Fisheries Technical Paper No
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+;5)W& +:M& P ;E'8ZW& A&a8 WR ,;S\Y( .)\cZL\Y( =Rc/c =G:Y( [)XB ]\ [XB [X ]!B+ -Rc=L\Y( .)^)+Y( -BU)^\ [DSY( (<a Q;b/@ -WYc( ;(c\Y( 0cZ/ [)\/7 ( c =/(c/ ]!B+ .)^)+ WY< [\Bc 2 -=7+Y( -<O( ]K -4/)^Y( E(=\( -+U(=\ =/(c/ ZK c Mc/@\ ZK =G/ /Y( .(=P/Y( [DSY( (<a AU)^ WY<X 2 =G:Y( [\)K T=G ]K -<O( c Ac 2]>:/Y( Qc=Hc HS7Y( .(=/\(=+c -4Y)L\Y( *@7+ .UcY( J\ =G:Y( ;E8W& cG^ )a;c4cY )G=B [XB c -<O( R ;4c ')>R c ')\X c 4cYc+ [\)K ( CAC, 2001% -7DZY =)F ]\)X =1 ZK .)^')XY( .c\ c )V+c c\^c ;c4c ZK ]>:/Y(c QZP/Y(c -4Y)L\Y( Qc=H =1!/ [DSY( (<a R ?=;= WY<X c 3W\:Y( .)W\)^;c (E=\Y(% -7DZY ,=)FY( =)1( ]# 2(]@X/% .)\@Y( =\;/ ZK c : -VU;Y( -cFLY( )WbL\4 :c^)1Y( [)V/^ ( [ : ]\ E=\Y( =)B/^( -^)X\#c ]\Y)@Y( [1(=4Y( Z\)7c Q F\Y( =1!/c [\@/Y( ](c^LY( .7/ =G):\Y( ]\ =G: [XY QDc ;= )\' \ WY< ])X )\ZXc 2 =G):\Y( C(c: ]\F 2=;^/ [\(cK IY)/Y( K=SY( (-7DZY =)FY( =1(% E=\Y( • W)\@( ;)D\c W\@Y( .)4/^\ R _=)B/^(c [\)LY(A]')XY( =;D\ c ,cX • W)\@( ;)D\c W\@Y( .)4/^\ R )V+Y(c c\^Y( • (-4=7Y( ;c;7Y( WY< R )\+% -+)U=Y(c -)UcY( • c . E=WL/Y( [V/. I Z )\Y -\> Y( *^(c4Y( EL+ a [DSY( (<a R ,;=(cY( .)\cZL\Y( ] H7 ] P+^ )W\R `W^ =O 2( [@VY( J4(=% =G):\Y( [V/Y Ic=B\ =D)^K ]\ ](=D^K )\ac . =G):\Y( QDc/. 2)^a [A;V\ ca )\\ =1X+ =+X .)^)+Y( ]\ =;U *ZG/= = G ) :\ZY \XY( [V/Y)+ TZL/ +2aWa)W& ;E'8ZW& .5 -')7( -'cB^Y( .)^\(c (]@X/ZY -4/^\ c -;L\ ]cX/ /Y(% -F=\\Y( )=/X+Y( -4cYc+Y( =G):\Y( [\B/ 2-=7+Y( (]@X/%[c\@Y(c .)ZSGY(c .)@c=SY(c (Hans Henrik Huss/Lone Gram% +D;ZZW& ';-V)W& .5 )W=/X+Y( EWL+ [V^/c 2 E=\Y)+ ])@^ ( -+)D# R *+@// ;U /Y( )=/X+Y( )b^!+ -F=\\Y( )=/X+Y( Q=L/ ]+ ;;LY( -ZZU [)LGY( T=G ]K [V/^/ /Y( - F=\\Y( )=/X+Y( ]#c 2 -<O( T=G ]K ])@^ ( Y# -F=\\Y( .)W^')XY( ]W\ =W1XY( ]# [W+ 2 ])@^ ( =F/ /Y( -=7+Y( -<O( )=/X+ ]\ ,;;L/\Y( [')DSY( QZ/:\ ]# 2 -W<O( ;W@S ] `^!WB ]W\ )a=Oc 2 .)