Improving security, social cohesion and human rights in conflict mineral rich regions of Eastern DRC


Annual Report for 2020

MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 1

Table of Contents Section Page No. Table of Contents 2

List of Acronyms 3

1. Project Title 6 2. Project Narrative 6 3. Project Activities & 18

4. Section 4 Project Results 18

5. Indicators 43

6. Success story : 44 7. Capacity building 44 8. Alignment with national/regional priorities 46 9. Networking 47 10. Analysis, Implications, Learning Recommendations 49 11. Sustainability 53 12. Risk management 53

Attachments: 1. Success Story—Children out of Mines 2. Success Story—Hygienic Toilets 3. Financial Report 4. Logical Framework—Indicators

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List of Acronyms 3T Tin, tungsten and tantalum ADF Alert International Alert ANR Agence nationale des renseignements – National intelligence agency APC Action Pour la Paix et la Concorde ASM Artisanal and Small-scale Mining CACH Cap pour le changement – Direction for Change CDDR Community Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration CEEC Centre d’Expertise d’évaluation et de certification des substances minérale précieuses et semi-précieuses – Expert Center on the evaluation and certification of rare and semi-rare minerals CIAP- Interprovincial Community DDR Commission (in French, La Commission Interprovinciale D’appui Au Processus De DDRC Sensibilisation, Desarmement, Demobilisation Et Reintegration Communautaire CISPE Consortium for Integrated Stabilization and Peace in Eastern DRC (CISPE). CLS Local Mining Monitoring Committee, Comité local de suivi (part of the Provincial, territorial and sub CLS structures (CPS, CTS, SCLS) of multistakeholder monitoring, created by decrees of Provincial Governors and chaired by Provincial Ministers of Mine CLSP Local Committee for Proximate Security (in French, Comité Locale pour la Sécurité de Proximité) CNRD Conseil national pour le renouvellement et la démocratie – National Council for Renewal and Democracy CODECO Cooperative for the Development of Congo CVR Community Violence Reduction projects DDR Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration DEVCO Directorate General for International Cooperation and Development of the European Commission DGDA Direction générale des douanes et accises – Directorate general for customs and excise DGM Direction générale des migrations – Directorate general for migrations DRC Democratic Republic of Congo DSGSG Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary General, United Nations EPRM European Partnership for Responsible Minerals ETD Entité Territoriale Décentralisée (Decentralised Territorial Entity) EPRM European Partnership for Responsible Minerals EurAc European Network for Central Africa

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FARDC Forces armées de RDC – DRC army FCC Front commun pour le Congo – Common Front for Congo FCS Fonds de Cohérence pour la Stabilisation FDLR Forces démocratiques de libéraition du Rwanda – Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda FOMI Forum des Mamans de l’Ituri – Forum of Ituri Women FRPI Front de résistance patriotique de l’Ituri – Patriotic Resistance Front of Ituri ICGLR International Conference of the Great Lakes Region INSO International NGO Safety Organisation IPIS International Peace Information Service ISSSS International Security and Stabilisation Support Strategy ITSCI ITRI Tin Supply Chain Initiative LSM Large scale mining, industrial mining MGM Mongbwalu Gold Mine SARL MONUSCO United Nations Organisation Stabilisation mission in DR Congo MP Member of Parliament MRC Mechanism for Regional Certification NGO Non-governmental organisation NRC Norwegian Refugee Council OCC Office congolais des contrôles – Congolese control office OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development OGP Observatoire Gouvernance et Paix – Observatory for Governance and Peace PAP Priority Action Programme PNC Police nationale congolaise – National Police RCM Regional Certification Mechanism of the ICCGLR’s RINR (see below). Also used for Regional Certification Manual. RINR Regional Initiative against the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources SAEMAPE Service d’Assistance et d’Encadrement des Mines Artisanales et de Petit Echelle SFCG Search for Common Ground SRSG Special Representative of the Secretary General SSP Secteur Security Plans (also known as Local Security Plans) SSU Stabilisation Support Unit (MONUSCO)

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STAREC Programme de stabilisation et reconstruction des zones sortant des conflits armés URDPC Union des Révolutionnaires pour la Défense du Peuple Congolais – Union of Revolutionaries for the Defence of Congolese People VNG Association of Netherlands Municipalities (Vereniging van Nederlandse Gemeenten, VNG)

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1. Project Title Project title : Improving security, social cohesion and human rights in conflict mineral rich regions of Eastern DRC (Include a project data table presenting « MADINI KWA AMANI NA MAENDELEO » project details (name, budget, implementing Budget : 9 927 040 USD organization(s), geographical Implementing organisations : Members of Consortium: International Alert (Alert), International Peace Information locations, etc.). : Service (IPIS), Observatoire Gouvernance et Paix (OGP), European Network for Central Africa (EurAc) et Justice Plus. Geographic locations : South Kivu (territories of Fizi, Kalehe and Shabunda) and Ituri (territories of Mambasa and Djugu). 2. Project narrative In the first year of the project, the five of most critical developments in the project include: : (Explain the most • Placing the issue of security and red mines on the table: other intervening agencies are only interested in green important developments in the project since the mines but by drawing attention to the security dynamics we are throwing a light on contamination of chains. last narrative report. Include gender-equality • Development of qualitative and quantitative studies that form the evidence base for the project and its and women’s empowerment related strategies ; developments). • The launch of the project and ongong engagement with key external stakeholders, including community leaders, government authorities at territorial and provincial level and coordination with other intervening agencies ; • Development and operationalisation of a project advocacy strategy ; • Identification and structuring of local project stakeholders (local community multistakeholder structures who will lead key activities such as the local security plan development and supply chain governance) in each of the sectors. Targeting and initial activities of these multi-party and inclusive structures in contest and conflict analysis occurred. 2a) Placing the issue of security and red mines on the table: other intervening agencies are only interested in green mines but by drawing attention to the security dynamics we are throwing a light on contamination of chains. MADINI’S targeting of mine sites which are outside of the existing validated and legal export systems requires MADINI

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and its collaborators at all levels to analyze and confront the security, mining governance and taxation interactions which are both the result of illicit ASM mining but also reinforce its very significant negative security, governance and economic impact. The report’s detail weaves a complex picture of these interactions, the approaches to solutions, and also reinforce how helpful the focus on red, or informal mining, has been.

2b) Qualitative and Quantitative studies of conflict dynamics and actors around mine sites – development of an evidence base for the project and adaptation of strategies, identification of axes. Six (6) quantitative studies and one (1) qualitative study of conflict dynamics around selected mine axes and sites developed by IPIS were finalised for South Kivu in the first year of the project, while 2 quantitative and 1 qualitative studies for were in process by year end. These have provided the evidence base on which the project strategies have been refined and adjusted. At these 182 sites (144 of which are gold, or 80%) 31,000 persons (12% women, 7% children) are employed generating $35 million annually in illicit revenue which is not legally taxed and is largely smuggled to Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda.

Through these studies, a series of strategic axes and the decentralized territorial entities (ETD in French) within which the mines are located (known as secteurs or chefferies) have been identified along which the project activities will be targeted. These include:

Territory Secteurs/chefferie Number of ASM targeted mines targeted

Djugu 2—Mambisa, Bahema 27 Baguru

Mambasa 3—Mambasa, Babila 51 Bakwanza, Babila Babombi

Shabunda 1—Bakisi 47

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Kalehe 1-- Mbinga Nord 21

Fizi 1-- Mutabala 36

Secteurs are targeted for MADINI focus because of their role as Decentralized Territorial Entities, the third level of government closest to the people which can levy and collect taxes, and stands to benefit financially from better security and mining sector governance. The constitutional transition to local government in the DRC is in a long-term process of institutionalisation, but as of 2020 the ETD is the level where taxes can be levied and where ultimately representative councils will be elected are identified and both tax creation and collection, and retrocession of higher level taxes (from the national and provincial level), is technically effective and is in various stages of practical implementation. In the case of mining export royalties, the 2018 Mining Code mandated export linked payment of 15% of mining royalties to the ETD, or secteur/chefferie level by the exporter with each exportation lot. The ETD therefore is the evolving local government level where security and supply chain governance can be improved with the authority of ETD’s and, as they become effective, they would be entitled to increased revenue. Practically, the ETD is also the government level closest to the 182 MADINI targeted mine sites, and they have a role of reporting to and being supported by the provincial level of government (the role of the territorial level which sits somewhat in parallel with and above ETD’s is in a general process of clarification, and remains a legacy of the previous constitutional structure where local government included appointed level territorial administrators). In real terms, the territories continue to function as a security link and an intermediate facilitator between the provinces and ETDs. In line with the objectives of the project, the axes identified represent areas where there are a high concentration of gold mines (80%) but also important 3T axes which contribute to supply chain contamination, strategic sources or transit points linking red and green mines which will allow the project to effectively work on the issue of contamination of chains, areas that are accessible but where there are high levels of instability and violence.

The axes were identified based on a desk study led by IPIS and discussed and agreed upon as a consortium with implementing partners Justice Plus and OGP. Having identified these axes, IPIS quantitative and qualitative teams were dispatched to collect data along these axes around the conflict dynamics, key actors, opportunities and risks for the project. The reports produced highlighted over 36 conflicts in the 5 territories targeted by the project, and a number of key trends/dynamics:

• The malfunctioning of mining government administration (SAEMAPE, Division des Mines, CEEC, Cadastre MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 8

Minier) creates the context in which corruption finances human rights abuse and conflict. This is not only because these officials are poorly or not paid, but even when paid, the lack of legal, policy and capacity to implement the Mining Code creates the environment where corruption increases and conflict is resorted to when economic interests are threatened.

• Heavy presence of security service actors in collusion with mine sector services at mine sites: in many cases profiled in the IPIS research, FARDC are called upon by parties to the conflict to intervene in cases, either to over power the other party or to close down the mine site in conflict (this is illegal under Congolese law). This often involves the Etat Major at provincial level but in at least one case profiled was also marked by the intervention of colonels and generals sitting in Kisangani with links to the zone.

• Limited presence and unclear or ambiguous legal status of mining police: in many sites no or very few mining police were documented as being present; it is also clear that in some areas these “mining” police are also territorial police or other forms of police and do not have any specific training in the mining code, therefore severely limiting their impact on managing mining related conflict. The legal and policy context of the mining police can add to the challenges of the most appropriate policing structure and capacity being brought to bear throughout the ASM space in eastern DRC.

