Typology Marcham DEIKE PETERS with JOHANNES NOVY 13 Oxon OX13 6QD Telephone: 01865 391518 Station Area Projects in Europe and Beyond: Towards Transit Fax: 01865 391687 E-mail: Oriented Development? [email protected] LUCA BERTOLINI, CAREY CURTIS and JOHN RENNE 31 Built Environment is published four times a year. Impact of High Speed Rail Stations on Local Development: 2012 annual institution A Delphi Survey subscription £282.00; 2012 personal subscription rate ANASTASIA LOUKAITOU-SIDERIS, DANA CUFF, £110.00 – includes both print and TIMOTHY HIGGINS and ORLY LINOVSKI 51 online.

Contents and abstracts from Rail Mega-Projects in the Realm of Inter- and Intra-City Vol. 23, no. 4 onwards are available Accessibility: Evidence and Outlooks for on RUDI (Resources for Urban Design Information) at www.rudi. GABRIEL AHLFELDT 71 net/bookshelf/ej/be/be.html Megaproject as Keyhole Surgery: London Crossrail Built Environment is abstracted in MICHAEL HEBBERT 89 the Journal of Planning Literature, Geo Abstracts, Sage Urban Studies Abstracts, and is indexed in History and Failure of the Mega-Project ‘ 21’ the Avery Index to Architectural GEORG SPECK 103 Periodicals. The Five Lives of HB Südwest: Zurich’s Main Station Art Production by PNR Design Development from 1969 to 2019 Printed by techniqueprint, Banbury RICHARD WOLFF 113 Railway Station Mega-Projects as Public Controversies: Cover images: Front: The interior of The Case of Stutt gart 21 Hauptbahnhof. © Foster + Partners; photo: Nigel Young. Back: JOHANNES NOVY and DEIKE PETERS 128 View from the train of Santiago Calatrava’s Liège-Guillemins Publication Review 146 station. Photo: Anthony Rudkin NOTE CHANGE OF ONLINE HOST

Alexandrine Press is a member of Built Environment online is hosted by IngentaConnect (www.ingenta-connect.com/ content/alex/benv) Visit the Alexandrine Press website – www.alexandrinepress.co.uk

BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 1 RAILWAY STATION MEGA-PROJECTS AND THE RE-MAKING OF INNER CITIES IN EUROPE Built Environment Published by Alexandrine Press, Built Environment is a peer-reviewed journal with an emphasis on crossing disciplinary boundaries and providing global perspective. Each issue focuses on a single subject of interest and relevance to practitioners, academics and students working in a wide range of disciplines.

Editors: Andreas Faludi, TU Delft Peter Hall, University College London Stephen Hamnett, University of South Australia, David Banister, University of Oxford Adelaide Louis Hellman, Architect, London Editorial Board: Robert Kloosterman, University of Amsterdam Terence Bendixson, Urban Affairs Consultant Klaus R. Kunzmann, Universität Dortmund Jeffrey W. Cody, Getty Conservation Institute, David Lock, David Lock Associates, Milton Keynes Los Angeles Stephen Marshall, University College London Michael A. Cohen, New School University, Louise Nyström, Blekinge Institute of Technology, New York City Karlskrona Claire Colomb, University College London Lawrence J. Vale, Massachusetts Institute of Yasser Elsheshtawy, United Arab Emirates Technology University, Al Ain R. Yin-Wang Kwok, University of Hawaii

The Contributors

Gabriel Ahlfeldt is Lecturer in Urban Economics and Land Development Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris is the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs in the Department of Geography and Environment, London School of and Urban Planning Professor at the UCLA School of Public Affairs. Economics and Political Science. His research concentrates on the effect Her research focuses on the public environment of the city, its physical of large transport projects and architectural developments on local house representation, aesthetics, social meaning and impact on the urban prices, local political preferences and urban structure. resident. Her work seeks to integrate social and physical issues in urban planning and architecture. Luca Bertolini is Professor of Urban and Regional Planning, Amsterdam Institute of Social Science Research, University of Amsterdam. His Johannes Novy is an urban planner and works as a researcher and lecturer research focuses on the integration of transport and land-use planning, at the Technical University Berlin. Some of his most recent publications on methods for supporting the option-generation phase of the planning include the co-edited volume Searching for the Just City (Routledge 2009) process, on concepts for coping with uncertainty in planning, and on ways and ‘Struggling for the right to the (creative) city in Berlin and . of enhancing theory-practice interaction. New urban social movements, new ’spaces of hope’?’ (with Dr. Claire Colomb, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, forthcoming). Dana Cuff is Professor in the Department of Architecture and Urban Design, University of California, Los Angeles. She is the founding director Deike Peters was Director of the Urban Mega-Projects Research Group of cityLAB, a research centre at UCLA that explores the challenges facing at the Center for Metropolitan Studies, TU Berlin. She is currently a the twenty-first century metropolis through design and research. German Research Foundation International Fellow at University of Southern California’s Sol Price School for Public Policy. Her work focuses Carey Curtis is Professor of City Planning and Transport and Director on international comparisons of urban restructuring processes and on of the research network Urbanet, Curtin University, Perth. Her research socially just and environmentally sustainable land use and transportation interests cover land-use and transport planning, including a focus on solutions. city form and structure, transit oriented development, personal travel behaviour, accessibility planning, institutional barriers to sustainable John Renne is Associate Professor of Planning and Urban Studies at the transport, governance and transport policy. University of New Orleans and Director of the Merritt C. Becker Jr. University of New Orleans Transportation Institute. His research focuses Michael Hebbert is Professor of Town Planning at the University of on transportation and land use planning, including liveable communities, Manchester and a member of the Manchester Architecture Research sustainable transportation, and evacuation planning. Centre, MARC. He served as independent chairman of the Crossrail Design Review Panel 2004–2007. Georg Speck is a transport expert in the railway department at the Ministry of the Interior, Sports and Infrastructure in Rhineland-Palatinate, Timothy Higgins is Associate Director of cityLAB and Researcher in the Germany. He was involved in the construction of the Rhein-Main Department of Architecture and Urban Design, University of California, regional railway (S-Bahn) and has been a member of Frankfurt’s Urban Los Angeles. His research interests concern the cultural aspects of Development Council for 20 years. neighbourhood change, planning and design for environmental hazards, Richard Wolff is an urbanist, activist and politician in Zurich. He is a urban mobility and transportation, and new forms of spatial data co-founder of the International Network for Urban Research and Action representation and runs the INURA Zurich Institute. He teaches at the Zurich University Orly Linovski is a Senior Research Associate in cityLab within Department of Applied Sciences. His special interests include globalization, large-scale of Urban Planning, University of California, Los Angeles. urban projects, housing, planning and transport.


Forthcoming issues will include: Co-Housing; The New Athens Charter; Understanding Shrinkage in European Regions

Below is a selected list of back issues of Built Environment print issues (£35.00 per copy) including postage; discount to students 10%. Vol. 23, no. 1: Vanishing Borders: The Second Vol. 30, no. 2: Transport Inequalities and Poverty Benelux Structural Outline Vol. 30, no. 3: Creative Cultural Knowledge Cities Vol. 23, no. 2: Conservation in Western Planning Vol. 30, no. 4: Multifunctional Urban Land Use Systems Vol. 31, no. 1: Crossing Boundaries: Architecture Vol. 23, no. 3: New Directions in European and the Infl uence of Other Rural Policy Disciplines Vol. 23, no. 4: Shaping Europe: The European Vol. 31, no. 2: Polycentric Development Policies Spatial Development across Europe Perspective Vol. 31, no. 3: Music and the City Vol. 24, no. 1: Trading Places: The Future of the Town Centre Vol. 31, no. 4: Planning Healthy Towns and Cities Vol. 24, nos. 2/3: Building Cyberspace: Information, Vol. 32, no. 1: Neighbourhood Centres in Europe: Place and Policy Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow Vol. 24, no. 4: Eastern Urban Form and Culture Vol. 32, no. 2: Refl ections on the Polycentric Metropolis Vol. 25, no. 1: Playgrounds in the Built Environment Vol. 32, no. 3: Towards Sustainable Suburbs Vol. 25, no. 2: Travel Reduction: Policy into Vol. 32, no. 4: Learning from Urban Disasters: Practice Planning for Resilient Cities Vol. 25, no. 3: Conservation: Experience outside Vol. 33, no. 1: Climate Change and Cities the Industrialized West Vol. 33, no. 2: Density Vol. 25, no. 4: Urban Design Strategies in Practice Vol. 33, no. 3: Built Heritage Conservation Vol. 26, no. 1: Nordic Planning meets Europe Education Vol. 26, no. 2: Urban Tourism Vol. 33, no. 4: Children, Young People and Built Environments Vol. 26, no. 3: Sustainable Mobility in the EU Vol. 34, no. 1: Crime in the City Vol. 26, no. 4: Cinema and the City Vol. 34, no. 2: People plus Technology: New Vol. 27, no. 1: Environmental Assessment – Approaches to Sustainable Japanese Style Mobility Vol. 27, no. 2: Pacific-Asian Cities: Challenges Vol. 34, no. 3: The State of Australian Cities and Prospects Vol. 34, no. 4: The Transition of Chinese Cities Vol. 27, no. 3: The Hague – A Dual City? Causes and Policy Responses Vol. 35, no. 1: Railways in Europe: A New Era? Vol. 27, no. 4: Regulatory Competition and Vol. 35, no. 2: Can we Plan the Creative Co-operation in European Knowledge City? Spatial Planning Vol. 35, no. 3: Sustainability via Security: A New Vol. 28, no. 1: Sustainable Buildings: Meanings, Look Processes and Users Vol. 35, no. 4: Climate Change, Flood Risk and Vol. 28, no. 2: Water Management in Urban Areas Spatial Planning Vol. 28, no. 3: Islam and Built Form: Studies in Vol. 36, no. 1: The Compact City Revisited Regional Diversity Vol. 36, no. 2: Arab Mega-Projects Vol. 28, no. 4: Urban-Rural Relationships Vol. 36, no. 3: Bus Rapid Transit: A Public Vol. 29, no. 1: The Sustainable City: Transport Transport Renaissance and Spatial Development Vol. 36, no. 4: The Role of Walking and Cycling in Vol. 29, no. 2: Perspectives on Urban Advancing Healthy and Greenspace in Europe Sustainable Urban Areas Vol. 29, no. 3: New Urbanism Vol. 37, no. 1: Informal Urbanism Vol. 29, no. 4: Measuring Quality in Planning: Vol. 37, no. 2: Perspectives on Urban Segregation An International Review Vol. 37, no. 3: Building Knowledge Cities: The Vol. 30, no. 1: The Cosmopolis: Emerging Role of Universities Multicultural Spaces in Europe Vol. 37, no. 4: Urban Morphology and Design and North America