+c=B\Y(c -<O( 2)/^# R [\L/@/c ,;S\ -VU;Y( -cFLY( W/Y(c :'(<PY( [\@/Y( 0;7/ /Y( I ]/'R Y# )b\@V/ ]X\ [)LGY( T=G ]K [V^/ / Y( -=/X+Y( .)F=\\Y( 2[)LGY( T=G ]K =/X+ )4\: 0;7/ ] ]X\ 2( ]W@X/% `\c\W@ `R 3/^ <Y( [)LGY( R *+@\Y( ]')XY( =1)X/ [\@/Y( c =/X+Y( '(<PY( [\@/Y( -Y)7 R .)\@Y( ] (=H^ ( VY(c ])1PY( a ,;)K `F(=K c % -K=@+ E=\Y ( 0c;7+ '(<PY( [\@/Y( [@/ [1 ]\c 0(;W7 )G=WB ?WY -W7Y( )=/X+Y( I /+( ]$R WY<Y : `Yc)^/ [+U [)LGY( R .^AcX/ ] )bY T+@ (]@X/% (;W4 ,=+X ;(;K!+ .=1)X/ -\)@Y( ,;)\ZY -4/^\Y( )=/X+Y( ]cX/ ] [\@/Y( F/V . )7Y( [HL\ SR E=\Y( 2_;(=;>( [+U [)LGY( R ([(=OA,=\L/@\Y( [XB .(;7c , % ;WU ;L\Y( [\)LY(c 2 -<O( ]K 3/)^Y( 3\:Y( . )7 R *+@\Y( ]')XZY U)^ ;=4\ [)LGY( ]cX [+)V\Y( Rc 0;W7/ /7 Q F\Y( [@4Y( R c\^Y( R =\/@/ )bK /+( [/ /Y( -7Y( )=/X+Y( ]XYc [)LGY( R c =1)X/ E=W\Y( 0(;W7 [> Y( -7Y( -=/X+Y( ) :Y( ;;K ]#c 2( [)b@# :,=(=7Y( -4=; I)S/=(% ,>\\Y( E(=K( -+@^Y)+ () : , <% JS/=\ `^ Qc=L\Y)R 2 )=/X+Y( ?^4 *@7+ ])+/Y( ;;B ( -;L\Y( )^;Y( -K=4Y(% I(cW^ EWL+ WY# -+@^Y)+ (;4 ES:^\c (Twedt, 1989) Vibrio spp. -Kc\4\ ]\ -F=\\Y( .)A\FY( Y# 2(Kothary and Babu, 2001) Shigella c Salmonella typhi )Wb/L+G WZK )W^+ .)W'R 0 1 Y# -=7+Y( -<O( T=G ]K [V/^/ /Y( -F=\\Y( )=/X+Y( [@V/ ]X\ IR -^Gc/\ )a=)+/K)+ )a=;D\c -4cYcX (( (1.5 [c;4Y(% -')\Y( -'+Y( • (2.5 [c;4Y(% -\)LY( -'+Y( • (3.5 [c;4Y(% =B+Y(A^(c7Y( I;c/@\Y( • 21.5 [c;W4Y( ]W\ ]+/ )\X -ZZU ]cX/ )\ ,;)K W)\@( R ,;c4c\Y( ])@^ Y -F=\\Y( )=/X+Y( .)\X ]# (=1!/ -G7\Y( ,=(=7Y( -4=; =1"/c 2 .)c:=Y( .)@=/S\ )L\ Rc .)c:=Y( R =+X >X=/+ .)\X ;4c/c 2-X\@Y( -Yc( ;(c\Y( Rc -'+Y( R L+G [XB+ ;c4c\Y( TU;Y( .+^ZY (SXY(c A\XY(% *X=/Y( ZK (;;B 2( (Huss 1997) ]K% -L+GY( [X7+ W)\@( R ,;c4c\Y(c -')\Y( -'+Y( R ]Gc// /Y( -F=\\Y( )=/X+Y( 1.5 Za92W& ,'ZVW& XB& Z%aZW& ,'\%'VW& ]XYc W\@ [(=OA,=+O -\)K -ZZU =7+c -Y;/L\Y( -')\Y( -'+Y( I(c^ ;Clostridium botulinum W\@ [(=OA,=+O [4=@ R =1)X// ;Y)\BY( *GVY( ]/c=+ZY -Y)7 =O B,E,F (E Ic^% -')\Y( -S4Y( [XB .