• Conflict between cooperatives: the study documented a number of severe cases of conflict involving mining cooperatives – for example between cooperatives in Kalehe and Fizi, where the study also mapped linkages to provincial and national deputies as well as the involvement of high profile ministers and politicians at both provincial and national levels and Armed Groups directly. These cases demonstrate the need to work at multiple levels in order to fully resolve the root causes of structural and organisational weaknesses underlying these conflicts, as well as the need to remain politically aware that mining rights and access to cooperatives is used as a political and economic bargaining chip amongst some politicians at provincial and national levels.

• Conflict among cooperatives, artisanal miners, processing entities/exporters and industrial mining companies: the case of Leda mining in Fizi, and MGM in Djugu show that long standing legacies of ASM exploitation often supported by illicit financiers and corrupt officials and Armed Groups or government security competes with legally granted mining concessions which leads to distorted information circulation and poor management of relationships with artisanal miners and local communities all of which can lead to entrenched conflicts that prevent all forms of mining activity. The opportunity for the project in these cases differs but potentially

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Madini could play a negotiating/mediator role to resolve disputes over ASM/LSM limits and to clarify the rights of artisanal miners and large scale miners (LSM) in cases of disputes related to industrial mining permits and operations. The dynamics related to how mining title holders, especially the state owned SAKIMA and SOKIMO, authorise processing entities and exporters (in the case of 3T) and contractors (for gold in Ituri) to produce gold, pay royalties but sell to exporters who smuggle to neighboring countries, is complex and creates many conflicts.

• The role of arbitrary closure of ASM sites by FARDC at the request of competing interests (customary “owners” or exporters) can force ASM miners to join, or re-join, Armed Groups operating in and around mining axes for them to access revenue of some kind. As an example, at the Kpangka mine in Djugu, FARDC closed the mine due to insecurity between two teams working for different owners in conflict. By the time the site reopened, miners of both competing « owners » teams had joined CODECO. • The power wielded by local leaders: from chefs des chefferies who give out informal mining titles to local mining operators, in many of the axes targeted by the project local authorities and leaders are heavily involved in the conflict and insecurity around mines. This is the case where local leaders have granted two cooperatives or individuals customary mining rights for the same piece of land which is often not even consistent with Mining Cadastre entitlement, where authorities have not undertaken monitoring visits to ensure that the limits of the land, or land use, correspond with what claimants demand, or where leaders who are in conflict over governance of a particular zone use access to mines as a means of strengthening their position and control. This is the case in Mukera, in Fizi Territory In some cases this also impacts the Local Monitoring Committee (known in French as Comite Local de Suivi, or CLS) secteur level multi-stakeholder governance structure which counts among its members some of these local leaders.

• Evidence of contamination of green chains: clear evidence emerged of contamination of green chains in Kalehe where minerals are tagged green and sold through negotiating centres in North Kivu, where these minerals actually come from red mines and in Shabunda where ASM minerals mined illegally in Kahuzi-Biega Park contaminate near-by green sites.

The research is being used by the consortium to prioritise the conflicts on which the project will focus, refine our strategies for working at multiple levels (from chefferie to territorial to provincial to national to regional to global), and identify key actors and opportunities for project engagement. The actor analysis has also allowed us to identify

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marginalised groups that the project needs to develop particular engagement strategies around in order to remain conflict sensitive and ensure that our activities are inclusive, for example:

• Women (including young women, women working in mines, women working in processing or trade around mines, and women with disabilities): in all axes, the overall involvement of women in decision making structures on mining (whether cooperative leadership committees or semi-parastatal structures like the CLS and CTS) was very low despite the finding that 12% of the 31,000 persons working in the MADINI mine sites are women (an average of 20 women per mine site, a figure which is significantly higher for unknown reasons in Ituri, particularly in Djugu Territory). In Kalehe and Mambasa, there were more women civil society leaders who were engaged in debates, as these are two areas that have benefited from previous interventions (such as that of IMPACT) that have supported women in the mining community to have a stronger voice. But across the board, the project found that there is a need to create more accessible opportunities so that more women can access structures representing artisanal miners.

• Young men and women: despite accounting for a large part of the population in all the axes targeted by the project, young people are rarely represented in cooperative leadership committees or mining structures – such as the CLS. They are also rarely amongst the mining authorities, such as the Division des Mines or SAEMAPE, as with the other marginalised groups mentioned above. Young miners – particularly men – are more likely to be engaged in armed group activity particular where artisanal mining has become impossible through insecurity.

2c) The launch of the project and ongoing engagement with key external stakeholders

Much of the first 6 months of the year involved heavy stakeholder engagement in order to ensure that the project was a) well aligned with stabilisation priorities, particularly those of the government; b) well received and supported by key stabilisation and mining actors; and c) able to identify allies and potential spoilers to the project. Stakeholder engagement is an essential step in the launch of all projects but the Madini consortium was particularly aware of this given the sensitivity of the issues that the project works on and the fact that many key stakeholders at provincial and national levels are themselves parties to the conflicts identified. The project shared its key advocacy objectives around security, non-contamination and harmonisation of tax with these government stakeholders, which was an opportunity to explain the added advantage of the project to the government. For example if the government manages to secure the mining areas targeted by the Madini project, and improve incentives for green mining, it will be able to increase its own legal tax revenue from mining and – through the mining redevance requirement which is already written into the

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mining code – reinvest these taxes transparently in development in mining areas, thereby also increasing citizen engagement and buy in. This argument was well received by provincial and territorial ministers in both South Kivu and Ituri who demonstrated a clear willingness to engage with the project. The strategy of sharing an information on the objectives of the project has allowed Madini to get the confidence and buy in of key provincial ministries – of plan, interior and mining – and therefore reduce the possibility of our activities being perceived as a threat and being blocked at any point. The project clearly aligns with the government’s priority development plan which rests on the need to raise more legal taxation and improve development in insecure regions. It complements ongoing initiatives underway by some provincial ministries – such as the ministry of justice in South Kivu which is leading a project on reducing numbers of vulnerable women and children in mines. At territorial level, there was a clear demand for increased sensitisation and information sharing around the mining code, the mandate and financing of specific mining authorities such as SAEMAPE, who currently struggle to implement their objectives due to poor resourcing.

Aside from the government, the project has also sought to activate a network of elected deputies at provincial level, given their influence both at provincial level but also in securing buy in and space for the project at territorial and chefferie levels. The overall response through bilateral engagements and at the project launch events in and Bukavu in September and October suggests that the project does enjoy the support of most deputies, who recognise the economic, social and political advantage of securing targeted project areas. The importance of monitoring and continually engaging these deputies was made clear, for example in the Bunia launch event when a cohort of deputies from South Irumu Territory pressed the consortium into understanding why their territory had not been prioritised. Other deputies pressed for the need for the project to collaborate with other actors in creating opportunities for young people who are interested in mining but who are pushed into armed group activity where they are unable to access legal mining opportunities. In South Kivu, the provincial assembly has reached out to the project since the launch event to seek technical support and inputs on the development of a Community DDR plan for the province. Together with the International Cooperation Agency of the Association of Netherlands Municipalities (VNG), the Madini team will be particularly looking at how to promote clean mining as a stabilisation, reintegration and prevention strategy to counter-balance armed group and illegal activity.

Ongoing engagement by MADINI with all stakeholders is summarised below in the Networking section.

2d) Development and operationalisation of a project advocacy strategy

One of the key deliverables for the project in the first year was the elaboration of a joint consortium advocacy

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strategy, linking together influencing activity and calls for action at all levels. Led by EurAC together with the advocacy consultant, the project developed a strategy in a participatory way together with all consortium members, identifying key opportunities, allies, spoilers, risks and calls to action at all levels. While the granular detail will come from the IPIS reports and the local security plans (which will be finalised between the months of March and April 2021), already three key objectives have been identified that will channel all calls for action. The project will not have the ability to work on all the sub-calls to action under each of these priorities – priority focus at each level will be determined with the local security plans informed by participatory context and conflict analysis by impacted community members and based on the IPIS research reports. Where the project is unable to directly address a particular issue, we will seek to partner with other intervening projects such as the ESPER Peace and Security program who are already undertaking advocacy initiatives on this theme

• Security : these advocacy messages will be informed by the local security plans and are expected to focus on specific demands on the government at provincial and national levels, and supportive multilateral and bi- lateral partners, to improve the professionalism and oversight of security forces operating in mining areas, clarifying the mining code and the roles and limits of responsibility of different security actors under this, clarification over the mandate and budgeting of the mining police, more transparency and justice linked to illegal smuggling activity, and a clear DDR strategy that will support the removal of armed groups from mining areas. While the majority of messages around this advocacy priority will focus on the national level, there will be calls made to international development partners supporting the DRC with its security reform process to have a specific focus on mining areas and the compensation and support of FARDC in mining areas. There is also the potential to explore advocacy at the regional level, as much of the instability and illegal activity in which the armed groups in mining areas are involved is linked to specific demands and actions taken by neighbours, such as Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda.

• Supply chain integrity and non-contamination of chains : using evidence gathered through the IPIS research reports around tagging of red minerals into validated green supply chains and illegal smuggling, particularly of gold, the project will craft messages around the contamination of green sites and smuggling aimed at private sector (industrial mining companies operating green sites, buyers, exporters, negociants) and the government. On the private sector side, some advocacy will also take place at international level for example with downstream buyers. While the project is limited in its score here, we will seek out partnerships, for example with Levin Sources with whom the project is already subcontracting through IPIS and through an MOU recently signed with Global Communities for responsible gold. It is important that this message does not dissuade the MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 13

private sector from investing in Congo but rather encourages more effective and far-reaching due diligence as the basis for sourcing and investment decisions by the private sector. Similar messages will be passed at government level internationally through platforms such as the OECD – the consortium has proposed through Levin Sources to participate, with the Dutch Foreign Affairs Ministry Coordinator of Raw Materials and European Partnership for Responsible Minerals (EPRM) representative, on a panel at the next OECD conference in April 2021 to talk about supply chain integrity and contamination of chains and the implementation of the updated Regional Certification Mechanism in the DRC. At national level, the project has already had a number of conversations with key governmental authorities and global experts on the potential of the new blue mines certification as a means of reducing contamination of chains through reducing delays at governmental level in processing green chain exports.

