Ambar Eldaron

presents its

Quenya-English Dictionary

English- Dictionary

v. 1.0

© April 2009



adj. adv. adverb conj. conjunction excl. exclusive fem. feminine masc. masculine incl. Inclusive pers. personal pl. pp. past participle pref. prefix prep. preposition pron. , pronominal rel. relative (Þ) Represents earlier Þ (th as in "thing") and it should be spelt with the letter súlë instead of silmë in sg singular vb. (...-) stem


This update of our Quenya Dictionary is for the first time in English, in the context of the new English part of our website.

This dictionary is intended to be a practical tool for the study of (neo-) Quenya. In fact, we list only the latest known version of a word, without the forms abandoned or revised by Tolkien or the older forms .

The latest released features of PE17 are enclosed.

Only the definition of each word is proposed.

For a deeper study of the of the words please refer to the reference in the matter, Helge Fauskanger’s Quettaparma.

The main feature we propose is the complete listing of all the English- Quenya definitions, that is, when a Quenya word has many definitions in English, we report all of them in the English-Quenya section. So, under any of them, you’ll find your word.

We hope this dictionary will be useful.


Quenya-English A a vocative particle O aira adj. red, ruddy a conj. and, a variant of ar aira adj. holy a , á imperative particle airë adj. holy acas, axë neck, the bony airë noun sea part of the neck, rock ridges airëa adj. holy acca adv. too airita- vb. hallow accar- vb. do back, react, avenge airon noun ocean acúna adj. bent, curved aista adj. holy aha noun rage, also name of aista- vb. bless tengwa #11 aiwë noun bird (small) ahosta noun large number Aiwenor, Aiwenorë place-name ahtar- vb. do back, react, avenge Birdland = lower air ahya- vb. change (intransitive) aiya interjection hail ai! interjection Ah! Alas! al- vb. thrive aia interjection hail, variant of ala- negative pref. not, un- aiya ala- vb. plant, grow aian noun holy thing or or alaco noun rush, rushing flight, place wild wind aica adj. fell, terrible alahasta adj. unmarred aicalë noun peak alaië adv. no, not aicassë noun mountain peak alála- vb. grow continually ailin noun pool, lake alalbinóre noun land of many aimenal, aimenel noun lark Elms aina- vb. hallow, bless, treat as alalmë noun elm, elm-tree holy alalmë noun inflorescence aina adj holy alalvëa adj. having many elms ainas noun hallow, fane alalvinore noun land of many Aini noun feminine form of Ainu Elms ainima adj. blessed, holy (of Alamanya noun Elves who things) started on the march from Aino noun god Cuiviénen but did not reach Ainu noun holy one, angelic Aman spirit; fem. Aini alaquenta adj. well (happily) said aipio noun plum tree, cherry tree alarca adj. swift, rapid aiqua adj. steep alas (alast-) noun marble aiquen pron. if anybody, alasaila adj. unwise whoever alassë noun joy, merriment 4

alat- pref. large, great alya adj. fair, good albë noun elm am- pref. up alca noun ray of light amal noun mother alcar noun glory, brilliance, aman adj. blessed, free from evil splendour amanya adj. blessed alcarinqua adj. radiant, glorious amatixë noun dot or point placed Alcorin adj. Ilcorin above the line of writing alda noun tree amba adv. up Aldalemnar noun week of the amba adj. and noun more Trees, Midyear week ambal noun shaped stone, flag aldarembina adj. tree-tangled ambalë noun yellow bird aldarwa adj having trees ambalotsë noun uprising-flower Aldëa noun fourth day of the amban noun upward slope, hill- Eldarin six-day week, dedicated side to Telperion, the White Tree ambapenda adj. uphill aldëon noun avenue of trees ambar noun Earth, world aldinga noun treetop ambar noun doom alenessë, alanessë noun ambassë noun breast-plate, nicotiana, pipeweed hauberk alima adj. fair, good ambë adv. more alla! interjection hail! welcome! ambë adv. more alma noun good fortune, wealth ambela adv. further still beyond, alma noun flower far away beyond almarë noun blessedness, good ambena adv. nearer to, (to a fortune further point in the motion) almárëa adj. blessed towards an object almë noun good thing, blessing, ambo noun hill piece of good fortune ambos (ambost-) noun breast, almië noun blessedness, good chest fortune ambuna adj. of flat ground Alqualondë place-name capital dotted with hills etc. of the Teleri amil noun mother Alquarámë noun Swan-wing amilyë noun mummy alta adj. large, great ammalë noun yellow bird alta noun radiance ammë noun mother Altariel fem. name , amna adv. nearer to, (to a further maiden crowned with a radiant point in the motion) towards an garland object alu noun dressed leather amorta- vb. heave alvë noun elm ampa noun hook, also name of alya adj. rich, abundant tengwa #14 alya- vb. cause to prosper, bless ampano noun building (a work), help one (especially of wood), wooden hall 5