(;7c z Y# [D/ -'R(;Y( -=7+Y( _)\Y( =B/^\ I[\B/ Vibrio spp. -F=\\ .)\F Y# [D/ ;-R;D W)\@ [(=OA,=\L/@\Y( (-c'\ -4=; <% V.cholerae R [(=OA,=\L/@\Y( [XB .(;7c z V. parahaemolyticus W\@Y( [X!/ /Y( -R;DY( W)\@( )L\ V. vulnificus W\@ ;-'R(; -')\ -'+ Plesimonas shigelloides (](c7% -+<LY( _)\Y( Y# [D/ ]XYc -\)K -ZZU -')\ -'+ Aeromonas spp.1 ;-=7+Y( _)\Y( R NZ\A,=\L/@\Y( [XB .(;7c ;Q=DY( _)\ R -'^Y( -=7+Y( -<O( R -<O( ]K -4/)^Y( E(=\( R Aeromonas spp<=c; ;L+ Q=L [Y .1 29 )W=/X+Y( I(cW^ JW\4 ] ZK ;X!/Y( )F P+^c 2(2.5 [c;4Y(% -\)LY( -'+Y( R ;c4cY( -ZZU -F=\\ Y( )=/X+Y( ]# WY<X WR V. cholerae non-01 ]K QBX [1 ]\c 2-F=\\ =O -'+ .(=/K c7/ 2.5c 1.5 ]Yc;4Y( R )b^)+ ;=(cY( -F=\\Y( .(=/LY( _<a ]\ R W)^a ]X [Yc :W=)\^;Y( Y# =A;D\Y( -'R(;Y( _)\Y( ?;=U ( )bD7R A[/ -^AK [D ]\% .)^K .@ .)^')XY( _<a ] 7c )\\ : (NAG-ST% ,=(=7ZY ,;\)D -cL\ .)\@ c (=YcXY( (]@X/% .)\@ >\=/ .)^4 c ;\> + Listeria monocytogenes [W1\ .)^')XY( ]\ ;;L+ TZL/ )\R `^ =O 2 (Dalsgaard et al., 1996) -\)K -7D -ZXB\ [XB/ 2-F=\\Y( =Oc -F=\\Y( .(=/LY( ]+ >\/ZY -Rc=L\ -V=G =R(c// 2(Huss, 1997) W\@Y( R ;4c/ )\ (=1Xc -\)LY( -'+Y( R ]Gc// /Y( -F=\\Y( )=/X+Y( 2.5 Za92W& ,'ZVW& XB& Z%aZW& ,'\%'VW& .)4/^\Y( R ,=\L/@\Y( [XB .(;7c AL/ :,=ca;/\Y( .)/)+^Y( :-+=/Y( Listeria monocytogenes -4>)GY( -X\@Y( (-Y;/L\Y(% -\)LY( .)'+Y( R ,;)K (-+=/ [OA,=+O % -\)K -ZZU -+=/Y( ;Clostridium botulinum A,B :]/c=+ZY -Y)7 I(c^ -+=/ [OA,=\L/@\Y( [XB .(;7c $ .)^(c7Y( ; (A)-+=/Y( Clostridium perfringens (B, C, D, E) [\ c [OA,=\L/@\Y( [XB .(;7c $ -L+GY( -'+Y( R AL/ Bacillus spp. -4Y)L\Y( c -'^Y( -<O( ]\ :-L+GY( _)\Y( :-+=/Y(% (.)/)+^Y( =a)WHY( WR )bZK =1Lc 2=B+Y(A ^(c7Y( I;c/@\Y( R ;4c/ /Y( -F=\\Y( )=/X+Y( 3.5 [c;4Y( R ;=/ 0cWZ/Y( *+W@ ]cX ])7( [HL\ Rc 2 E(=K( ]\ Y):Y( c E=\Y( )bY [\)7Y ( C:BY( M;Y [:(;Y(c 2(_)\Y( -Kc^ c -4Y)L\Y( -R)H^ -ZU :-D:BY( -R)H^Y( CV^% -\)LY( -R)H^Y( -ZU -X\@Y( .)4/^\Y)+ c W\W@ WR ])W@^ Y -F=\\Y( )=/X+Y( ]\ -Kc\4\ QBX ])X\ )+ )\'(; ]cX ;)X `^ ZK ;;B/Y( P+^ W\W@Y( R L+GY( .