• Taxation: the IPIS reports have confirmed other analyses 1which shows that, particularly in the case of gold, in the DRC there is no economic incentive to mine and export legal ASM gold since the tax burden on legal operations is financially prohibitive, creating the illicit smuggling option as the only way to not lose money. The studies have also revealed a lack of clarity over the roles of different local authorities in levying taxes and fees, and a clear lack of transparency over the repartition/division of tax royalties at different levels, which is not trickling down to the chefferie/sector level for reinvestment in community development. At international and regional level, the project is discussing with ICGLR, GIZ, and BGR around the possibility of a win-win scenario around tax regionally, as the incentives for Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda to harmonise taxes do not exist. One of the most important elements of this strategy will be to work closely with national Congolese authorities, through for example their ICGLR representatives, to reopen the debate on reducing taxation on the Congolese side of the border. Recent changes in the Congolese government configuration through the dissolution of the CACH-FCC coalition and installation of the Union Sacré are provoking changes in the interlocuters at Congolese national government level; while this means that on the one hand the project may have to wait for some time until engaging with the new ministers, this political change offers an opportunity for the project to influence new governmental policy and to work with civil society and technical divisions in preparing strategy options around what a win-win regional tax scenario could look like. MADINI will be

1 The Intermediaries Traders Who Threaten the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Efforts for Conflict-Free Gold, IMPACT, September 2020, available at https://impacttransform.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/The-Intermediaries_Sept-2020_EN- web.pdf

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developing a regional economic and tax analysis as well as a linked DRC analysis during 2021 to influence practice at multiple levels and to create by year end a regional level working group on taxes through the ICGLR.

2e) Identification, strengthening and operationalisation of local community structures for multistakeholder security and governance.

Local structures will be critical to the success of many of the activities of the project; they are the vehicle through which key activities such as the community conflict analysis and development of local security plans are being carried out, and the project will support these structures in undertaking advocacy on key priorities within their local security plans. Working through local structures is one of the most important strategies within the project for ensuring the results of the project will continue to be felt and developed further beyond the end of the Madini project. Therefore, identifying robust and inclusive structures with a clear mandate that aligns to the objectives of the project at both chefferie/sector and provincial levels was crucial in the first year. This followed the initial identification of axes in July/August 2020.

Following a SWOT analysis of all existing multi-party groupings (state, civil society, private sector actors) in each of the axes identified, the project was able to identify its primary interlocuters at community level. Our approach has been to build on existing structures that are perceived as inclusive by different communities and stakeholders and credible “owners” of the local security plans and their implementation at sector/chefferie level. At the same time it was critical to identify structures with as much legal mandate as possible, with the most credibility among key local and provincial stakeholders. The SWOT analysis showed that in some areas it was possible to “re-dynamize” certain structures with a mining mandate but that in many areas these structures simply did not exist or were entirely un- operational – which directly contributes to ongoing conflict as there are few bodies with the mandate and credibility to mediate mining related conflict.

The mapping of structures identified that the Local Mining Monitoring Committees (Comité Local de Suivi des activités minières , or CLS) (), which function under legal provincial decrees and the authority and umbrella Provincial Monitoring Committee (CPS) are the most appropriate structure at chefferie/sector level given the objectives of this project, as these structures have a specific legal mandate to monitor and prevent contamination of mining chains and to coordinate with security structures and authorities. Historically the “CLS” in South Kivu functioned at the territorial level, but in 2020 the South Kivu CPS mandated to locate the “CLS” at the chefferie/secteur level, due to the emerging importance of secteurs as ETDs (see explanation above) in the evolving new constitutional structure of local

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government. A secteur can have as many as a million residents and include a dozen or more of “groupements”, the next lower level in DRC. Depending on the number of groupements within a secteur and the location of targeted mine sites (across the 8 MADINI secteurs in the 2 provinces there are an average of 22 mine sites per secteur) there is a need for one or more Sub CLS in each Secteur, under the CLS, to focus on security and supply chain governance of the mine sites. Therefore, for Ituri’s 5 CLS, each in a different secteur, there are 8 SCLS to focus on the targeted mine sites in large secteurs. In South Kivu, however, each CLS only has the need for one SCLS each due to the density of the groupements and proximity of mine sites to the relevant CLS groupements. In addition Ituri Province CPS continues to engage at the territorial level and has requested MADINI to support the territorial structures, known as the Territorial Monitoring Committee (CTS in French).

The CLS/SCLS also have the advantage of being multi-actor: they count among their members authorities (chef de chefferie/chef de secteur), civil society, security service representatives, and representation of women and youth, as well as mining services. A number of local community leaders involved in the CLS also have some collaboration/influence over armed group leaders in the area. The CLS/SCLS are government authorised (by a provincial decree) structures and therefore also have a greater chance of continuing to exist beyond the end of the project as they have a clear mandate written into law. Because the CLS/SCLS are legally mandated structures, there is an added stabilisation value in supporting them to assume their responsibilities as the designated state authority responsible for monitoring violence around mine sites. The CLS concept has been in place for over 10 years in different parts of the eastern DRC and the concept is recognised locally, nationally and even internationally as having credibility, which is not always perfect, but the structures are seen as contributing to security and improved mining sector governance.

The mining focused CPS and CLS/SCLS (and, in Ituri, the CTS) are well suited to advocate for the CLSP, the comité locale pour la sécurité de proximité) to develop the security plans as envisioned by MADINI since they have more incentive and motivation, in general, to move the SSPs forward. In 5 of the 8 secteurs targeted by the project, there is an overlap of some members of the CLS/ being members of the Local Committee for Proximity Security (in French, the CLSP, the comité locale pour la sécurité de proximité). It is this structure which is mandated to take the lead on developing local security plans; the CLS/SCLS have a mandate to coordinate mining activity and ensure that mining related priorities in the local security plan are implemented therefore MADINI will assure the integration of these structures in developing and implementing Secteur Security Plans (SSP). In all areas, we have made a specific push to get more women (a goal is to arrive at 25% of all CLS members) and other marginalised groups in the committees of these structures to ensure that they are inclusive. MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 16

In total, the project will be supporting 22 operational structures (all of which were in place by the end of 2020, with the exception of the Djugu CTS which is delayed for security reasons.

Fifteen in Ituri:

• 1 CTS Mambasa and Djugu Territories each (at request of Ituri CPS), 5 CLS and 8 SCLS. Of these 15 structures, only 1 has been revitalized (the Mambasa CTS at the territorial level, which had been set up by the donor funded Impact Project) and 14 others have been set up. Once security has improved, the remaining 1 Djugu CTS remains to be set up.

• Across all structures, there are 315 members, an average of 21 per CLS/SCLS and 17% of these members are women (offices held are listed below).

Six in South Kivu:

• One CLS in each of the three territories, each with one SCLS. In Kalehe one CLS was revitalized and the other 5 were set up, using members and experience from previous territorial structures which functioned in Kalehe and Shabunda.

• Across all structures there are 180 members, with an average of 30 members per CSL/SCLS with 9% being women.

The CLS are located at chefferie/sector level and report to the CPS (Comité Provincial de Suivi des Activités Minières), the lead provincial multi-actor body including civil society and government authorities, that is headed up by the provincial minister of mines. Where the project has supported the installation of CLS/SCLS this has been done to accompany the CPS in putting in place these structures. . In South Kivu, the CPS is very active and has already started engaging with the project in identifying advocacy opportunities that the project could leverage once the priorities from the local security plans have been identified. In Ituri the project accompanied the Minister of Mines to re- dynamize the CPS. Previously the CPS was governed by an Arrêté that only allowed financing from IMPACT and MONUSCO to support their work; as soon as IMPACT left Ituri, the CPS fell apart. The MADINI project has worked with the minister to work on the Arrêté on the operationalisation of the structure which is open to financing from the CLS itself and all partners, which will help address the potential of the CLS falling apart at the end of MADINI. MADINI can apply more lessons learned from other provinces and CLS structures which do not depend on donor funded projects,

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such as in South Kivu, North Kivu, and ex-Katanga, to assure ongoing functioning from multiple donors, including the members themselves. The arrete is the process of being signed.

3. Activities & results Project Activities: start up (January 2020 – July 2020) 4.Project results activities: Mention (briefly) which activities have been undertaken in the reporting 3 a) Identification of priority territory in Ituri period, especially in terms of • Focus of MADINI resources on Ituri Territory inputs provided (e.g. Following a scoping mission in February 2020, the project equipment, trainings, with more needs than Mahagi. workshops, staff). determined that there had been an important contextual shift in Ituri since the initial development of the project

proposal in 2019. This contextual shift saw a rapid escalation

in violence in Djugu territory, a territory with a high 4. Project results : concentration of gold mines and the steadily increasing Compare the actual presence of an armed group that came to be known as achievement in the reporting CODECO. Given the project’s focus on stabilisation, and period with the annual plan, based on extensive consultation with key civil society, both for outputs and outcomes, and include gender governmental and international stakeholders, the related results achieved. consortium took the strategic decision to change its choice of intervention zone from Mahagi to Djugu Territory in Ituri, Activities with explanation are with consent from the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. presented in left hand column, Mambasa has been retained as it remains highly relevant to and results in the right hand column stabilisation priorities in the province (with increasing ADF presence due to the FARDC’s operations in North Kivu) and its strong links to regional dynamics (as the IPIS reports confirmed, with many minerals being smuggled to Uganda through negotiating houses in Butembo).

3 b) Contracting of final consortium partner and

MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 18

development of project strategy for Ituri • Open and transparent selection assures project credibility since contract was The project brought on board its final consortium partner, awarded with a known partner in South Justice Plus, in June 2020, following an open call for Kivu (OGP) but a solicitation had been proposals and scoping mission to Bunia. Justice Plus brings proposed for Ituri. important weight to the consortium, having worked for over 10 years on security issues throughout Ituri – including in Djugu and Mambasa territories. They bring with them a strong network of stabilisation actors, including with SSU and STAREC, relationships with other key intervening agencies in the stabilisation space in Ituri – such as Search for Common Ground, Cordaid and VNG – and key governmental actors, including the provincial Ministers of Plan and Mines, as well the Gouvernorat. Throughout July and August, the project focused on getting activities operational in Ituri, including securing office space and developing and adjusting the intervention strategy for Ituri.

3 c) Recruitment of the team

Recruitment of 23 of 27 persons in the MADINI organigramme across all partners took place between January and July 2020 in year 1. Two local partner staff were • Most positions were filled over initial hired between July and September, 2020. However, two inception phase of 6 months. Two senior strategic positions that require a complex background positions have taken longer, but the COP candidate have taken longer for the project to fill, due to role is filled on an interim basis and the factors outside our control (for example candidates refusing Senior Advocacy Officer began work the offer of the project at the last moment in negotiations February 1. due to financial or family reasons). The consortium has informed the Dutch Embassy at each stage in this process:

• Chief of Party: the project remains with an interim

MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 19

Chief of Party who came on board in August 2020 (Richard Robinson). Richard brings with him an enormous industry experience in mining and conflict minerals reform, and has supported the project in its strategic visioning and planning, identifying opportunities to influence debates at national and international level around contamination and tax, but being able to marry this with operational experience given his long experience working for a mining

company in eastern DRC and understanding the conflict risks and reality of working in an insecure context. The recruitment of a long term COP has been through two cycles of recruitment, with an initial candidate having rejected the offer in July 2020 to

remain in his international post. As of writing this report, negotiations are advancing considerably with interviews with two potential candidates. .