4 BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 RAIL STATION MEGA-PROJECTS Rail Station Mega-Projects: Overlooked Centrepieces in the Complex Puzzle of Urban Restructuring in Europe


Across the world, railway stations have (re-) Central Station, London’s King’s Cross emerged as prime targets for ambitious urban Central, Paris’s Rive Gauche/Austerlitz and redevelopment initiatives, and are thus likely Stockholm’s Västra City, to name some of the to feature prominently in future debates most prominent. Most European architects over the ongoing post-industrial, post- and urban designers, meanwhile, will be Fordist restructuring of cities and regions. familiar with the high-profile rail station Debates over major inner-city rail stations, starchitecture projects already completed and their surrounding areas, illustrate the in Lyon St. Exupéry, Liège-Guillemins reinvigorated signifi cance of urban cores as (Calatrava), Dresden (Foster) or Berlin (von sites for property-led capital accumulation Gerkan), and most newspaper readers in and as engines of economic growth. They Europe will by now have come across at also highlight the heightened relevance of least one article reporting on the tumultuous both high-speed and conventional railway events unfolding in the Southern German travel as an effi cient and comparatively city of Stuttgart where tens of thousands of more sustainable means of intra- and inter- opponents took to the streets to demonstrate urban transportation. When we fi rst started against the planned Stuttgart 21 rail station to immerse ourselves in the subject of rail mega-project, challenging politicians and station redevelopment mega-projects about railway officials to a public debate over three years ago, we were already well aware the rationality of the project. We fully that as a topic it was under-researched and expected to find dozens of other rail station that a handful of in-depth case studies on redevelopment projects of similar magnitude a small set of high-profi le projects from the across Europe, and wanted to reach out to 1990s to early 2000s unfairly dominated the other scholars across the continent in an scholarly debate (see Bertolini, 1996; Bertolini ambitious attempt to unite and broaden our and Spit, 1998; Trip, 2007; Bruinsma et al., knowledge of the subject. 2008; Peters, 2009). What we found, both in talking to and Every architect and urban planner in engaging with our peers and in doing our Europe seems to know about Euralille. Most own research, was overwhelming. As it internationally-minded urban planners will turns out, various versions of rail station also have some superficial knowledge of the (area) mega-projects – broadly defined here large-scale redevelopment projects underway as private, public or public-private sector-led at Amsterdam’s South Axis, Utrecht’s transport, real estate, and/or public space

BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 5 RAILWAY STATION MEGA-PROJECTS AND THE RE-MAKING OF INNER CITIES IN EUROPE investments inside and adjacent to major modern urban history. Built as ‘Cathedrals railway stations which total 100 million of Progress’ designed to impress citizens Euros or more – either have been, or are and visitors alike, grandiose railway stations currently being, undertaken in almost every have always helped forge the public image large city in Europe. In many cases, the rail of the metropolis in which they are located. stations are directly adjacent to underutilized In essence, rail stations’ century-long history waterfronts which have also become targets is now comprised of three main phases: of comprehensive revitalization initiatives. fi rst, the golden ‘Railway Age’ from the late Yet while waterfront redevelopment has 1800s to the mid-twentieth century, when received high-profile scholarly attention in railways played a crucial role in propelling the last decades, hardly anyone engaged in cities into the modern industrial age; second, the study of comparative urban development the phase of increasing decline and neglect seems to have noticed how widespread and aft er World War II, when the Automobile Era significant the related complex phenomenon reached its peak; and fi nally, the more recent of rail station adjacent redevelopment really ‘Railway Renaissance’ in the post-industrial is. Our special issue seeks to address this era when city centres are being re-discovered glaring omission in the scholarly literature on as att ractive sites for working, living, visiting, two main fronts. For one, it presents deep, and for entertainment (Banister and Hall, inside coverage on a number of lesser known 1993; Wucherpfennig, 2006). and/or more recent cases of large-scale urban From the never-quite-so-humble nineteenth- redevelopment projects centred around rail century beginnings, the business of railway stations. Secondly, it seeks to embed these station building brought together basic infra- accounts in a wider academic debate over structural and highly symbolic functions. rail stations as strategic sites in the post- Railway stations were and are important industrial restructuring of urban cores. It is gateways to their cities and to the world our firm belief that inter-modally connected, beyond, symbols not just of progress and mixed-use developments at centrally located modernity but also of longing, nostalgia, rail hubs represent a crucial element in the farewell and reunion. The railways literally challenge to develop more sustainable human shrank and obliterated distance, compressed settlements. Our research also concluded that and unified time across Europe, and enabled to date, very few – if any – of these complex late nineteenth-century cities to grow at a mega-projects have appropriately realized pace unimaginable just a few decades earlier. their enormous promise and potential. Railway stations, with their imposing glass and steel halls and their elaborate arrival halls, emerged as an entirely new building form (Meeks, 1956), and became instantly Railway Stations: Past, Present and Future loaded with symbolic meanings as the new Before off ering any further musings on ‘palaces of modern industry’. They were twenty-fi rst century post-industrial urban built by powerful private railway companies futures and the role rail stations may or may eager to put their newfound economic might not play in them, it seems pertinent to fi rst on public display. As nineteenth-century briefl y refl ect on the past. As Richards and French writer Théophile Gauthier once put Mackenzie (1986, p. 2) appropriately noted in it: ‘These cathedrals of the new humanity their introductory chapter on ‘the mystique are the meeting points of nations, the centre of the railway station’: ‘there is perhaps where all converges, the nucleus of the no more potent or dramatic symbol of the huge stars whose iron rays stretch out to Industrial Revolution than the railways’. the end of the earth’ (cited in Richards and Railway stations represent a crucial piece of Mackenzie, 1986, p. 3). Many of the larger

6 BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 RAIL STATION MEGA-PROJECTS railway stations rising in the centres of renaissance process, most of them well- Europe’s most important metropolises were documented in the scholarly literature: also true ‘cities within a city’ with bustling activities and around-the-clock services. The 1. The ongoing deindustrialization of cities. station areas, however, were typically divided This has made large portions of centrally- into two incongruent, socially segregated located, station-adjacent land available for environments: leading from a representative urban redevelopment. plaza in the front of the building, tree- lined boulevards with expensive hotels and 2. The advent of high-speed rail in key countries bourgeois business establishments would across Western Europe. This has made rail connect the new centre around the station travel highly competitive again, especially with the older parts of the city near the town for inter-city journeys of up to 500 km. hall, market square and central cathedral. The back of the station, meanwhile, would 3. The privatization of state-owned railway typically exhibit a mix of less desirable uses companies across Europe. This has resulted in comprised of noisy, often highly polluting a new profi t-oriented behaviour on the part factories and workshops alongside squalid of railway companies. They now take an working-class rental housing and commercial active interest in commercially developing establishments that typically included the their impressive real estate holdings and/ cities’ most notorious red light venues. or creating independent private real estate In the second half of the twentieth century, companies to market former railway lands. rail travel became increasingly eclipsed by automobile travel. Both bourgeois and petit- 4. The complex urban restructuring processes bourgeois families increasingly favoured currently under way as part of economic suburban homes with manicured lawns over globalization. This has resulted in a rise of centrally-located urban residences. Many rail urban boosterism across Europe with cities stations also had been completely destroyed behaving increasingly more like urban in the First and Second World Wars, only entrepreneurs than public institutions. City to be resurrected as much lesser buildings leaders actively compete for FIRE (fi nance, flanked by uninviting surroundings and insurance and real estate) and other service parking lots or structures. The inner-city sector fi rms as well as entertainment, neighbourhoods around the station further cultural and tourism uses, wooing visitors deteriorated into undesirable quarters and ‘creative industry’ workers into their which were distinctly separate from the revitalized city centres, re-branding their nicer shopping districts in town. Rail travel cities as somehow ‘unique’ and especially became seen as belonging to a bygone era, liveable, att ractive and conveniently access- with steam engines becoming the stuff of ible locations for profi table businesses. romantic musings about the past, and rail stations featuring more prominently as scenic 5. The paradigm shift in transport and land-use backdrops in movies than as part of people’s planning away from car-oriented, functionally daily travel experiences. In Europe, this ‘era segregated cities towards denser, more walkable of decline’ lasted well into the 1980s. In many and transit-oriented mixed-use sett lement North American cities, it even extends well patt erns. This discursive shift has put rail into the present. travel fi rmly back on the agenda of urban Since the 1990s, however, another turning and regional planning, encouraging public point in the history of rail station devel- offi cials and urban planners to actively reach opment can be discerned. There are five out to railway companies in search of public- key factors contributing to this ongoing private partnership opportunities.