+^Y( ]\ (>4 .)F=\\Y( _<a EL+ [XB/ ;Uc 2 -=/X+ -4Y)L\ JF:/ [Y -X\@ .)4/^\ ,;)WKc 2(- \)LY( -'+Y( ]\ .)F=\\% `R / ]X\ <Y( 0cZ/Y( ]K -4/)^ ]cX/ ;U c ( -')\Y( -'+Y( ]\ .)F=\\% =W\( -L+G+ WY< T+G^c 2 ])@^ ( R E=\Y( 0;7/ X -X\@Y( .)4/^\Y( R c\^Y( EL+ .)F=\\Y( _<bY [>Z )\ -W\XY( ]\ ZK c % -Y)K -K=4 -;L\Y( -'+Y( .)F=\ZY -;L\Y( )^;Y( -K=4Y( ] (=H^ ]XYc :-\)@Y( I(c^( ZK -+W@^Y)+ -')UcY( =+(;/Y( ] ^L (<ac 2 Ic^Y( (<bY )F [>Z c\^Y( EL+ ]$R (-X\ @Y( .)4/^\Y( R ,;c4c\Y( -L+GY( 2(4.5 [c;4Y( J4(=% .)4/^\Y( R .)^')XY( c\^ J^\ R [1\// .)F=\\Y( WZ/ J\4 Y# 2=B+Y(A^(c7Y( I;c/@\Y( R -F=\\Y( )=/X+Y( 3.5 Za92W& ,'ZVW& XB& Z%aZW& ,'\%'VW& Y):Y( [\)7Y(c E(=K( < [\)7Y( R ])+// [;Y( .(< .)^(c7Y( )L\ Salmonella spp. )Wb^!+ -=7+Y( -<O( R =;V/ ;E(=K( ]\ ])@^ (A]:)@Y( Shigella spp. .)c:=Y( R [X(=// ] ]X\ 2-ZZUc -U=S/\ Escherichia coli .)^(c7Y( )L\ :=cGY( Campylobacter jejuni .)c:=Y( R [X(=// ] ]X\ 2-ZZUc -U=S/\ ]:)@Y( [;Y( .(< )a=O c Campylobacter -Y;/L\Y( ,=(=7Y( -SY ]\ ,;)K 2 ])X@Y( ]\ u M;Y ,;c4c\ )b^XYc :,=+)K -BO(c (;Z4Y(% =a)HY( Staphylococcus aureus ;Z4Y( ]\ [@A,=\L/@\Y( [XB .(;7c -+@^+ (Q^(% -\):^Y( )W\R .)W^')X ]W\ [U Y# -^;/\ c -Y)K ]cX/ ;U =B+Y( z ^(c7Y( I;c/@\Y( R -;L\Y( )^;Y( -K=4Y( ]# )W=/X+Y( ]\ Ic^Y( (<a ] (=H^c 2(Kothary and Babu, 2001) E.coli O157 c Shigella I(c^ EL++ TZL/ I)W+/)+ 0cWZ/Y( R / a )a<):/( *4(cY( -@'=Y( -')UcY( =+(;/ Y( ]$R -X\@Y( .)4/^\Y(c W)\@( R ,;)K ;4c )\+ :)=/X+Y( _<a ]\ ;;L+ TZL/ )\R `^ =O 2( [c;4Y(% ,;4Y( J^D/Y( .)@=)\\c ,;4Y( -7DY( .)@=)\\Y( 2E=\Y( 0;7/ /7 3/^\Y( R c\^/ ] [>Z :)F=\\ 3/^ (toxin% [@ cac Staphylococcus aureus )bR -=7+Y( -<O( ]K -4/)^Y( E(=\(c )=/X+Y( 4.5 Za92W& C;ZW& ZJP +QV +)'B& J)EW& Z%aZW& YZ>-W& '\9W& +I;2W& '\9W& +I;2W& C;ZZXW *;NBW& +9JZW& *;)VW& +9JZW& Clostridium botulinum Vibrio spp.