• Examples include traditional tales • Speculative fiction based on • Examples include the more • Demonstrates the • Examples include news and like fairy tails, tall tales, legends, the real world with all its specific genre such as characteristics of realistic magazine articles, essays, and and myth and contemporary established facts and natural adventure, mystery, and fiction. biographies, textbooks like creations such as the Harry Potter laws (Robert Heinlein) romance. History of US. • Reveals historical events but series. • May use different “laws” of not restricted by them. • Topic is something that is true • Setting realistic for the time • Author’s imagination is not another planet, even a make- or real. period • Author may be creative restricted by physical believe planet, but laws must without making historical • The information is told like a reality/natural law be scientifically plausible and • Characters are believable in mistakes. story. consistent. • Once author makes up the rules their action and have human • Historical setting is an • The order of events is clear, for the imagined setting, s/he must • Story is usually an adventure insight and weaknesses. authentic and integral part of even though the information be consistent in following them. that includes travel and danger, pursuing new • Characters are individual and the story. may not be presented in a • Improbable setting and situations have unique qualities. direct chronological manner. frontiers. • Character’s actions, dialogue, • Can have improbable characters beliefs, and values are true to • There is an overarching, main • Contemporary problems are • Content addresses. aspects of like animals with human historical period. or controlling idea to the projected hundreds of years coping with life: death, peer characteristics and mythical beasts; piece. into the future: relationships, identity, family • Themes include loyalty, can have more realistic characters overpopulation, pollution, problems, handicapping friendship, courage, and • The main idea is what is being beside imaginative ones religious or racial disharmony, conditions, social issues, conflict. said about the topic. • Plot frequently that of hero’s political structures, scientific courage, survival. • Shows evidence that across quest: hero proves worthy of the advances (e.g., genetic great time spans people share quest (may early be fumbling and engineering, computerization) • Plot events reflect those found similar emotions. unsure); hero encounters trials in real life • A purpose is to prompt the along the way (must be wise and present generation to question • Endings are not always happy, • References to well known courageous); hero is accompanied actions and to evaluate the but harshness of reality may events or people, or other by friends or mentor; hero’s consequences of those actions be relieved by or with humor clues through which the reader actions are to protect others from on the future. can place the happenings in evil; hero may question self or their correct historical become confused about good and • Main characters often are framework. bad; hear defeats evil outsiders or different from others. • Seeks to reveal truths that lie
beneath the surface of life:
desires and fears
• Provides a context for readers to think about the dualities of life: good/evil, light/dark/ innocence/guilt, reality/appearance, heroism/cowardice, order/anarchy Narrative Texts Realistic Fiction Mystery Science Fiction Historical Fiction (example of realistic fiction)
• Setting realistic for the time • Plot structure based on • Speculative fiction based on • Demonstrates the period significant crime to be the real world with all its characteristics of realistic
solved. established facts and natural fiction. • Characters are believable in laws (Robert Heinlein) their action and have human • Crime introduced early; the • Reveals historical events but complication • May use different “laws” of not restricted by them. insight and weaknesses. /initiating event. another planet, even a make-
• Author may be creative believe planet, but laws must • Characters are individual and • Plot advanced by clues. without making historical have unique qualities. be scientifically plausible mistakes. • Main character a detective or and consistent. • Content addresses. aspects of Historical setting is an character who acts as • Story is usually an adventure • coping with life: death, peer detective. authentic and integral part of that includes travel and relationships, identity, family the story. danger, pursuing new problems, handicapping • Atmosphere of suspenseful frontiers. conditions, social issues, action. • Character’s actions, dialogue, beliefs, and values courage, survival. • Reader kept guessing with • Contemporary problems are are true to historical period.
real and “red herring” clues. projected hundreds of years • Plot events reflect those However, all clues known to into the future: • Themes include loyalty, found in real life overpopulation, pollution, the detective are known to friendship, courage, and • Endings are not always the reader. religious or racial conflict. disharmony, political happy, but harshness of • A number of suspects • Shows evidence that across reality may be relieved by or structures, scientific include the criminal. advances (e.g., genetic great time spans people share with humor engineering, similar emotions. • Resolution of plot when crime is solved. computerization) • References to well known
events or people, or other • Solution fits clues. • A purpose is to prompt the clues through which the present generation to question actions and to reader can place the evaluate the consequences of happenings in their correct those actions on the future. historical framework.
• Main characters often are outsiders or different from others.