• Senior Advocacy Adviser: an initial recruitment process started in December 2019 but after a failed first round of recruitment in the early half of 2020,

the project was obliged to reopen the post for a strong second round of candidates. During the second round of recruitment which took place in September/October 2020, a candidate, Erik Kennes, was found and discussions commenced on him taking

up the post in February 2021 after serving out his notice period. Erik brings an enormous wealth of knowledge of political affairs and the natural resources sector, as well as a well established network of contacts within the national government

MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 20

and international community on natural resources governance, developed through over 12 years in political affairs with MONUSCO and through this work with the Carter Centre and most recently 11.11.11.

3 d) Alignment to the ISSSS strategy • Assure focus consistent with GDRC and The consortium engaged throughout 2020 with SSU and the MONUSCO led multilateral stabilisation Ministers of Plan from both provinces to ensure that the support. project was aligned to the ISSSS stabilisation strategy.

Following a slight delay while the project awaited the approval and launch of the new alignment process at the beginning of the year, the process has moved forward and we are now awaiting the final certification from the SSU’s alignment unit. The project proposal was reviewed by SSU teams in both South Kivu and Ituri and has integrated 4 indicators into the logframe that will allow us to measure the project’s contribution to the ISSSS strategy attainment over the course of the project lifetime.

3 e) Launch of the Madini project in both provinces (Bukavu and Bunia) • Internal and external appropriation of An internal launch workshop was held between 29 MADINI assured. September – 3 October 2020 in Bukavu which allowed consortium partners the space to explore the project’s theory of change, refine the risk mitigation and identify opportunities to strengthen project implementation strategy. The workshop also called on key experts including MONUSCO’s Natural Resources Expert, representatives from Levin Sources as well as Mike Lock and Adam Rolfe who MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 21

recently updated the Regional Certification Mechanism and enjoyed the engagement of a representative of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Goma.

This was followed by an official project launch in both provinces - on October 29, 2020 in Bunia and on November 23, 2020 in Bukavu – which officially launched the project with provincial authorities (ministries of mines, interior and plan, as well as representation from the governor’s office), various mining actors (including the presidents of the mineral cooperatives of both South Kivu and Ituri, mining traders – negociants) , both state and private actors (including MGM), PACT and CEEC as well as territorial and sectoral authorities from the territories targeted by the project in both provinces.

3 f) Activity implementation

Result 1.1: Sources of conflict and security priorities Results A1.1.1: identified by communities in targeted red mining areas are • 8 reports (completed in 2020) effectively addressed 6 quantitative (South Kivu) A1.1.1 subtotal: Conflict analysis and stakeholder mapping o study o 1 qualitative (SK, Ituri) The qualitative reports both identify the 16 IPIS surveyors have collected data on 182 3T and gold sources of conflict and security mining sites in South Kivu (Fizi, Kalehe, Shabunda) and Ituri priorities, at the mine level, but also (Djugu, Mambasa). Each area visited in South Kivu was the at the higher level, when one of the object of a report analysis based on the data collected and actors in the conflict also plays an the observations made by the surveyors (this resulted in 6 important role at the provincial quantitative reports). For the reports targeting Djugu and and/or national level. Mambasa, IPIS finalized data collection in late 2020 and developed 2 final quantitative analysis reports which were MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 22

submitted in February 2021. In order to ensure that the o 1 context analysis (SK & Ituri) project’s activities were as inclusive as possible, the data increases conflict sensitivity in collection also included information related to marginalized planning and adapting project to groups, such as women engaging in mining activities – e.g. unforeseen developments and the number of women directly involved in the production; unanticipated consequences their type of work (cleaning minerals, selling minerals, transport, etc.); the presence of women involved in other • 3 data sets collected in 2020, reports activities at the mining site (restaurant, shop, ex work…); finalised in February 2021 (Ituri Qualitative sexual violence reported, etc. Due to travel restrictions Djugi, Mambasa Quantitative in Ituri). caused by the Covid-19 pandemic which had a knock-on • All these 11 reports have been effect for the intensity of training that could be offered to disseminated to the Dutch Embassy and to surveyors, IPIS hired only experienced surveyors, but identified MONUSCO and UN Group of nevertheless hired one female surveyor in Ituri. Experts contacts. Between the 20th August and 11th October 2020, one

Congolese University Professor and one IPIS surveyor traveled in 4 of the 6 SK regions visited in order to provide a Result 1.2: Targeted FARDC and armed groups qualitative analysis of the conflict, identify unsolved major adopt more responsible behaviours that facilitate a conflicts in the region and identify main actors and their more secure environment around mine sites. interest. This report (named the qualitative report) was delivered in October 2020 and has been shared with the • Thanks to data collected in the 182 mines, Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Madini is now able to verify where FARDC and armed groups actors are interfering with In Ituri, another team, also composed by a Congolese the mining sector. The data also provides the University Professor and an IPIS surveyor, traveled in name and the rank of the officer in charge, Mambasa and Djugu between the 23 September and 23 and sometimes, his own superior. Qualitative October, to do the same qualitative work than their report mentions names of FARDC with counterpart in South Kivu. By the time of writing this annual provincial or national responsibilities that report, the qualitative report was finalized (February 2021). will be targeted by advocacy team. Late in 2020, the Dutch Embassy offered an opportunity for • The results of the data collection is published MADINI, along with other funded projects, to deepen their

MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 23

understanding and application of conflict sensitivity to on IPIS webmap. The above two activities project implementation. Following a November workshop will be continuous as IPIS will monitor sites MADINI developed a Context Analysis that integrated conflict every six months, with disseminated reports, sensitivity across both provinces and with attention to but also there will be an ongoing early specific territorial level dynamics which are beyond the warning incident reporting system in place. direct control of the project and which may unintentionally compound conflict. By the time of writing this annual report, the Context Analysis report was finalized (January 2021) setting the stage for subsequent enrichments of MADINI, including proposed conflict and interaction indicators and modifications to activities.

Given the sensitivity of the material in these reports – which identify key political and economic actors engaged in the illegal mineral trade, their links to armed groups and illegal presence and use of formal security actors to secure mining concessions – the reports have only been shared to date with a limited number of internal and external stakeholders. Externally they have been shared with the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the MONUSCO Natural Resources Expert, an advisor to the MONUSCO Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary General (DSRSG) in Goma and a member of the UN Group of Experts working on fiscal transparency in mining activities in South Kivu, North Kivu and Ituri. Internally, these reports will be the focus of an internal strategic workshop that will be organized in early 2021 to determine priority conflicts on which to focus and adjustments required in intervention strategy and logic given the context and conflict analysis in order to ensure that the project continues to achieve its stated results and objectives.

MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 24

A1.1.2: Community analysis of conflicts

. Organise 2 training workshops on local context analysis (1 per site)

As a reminder, while the IPIS conflict and context analysis serves as an empirical baseline to the projects activities and Results A1.1.2: Community Conflict Analysis represents a scientific investigation of mine site dynamics, Results: conflict dynamics and actors, the project has a second level • In Ituri, 50 major conflicts were identified by of analysis that will be carried out with community members. 48 community members during participatory This level of analysis focuses more on perceptions of conflict analyses in the targeted secteurs and different groups within the community of conflict dynamics qualitative studies carried out throughout and is the first step of a dialogue and community the project area and which constitute the engagement process designed to secure buy in for the subject of analysis by the SCLS, CLS and CPS project at community level to start the process of developing for their transformation. the local security plans. At the time of writing this report, the community conflict Key issues mentioned include: analysis has got underway in Ituri. In South Kivu, the process - Deeply entrenched – and worsening – has started but due to unforeseen challenges in the team intercommunity dynamics between Hema leading the process (team leader health issues) the south and Lendu communities in Djugu: an Kivu research has experienced a slight delay and will be interesting observation that emerged finalised in in early 2021. through the community analysis was the Two training workshops on context analysis were organised division of mining activities along ethnic for members of the CLS and SCLS identified and put in place lines, with mines in some areas of Djugu in late 2020. These workshops took place in Djugu and being mono-ethnic and miners from other Mambasa, between the 8 - 23 December 2020 and were ethnic communities barred from facilitated by a training consultant with a long professional entering/accessing certain mines. background in the domain of security plan development. It is - The presence of CODECO in some mine sites, important to note that the CLS and SCLS count among their manipulation of inter-community tension members representatives of the security forces (PNC, FARDC, and links to recruitment of CODECO fighters MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 25

ANR), the mining services, the heads of chiefdoms and and mine closures: where in early 2020 it groups as well as a number of private sector actors (such as was not clear whether CODECO were the mining section of the Federation of Enterprises of Congo, operational in mine sites, community conflict representatives of mining cooperatives, the representation analysis (corroborated by the IPIS studies) of traders – negociants) as well as civil society and suggests that as of late 2020 this Armed community leaders. The training focused on how to conduct Group is active in a number of mine sites in a structured conflict analysis in a conflict and gender Djugu around Iga Barrière and Mongbwalu. sensitive way, how to frame questions around complex and Their activity in these areas includes some sensitive conflict dynamics in a way that is accessible for CODECO fighters actively mining, as well as participants to respond to and how to facilitate an inclusive the establishment of illegal tax barriers analytical debate. around mine sites. An important link was made between the closure of a number of . Organise 2 participatory conflict analysis workshops mine sites due to conflicts having broken out A participatory conflict analysis workshop was held from 19 at these sites (in many cases forceful and to 24 December 2020 in the territory of Djugu involving illegal pit closure by armed service actors), representatives of community members, community the resulting unemployment of a number of structures, security services and civil society organizations. artisanal miners and their subsequent The session was facilitated by the CLS/SCLS with recruitment into CODECO. Given their accompaniment from the training consultant mentioned in political orientation, CODECO are also the paragraph above. pushing for Lendu domination of many mining sites and trying to actively prevent Participants in the participatory analysis of community Hema communities from accessing some key conflicts workshops were identified, through the database of mine sites. This demonstrates the overlap actors who are members of local structures concerned by between inter community conflict, mining the activity of setting up structures. Beyond that, we used resource appropriation & access, and armed the guidance given by territorial and local authorities, as well group activity. as that of leaders and other influential members in the community in order to select the people who previously - Conflict related to unclear limits on lawful participated in community conflict analyses and community ASM activity and zones and lack of dialogue sessions. information sharing/transparency around mining concession titles:

MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 26

Among the participants, we have members of community The same process was carried out in Mambasa structures who are involved in conflict management and between 28 December 2020 and 8 January 2021. mediation, such as pacifist groups of mothers, community While some common dynamics were identified with dialogue groups, and permanent dialogue group. Since these those of Djugu, a number of specific conflict factors structures are themselves members of multi-actor and causes were highlighted that are specific to structures, they will be involved in the management and Mambasa, such as: mediation of conflicts that will be identified through multi- actor structures. - Tension between communities local to the area and North Kivu groups, such as Nande In order to ensure that the project is not contributing to negociants: Nande groups have long been research fatigue amongst the community members, the engaged in illegal and legal mining activities facilitation team first undertook a desk research of existing in Ituri but the community conflict analysis literature around conflict dynamics in the territory, notably suggests that relationships between “local” reports produced and shared by Search for Common Ground, groups and these groups originally from IMPACT, Cordaid and VNG. Questions focused on new North Kivu remain very tense. This is linked dynamics that have emerged since the development of these to broader governance dynamics with an reports and any progress/deterioration in the context increasing number of Nande political leaders dynamics. Results are summarized in column to the right. standing for positions at territorial and provincial positions in Mambasa and Ituri. It The next step in the process of developing the local security is important to note that marginalised plans is to undertake a restitution of this conflict analysis to a “autochtone” groups – including pygmy larger community group and proceed to identifying key groups – are very present in Mambasa. Their security priorities to be included in the local security plan. traditional livelihoods are increasingly under For South Kivu, there is only the territory of Kalehe which has threat from deforestation, ecological a security plan and on which the project intends to analyze projects and mining in the Okapi reserve. and adapt it to the context of the project. On the other hand They are poorly represented in local and in the territory of Fizi, Search for Common Ground (SFCG) provincial decision-making structures and intends to support the provincial authorities to set up a CLSP resent the increasing power afforded to and which will have the role of developing a local security Nande communities who they see as plan for the city of Baraka which has a direct link with the “external” to the zone. Mutambala sector in which the project is implemented. We - Conflict related to poor levels of MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 27

therefore have an interest in having a collaboration with understanding of conditions within both the SFCG in order to develop a link of activities on both levels. mining and land laws, as well regular conflict However, in Shabunda, it will be a question of setting up a around the appropriation of land for these local security plan. different uses: the area was for decades dominated by agricultural activity – On the other hand in Ituri, it is important to note that in increasing artisanal mining puts this activity Djugu, the local security plan will be inspired by territorial under threat. There is also some degree of level plans that have already been developed by Search for suspicion that some landowners buy land for Common Ground and VNG/Cordaid. Here the purported agricultural reasons but then use chefferie/secteur level plan that will be produced through this to access minerals and undertake mining Madini will focus on key priorities linked to the axes where activity. the project is working and mining related insecurity, unpacking larger recommendations that are contained in the - Manipulation of conflicts by local leaders, territorial plan and seeking to operationalise these priorities including chefs de chefferies: local leaders for concrete action/change. In Mambasa, no such territorial are heavily involved in local conflicts, as is plan exists, and therefore we will be driven by the secteur also confirmed through the IPIS reports. level plan developed through the Madini project. Here, some chiefs grant double land titles (to two different owners for the same piece of land), fail to check existing land titles and use the distribution of land titles to position themselves to secure greater personal political and economic leverage. This is exacerbated where there are two chiefs competing for power over one entity (a trend that was also observed through the

IPIS reports in South Kivu).

This analysis was refined in the two written reports finalised in February, 2021 and, complimented by the detailed analysis developed through the IPIS research, will allow community structures to develop local security plans by April 2021 in the MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 28

entities involved in the projects.

South Kivu in parallel will follow a similar approach in February-March 2021, to complete their security plans also by April 2021.

A1.1.3: Establish multi-stakeholder grievance/ conflict resolution structure & elaborate security plans. For reasons noted above and to avoid establishing multiple Results A1.1.3: Establish multi-stakeholder structures (a recommendation from recent evaluations of grievance/ conflict resolution structure & elaborate peacebuilding and stabilisation projects, and a challenge for security plans. sustainability of results) the MADINI project has decided to Between 13 November - 09 December 2020 the work through the CLS/SCLS as its primary unit at the following 21 structures were either restructured or chefferie/secteur level. created:

This redynamisation/establishment of CLS/SCLS was done • 15 in Ituri (out of 16): together with the CPS at provincial level and in accordance with provincial decree No. 20/002/GP/SD of 22 January 2020 o 1 CTS in Mambasa Territory (at establishing the provincial committee in South Kivu and that request of Ituri CPS), 5 CLS and 9 of Ituri no.01/JAPM/006/CAB/PROGOU/PI/2018 of SCLS. Of these 15 structures, only 1 22/02/2018. has been restructured (the Mambasa CTS at the territorial level, which had been set up by the donor funded Impact Project) and 15 others have been set up. Once security has improved, the remaining 1 Djugu CTS remains to be set up.

• 6 in South Kivu:

o 1 CLS in each of the three territories, each with one SCLS. In Kalehe 1 CLS

MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 29

was restructured and the other 5 were set up, using members and experience from previous territorial structures which functioned in Kalehe and Shabunda.

These 21 structures (as 1 Djugu CTS remains to be set up when security improves) include 495 members representing public, private, civil society and community members, and 14 % of the members are women, while a target of 25% women participation will continue to be pursued.

Examples of what the CLS and SCLS have done so far include:

• In Fizi, double taxation on the opening of a gold pit was cancelled thanks to the harmonization meetings between the stakeholders after an alert made by the CLS/SCLS structures.

• In Kalehe (Numbi) the SCLS was able to sensitize the COPAMIHANOBU cooperative of Fillon 2 and the Mine Police who are all members of the SLCS on the presence of children in the site. These days children are

not visible until 3:00 p.m., when mining operations are closed and the site is emptied of its population. • In Kalehe (Numbi) the SCLS managed to MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 30

sensitize the COPAMIHANOBU cooperative, still in the Fillon 2 sites, to improve hygiene conditions by building three toilets because none existed.

Results: South Kivu

3 scoping missions were organized in South Kivu province during the period from 22 to 29 March 2020 in Kalehe, 26 to 3 April 2020 in Fizi and 21 to 28 May 2020 in Shabunda. The aim of these various field missions was to present the project to all stakeholders, to analyse key players with a positive and negative influence on mining activities, and to ensure that the project had space at local level to Scoping mission to explain the project and identify actors, operate. the advantage of clean chains In South Kivu province, the CLS and SCLS are functional in Kalehe and Shabunda. However, in Fizi there the study did not find a functioning structure

looking at monitoring mining activities except for a few multi-actor structures that had been created from the local social dynamics found on the ground. In coordination with the CPS, the project agreed to re-dynamize the CLS/SCLS structures in Kalehe and

Shabunda and to set up one CLS and one SCLS structure (the CSLS allows a focus on a groupement enabling more direct support for the targeted mine sites and communities impacted by mining) in Fizi to

MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 31

support with monitoring mining activity.

This visit was also an opportunity to understand the number of local security plans that exist at territorial level but also their degree of operationality/the extent to which they are implemented. Through the visit, the project was able to determine that the only territory targeted by the project in South Kivu to have a local security plan is Kalehe, developed by Cordaid and VNG through the CISPE Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs funded project. The Madini project

will build on this plan which sits at territorial level and unpack recommendations concerning the axes where the project is being implemented.


A similar SWOT analysis was carried out in Ituri province between 16-27 October 2020 in Djugu and Mambasa, identifying structures with a specific

mandate on development, security, analysis and conflict management as well as those that follow up on mining activities.

In total, 90 structures were the subject of this SWOT analysis. The results of this analysis indicate a near total absence of multi-actor mining monitoring

structures (CLS and SCLS) in the project area in Ituri with the exception of a CTS that was set up in Mambasa territory by the provincial CPS, with financial support from the NGO IMPACT and a CPS created by a governor's decree at the Provincial

MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 32


It was also planned to install the CTS in the territory of Djugu, at the same time, but this was not possible as a result of insecurity in the area which led to many members of the local population – including local authorities – leaving the area and moving to Nizi. The activity has been postponed until security improves and stabilizes.

Results—summary of plan for 2021-- In 2021, the structures will be supported in developing local security plans and in undertaking advocacy on the implementation of a number of key priorities under these local security plans. The plans will be developed between March- May 2021 and priorities for support through the MADINI project will be A1.1.4 Accompaniment for the implementation of key determined with local leaders and will feed into the priorities of the local security plans [activity scheduled for overall MADINI advocacy strategy. year 2]

A1.1.5 Radio programmes The previously mentioned scoping missions were also an A1.1.5 Radio programmes scoping results: opportunity to determine the radio coverage across the The study revealed that in South Kivu there are 7 territories targeted by the project. This scoping allows radios that operate across Fizi and 4 that operate MADINI to develop diffusion plans among these local radio across Shabunda. Although there are radio stations networks as advocacy oriented themes and content are that operate in Kalehe they do not reach the high developed in 2021. plateau region where the project will be implementing (not even Radio Okapi reached this zone). In some areas where the radios are not MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 33

operational, the project intends to establish relationships with other partners to find out how to Result 1.2: Reduced numbers of mines controlled by FARDC support civil society for the installation of a channel. and armed groups At the limit of our means, raise awareness at the level of churches and at the level of markets by The activities under Result 1.2 are scheduled to start in year members of community structures. 2 of the project. However, it is important to note that preparatory steps were undertaken in year 1 in anticipation In the Ituri province, 4 radio stations have been of the implementation of these activities. For example: identified, and a contract will be made with the - The 8 Secteurs where MADINI’s sites are located are latter so that they relay project information and now covered by 21 multistakeholder structures, raise awareness of certain key themes in areas including security authorities, where security plans inaccessible by the project. In order to allow good and their implementation will be developed and collaboration between partners working in the area, monitored. the project intends to collaborate in Ituri and in the - In both provinces the project has started building a province of South Kivu with SCFG on the assembly relationship with the FARDC Etat Majors at provincial and demerger of certain radion emissions. level, through the civilo-militaire coordination teams. - Conversations have also taken place with the Minister Thus in the territory of Mambasa, the project of Interior in South Kivu and Governors of the two intends to work with the community radio Amani of provinces around the potential for clean mining as a Mambasa which covers: all the chiefdom of means of supporting reintegration of demobilised Mambasa, chiefdom of Bakwanza, and part of the combatants and preventing recruitment of vulnerable chiefdom of Babila Babombi, the Tetur group and people into armed groups. the community radio Amani of Biakato, this covers - the Biakato part, which is the capital of the Babila Babombi chiefdom and the Mambembe group, in the same chiefdom.