The papers in our special issue will address opinion with regard to the much invoked Rail these factors from a variety of perspectives, Station Renaissance. Aft er [listening to] the full- described in more detail below. bodied statements of the railway executives, state and federal ministers and aft er looking at the much-quoted ‘beacon projects’ one might gain the impression rail stations in Germany Context and Key Contents of this once again enjoy excellent prospects and the Special Issue renaissance is in full swing. Upon taking a closer look at the sizeable rest, however, things appear All but two of the articles in this special issue very diff erently, [and] de-investment, planning originated as presentations at an international vandalism and denials of progress continue. symposium held at the Technical University (Monheim, 2009, p. 5) Berlin in Autumn 2009 entitled ‘Railways, Real Estate & the Re-Making of Cities in Heiner Monheim also had more uplifting the 21st Century: Rail Station Area Redevel- news to deliver, however, ultimately point- opment Mega-Projects in Europe & Beyond’. ing to several best practice examples in The two-day gathering brought together smaller and medium-sized cities in Germany a group of two dozen younger and older and Switzerland (e.g. Karlsruhe, Usedom, scholars from around Europe. The conference Siegburg, Biel, and Basel) where railway tone was set by an introductory keynote stations and their surroundings had been by Heiner Monheim, Professor of Urban appropriately refurbished to ensure con- Geography at the University of Trier, who venient and seamless access via non- presented a generally critical view of railway motorized and public transport, where and rail station mega-projects in Germany. station plazas and pedestrian areas had been He questioned whether rail station mega- redesigned to make them more appealing and projects could ever fulfi l the promise of where new commercial and entertainment delivering sustainable urban development. functions had been integrated into the In his view, German Railways cherry-picked physical environment inside or adjacent schemes and injected enormous fi nancial and to the station. In the end, symposium political resources into a small number of participants agreed, such careful and sensible large, high-profi le projects at the expense of urban design and planning strategies are many smaller but not necessarily less worthy crucial for ensuring the success of any rail projects. This served as an appropriate station redevelopment, regardless of size or reminder that, as with all urban mega- location. projects, the crucial question of opportunity In addition to a total of thirteen inspiring costs looms large over all the case studies presentation in four different sessions, the presented in this special issue: symposium programme also included a site visit of Berlin’s most impressive railway Rail stations apparently used to be highly valued mega-project in recent decades, the new symbolic spaces, transport hubs and locations Hauptbahnhof (Central Station). Located on with great urban design signifi cance. But over the Spree River close to Berlin’s government the course of time, given changed priorities and district, the Hauptbahnhof succinctly illustrates transport policy concepts, rail stations were treated more and more selectively, large parts both the aspirations and the problems of the rail system were increasingly neglected, associated with rail station mega-projects many were cut off and closed. Political interests more generally. The station, which represents and investment power targeted the megaprojects. just one part of a gigantic overhaul of This results in a very ambivalent situation of a Berlin’s rail infrastructure (Peters, 2010), is very notable commitment (‘all show’) on one hand and an otherwise criminal neglect on celebrated as an architectural and engineering the other hand (‘no substance [beyond beacon masterpiece and an attraction for Berlin’s projects]’). So it is not easy to form an objective visitors and residents alike. Critics, however,

8 BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 RAIL STATION MEGA-PROJECTS have objected to the station’s enormous scale the positive and negative impacts of HSR and costs as well as its negative consequences stations at a local level; the successes and for West Berlin’s historic Zoo station (Bahnhof failures of HSR systems globally as well as Berlin Zoologischer Garten) which was vir- the prerequisite economic, real estate, policy, tually cut off from long-distance rail travel transportation, urban development, and following the opening of the Hauptbahnhof municipal behaviour variables that have to in 2006. In addition, critics also attacked the be in place for ‘desirable development to take urban development measures surrounding place around HSR stations’. They also discuss the station for being largely commercial, the relevance of their research for California, architecturally banal, and failing to move which has plans to build a new HSR line forward – all criticisms which represent re- linking the Bay Area to Southern California curring concerns in this issue. We present a in less than three hours travel time. mix of qualitative and quantitative research- Focusing on Berlin, Gabriel Ahlfeldt’s con- based analyses covering a broad range of tribution is concerned with rail development’s both well-known as well as lesser-known cases. impact on urban economies and on local real Following this introduction, Deike Peters estate markets in particular. Contrasting the and Johannes Novy start off the issue with a impact of railway development during the conceptual and empirical examination of late era of the industrial revolution with the train station area development (or TSAD for period after unification, he finds that the short) across Europe. Drawing on the results productivity gains typically ascribed to inter- of a survey of hundreds of projects, their city connectivity by various agglomeration contribution elaborates on the definitional theorists have not thus far materialized in problems related to the meaning of train post-reunification Berlin. He shows that station area redevelopment, discusses the the costly overhaul of the city’s inter-city bewildering variety of development projects rail system instead has had at best a weak over the past twenty years, introduces a impact on real estate markets and the wider typology that classifies different project economy. types by dimension and overall objective, and Moving the debate across the Channel to discusses some key issues that characterize London, Michael Hebbert elaborates on the rail station area redevelopment today. ongoing, multi-billion London Crossrail Next, Luca Bertolini, Carey Curtis and John project, a new express rail link running Renne focus on what has become known as east–west across the British capital. Crossrail ‘transit-oriented development’ (or TOD for has been described as the largest transport short) as a specific approach to station area infrastructure investment in the history of the projects. Following a review of the changing United Kingdom, yet it largely refrains from factors driving station area redevelopment, the bold architectural and urban development their contribution provides an analysis of aspirations that characterize similar projects emerging approaches and TOD practices of such gigantic proportions. Hebbert worldwide and concludes with a discussion illustrates how Crossrail’s stations have been of the implications these experiences hold for designed as a ‘series of keyhole operations … current and future initiatives in Europe. to minimize redevelopment impacts’ and how Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, Dana Cuff, Tim they represent a fascinating counter example Higgins and Orly Linovsky then take a closer to the more common trend to use above- look at high-speed rail development (HSR) ground stations as architectural showcases and its implications for local development. and catalysts for local regeneration. Drawing on an extensive literature review Georg Speck then provides a personalized and a Delphi survey of HSR planning experts account of the history and failure of the from across the globe, they elaborate upon Frankfurt 21 mega-project. Speck presents

BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 9 RAILWAY STATION MEGA-PROJECTS AND THE RE-MAKING OF INNER CITIES IN EUROPE an in-depth account of the ultimately futile stations and the developments they undergo. attempt to turn Frankfurt’s central station As urban scholars, we sense a heightened from an above-ground terminal station into responsibility to pay closer attention to rail a modern, underground through station. His stations and their surrounding areas in the is the perspective of an insider involved in future. Hopefully this issue represents a solid the political battles surrounding the project, first step in this direction. providing fascinating insights into the power and interest struggles and the considerable contingencies that typically characterize rail station (re-)development. REFERENCES Those are also key concerns in Richard Banister, D. and Hall, P. (1993) The second railway Wolff’s contribution on ‘The five lives of HB age. Built Environment, 19(3/4), pp. 157–162. Südwest – Zurich’s main station development Bertolini, L. (1996) Knots in the net: on the from 1969 to 2019’ which provides a critical redevelopment of railway stations and their discussion of the decade-long struggle surroundings. City, 1(1/2), pp. 129–137. surrounding the development of Zurich’s Bertolini, L. and Spit, T. (1998) Cities on Rails: The main station. Analyzing the various phases Redevelopment of Railway Station Areas. London: of planning with a special emphasis on the E & FN Spon. current planning and construction process, Bruinsma, F. et al. (2008). Railway Development Wolff reflects on the relations and the Impacts on Urban Dynamics. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag. tensions between the various stakeholders/ Meeks, C. (1956) The Railroad Station: An Archi- agents, participants, the media, and public tectural History. New Haven, CT: Yale Univer- opinion; the winners and losers involved sity Press. in the struggle, especially ‘in the face of the Monheim, H. (2009) The Future of Train Stations new metropolitan mainstream’ (Schmid and in Germany – Few Top Priority Megaprojects Weiss, 2004) pervading the contemporary versus Many ‘Flop Stations’. Keynote presented urban process. at the International Symposium ‘Railways, Real Closing out the issue, Johannes Novy Estate and the Re-Making of Cities’, Technical University Berlin, 16 October 2009. and Deike Peters focus on the hugely Peters, D. (2009) The renaissance of inner- controversial Stuttgart 21 rail station mega- city railway station areas: a key element in project in Southern Germany, providing a contemporary urban restructuring dynamics. timely, up-to-date review of the project’s Critical Planning. 16(1), pp. 162–185. development history from its inception Peters, D. (2010) Rail City Berlin: rail infrastructure almost twenty years ago to the referendum development and intermodality in the reunifi ed held in November 2011 which finally cleared German capital. Transportation Research Record, the way for the project to move forward. The No. 2146, p. 60. ongoing struggle surrounding Stuttgart 21 Richards, J., and MacKenzie, J.M. (1986) The Rail- way Station: A Social History. Oxford: Oxford represents a complex and often contradictory University Press. story that defies premature or overly Schmid, C. and Weiss, D. (2004) The new metro- simplistic conclusions, while reminding politan mainstream, in Paloscia, R. (ed.) The us that rail stations are no ordinary places. Contested Metropolis – Six Cities at the Begin- They are places with a distinct character and ning of the 21st Century – Berlin, Bruxelles/ identity that serve a multitude of important Brussel, Firenze, London, Toronto, Zürich. Basel: functions in urban environments – not least Birkhäuser, pp. 253–259. as key reference places in citizens’ lives. The Trip, J. (2007) What Makes a City? Planning for ‘Quality of Place’ – The Case of High Speed weekly mass rallies for and against Stuttgart Train Station Area Development. Doctoral 21 over the past two years have demonstrated Dissertation, OTB Research Institute, Delft how deeply people care about ‘their’ railway University of Technology.


Wucherpfennig, C. (2006) Bahnhof: (stadt)gesell- schaft licher Mikrokosmos im Wandel. Eine ’neue kulturgeographische’ Analyse. Oldenburg: BIS- Verlag der Carl-von-Ossietzky-Universität: Dis- sertation.



Addressing conceptual and empirical gaps within the field of train station area development (TSAD), this contribution first distinguishes two main perspectives for considering TSAD: one focusing on sustainability, the other on urban competitiveness. Drawing on data from hundreds of projects in Europe, the article then identifies four different TSAD types: strategic integrated; station renaissance; urban development; and transport development. After a discussion of emerging issues (converting terminals into through stations, covering tracks, understanding giga-projects, and synergetic adjacencies), this article concludes that development and decline are still happening simultaneously, with railway’s neoliberal rationalization processes leading to upgrading in central, high-profile locations and downgrading and neglect in others.