In the territory of Djugu, the project will be working with the Amani community radio which covers the two chiefdoms as a whole, namely: the chiefdom of Mambisa and that of Bahema Baguru and the community radio Umoja, this one also covers two

MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 34

chiefdoms (Mambisa and that of Bahema Baguru), but extends to part of the territory of Irumu.

Specific Objective 2: Improved regional security and stability through cleaner chains, more effective governance of mineral chains at all levels

Result 2.1: Improved adherence by standards of provincial, national and regional government actors in ensuring non- Result 2.1—Improved adherence by standards of contamination of mineral chains provincial, national and regional government actors in ensuring non-contamination of mineral chains

Provincial level sectoral meetings to engage for subsequent 2021 interventions in security planning, supply chain integrity and regional and DRC tax harmonisation:

MADINI prioritised a series of engagement meetings in Bukavu and Bunia from the beginning of the project between February and September 2020 with the aim of presenting the project. Meetings were held with the Governors of two provinces, the Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Justice, Ministry

of Mines, Ministry of Planning, 10 Members of Provincial Parliament (MP), including 3 from the Fizi electoral district, 4 from Shabunda and 4 from Kalehe, Civil Society Mine Thematic Working Group, Provincial Mining Monitoring Committee, PNC MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 35

Provincial Inspection (Mines and Provincial Inspector), the Interprovincial Community DDR Commission (known in French as CIAP-DDRC, La Commission Interprovinciale D’appui Au Processus

De Sensibilisation, Désarmement, Démobilisation Et Réintégration Communautaire, and CIVICOM- FARDC. Questions around the project were responded to in meetings, at the formal launches and in follow up meetings and these concerns are

integrated into the ongoing work of supporting the CPS and the CLS/SCLS at secteur levels:

• For MPs: They want to know what role they can play in the project. They are sceptical of the DDR/C because ex-combatants have not to date received sufficient support after

leaving the DDR process, and therefore MPs warned the project about raising expectations through our sensitisation work on DDR/C. Here, the project explained that the focus of the project on DDR/C will be on

advocating at provincial and national level to ensure that any future DDR/C programme takes into account the needs of combatants working in and around mining areas and the push and pull factors that they are subjected


• For civil society: The project must use their expertise with shared advocacy around some of the key objectives of the project to create

MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 36

strategic collaboration.

• For the Provincial Mining Operations Monitoring Committee (CPS): Members wanted more information about the project so they can continue to monitor and engage. More information was provided and CPS members were invited to the formal launches in both provinces to engage with them.

• The Ministry of Justice is currently implementing a project on the rights of women and children in mines, it believes that synergies with the consortium are possible. As this goes beyond the focus of the project, it will be important to put in place a referral mechanism with the initiatives being supported through this initiative of the Ministry of Justice (and others like it – such as Search for Common Ground’s intervention in Shabunda that focuses on strengthening the participation of

women involved in mining in decision making, and a similar project implemented by MONUSCO’s Human Rights Office on protecting women and children’s rights in mining.

• For the Ministry of Planning: How does the

project align with the development of the province? He advised the project to build on MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 37

local security and peace committees validated by the provincial government. A2.1.1 Elaborate an advocacy strategy

One of the most important activities in year 1 was the development of an advocacy strategy. RESULTS A2.1.1 Elaborate an advocacy strategy

The strategy, which has been constructed around the This strategy submitted in November, 2020– which indicators in the project logframe identifies sub objectives was developed in a participatory way involving all for each of these advocacy goals as well as the targets of our members of the consortium as well as key resource advocacy at local, national, regional and international level. It persons and the Dutch Embassy – includes a identifies strategies, actions and the products/tools that will problem analysis, power analysis and risk analysis, be produced to arrive at these objectives and results. The as well as a concrete action plan for 3 key objectives strategy was constructed as an overall framework for driving that will form the pillars of the project’s advocacy forward the advocacy activities of the project and will be work: further nourished by the local security plans as soon as they have been developed in the early half of 2021. 1. Security in and around mine sites targeted by the project in South Kivu and Ituri is The project has put in place an advocacy unit which brings improved together key internal stakeholders on advocacy and is led by 2. Mineral chains are cleaner and better the Senior Advocacy Adviser to ensure that messaging at all governed, certification standards are levels is coherent and aligned and also to be able to capture respected at all levels opportunities and risks for the advocacy objectives at 3. Tax regimes on minerals are harmonised and different levels. The group meets once per week at this point orientated towards legal trade of 3T and gold and is responsible for the implementation of advocacy within DRC and regionally activities in line with the strategy. The following activities will build on the advocacy strategy and are priorities for year 2: Early warning—ongoing monitoring of site security--Kufatilia - SMS reporting of incidents in mineral supply chains in - A2.1.2 Site monitoring and incident reporting eastern DRC. IPIS and Ulula, have deployed a system for In addition to the every six months study of reporting and monitoring incidents related to mining in site activities, an ongoing system for MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 38

eastern DRC and this will be adapted in 2021 to the 8 Secteur registering and documenting supply chain CLS’s. Partner NGOs and their networks of informants are issues through early warning alerts was In witnesses and relays for local communities. The information the planning to be implemented in 2021. collected is shared after validation with local authorities and - With regards to the early warning scheme, a public interactive dashboard allows everyone to follow the the consortium is planning to complement progress of incidents. and strengthen the system by adapting the Kafutilia system developed by IPIS and The objective of Kufatilia is to improve the good governance supported through their existing EU-funded of mining in the DRC through a transparent, independent project. and participatory platform. The incidents that can be - - A2.1.3 Meetings of provincial level reported are of different types (supply chain anomalies and advocacy platform (the already functioning contamination, accidents, violence, child labor, and supported CPS) on clean mineral chains environmental problems, corruption, presence of illegal road barriers, etc.) and meet the criteria of Annex II of the OECD - A2.1.4 Influencing activities to tackle Guide on Responsible Sourcing in ores. contamination of chains

This system will feed the community structures as well as the people assigned to the project to have regular incident reports in order to conduct the mediation sessions as well as the advocacy sessions and influencing activities to improve the situation.

Result 2.2: Improved performance of private sector actors in ensuring non-contamination of mineral chains

A 2.2.1: Influencing activities with private actors to increase due diligence of supply chains. Result A 2.2.1: Influencing activities with private

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IPIS organized a session with the external consultant Mike actors to increase due diligence of supply chains. Loch and Adam Rolfe (Levin Sources) to present the blue mines concept to the rest of the consortium during the On a few occasions, IPIS took the opportunity to internal launch in October 2020. Furthermore, IPIS defined introduce the Madini project to external actors to with Levin Sources about the scope of its involvement. The generally introduce the project but also to establish decision is included in the MoU draft signed by the relationships and contacts who can assist in the consortium of the Madini project and of the Zahabu Safi influencing activities to heighten awareness and project. The MoU was finalized in February 2021. action by private sector actors to reduce risks to supply chain integrity. These private sector influencing activities will start in 2021 per the Workplan. a) IPIS is a member of the Governance Committee of the Public Private Alliance for Responsible Mineral Trade (PPA), a platform gathering private actors, governments, and NGOs active the mining sector (It can be compared as the American version of the EPRM). On October 6th, in a e-session gathering all PPA members, IPIS explained the objectives of the Madini project and specifically reached out private sectors partners to seek for their support.

b) IPIS gave a short presentation of the Madini project to the members of the Belgian Network of Natural Resources (BNNR). This network is composed mostly of NGOs interested in the natural resources. Some their members are well connected with the

European Parliament and the Commission.

c) In addition, IPIS organized a session with the external consultant Mike Loch and Adam

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Rolfe (Levin Sources) to present the blue mines concept to the rest of the consortium. Furthermore, IPIS discussed with Levin Sources about the scope of its involvement in influencing supply chain actors, especially private sector actors, to understand risks to supply chain integrity and to confront it..

MADINI leaders engaged with the Ituri mine, Mongbwalu Gold Mine (MGM) CEO, in Djugu to clarify how MADINI can support peaceful resolutions

to the security and governance challenges facing this company, where between 20,000 and 100,000 ASM miners earn a living but where CODECO and other AG’s, along with FARDC, exert influence and illegally tax mining. A written agreement will be

finalized in early 2021 and when security conditions allow, MADINI can gradually begin activities. SOKIMO, the other titleholder in Djugu, already approved MADINI’s data collection efforts and can be approached to begin a more in-depth

collaboration as well through direct planning and also participation in the CTS, CLS and SCLS in Djugu. In South Kivu SAKIMA will be approached by MADINI Result 2.3 Increased harmonisation of tax regimes around to engage constructively and proactively as their 3T minerals and gold across DRC, Rwanda, Burundi and concerns were raised at the Bukavu Launch. Uganda A number of key activities are scheduled for 2021, Although discussions started in 2020 around the project’s as defined in the Workplan: strategies for approaching the question of harmonised tax, no concrete activity has taken place on this in year 1, as A 2.2.2 Advocacy campaign on supply chain integrity planned in the original Workplan Strategies discussed for and green minerals, DRC and regional taxes, and MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 41

2021 include the need to find a “win-win” scenario and the security plans. project is reaching out to ICGLR contacts to better understand the opportunities to push here. The recent A2.2.3 Three-day workshop and international change in leadership of the ICGLR – which has moved from conference in Brussels being held by a Rwandan delegate to being held by an Angolan delegate – offers some important degree of promise in moving forward on the regional tax question, as Angola is a firm political and security ally of the Congolese government and had a specific interest in the “clean” mineral trade. The Planned 2021 Results 2.3 Increased harmonisation apparent decision of Rwanda to remove itself in some way of tax regimes around 3T minerals and gold across from the ICGLR is a potential challenge and needs to be fully DRC, Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda analysed with diplomatic and security experts. The project is Activities in year 2 per the Workplan will include: working through its political contacts at this level – together with the Embassy and its delegation in Burundi – to A2.3.1 Research on current regional tax understand what this change in leadership might mean in environment incentives for smuggling and terms of other member state engagement on this sensitive harmonisation opportunities. The analysis will be issue and where the economic and political levers can be two-fold—how does the DRC tax and fees found to engage them in the debate. One early opening environment disincentive legal production of ASM, strategy is to focus the discussion around security which and how can this be linked with regional influencing remains a critical issue for neighbouring Rwanda and Burundi, both of whom are paying close attention to the A2.3.2 Establish a regional level working group on security situation in eastern DRC and its destabilising impacts harmonising tax regime regionally. The ICGLR engagement strategy will be married Under the second of these activities, preparatory with discussions nationally within DRC on pushing for a work has already begun at provincial level to build reducing in national tax barriers and at the European Level the case for policy analysis and recommendations (as the EU is a critical ally of ICGLR) through the new EU for improving the DRC and regional tax Regulations on Conflict Minerals which will be published in environment. March 2021.

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5. Indicators : Detailed logical framework, including agreed indicators, baseline, targets & Year 1 results, with ouput and outcome Use the agreed upon evidence, can be found in attached spreadsheet. Given the evolving framework and the fact that many baseline indicators, providing the evidence for outputs and values are only recently determined through the baseline study, or are zero due to start-up, selected key indicators (intermediary) outcomes. Add with results are summarized below. An additional set of preliminary conflict and conflict interaction indicators are additional qualitative and quantitative indicators where listed in the attached Logical Framework, with the plan to detail and finalize all aspects as soon as possible, with any necessary. baseline data collection to be completed within next six months.

Indicator Baseline Year 1 Results Outputs Outcomes # of mines studied & 0/165 182 7 reports (2020, with Baseline reports 4 more Jan-Feb ’21) documented, used for planning AG presence 31% n/a Reports, names Used for advocacy— public & discrete FARDC presence 83% n/a Reports, names Used for advocacy— public & discrete ASM miners & 81% n/a Reports Used by CLS Community members declaring confidence in other village residents # of cases of violence 102 cases n/a Data Used for advocacy— reported last 6 public & discrete months Illegal road blocks 35 cases n/a Reports Elimination of road btwn mine & trade blocks center # of sites where 1 141 n/a Reports CLS use information coop is present Sites where at least 1 14 n/a Reports CLS use information woman is coop manager MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 43

% of community 35% n/a Reports CLS use information members who perceive resistance to AG recruitment % ASM miners not 48% n/a Reports CLS use information motivated to smuggle % ASM miners with 10% n/a Reports CLS use information legal miner’s card

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6. Success stories : Within the first year of the Madini project, MADINI has been able to successfully revive and strengthen three key Provide an example of a structures that play a fundamental role in monitoring chain contamination and insecurity in mining areas: these are successful intervention in user-friendly language (which the CLS, the Sous-CLS and the CPS. may be replicated by others). The attached two success stories are simple as beginning activities, but demonstrate how the revived CLS and SCLS at Numbi in Kalehe Territory, South Kivu, quickly seized two issues—child labor and unhygienic sanitary infrastructure—and immediately set out to do something about it. MADINI now can channel this beginning towards more complex interventions and monitoring of conflict, supply chain integrity and the consequences of opaque and un-economic taxation.

7. Capacity building 7a) In putting in place the 21 CLS and SCLS in the 8 Secteurs a series of trainings were organised for the 495 (Describe how and what members: kind of local capacity is enhanced and for whom, o The mandate and mission of the CLS/SCLS and which changes it has Their objectives brought about.) o o The risks they might encounter in this work and how to overcome them o Conflict sensitive communication and interaction o Essential elements of the mining code o How to identify and record incidents o How to mitigate incidents. Listed above are examples of follow up activities already undertaken by the new CLS/SCLS’s.

7b) Two capacity building workshops for 48 members of multi-actor structures on the analysis of the context was organized in Mambasa Territory of Ituri to allow them to actively participate in the analysis of community conflicts, with the objective of preparing them for developing the local security plans. 7c) 3 Capacity-building workshops for CLS/ SCLS members were organised in Fizi, Shabunda and Kalehe on incident monitoring techniques and conflict mitigation measures. in Kalehe, Shabunda and Fizi 60 persons each participated in each training session for a total of 180 persons of whom 17 were women (7, 5, and 5 respectively in each territory).

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7d) Internal Launch occurred in Bukavu for all MADINI Consortium members, as noted above.

7e) External Launches occurred in Bukavu and Bunia as noted above.

8. Alignment with For the objective of “Reduced levels of violent conflict and improved security in targeted red 3T and gold mines of national/regional South Kivu and Ituri” and its two results, MADINI is contributing to national/regional priorities per the following. priorities (Describe for There are no national/regional monitoring systems: each result if the achievements are contributing to the . Eastern DRC--The project is aligned with national priorities, through the country strategy which aims to realization of resolve the dynamics specific to the conflict in eastern Congo with alternatives for security, mobilization national/regional priorities and if results are included around the territory and the region, identity, the exploitation of natural resources as well as regional in national/regional dynamics. Through the multi-stakeholder structures put in place with the support of the MADINI project, the monitoring systems.) project will help improve the monitoring system for mining activities, in order to strengthen social cohesion among communities formerly in conflict. . Demilitarisation of mining--The result 1.2 targeting a more respectful behavior by the FARDC and demilitarisation of Armed Groups clearly aligns with the efforts of the President of the DRC to demobilize armed groups in Eastern Congo, and more particularly CODECO in Ituri. MADINI will also be pursuing advocacy efforts with the Ministry of Defence and regional FARDC commanders in parallel. . Stabilisation--The consortium engaged throughout 2020 with SSU and the Ministers of Plan to ensure that the project was aligned to the ISSSS stabilisation strategy. Following a slight delay while the project awaited the approval and launch of the new alignment process at the beginning of the year, the process has moved forward and we are now awaiting the final certification from the SSU’s alignment unit. The project proposal was reviewed by SSU teams in both South Kivu and Ituri and has integrated 4 indicators into the logframe that will allow us to measure the project’s contribution to the ISSSS strategy attainment.

For the objective of “Improved regional security and stability through cleaner chains, more effective governance of mineral chains at all levels” and its two objectives of improved mineral supply chains and tax harmonization within the region, MADINI is contributing to national/regional priorities per the following. There are no national/lregional monitoring systems:

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. Anti-corruption--President Tshekedi pointed at the fight against corruption as the top priority of his mandate. MADINI is also engaging in this fight by researching who are the different actors benefiting from the smuggling at the mining sites, but also at the trade hubs such as Bunia and Bukavu. The IPIS database also covers illegal taxation and those who benefit financially from this taxation. . Conflict Minerals Due Diligence--The multistakeholder advocacy platform of the CPS and CLS / SCLS is an instrument of the provincial government to enforce due diligence for responsible mining and trade. They are aligned and consistent with the ICGLR Regional Certification Mechanism and the due diligence guide for OECD responsible mineral supply chains.

9. Networking (Indicate . MADINI is in touch with the ESPER Peace and Security program in Eastern DRC (VNG and Cordaid) in relation synergies with other to South Kivu and Ituri stabilization and mining projects, including sharing products and lessons learned on (NL) funded projects. With which projects did security and community resilience plans. Specifically in Kalehe Territory of South Kivu Madini will take the you collaborate and plan already developed by VNG and seek to update this instead of producing another plan in the same area. what were the results?) . Levin Sources is directly contracted by IPIS to assist in downstream outreach and also will lead on the regional tax analysis. . Alert as lead assures synergy and alignment with the GDRC STAREC and MONUSCO Stabilisation programmes and planning.

Together with the COP and International Alert management staff, IPIS took active part in building partnerships with different actors, including the following groups of existing and potential partners and participates in the quarterly conference calls of the Eastern Congo Mining Coordination Team convened by MONUSCO:

. Overall coordination through the national Ministry of Mines, including the Minister, the Secretary General, and the CEEC (mine exports and conflict free due diligence) and SAEMAPE (ASM extension). This includes coordination with the accredited traceability and due diligence systems in place of ITSCI and Better Sourcing Program (BSP).

. Collaboration on validation (required for legal export) for sites more ready to meet ICGLR and DRC qualification criteria, which includes Pact’s new USAID funded validation project and the ongoing Joint Team which is facilitated by the MONUSCO Natural Resources Coordinator, based in Goma.

. Collaboration for the supervision of ASM miners and cooperatives through Division of Mines and SAEMAPE, MADINI Project—Year 1 Annual Report –page 47

the ASM extension service, nationally and in the two provinces.

. Donor funded initiatives, including that of Global Communities’ Zahabu Safi Project with which MADINI signed an MOU in February 2021 and where two gold sites, one in Ituri and one in South Kivu, will be jointly planned and implemented. Zahabu Safi focuses on due diligence, cooperative strengthening, exports all of which complement the community security and supply chain governance focus of MADINI interventions. Through GC MADINI is linked with political economy subcontracts with Levin Sources and supply chain of custody partners RCS Global and Better Chain.

. In Ituri, the project has been collaborating with the Canadian NGO “IMPACT” which implemented the project: Or Juste in Mambasa Territory which support the CTS, thanks to this collaboration and the results of the SWOT analysis, we were able to obtain the mapping of areas in which multi-stakeholder structures were not yet in place and we will work with the same CTS in Mambasa. Beyond this we have also been engaging IMPACT on the question of regional and national tax, on which they have worked for several years and continue to advocate. We are exploring the possibility of aligning with them/bringing them into the projects as consultants to support with some of the national and international advocacy on this issue.

. With Search for Common Ground (SFCG) we plan to collaborate on a security program (Amani na Usala Project), a project which intends to support the authorities in the establishment of CLSPs and the development of local security plans. For collaboration and complementarity in our actions, several meetings were held in order to define the measures of collaborations in the various activities (radio broadcast, local security plans, etc.). Specifically, we envision working together to help develop the Secteur Security Plan and influencing radio messaging in Fizi with technical resources from the two projects working together and in parallel.

. MADINI partners contribute to DRC, regional and global advocacy on DDR-C, infrastructure, local economic development.

MADINI collaborates and is available to work with the Dutch Embassy and the Hague on influencing national and regional policy (ICGLR), national level discussions on national and regional taxes and on how to manage high level spoilers.

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10. Analysis, . The security situation around Mongbwalu was so precarious due to CODECO and a self-defense group implications, named “” that in 2020 that we decided to wait for sign of stability before sending a team of IPIS learning + surveyors there. Eventually, a team will visit about 15 mining sites when it is safe. This has slightly impacted recommendations timing and the budget and created an under-spending in this category.