Contextualizing Train Station-Oriented and overall objective, and discuss some key Development issues that characterize TSAD today. Finally, we summarize our main fi ndings and outline Research on the so-called ‘renaissance of needs for future research. railway stations’ and the coming of Europe’s Comparative studies on built environment second railway age has proliferated in the issues have much to learn from a closer look last two decades (see especially Banister at recent developments around major rail and Hall, 1993, and Bruinsma et al., 2008). hubs. Our new acronym ‘TSAD’ is obviously Nevertheless, as a comparative fi eld of study, a nod to the better-known acronym ‘TOD’, train/railway1 station area development – or ‘transit-oriented development’. Originally hereinaft er referred to with the acronym largely confined to North American debates ‘TSAD’ – remains severely under-researched. over how to combat urban sprawl using This contribution seeks to address several principles of ‘smart growth’ and ‘New conceptual and empirical gaps within Urbanism’ (Katz, 1994; CNU, 1999; Calthorpe the fi eld. We clarify existing defi nitional and Fulton, 2001), the term ‘TOD’ now problems, introduce a new framework for enjoys great prominence in the international looking at TSAD and elaborate on its current planning literature (Curtis et al., 2009; realities in Europe. We enumerate and discuss Bertolini et al., 2012, this issue). In essence, the bewildering variety of development TOD is a relatively new planning philosophy projects planned over the past 20 years across designed to address the root problem of Europe. We also introduce a typology that automobile dependence in post-World War II classifi es diff erent project types by dimension settlement patterns. Boarnet and Crane (1998)

12 BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 TRAIN STATION AREA DEVELOPMENT MEGA-PROJECTS IN EUROPE: TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY? defined TOD as ‘the practice of developing entire metro regions but across countries, or intensifying residential land use near and, after the advent of high-speed rail, in- train stations’, whereas Bernick and Cervero creasingly across Europe. The place qualities (1997, p. 5) more comprehensively defined it of such developments are also different in as ‘a compact, mixed-use community, centred that railway lands typically encompass large around a transit station that, by design, stretches of underutilized land in central loca- invites residents, workers, and shoppers to tions. As an emerging field of inquiry, re- drive their cars less and ride mass transit search on TSAD has not yet become fully more’. TOD touts the transformative power coherent. Several contributions in this special of rail as an attractive mass transit mode issue indicate that this lack of coherence (Still, 2002; Cervero et al., 2004; Dittmar partially stems from the fact that there and Ohland, 2004; Dunphy et al., 2004). As are a number of related, yet analytically Bertolini et al. (2012) also demonstrate in distinct starting points for looking at this this issue, there is thus a clear link between phenomenon. Seeking to simplify the matter more US-centric scholarly debates on transit- analytically while at the same time moving oriented development and more European- towards clearer typologies, we argue that at focused debates on train station (area) re- minimum, there is a twofold distinction to be development. TOD’s key challenge, of course, made between a ‘sustainable transport and is the successful co-location of activity centres land-use’ perspective and an ‘urban re- and residences close enough to either end of valorization/restructuring’ perspective. While a transit trip to make rail (or, alternatively, the two perspectives are partially overlapping bus rapid transit) a viable and attractive and partially complementary, both also alternative to the motorcar. Otherwise, one have distinct micro-, meso- and macro-level only ends up with transit-adjacent develop- implications.3 ment or ‘TAD’, as TOD’s inferior cousin, i.e. developments which are located near transit The ‘Sustainability’ Perspective: TSAD and (or train) stations without really taking Sustainable Transport and Land Use advantage of this proximity (Parsons Brincker- hoff Quade & Douglas, 2001; Renne, 2009).2 Apart from the real, on-the-ground physical Regardless of the exact term or acronym restructuring eff ects, the re-emergence of used, we argue that more systematic attention centrally-located railway stations as focal should be directed towards two interrelated points for urban activity carries strong sym- phenomena which are specific variants of bolic meaning: it further solidifi es European development at and near transport nodes, cities’ break with their post-war legacy of pur- namely: suing functionally segregated, car-oriented sett lement patt erns which privileged indi-  the (re)development of major, inner- vidual motorized transport over collective city railway station buildings into centrally and non-motorized forms of travel. As such, located, intermodal hubs; and promoters of TSAD projects are able to connect their various proposals to a power-  the (parallel) (re)development of under- ful new ‘sustainability’ paradigm of ideal used land and development rights inside or sett lement structures featuring walkable, immediately adjacent to the station buildings. transit-oriented urban cores with lower carbon footprints than their industrial-age Thusly defined, TSAD is different from predecessors, lowering overall vehicle-kilo- development at other transit nodes in that metres travelled (Banister, 2008; Ewing major rail stations have a much wider reach, and Cervero, 2010; Gehl, 2010), and invit- providing fast connections not just across ing ‘smart’ and ‘green’ energy effi cient

BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 13 RAILWAY STATION MEGA-PROJECTS AND THE RE-MAKING OF INNER CITIES IN EUROPE architecture alongside well-designed public co-location. The best known example remains spaces, thus in eff ect marrying TOD and the Dutch ABC-policy where inner-city ‘Green Urbanism’ ideals (Beatley, 1999, pp. A-locations are described as those transit- 5–8, Cervero and Sullivan, 2011). accessible locations close to the main railway Even if the station areas themselves are stations that have limited parking and are not not always fully developed into high-quality easy to reach by car (Elsenaar and Fanoy, 1993; pedestrian environments, simply locating Beatley, 1999, p. 113). Another noteworthy major new employment and activity centres concept is that of the British ‘transport and urban attractions near train stations development areas’, which have been des- is today considered good planning. Many cribed as ‘a cross-sectoral mechanism for European countries now have national level delivering higher density development planning legislation explicitly acknowledging around public transport nodes’ (Hines et al., the strategic role railway stations have in 2005, p. 9). EU-level policy documents also restructuring cities and their surrounding actively tout the spatially transformative regions towards more sustainable settlement potential of rail for cities (see figure 1). patterns, thus actively encouraging such At the meso (city-wide) level, major train stations emerge as the new, inter-modally connected spaces that link the various parts of the city: inside and outside, old and new – becoming the new centres of the city, with high-capacity rail transit lines stretching into the metro area like ‘fingers’ (Copenhagen) and linking neighbourhoods like ‘planetary clusters’ (Stockholm) (Cervero, 1998). At the macro (inter-metropolitan) level, this new paradigm views high-speed rail links as the crucial backbone infrastructures enabling this new vision. According to its most recent White Paper on Transport, the European Union aims to triple the size of its existing high-speed rail network by 2030 and hopes that by 2050, the majority of medium distance passenger travel will be by rail (European Commission, 2010, p. 10). In short, in many ways, Europe’s propagated ‘rail renaissance’ emerges as the quintessential infrastructure centrepiece for the successful ‘ecological modernization’ of the continent, both in real and in symbolic terms (see also Peters, 2003).

The ‘Urban Competitiveness’ Perspective: TSAD and (Neoliberal) Urban Revalorization/ Restructuring The other key reason TSAD is so enthusias- Figure 1. A vision of railway stations as new city tically promoted by both public and private centres. (Source: Slightly re-arranged from: EC actors is its frequent association with large- DGMT 2010 ‘High-Speed Europe’, p. 13) scale urban restructuring schemes designed

14 BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 TRAIN STATION AREA DEVELOPMENT MEGA-PROJECTS IN EUROPE: TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY? to boost the economic competitiveness of the Apart from Bertolini and Spit’s (1998) and respective cities. TSAD may or ultimately Bruinsma et al.’s (2008) book-length works, may not move cities in a direction of ‘greener’ the existing literature on train station projects and more ‘sustainable’ mobility and land consists mostly of very small or single case- uses, but it certainly presents a fantastic studies with relatively litt le connection, let opportunity for land valorization via the alone comparability. While carefully craft ed upgrade and comprehensive redevelopment case studies advanced our understanding of centrally located property. Within critical of particular projects and aspects of TSAD, urban studies, newly (re)developed major there seemed to be few att empts to move railway station nodes have typically been beyond case-specifi c research. This lack of viewed as a specifi c subset of large-scale quantitative comparative data prevents us interventions into the metropolitan fabric from assessing the full extent and scope of promoted by powerful public and private investments over the past decades and from actors at multiple scales in order to enhance exploring development trends across space the urban competitiveness of particular and time. locales (Brenner, 2004). So TSAD, whenever Even more problematically, most scholarly it occurs at a large scale, is framed and attention thus far has been devoted to a few analyzed within the literature of ‘new’ cases within a limited geographical region. strategic urban mega-projects (Orueta and These cases include particularly prominent Fainstein, 2008; Salet and Gualini, 2006; and widely publicized projects like King’s Salet, 2008). High-speed rail access becomes Cross in London, Euralille, or Amsterdam a real asset not only in terms of improved Zuidas. Existing case studies also reflect long-range accessibility but also as a key the locations (and locational preferences) factor in the rebranding of the entire station of those authors who are active in the field, area, with stations oft en being (re)developed particularly the lively scholarly community as high-profi le ‘fl agships’, signalling the in the Netherlands which has generated a transformation of the entire area to visitors substantial body of knowledge concerning on arrival (also see below). This would developments in that country. This stands ideally include a comprehensive upscaling in stark contrast to the paucity of available of the ‘quality of place’ of the entire area studies concerning developments elsewhere, (Trip, 2007). Within the urban revalorization/ including developments in several traditional urban competitiveness perspective, scholars ‘railway nations’ such as Germany and are conscious and critical of the equity impli- France. Train station development has cations of the schemes in question, worrying, also remained a somewhat ‘fuzzy’ concept inter alia, about inner-urban gentrifi cation and analytically (Markusen, 2003). Bertolini and the selective privileging of ‘premium infra- Spit (1998) popularized the idea of conceiving structural confi gurations’ (Brenner, 2004, pp. train stations and their surroundings as both 248–250) at the expense of other locales in the nodes within wider networks of mobility and wider metro area (Graham and Marvin, 2001; particular places – or activity poles – within Monheim, 2008). cities to differentiate train station area redevelopment initiatives from other large- scale projects. This node/place distinction Train Station Area (Re)Development: remains an important contribution. Noting Taking Stock the ambivalent nature of train station areas, The initial impetus for our research was the they also identified a number of ‘recurring realization that there is a whole array of characteristics’ or ‘common denominators’. TSAD projects out there which had not been Train station redevelopment projects, they properly investigated and accounted for. argued, are ‘by definition’ large projects –

BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 15 RAILWAY STATION MEGA-PROJECTS AND THE RE-MAKING OF INNER CITIES IN EUROPE projects of a particular size and scope that near stations and move beyond the ‘bold, big, combine investments in stations’ function as and beautiful’. ‘transportation interchanges’ and ‘activity Our overall goal was to arrive at a general poles’, and involve a ‘dominant presence idea about all the TSAD projects planned of both public and private parties’ in the across Europe in the past two decades. Given realization process (Bertolini and Spit, 1998). the vast breadth and scope of the phenom- Yet for the purpose of analyzing train enon, certain restrictions were inevitable in station redevelopment at large, we found order to make our work manageable. We this definition to be too restrictive. TSAD focused on developing an initial inventory can take on a large variety of forms, and of TSADs at main intercity train stations certain projects might not share the ‘common in all European cities of at least 100,000 denominators’ Bertolini and Spit put forward inhabitants whose total investment volumes over a decade ago. Moreover, we wondered exceeded €100 million over the course of a whether a biased look towards ‘large’ projects decade. Lacking a pre-existing database to might not obscure a larger, more complex draw on, we used national rail companies’ picture of development occurring at and and cities’ official websites as well as a variety near rail stations more generally. Bertolini et of online sources and newspaper archives to al. (2012, this issue) now argue that the frame investigate when and where development for analysing station area projects has moved activity had been or was taking place near from a ‘property capitalisation’ perspective the stations. Combing through a list of over in the 1980s to an ‘urban megaprojects’ 500 rail station sites in 437 cities, the sheer perspective in the 1990s towards a ‘transit- number TSAD projects already built or cur- oriented development’ perspective since 2000. rently underway proved impressive. We While we like the principle idea behind this identified 136 projects with investments of distinction, we disagree that these different €100 million or more, including fifty-two with development frames can be so clearly associ- total investments of €500 million or more. ated with different decades. According to Projects proliferated in cities of varying sizes our own findings, different types of TSAD across a whole range of nations, including have always co-existed. Consequently, we countries with comparatively less developed argue that it is precisely the absence of a rail networks such as Portugal or Bulgaria. more inclusive typology of TSADs that has Our inventory recorded both the highest num- limited analytical advancement in this field ber and the largest investments in Germany of research in the last two decades. and Great Britain. We found that there is in fact no broad Developments certainly accelerated over empirical basis to substantiate the much the past decade, as roughly two-thirds of the repeated claim that train stations and their projects identified came into being between surroundings are experiencing a ‘renaissance’. 2000 and 2010. Several factors contributed There is an emerging body of literature and to this, especially ambitious programmes a growing number of case studies that all launched in the late 1990s and early 2000s by indicate that major redevelopment activity at national railway companies, such as Italy’s or near stations is proliferating, but no one RNFE and Portugal’s REFER to overhaul has comprehensively tracked the full extent train stations and put properties to better use, and scope of rail station-related investments as well as record-breaking transport infra- over recent decades. So a key objective of structure investments by the EU and national the German Research Foundation-funded governments. Spain has supposedly put research project,4 which led to the publication more than €30 billion into its high-speed rail of this special issue, was to ‘take stock’ of the programme since inception. Further, eco- vast multiplicity of projects happening at or nomic conditions in the early 2000s were still


Figure 2. Number of recent and current TSAD mega- projects in Europe (1990–2010).

favourable and inner-city locations became nevertheless prove helpful for future investi- increasingly desirable places in which to live, gations. work, invest and conduct business. We are confident that both the actual num- 1. Strategic Mega-Projects. Strategic mega- ber and magnitude of projects is even higher projects are essentially ‘the big and the bold’ than what we were able to document. The (though not always ‘beautiful’) ones – those available data ultimately proved not robust that clearly meet Bertolini and Spit’s (1998) enough to allow for detailed quantitative original defi nition of train station area re- analysis, so contrary to our original in- developments as projects that combine the (re)- tentions, we present a mostly qualitative sum- development of station facilities with signifi - mary assessment of our findings. Our invent- cant urban development and transportation ory nevertheless provides a solid starting infrastructure investments, most notably point for more systematic survey research in national-level investments in new high-speed the future.5 rail nodes and networks. They are ‘strategic’ in nature in that they typically form part of wider planning initiatives at diff erent More than ‘Big, Bold, and Beautiful’: policy levels and aim at triggering multi- Typifying TSAD dimensional changes far beyond the geo- On the basis of our European-wide stock- graphic confi nes of the projects themselves. taking, we distinguish between four main The supra-regional dimension of the scheme categories of TSAD project: strategic mega- is oft en underscored by referencing Europe projects, station renaissance projects, trans- in the name or mott o. Examples of these port projects, and urban development projects. most expensive and complex projects are Boundaries between diff erent project types Stutt gart 21 in Germany, dubbed ‘Europe’s frequently overlap, of course, and overly neat New Heart’ by its promoters (also see Novy typologies always risk oversimplifi cation, and Peters, 2012, this issue), the multi- but the following tentative typology should billion Sagrera project in Barcelona, touted


Figure 3. A fourfold typology of train station area development mega-projects.

as the biggest public investment project in the major scope of work is devoted to the the whole of Spain, as well as Europoint in (re)development of station facilities. Broader Brno, Euratlantique in Bordeaux and Euro- transportation and urban redevelopment méditerranée in Marseilles. With construction measures beyond the immediate confi nes costs frequently up €5 billion or more, of the station are of secondary importance. they are perhaps best described as ‘giga- Spanning the entire array and mix of projects’ (Peters, 2010). They are brought development types, many such station-only about by complex governance arrangements projects can be identifi ed across Europe. involving a broad array of stakeholders on Numerous grandiose historic stations have multiple scales and substantial public sector been beautifully restored to their former involvement. Despite a larger macro-context splendour, at the same time as new shopping of increased private sector participation in and entertainment uses have transformed the urban and transport development decision- station interiors into key urban destinations making and implementation, these strategic even for non-travellers. The mixing of both TSAD projects still depend overwhelmingly old and new elements is common in cases on, and arise from, active government where high-speed service is brought into intervention and facilitation. They resemble long established, historically signifi cant rail- developments from previous eras of large- way terminals at the core of major cities. scale project development (Altshuler and Dresden’s historic Wilhelmine railway station, Luberoff , 2003; Fainstein, 2008) albeit with for example, was restored according to archi- the key diff erence that their respective public- tectural designs by Sir Norman Foster that in- private partnerships tend to have a greater cluded beautiful new glass roofi ng. These bias towards profi tability and competitive- ‘renaissance’ projects are imbued with sym- ness. bolic overtones evoking notions of municipal pride and the grandiosity of bygone eras. 2. Station Renaissance Projects. In this category, Project promoters and their architects stress



Figure 5. The new Calatrava-designed high-speed railway station of Liège-Guillemins. examples of such urban ‘wow-factor’ projects new north–south high-speed axis. In addi- featuring highly recognisable new station tion, many existing stations have seen sub- buildings are the new Central Crossing sta- stantial investments to accommodate new tion in Berlin completed by Gerkan, Marg high-speed services. Two prominent and and Partner in 2006, the new Guillemins highly-publicised examples are Antwerp station designed by Santiago Calatrava in Central Station, which received a €1.6 billion Liège, Belgium that opened to worldwide makeover to accommodate the high-speed acclaim in 2009 and the Gare de Oriente in trains running on the Amsterdam-Brussels- Portugal’s capital Lisbon, also designed by Paris line, and London’s St. Pancras station, Calatrava and already completed in 1998. which was renovated and expanded at a cost Several others are under construction or of £800 million to accommodate the start of planned, as countries across Europe – in line Eurostar high-speed service to Paris, Brussels with the stated goal of the European Union and Lille from St. Pancras in 2008. to develop a Trans-European high-speed rail Intermodality, meanwhile, represents another network – continue to invest heavily in their key goal in European Union Transport Policy high-speed rail infrastructure. Architecturally (and generally in any modern transport striking stations designed by world-renowned policy) and there are numerous projects architects such as Sir Norman Foster and across Europe aimed at turning stations into Zaha Hadid have been or are being planned intermodal transportation hubs. Most of these in several major Italian cities, including interventions are part of larger metropolitan Turin, Bologna, Florence, Rome and Naples, area transportation projects, however, and a as part of the development of the country’s closer look at a project’s individual compo-

20 BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 TRAIN STATION AREA DEVELOPMENT MEGA-PROJECTS IN EUROPE: TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY? nents frequently reveals that only a minor these developments seek to refl ect their part of the overall investment is devoted to proximity to the train station in their design the station and its surroundings. The buzz- and uses. word of ‘intermodality’ is also increasingly used to promote projects where transport Unrealized Projects. Large numbers of TSAD considerations do not represent the main projects do not make it beyond the plan- focus. The Victoria Transport Interchange ning stage; countless projects have been (VTI) 2 project at London’s Victoria Station, abandoned, scaled down or keep being post- for example, is promoted as a project aimed poned. Take Germany’s prestigious ‘21’ at creating a world-class transport inter- projects, for example, which so signifi cantly change, but the bulk of its investments is contributed to the euphoric ‘rail renaissance’ destined for c. 2.9 million square feet (270,000 discourse that swept across Europe in the m2) of mixed-use development incorporating 1990s: most will never see the light of day. office, retail, and housing in the vicinity of Frankfurt 21, described in more detail by the station.7 This brings us to our last group Georg Speck (2012, this issue) is perhaps of projects: the most prominent example. Other am- bitious TSADs have been trimmed down 4. Urban Development Projects. This category considerably. Plans for the ‘UFO’ train station refers to projects where the (re)development redevelopment in Dortmund, designed to of station-adjacent property is the primary locate about 80,000 m2 retail, entertainment element and driving motivation of develop- and gastronomic uses above the city’s main ment activity. Such projects include public- station building, faltered for the fi rst time sector-led rail land conversion projects as in 2001. A second att empt, rebranded ‘3do’, well as largely private-sector-driven and com- fi nally fell apart in early 2007 when the new mercially-oriented real estate projects. investor pulled out. So in the end, instead Whereas the former are typically planned of joining a €500 million mixed-use public and realized with a longer-term purpose in private partnership mega-project (which mind, the latt er tend to be more concerned had already secured €75 million in Federal with the short- to medium-term extraction and €55 million in state funds), the German of value from abandoned or underutilized Railway Company (DB ( AG) land. In the era of the ‘entrepreneurial city’, merely renovated the station for €23 million, demarcations between the two subcategories with the Federal government contributing are not always clear cut, of course. Any profi t- €13.3 million and the state €1.4. This is still oriented property-led development projects a sizeable (public) investment, but a far cry routinely also claim to benefi t a wide range from the original plans. Similarly, architect of communities and interests, incorporating Will Alsop’s plans for Rott erdam Centraal many of the same ‘public benefi t’ promises were severely downscaled to a station-only typically associated with public-sector led project that bears almost no resemblance regeneration eff orts regarding various socio- to the Dutch railway company’s ambitious economic and environmental benefi ts and initial plans. The Amsterdam Zuidas station positive contributions to public space (Lehrer development, meanwhile, is on hold due to a and Laidley, 2008; Fainstein, 2008). In many lack of interest from private parties. Likewise, cases, the station itself is featured in the name many schemes in the UK proposed years given to the scheme – the project Gare+ in ago still await their – now in many cases Angers or the Victoria Transport Interchange unlikely – realization. What follows from (VTI) 2 project in London are two prominent this, then, is that the still-powerful narrative examples. Specifi cally positioned and branded of train stations’ renaissance presents a some- as new ‘train station quarters’ or ‘districts’, what distorted account of today’s realities of

BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 21 RAILWAY STATION MEGA-PROJECTS AND THE RE-MAKING OF INNER CITIES IN EUROPE train station development. Tales of broken speed rail network linking the country’s major dreams are plenty – and numerous im- cities, Łódź is currently moving forward with portant train stations throughout Europe an ambitious strategic mega-project which have seen litt le investment or improvements combines a complete overhaul of the city’s in decades. And, as Richard Wolff ’s (2012) railway junction and the building of a new contribution on Zurich in this issue clearly underground station with extensive urban demonstrates, the scheme which ultimately redevelopment measures aff ecting about 90 gets implemented has oft en been preceded ha of inner-city land. Based on a master plan by several failed att empts, with coalitions by Rob Krier, the scheme involves a complete of promoters and opponents varying from rethinking and remaking of the city’s centre, decade to decade, and failure or success oft en including the att raction of a variety of creative att ributable as much as to the merits or fl aws class-type uses in the area. In October 2011 of the schemes as to (un)favourable socio- the train station, Łódź Fabryczna, closed and political and economic circumstances. the historic building is awaiting demolition. While the authorities brand Fabryczna station as an eyesore, opponents to the scheme Context Matt ers: have called it an ‘architectural gem’.8 Given A Look at Recent TSAD Projects the current economic outlook, the ultimate At fi rst sight, one is compelled by the seem- outcome of the scheme is uncertain. What ing similarities of TSADs across places, archi- makes this example note- and quote-worthy, tecturally and otherwise. Yet there are still however, is the explicit acknowledgement of signifi cant regional diff erences that warrant the premier role of the railway company in att ention. For one, many Eastern and Central making the scheme potentially viable in the European countries have seen declining pas- fi rst place: senger numbers and only relatively litt le The development of railway facilities in the public investment in rail infrastructure over very centre of the New Centre of Łódź project is the past two decades (Givoni and Banister, planned in cooperation with [the Polish Railway 2008; Pucher and Buehler, 2005). Although Companies] … increasing its att ractiveness for this trend is partially reversing itself along potential investors. Railway companies are very important partners of the New Centre of Łódź certain high-profi le axes targeted for the project; it is thanks to their investment in the future expansion of EU high-speed rail, underground railway infrastructure that the most train stations in Central and Eastern project can be developed without major spatial Europe are still far from experiencing a limitations in the area that used to be split in half 9 renaissance. Instead, many developments by a railway track. merely seek to capitalize on rail sites’ central Another interesting example is the afore- locations – generic shopping malls and big mentioned Europoint project underway in box retail next to rail stations illustrates the Brno, the Czech Republic’s second largest nature of post-socialist cities’ property and city. The scheme involves a complete redevel- consumption-driven restructuring (Tsenkova opment of Brno’s railway junction, a new and Nedovic-Budic, 2006; Andrusz et al., above-ground station building serving as 1996). One of the earliest examples of such a an intermodal hub for all types of local and privately-driven urban development project regional transport as well as extensive urban is the WestEnd City Center complex adjacent redevelopment in the station’s vicinity. Just to ’s Western Railway station. When as with Łódź’s new station, this is part of a it opened in 1999, it was Central Europe’s nationwide effort to improve the country’s biggest shopping mall. But other types of rail infrastructure and enhance long-distance development have now emerged in the and international rail transport. And just region. Tied to Poland’s plans to build a high- like numerous other projects across Eastern

22 BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 TRAIN STATION AREA DEVELOPMENT MEGA-PROJECTS IN EUROPE: TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY? and Central Europe, both Łódź’s and Brno’s the same name. Frequently partnering with projects have been encouraged and finan- local authorities, railways in Great Britain cially supported by the European Union. have also significantly stepped up their The EU’s pro-active efforts to promote high- efforts to exploit the commercial potential speed rail transport clearly represents one of of their properties. Nevertheless, despite the most important factors contributing to the steady growth in passenger numbers, many increase in development activity at or near railways remain in a state of crisis, still facing train stations in recent years. a huge investment backlog that has built up Switzerland and Norway, meanwhile, over decades. Back across the Channel in illustrate that the proliferation of develop- France, meanwhile, regeneration efforts at ment activity at or near train stations is by no established station locations are eclipsed by means confined to members of the European the enormous amount of activity still linked Union. Planners in Oslo recently announced to the continued expansion of the TGV a multi-billion plan to replace the city’s system. This included the construction of a existing central station with a new mixed-use plethora of new TGV stations outside city development that will expand the station to centres that are largely devoid of architectural almost twice its current size. In Switzerland, merit. railway companies have intensified their efforts to exploit the redevelopment oppor- Emerging Issues tunities of their centrally located properties and stimulate commercial development. When looking at the realities of TSAD across Since 2003, seven of the country’s largest Europe, a complicated picture emerges. Diff er- railway stations – Zurich, Berne, Basel, Laus- ent types of projects drive the so-called re- anne, Geneva, Winterthur and Lucerne – have naissance of train stations. Recognizing the been redeveloped under the ‘RailCity’ initia- existence of overlaps and in-betweens, as well tive which turned them into modern as the non-existence of reliable comparable retail and service destinations with shops, datasets, we have suggested a fourfold typol- restaurants and other amenities (for details ogy to make sense of the variations in TSAD. on Zurich see Wolff, 2012, this issue). Rail- Yet this represents but a fi rst step towards way companies in other countries have a more ambitious research agenda for launched similar initiatives, including in future investigations. The following section Italy, where rail operator Ferrovie dello Stato summarizes key issues still in need of further partnered with private investors to upgrade clarifi cation and exploration. the country’s largest stations, which are now marketed as ‘Grandi Stazioni’. Property devel- TSAD and Real Estate: Who and What Drives opment and management have become main- Developments? stays of a large share of railway companies across Europe. Railway companies – typically Certainly the question of who and what through subsidiaries – have also become drives current and changing patt erns of increasingly involved in the development of development at or near railway stations is non-operational properties adjacent to train ongoing and worthy of further investigation. stations to generate additional revenues and As demonstrated by the many examples profits.10 Portugal’s REFER is modernizing throughout this special issue, TSAD develop- several railway stations under its co-called ments are planned large-scale projects involv- ‘Living Stations’ programme at the same time ing rail and real estate elements where many as several Czech railway stations are being diff erent ‘glocal’ interests come together. As revitalized by a public-private partnership Bruinsma et al. (2008, p. 2) aptly put it in the consortium under a programme carrying introduction to their edited volume:


The essence of these plans is that railway stations dynamics alone will typically not be suffi cient are not considered merely as nodes where people to support the excessive cost of physically change from one vehicle to another, but also moving all rail structures underground – at as placed where spatial concentrations of high value activity are recognized as having a positive least not without signifi cant city, regional, impact on cities. state and even national fi nancial subsidies and steadfast political support. Such assist- The process of value-creation is always con- ance was fi rmly in place in Stutt gart but less tested, of course, and in many locations in- so in Frankfurt and Munich. Also, while com- creasingly bound up with ‘right to the plete covering of structures, along with exten- city’ debates over public(ly fi nanced) infra- sive rezoning measures and air rights devel- structures, the (re)privatization of public opments emerged as preferred ‘all-or-nothing’ spaces and the future of post-industrial cities solutions early on, more moderate ‘interim’ more generally (see for example Marcuse, solutions are now oft en sought. Zurich 2009; Purcell, 2003; Harvey, 2003). The on- (Wolff , 2012, this issue) and Amsterdam going mass protests related to the Stutt gart 21 Zuidas are two pertinent examples. mega-project (see Novy and Peters, 2012, this Antwerp, meanwhile, is a good example of issue) vividly illustrate this point. a successful ‘partial’ terminal conversion Perhaps the best way to describe TSADs, where a beautiful historic structure was then, is to see them as developments that preserved above-ground. Voted by Newsweek are as much driven by – and indicative of ‘the world’s fourth greatest train station’ in – the spatial dynamics of an ‘existing neo- 2009, Antwerp Central underwent a €1.6 liberalism’ which is ‘historically specific, billion conversion between 1998 and 2007 unevenly developed, hybrid, [and has a] to accommodate new underground through patterned tendency of market-disciplinary tunnels for faster high-speed rail services regulatory restructuring’ (Theodore and Bren- between France, Belgium, the Netherlands ner, 2002; Brenner et al., 2010, p. 330) as by and Germany. well-meaning, normative policy tenets related to smart growth and transit-accessible devel- From Area (Re)Development Mega-Projects to opment. Strategic Urban Giga-Projects There are now many multi-billion euro Terminating the Terminals and TSAD projects on record in which the re- Covering the Tracks development is centred within the very large- Major railway terminals are increasingly scale remaking of entire core sections of cities. being treated as divisive intrusions into the This is not entirely surprising given that high- urban fabric, and the best way to minimize speed rail, oft en working in tandem with new division and maximize land value oft en local light rail systems, provides an entirely appears to be the conversion of terminals new form of transport ready to reshape into through stations. Oft en, this means existing urban-regional geographies. Over covering or moving tracks underground the course of the last two decades, several and building on top. There is, however, still rail station redevelopment giga-projects very litt le reliable, let alone comparable, have reshaped city cores across Europe. On research about the precise economics of the transportation side, the sum of the parts moving entire train stations underground. is now adding up: the completed combined The German experience, documented in redevelopment of King’s Cross and St. part via the cases of Frankfurt (Speck, 2012) Pancras in London now brings the Eurostar and Stutt gart (Novy and Peters, 2012) in this train into the very heart of the British capital, issue, demonstrates that local real estate while Lille and Paris have long done their