Describe and explain the . For IPIS Ituri qualitative report there was a delay due to the researcher having health and family problems, difference between planned interventions and actual which slowed down the deliverable and the expense. In terms of recommendations, both qualitative reports performance, in inputs, have taught us valuable, and unexpected lessons that will need to be addressed in the advocacy part of the outputs and results, e.g. due to a changing working project. To give one example, both reports identified the closing of mining pits (where disputes among environment customary title holders end up with one side, or both, calling on the FARDC to close the site) as discussion (policy/security/economic) or internal project dynamics. Also we should address at the provincial level. In South Kivu the FARDC closes mining pits and demands describe and explain how the exorbitant fees for its reopening. In Djugu, the closure of a pit led to an increasing of recruitment of CODECO performance is related to the expenditures of the financial Armed Group militia amongst the affected miners. Besides the postponed mission in Mongbwalu, and the report. Do the goals and deliveries of Ituri reports, IPIS has not encountered other delays. activities of the project need readjustment? Indicate consequences of possible . In Ituri province, the implementation of project activities encountered difficulties related to the Corona Virus delays for reaching the overall pandemic, particularly with regard to travel restrictions and mandatory quarantine measures upon arrival in project objectives. Reflect on gender-specific project Bunia, which slowed down project implementation, but which also affected all sectors of social, economic, learning and implications. political and even humanitarian life.

. Beyond the security situation, and the COVID 19 pandemic, there was a small concern at the start of the project because the initial budget provided for recruiting only two animateurs for the entire province. This budget did not take into account the physical configuration and distances within the area of intervention. The project implementation area, in particular the territory of Djugu with two secteurs and 3 groupements, and that of Mambasa, with 3 secteurs and 6 groupments, are so vast and remote, that for better performance, we had to hire at least two other facilitators. Alert, as lead of MADINI, negotiated with Justice Plus, who had not previously been identified, a budget which kept the same total amount for animateurs but the actual budget allowed for two additional animateurs to be recruited and serve in addition to adequately support Djugu and Mambasa Territories.

. The intent of the donor and the MADINI Consortium is consistent with the needs of the targeted territories. Mining activity is intense but is also at the origin of several community conflicts. All actors are wanting to

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exploit natural resources without any correct knowledge of legal requirements. This reinforces the need to intensify the activities of the MADINI project in conflict zones, in order to contribute to the reduction of violence, while contributing to strengthening links for peaceful cohabitation, reducing the number of sites controlled by armed men (FARDC, PNC, armed groups), and improving the integrity of mineral supply chains. All these efforts and the MADINI design can help achieve the overall general objective which is none other than to strengthen stability in the Great Lakes region.

. To accomplish this, with the support of the MADINI project, the CPS Ituri requested MADINI’s support to proceed with the installation of 14 multi-stakeholder structures across the two territories, instead of the 5 initially provided for in the budget. This decision was taken by mutual agreement with the lead of the consortium, with the aim of covering the most high-risk areas, so that it has an impact that will be visible and appreciated by the beneficiary communities. At this stage, this decision has not adversely affected the budget, but in the long run it may require a budget review, if necessary.

. On the other hand in the province of South Kivu, the occurrence of Covid-19 had a negative impact on the process of launching the project in terms of restricting movements, organization of meetings, compulsory confinement and caused some delays in recruiting staff.

. The Covid impact and the more complex challenges found in implementation, along with certain aspects of intervention sequencing which proved to be unrealistic, has affected parts of the operational planning, so to date the annual plan expenditures have not been completely met, resulting in under-expenditures. The following activities were impacted and the Dutch Embassy was continuously updated on these changes and the conditions that impacted each activity (we have grouped these changes whether external or internally related):


o A1.1.1 Conflict analysis and stakeholder mapping study delayed from Nov ’20 to Feb ’21;

o A1.1.2 Community conflict analysis, which was delayed from Nov ’20 to March ‘21;

o A1.1.3 Establishment of multistakeholder structures and elaboration of security plans was originally scheduled from June ’20 to Feb ’21, and was delayed from October ’20 to April ’21;

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o A1.1.4 Accompaniment of security action plan was adjusted from Mar ’21 to April ’21 to the end of the project.

o A1.1.5 Radio programmes was delayed from starting in June ’20 to Dec ’20 through end of the project

o A1.2.1 Mining Code training for FARDC and local authorities—postponed from Sept-Nov ’20 to April ’21 to Oct ’22;

o A1.2.4 Sensitisation of AG on demobilisation and alternative livelihoods—postponed from beginning in Jul ’20 to beginning in April ’21 through end of project;

o A1.2.6 Community security and development projects postponed from Dec ’20 to May ’21 until end of project;

o A1.2.7 Counselling & psychosocial support was postponed from Dec ’21 to June ‘21 through end of the project;

o A2.1.4 Influencing activities to tackle contamination was delayed from Dec ’20 to May ’21 through end of project;

o A2.3.2 Establish regional level tax harmonisation working group was postponed from Dec ’20 to Dec ’21 through end of the project;

o A2.3.3 Influencing activities at national, regional and global level was postponed from Dec ’20 to January ’21 through end of the project.


o A1.2.2. Establish participatory early warning mechanism from Dec ’20 to May ’21 was modified to end in October ’21;

o A2.1.2 Regular site monitoring and incident reporting took longer to complete—started in June ’20 but was completed in Feb ’21, rather than Nov ’20, and will continue every six months. Incident reporting system will be in place Q1 2021;

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. Scoping missions were initially not planned at the start but brought a plus for a good start of this project. The political actors, particularly the deputies, are very happy with the consideration that the project extended to them.

. Even when one is surprised by such an overwhelming phenomenon as the Covid-19; it is possible to adapt by being as flexible as possible. Face-to-face meetings were greatly reduced and travel also, all of which were replaced by either telephone or on-line meetings.

. There is need for ongoing and deeper analysis of Armed Group dynamics. We understand today that the armed groups in the east of the DRC are not from the same corner, do not have the same typology, the same characteristics, therefore the awareness strategies should not be the same for communicating and motivating their demobilisation.

. The provincial government is keen to see the projects implemented by the NGOs such as MADINI aligned with their priority action plan, which augurs a resumption of the authority and the responsibility of the State. They requested in some cases a readjustment of the work plan and a budget review that took these realities into account.

. Taking into account the above context, the MADINI Consortium appreciates the flexibility of the donor, both programmatically and financially and requests the donor to continue to be open to changes based on disruptions, whether due to the security dynamics or because of the impact of Covid-19 and taking into account the realities, sensitivities and context.

. Gender data in relation to the CLS/SCLS is important :

o The project has adopted a goal of 25% participation by women as CSL/SCLS members and the current rate is below that. This remains a goal to be improved through the life of the project. The average female participation rate among the 495 members is 14%, but in Ituri it is higher—at 17%, while in South Kivu it is 9%. Strategies are being developed by MADINI and will be finalized with the structures themselves to improve.

o Among the women members, the women are not simply members, but there are 5 office holders in the case of Ituri--one Vice President is a woman and other women are Rapporteurs or Assistant

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Rapporteurs. In South Kivu 6 women hold positions mostly of Rapporteur or Assistant Rapporteurs, but there is a women who is also a development coordinator on the Mutambala CLS.

11. Sustainability In the section on sustainability, at this point it is difficult to prove this aspect of sustainability. Nevertheless, it (How did the activities should be mentioned that the establishment of multi-stakeholder structures in the project implementation areas in contribute to the overall, long- term sustainability of the accordance with the political will of the authorities embodied in the ministerial decree establishing structures in the project’s objectives? Which two Provinces is a step that leads to the sustainability of the said project. This is because given that these structures measures did the project take to guarantee that the results are set up at the local level, with active and permanent stakeholders who are called to carry out community will be sustainable?) activities, advocacy, sensitization, monitoring, in order to contribute to stability and development for their communities. Over the last ten years there is an encouraging trend of sustainable functioning of such structures when they can have a positive impact on security and mineral supply chain economic opportunity based on integrity and legality. Lessons learned from other CPS and CLS throughut eastern DRC who have continued to function over long periods of 5 years or longer will be captured and integrated into the support provided to the provincial and sub-provincial structures to reduce the risk of these structures weakening after MADINI. 12. Risk management It should be noted that the way in which we have proceeded with the management of potential risks in our areas of Based on the risk analysis and intervention, has allowed us despite the constraints to carry out the activities. These include: experience from the implementation period, • Potential risk: the increase in insecurity in the project implementation area and the persistence of COVID 19. describe the risks relevant to the project, including mitigating measures. • Mitigation measures have included the Security Advisor in collaboration with the security officers with each local partner, carrying out the security analysis, which allows him to triangulate the information in advance with local sources, security authorities and local leaders, as well as partners intervening in the security field such as INSO, UNDDS. But also, at times when insecurity becomes increased in the intervention area, we were forced to postpone the activity, or by default relocated the place for the holding of activities, according to the judgement of MADINI management and the participants, as well as the local authorities.

In addition, the DRC is currently experiencing a fluctuation in its political landscape which results in a reversal of alliances which even affects local and provincial government functioning and security and this changing environment requires constant monitoring and responses. This political uncertainty has affected MADINI’s ability to meet with key decision-makers at the national level and will be addressed through more frequent visits there and even more persistence in communication and follow up than previously anticipated.

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High expectations by regional and local stakeholders is evident and was demonstrated at the Bunia and Bukavu public launches. MADINI has addressed this through proactive and ongoing communication with stakeholders, and is aggressively coordinating and, where possible, collaborating with other implementing projects who can address local and provincial priorities with and in parallel with MADINI.

MADINI submitted in its original proposal a risk assessment and several of these risks merit updates: 1. Under Contextual Risk, Ongoing violence and conflict in intervention zones, Ituri Province has proven to be more volatile and dangerous than South Kivu, especially in the Mongbwalu area of Djugu Territory with the CODECO Armed Group dynamics. In Mongbwalu and also in Fizi, around Misisi, MADINI anticipated as we assessed that the project can secure its human and material assets, but the way in which the project activities are implemented will need adjustments in terms of timing, profile and even design due to the unanticipated conflict dynamics (as in Mongbwalu) or corruption dynamics (as in Misisi where finding opportunities for engaging in a context of extra-legal collusion between corrupt DRC officials and Armed Groups are still being assessed. 2. Under programme Risk of activities being blocked by influential spoilers (including politicians, ministers, influential business actors, community leads manipulated by spoilers, etc.) it is too early to anticipate in which Secteurs there may be blockages, but Misisi and Djugu, as noted above in relation to conflict, appear to be areas where significant economic interests (which MADINI will continue to monitor and document) will be particular challenges to overcome. 3. The additional programme risks associated with trying to achieve regional level change on harmonised tax systems are being addressed through a bi-level entry approach of engaging at the regional level, but linking that with an in-depth analysis of the DRC issues, which require some level of improvement in order to motivate any regional support or change.

4. The risk of underspend due to difficulties in the context, issues in the start-up phase, finding a partner in Ituri have proven to be somewhat true, however, MADINI does not anticipate any negative impact on realizing project results over the full four years of the project. As noted in the initial risk assessment “clear planning, communication and good budget management” have enabled the project to continue on track and consistent with its objectives and results.

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