24 BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 TRAIN STATION AREA DEVELOPMENT MEGA-PROJECTS IN EUROPE: TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY? bit to receive the fast trains in their midst, which also have great potential for re- making a daily commute between the cores development. The aforementioned station of those three cities a real possibility for the in Łódź, for example, stands adjacent to an privileged business person who can aff ord it. old power plant which is to be repurposed Berlin, meanwhile, embarked on a gigantic for creative class-type uses. In Berlin, the restructuring of its entire long-distance rail new Central Station (Hauptbahnhof) is network aft er reunifi cation, creating half a bordered by the city’s main river, an inner- dozen new high-speed rail hubs across the city harbour (Humboldthafen) and a major metro area. Erected right in the midst of the canal, aff ording pleasant water views for Death Zone which once divided East and all three major redevelopment sites around West, Berlin’s giant new Central Crossing the station. Waterfront adjacency, the most Station now receives high-speed rail traffi c common synergy near rail stations, is a relic from four diff erent directions (Peters, 2010). of industrial times when convenient freight The list goes on. transfer from water to rail at harbour site On the urban redevelopment side, how- locations was key to the eff ective functioning ever, the results are more uneven, more contro- of the urban distribution system. Today, those versial, more mixed, and obviously also rail/water relationships are more tenuous, heavily influenced by the fate of individual and make the ‘correct’ categorization of rail local economies. London’s King’s Cross, for station adjacent property development ever example, seems finally to be shedding its more problematic. Many developments with- former red light district image in favour of in the immediate area of infl uence around a a much more generic, sanitized, recently rail station (typically defi ned as a half mile gentrified appearance, while also accom- walking radius) is oft en really more of a modating the long envisioned additional river- or harbour-front development than a business and cultural activities. Berlin’s new train station area development, responding Central Station, meanwhile, continues to sit to a rather diff erent, additional set of re- a bit like a ‘glass palace in a desert’, with the development dynamics (including potential surrounding brownfield sites still waiting scenic views, added prestige etc.). A prime development years after all design contests example of an envisioned redevelopment and master plans have been completed mega-project in close proximity to a major (Peters, 2009). Given Southern Europe’s recent train station with which it has litt le con- economic problems, the future of ambitious nection – and even less concern – is the giga-projects like Barcelona’s Sagrera station so-called Mediaspree development in East and park is also difficult to predict. In the Berlin. Spread over some 80 acres (32.4 ha) end, upscaling one’s ambitions from mega- along both sides of the Spree, Mediaspree is to giga-projects also means thinking in located in immediate proximity to the city’s even longer time frames, typically spanning second largest railway station, the Ostbahnhof, well over one generation from the first con- yet its developments largely turn their ceptualizations until build out. backs towards the station, instead orienting themselves fi rst and foremost towards the nearby banks of the river Spree (Scharenberg ‘Synergetic Adjacencies’ (Or: How to Know if a and Bader, 2009; Novy and Colomb, forth- TSAD is a TOD or Really Just a TAD?) coming). While the rail station certainly In many cases, the att ractiveness of a par- acts as an asset in terms of convenient con- ticular real estate redevelopment is due to nectivity and transport accessibility, it plays synergetic adjacencies, i.e. the fact that train almost no role in the design and development stations are oft en located in close prox- of the project. imity to other major industrial-age structures


Understanding ‘Failure’ or: Why Some Projects (Quadejacob, 2009, p. 15). More importantly, are Realized and Others are Not many sustainable transport experts not only mourn the loss of these small stations Our earlier point about the importance of for nostalgic reasons but point out that the understanding unrealized projects as well so-called rail renaissance is in fact a highly as realized ones also bears repeating. The selective aff air, privileging a comparatively ultimate key to successful implementation small group of high-profi le stations in the is sustained political and fi nancial support larger cities to boost service along the most along with successful collaboration between profi table high-speed routes while thinning the key public and private partners, i.e. out or cutt ing service to many smaller, more the railway agency, the private developer remote places and areas. As Heiner Monheim and local, state, and, if applicable, national (2009), keynote speaker for the conference government. ‘Collaboration’ of course some- which inspired this special issue, pointed out: times simply means local and state offi cials coughing up enough fi nancial support and/or The decline always begins with the reduction subsidies in order to keep railway companies of personnel because of a policy of progressive and developers interested in the project. A rationalization and saving. The ticket and lug- gage counters close. Because of this, all private kinder way of putt ing it would be to say that enterprise dies. Newsstands and restaurants the ‘public entrepreneurship’ Altshuler and disappear. What remains is a sad cast concrete Luberoff (2003) traced in their historic study cube from the 1960s or a red I-point cube from of transport infrastructure mega-projects in the 1990s plus an automatic ticket machine the US is equally alive and well in today’s including a ticket canceller. Without personnel, vandalism quickly takes hold … boarded up Europe. waiting rooms, vandalized façades, damaged roofs, platforms that are out of repair and pedestrian platform underpasses that reek of The Dark Side of the Rail Renaissance: alcohol. Examples like this are primarily found The Decline of the Lesser Stations in rural areas and small cities [but] … even a portion of the train stations in larger cities are Our initial stocktaking focused on mega- confronted with a creeping decline, which aff ects projects with an investment of at least not only their transportation function, but also their urban development function. This decline €100 million, so our view was still fi rmly began … with the removal of the high-quality biased towards the big scale. Yet there is an long distance trains (the IC and the IR) from argument to be made that one key aspect of the higher and middle urban centres. This was train station area development today is the followed by an att empt by the DB to optimize increasing neglect and even abandonment their turnover by opening their train stations to hawkers and cheap junk. A hotchpotch of simple of smaller nodes in the network at the kiosks dominated the picture, which in many expense of the larger, more profi table ones. ways marked a sad contrast to the spaciousness By 2009, the German Railway Company DB of the old architecture. The trendy cinemas was aiming to sell 2,400 stations across the (AKI and WOKI) which were integrated into country, seeking to keep only a core port- the train stations in the larger cities mutated quite regularly into pornographic cinemas and folio of 600, with lesser stops already being provided an open door for the entry of the red degraded into non-places without proper light district into the train station environment. roofs or electronic information systems and Every architectural and cultural continuity was ‘boasting’ simple, cheap, standardized con- lost through the interior design, as cheap plastic crete platform designs. Compared with the façades and a minimum standard were defi ned in all of Germany. intricately designed, charming local stations of yesteryear, these loveless structures So both train station area development and may indeed be correctly identifi ed as a decline are still happening simultaneously, ‘dramatic change in our cultural landscape’ and ultimately need to be understood as

26 BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 TRAIN STATION AREA DEVELOPMENT MEGA-PROJECTS IN EUROPE: TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY? two sides of the same coin: across Europe, bourhood settings that include instant railway companies’ neoliberal rationalization ‘airport cities’ like BBI near Berlin, convention processes lead to upgrading in central, high- centres like Cologne Deutz, small cities like profi le locations and to downgrading and Montabaur and Limburg as well as largely even neglect in others. ex-urban locations like Ebbsfleet and Ashford along the Thames Gateway. Hence, our re- search journey continues. Concluding Remarks Two years ago, we set out to develop an updated, clear and concise typology of train NOTES station area development. Today, while we 1. For the purposes of this article, the terms have certainly gained a much more sophisti- ‘train station’ and ‘railway station’ are used cated understanding of the factors involved, interchangeably to connote a place where heavy rail vehicles, i.e. trains, unload or load passen- we must concede that a fully comprehensive gers, and possibly goods as well. account of the highly varied processes defi es generalized categorization and that our 2. Note that the North American literature also discusses the term ‘transit joint development’ ongoing research leaves us with many new or ‘TJD’: ‘While the distinction between the two questions for which answers remain elusive. is not always clear, in general their differences For instance, we found that in many of the lie with scale. TOD generally encompasses large, integrated projects, our aforementioned multiple city blocks … TJD, on the other hand, analytical distinction between a ‘sustainable tends to be project-specific, often occurring within a city block and tied to a specific real transport and land use’ and an ‘urban estate development. Whereas TOD is often revalorization/restructuring’ perspective be- spearheaded and choreographed by a public comes increasingly blurred, especially when- agency, TJD usually occurs through a partnership ever railway companies themselves get into of public and private interests working in tandem the business of land development. Also, to achieve “win-win” outcomes, whether in the form of air rights leasing of publicly owned note that the fourfold typology of TSADs space, station connection fees, or the joint sharing we developed in this article is primarily a of capital-construction costs’ (TRB, 2002, p. 2). functional one that still needs to be comple- 3. Note, in particular, the threefold distinction mented with institutional typologies (diff er- Bertolini et al. (2012) make for station area ent ownership and management models) projects as having been frames under either and with much more detailed urban design ‘property capitalization’, ‘urban-mega-projects’ typologies for the surrounding neighbour- or ‘transit-oriented development’ frameworks hoods. and the fourfold distinction Loukaitou-Sideris et al. (2012) make of the proliferation of high-speed Our original focus was on the role of rail rail systems (including redeveloped stations) stations in the ‘remaking of inner cities’ in being accompanied by 1. transportation goals; 2. Europe. Yet the more we broadened our environmental goals; 3. economic development knowledge of rail station mega-projects goals; and 4. urban development/spatial across the continent, the more obvious it restructuring goals. became that a truly all-encompassing view 4. German Research Foundation Emmy Noether of TSADs needed to move beyond historic Project No. 10032435, ‘The Urban Renaissance ‘inner-cities’. In fact, notions of ‘urban cores’ Potential of Inner-City Rail Station Redevelopment Mega-Projects’, October 2008–April 2011. are being redefined by the very phenomenon we set out to study. That is: new high-speed 5. Unfortunately, even basic data of precise cost rail connections both challenge and change and project size oft en proved non-existent or unreliable, and the status of individual projects previously held notions of ‘centrality’ across remained unclear or confusing, so that fi nal cross Europe, constantly adding important new confi rmation of information oft en turned out to ‘place-nodes’ along a wide spectrum of neigh- be impossible. Note that our survey method was

BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 38 NO 1 27 RAILWAY STATION MEGA-PROJECTS AND THE RE-MAKING OF INNER CITIES IN EUROPE also defi nitely skewed towards documenting site- REFERENCES related redevelopment costs and hence did not account for the related large-scale investments Altshuler, A. and Luberoff , D. (2003) Mega-Projects: into new high-speed corridors which obviously The Changing Politics of Urban Public Investment. dominate rail-related investments in countries Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press. like Spain. Information on costs was frequently Andrusz, G.D., Harloe, M. and Szelényi, I. (1996) only available for the corridor as a whole, Cities aft er Socialism: Urban and Regional Change making it impossible to ‘guesstimate’ transport- and Confl ict in Post-Socialist Societies. Oxford: infrastructure related costs for the station area Blackwell. alone. Language barriers also posed a challenge. Banister, D. (2008) The sustainable mobility Our research team members could confi dently paradigm. Transport Policy, 15, pp. 73–80. carry out research and searches in English, French, German, Dutch, and, to a lesser extent, Banister, D. and Hall, P. (1993) The second railway Spanish and Italian. Most major redevelopment age. Built Environment, 19(3/4), pp. 157–162. undertakings exceeding €100 million will receive Beatley, T. (1999) Green Urbanism: Learning from at least a brief mention on some real estate- European Cities. Covelo, CA: Island Press. oriented English language wire service, but the Bernick, M. and Cervero, R. (1997) Transit Villages level of detail and accuracy we were able to obtain in the 21st Century. New York: McGraw-Hill for projects where we were unable to read online editions of local newspapers was obviously much Bertolini, L., Curtis, C. and Renne, J. (2012) Station inferior compared to our searches on German or area projects in Europe and beyond: towards British cases, for example. There is also a possible transit oriented development? Built Environ- documentation bias in the simple fact that projects ment, 38(1), pp. 33–50. built in the 1990s or before are much less likely to Bertolini, L., and Spit, T. (1998) Cities on Rails: The be as thoroughly documented on the internet than Redevelopment of Railway Station Areas. London: those in the last dozen years. E & FN Spon. 6. This quote was retranslated from the German, Boarnet, M. and Crane, R. (1998) L.A. story: a lift ed from an interview Foster gave to the reality check for transit-based housing. Journal Sächsische Zeitung. The respective excerpt is posted of the American Planning Association, 63(2), pp. (in German) at htt p://www.das-neue-dresden.de/ 189–204. hauptbahnhof.html. Accessed 14 January 2012. Brenner, N. (2004) New State Spaces: Urban Governance and the Rescaling of Statehood. 7. See htt p://www.landsecurities.com/mobile/ne Oxford: Oxford University Press. ws?MediaID=1134. For full and up to date information about both the VTI2 scheme and other Brenner, N., Peck, J. and Theodore, N. (2010) Aft er planned projects in the Victoria railway station neoliberalization? Globalizations, 7(3), pp. 327– area, visit the City of Westminster offi cial website 345. at htt p://www.westminster.gov.uk/services/environ Bruinsma, F., Pels, E., Priemus, H., Rietveld, P. and ment/planning/majorprojects/victoria/develop van Wee, B. (eds.) (2008) Railway Development ments/. Accessed 21 January 2012. Impacts on Urban Dynamics. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag. 8. See htt p://polishrail.wordpress.com/category/ lodz-fabryczna/. Accessed 12 June 2011. Calthorpe, P. and Fulton, W. (2001). The Regional City: Planning for the End of Sprawl. Washington 9. See www.ec1lodz.pl/download.php?plik=32, p. DC: Island Press. 2. Accessed 12 June 2011. Cervero, R. (1998) The Transit Metropolis: A Global 10. This is oft en encouraged and sometimes Inquiry. Washington DC: Island Press even required by regulatory and legal institutions Cervero, R., Arrington, G.B., Smith-Heimer, J., for political reasons. In Germany the so-called Dunphy, R. et al. (eds.) (2004) Transit-Oriented Bahnreform (Railway reform) of 1999 eff ectively Development in the United States: Experiences, turned the country’s state-owned railway com- Challenges, Prospects. TCRP Report 102. Washing- panies into a privately organized company. It ton DC: Transportation Research Board. involved the transfer of around 3,000 assets to Cervero, R. and Sullivan, C. (2011) Green TODs: a new subsidiary that had been established to marrying transit-oriented development and develop and/or sell the properties as part of a debt green urbanism. International Journal of Sustain- relief scheme. able Development & World Ecology, 18(3), pp. 210–218.


Congress for the New Urbanism (CNU), Leccese, Architecture of Community. New York: McGraw- M., and McCormick, K. (eds.) (1999) Charter of Hill. the New Urbanism. McGraw-Hill. Lehrer, U. and Laidley, J. (2008) Old mega-projects Curtis, C., Renne, J. and Bertolini, L. (2009) newly packaged? Waterfront redevelopment Transit-Oriented Development: Making It Happen. in Toronto. International Journal of Urban and Aldershot: Ashgate. Regional Research, 32, pp. 786–803. Ditt mar, H. and Ohland, G. (2004) The New Marcuse, P. (2009) From critical urban theory to Transit Town: Best Practices in Transit-Oriented the right to the city. City, 13(2/3), pp. 185–197. Development. Washington, DC: Island Press Markusen, A. (2003) Fuzzy concepts, scanty Dunphy, R., Cervero, R., Dock, F., McAvey, M., evidence, policy distance: the case for rigour Porter, D. and Swenson, C. (2004) Developing and policy relevance in critical regional studies. Around Transit: Strategies and Solutions That Regional Studies, 37(6/7), pp. 701–717. Work. Washington DC: Urban Land Institute Mayer, M. (2009) The ‘right to the city’ in the Elsenaar, P.M.W. and Fanoy, J.A. (1993) Urban context of shift ing mott os of urban social transport and sustainable development in the movements. City, 13(2/3), pp. 362–374. Netherlands. ITE Journal, 63(8), pp. 9–13. Monheim, H. (2008) Die Rolle von Großprojekten European Commission, Directorate General for in der Verkehrspolitik, in Monheim, H. and Mobility and Transport (2010) High Speed Zöpel, C. (eds.) Raum für Zukunft . Zur Inno- Europe: A Sustainable Link Between Citizens. vationsfähigkeit von Stadtentwick lungs- und Brochure available on the EU website at htt p:// Verkehrspolitik. Essen: Klartext Verlagsges- ec.europa.eu/transport/infrastructure/studies/ ellsch aft , pp. 363–387. doc/2010_high_speed_rail_en.pdf. Accessed 21 January 2012. Monheim, H. (2009) The Future of Train Stations Ewing, R. and Cervero, R. (2010) Travel and the in Germany – Few Top Priority Megaprojects built environment: a meta-analysis. Journal of versus many ‘Flop Stations’. Keynote presented the American Planning Association, 76(3), pp. at the International Symposium ‘Railways, Real 265–294. Estate and the Re-Making of Cities’, Technical University Berlin, 16 October 2009. Fainstein, S. (2008) Mega-projects in New York, London and Amsterdam. International Journal Novy, J. and Colomb, C. (forthcoming) Struggling of Urban and Regional Research, 32(4), pp. 768– for the right to the (creative) city in Berlin and 785. Hamburg. New urban social movements, new ‘spaces of hope’? International Journal of Urban Gehl, J. (2010) Cities for People. Washington DC: and Regional Research. Island Press. Givoni, M. and Banister, D. (2008) Reinventing Novy, J. and Peters, D. (2012) Railway station the Wheel – Planning the Rail Network to mega-projects as public controversies: the case Meet Mobility Needs for the 21st Century. of Stutt gart 21. Built Environment, 38(1), pp. University of Oxford Transport Studies Unit 128–145. Working Paper No. 1036. Available at htt p:// Orueta, F. and Fainstein, S. (2008) SYMPOSIUM: www.tsu.ox.ac.uk/pubs/1036-givoni-banister. the new mega-projects: genesis and impacts. pdf. Accessed 21 January 2012. International Journal of Urban and Regional Graham, S. and Marvin, S. (2001) Splintering Research, 32(4), pp. 759–767. Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technologi- Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas (2001) cal Mobilities and the Urban Condition. London: Transit Oriented Development in California: A Routledge. Working Paper. Sacramento, CA: California Harvey, D. (2003) The right to the city. International Department of Transportation Statewide TOD Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27, Study. pp. 939–941. Peters, D. (2003) Planning for a Sustainable Hines, P., Edge, J., Gal, K. and Chambers, M. Europe? EU Transport Infrastructure Decision- (2005) Transport development areas. In Making in the Context of Eastern Enlargement. Nova Terra Magazine (Special issue on the EU PhD Dissertation, Graduate School New Connected Cities Project). Available at htt p:// Brunswick, Bloustein School of Planning and connectedcities.eu/downloads/magazines/ Policy, Rutgers University. nt_2005_dec_rics.pdf Peters, D. (2009) The renaissance of inner-city Katz, P. (1994). The New Urbanism: Toward an railway station areas as a key element in


contemporary urban restructuring dynamics. Speck, G. (2012) History and failure of the Critical Planning, 15(1), pp.162–185. Frankfurt 21 mega-project. Built Environment, Peters, D. (2010) Digging through the heart of 38(1), pp. 103–112. reunifi ed Berlin: unbundling the decision- Still, T. (2002) Transit-oriented development: making process for the Tiergarten-Tunnel reshaping America’s metropolitan landscape. mega-project. European Journal for Transport and On Common Ground, Winter, pp. 44–47. Infrastructure Research, 10(1), pp. 89–102. Theodore, N. and Brenner, N. (2002) Cities and the Pucher, J. and Buehler, R. (2005) Transport policy geographies of ‘actually existing neoliberalism’. in post-communist Europe, in Hensher, Antipode, 34(3), pp. 349–379. D.A. and Butt on, D.J. (eds.) Handbooks in Tsenkova, S. and Nedovic-Budic, Z. (2006) The Transportation. Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 725–743. Urban Mosaic of Post-Socialist Europe. Heidel- Purcell, M. (2003) Citizenship and the right to the berg: Physica-Verlag. global city: reimagining the capitalist world TRB (Transportation Research Board) (2002) order. International Journal of Urban and Regional Transit-Oriented Development and Joint Research, 27, pp. 564–590. Development in the United States: A Literature Quadejacob, L. (2009) Renaissance der Bahnhöfe Review. Transit Cooperative Research Program, – 15 Jahre Deutsche Bahn AG. Deutsche Research Result Digest No. 52. Available at Bauzeitung, 3, pp. 14–17. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/ Renne, J. (2009) From transit-adjacent to transit- tcrp_rrd_52.pdf. oriented development. Local Environment, 14(1), Trip, J. (2007) What Makes a City? Planning for pp. 1–15. ‘Quality of Place’ – The Case of High Speed Salet W. (2008) Rethinking urban projects: Train Station Area Development. Doctoral experiences in Europe. Urban Studies, 45(11), Dissertation, OTB Research Institute, Delft pp. 2343–2363. University of Technology. Salet, W. and Gualini, E. (eds.) (2006) Framing Wolff , R. The fi ve lives of HB Südwest – Zurich’s Strategic Urban Projects. Learning from Current main station development from 1969 to 2019. Experiences in European Urban Regions. London: Built Environment, 38(1), pp. 113–127. Routledge. Scharenberg, A. and Bader, I. (2009) Berlin’s water- front site struggle. City, 13(2/3), pp. 325–335.