ampenda adj. uphill anon noun son ampendë noun upward slope anqualë noun agony, death amya- pref. good anta- vb. give amya noun my mother used in anta noun face address antë noun giver ( fem. ) an conj. and prep. for anto noun mouth, also name of an- intensive or superlative pref. tengwa #13 very, most anto noun giver (masc.) ana- pref.: to, towards antoryamë noun strengthening, ana prep. to anwa adj. real, actual, true ananta conj. and yet, but yet ap- vb. touch (one) in the Anar noun Sun figurative sense; concern, affect anarórë noun sunrise apa prep. after anca noun jaws, row of teeth apa prep. on (contact of vertical Ancalë noun radiant one = Sun surfaces) ancalima adj. brightest apa conj. but anda adj. long apacenyë noun foresight andamacil noun long sword apairë noun victory andamunda noun elephant Apanónar noun After-born, an andanéya adv. long ago, once Elvish name of Mortal Men as the upon a time Second-born of Ilúvatar ando noun gate, also name of aparuivë noun wild fire – fire as tengwa #5 conflagration ando adv. long appa- vb. touch (in the literal andon (andond-) noun great gate sense) Andórë noun full form of Andor, apsa noun cooked food, meat land of gift, name of Númenor apsene- vb. forgive andúna adj. western aqua adv. fully, completely andúnë noun sunset, west, aquapahtië noun privacy evening ar- pref. outside, beside Andúril noun Flame of the West, ar- prep. by sword-name ar conj. and anel noun daughter ar noun day anessë noun given name Ar Fanturion noun Day of the anga noun iron Fanturi (Mandos and Lorien) angaina adj. of iron Ar Manwen noun Day of Manwe angaitya noun torment Ar Ulmon noun Day of Ulmo angayanda adj. miserable Ar Veruen noun Day of the angayassë noun misery Spouses (Aule and Yavanna) ango (angu-, pl. angwi) noun ára noun dawn snake Ara-, ar- pref. noble angulócë noun dragon aran noun king anna noun gift 6

Arandóre noun King’s-land = arya- vb. excel Arnor arya noun twelve hours, day aranel (aranell-) noun princess arya adj. exelling, used as the aranië noun kingdom comparative form of mára aranus(së) noun kingship aryon noun heir aranya adj. free. as prép. with arata adj. high, lofty, noble asa- (Þ) pref. denoting easiness in Aratar noun the Supreme, the doing (as- before p, t, c, q, s ) chief Valar asalastë (Þ) adj. easily heard arato noun noble asambar, asambaro noun aráto noun champion, eminent neighbour asar (Þ) noun festival arauca adj. swift, rushing ascat- vb. break asunder arauco noun terrible creature; ascenë (Þ) adj. visible, easily demon seen arca adj. narrow ascénima (Þ) adj. visible, easily arca- vb. pray seen arcandë noun petition asëa (Þ) adj. helpful, kindly arda noun realm asëa (Þ) adj. healing plant called Ardaranyë noun Kingdom of in athelas Arda asië (Þ) noun ease, comfort arë conj. and assa noun hole, opening, mouth árë noun day asta noun month arië noun daytime asta- vb. heat, bake (by exposure arin noun morning to sun) arinya adj. morning in the astar noun faith, loyalty (not adjectival sense belief) arma adj. ray of sunlight astarindo noun bystander armar noun goods ( pl. ) (supporter) armaro noun neighbour astarmo noun bystander, mainly arquen noun noble used in the sense witness arta adv. etcetera asto noun dust arta adj. exalted, lofty asya- (Þ) vb. ease, assist, comfort arta noun fort, fortress at- pref. two arta prep. across ata adv. again, also artarindo noun bystander ata-, at- pref. back, again, re- (supporter) ataformaitë adj. ambidextrous artaurë noun realm ataformo noun ambidexter artuilë noun morning (early) atalantë noun downfall Arveruen noun third day of the atalantëa adj. downfallen Valinorian week of 5 days, atalta- vb. collapse, fall in dedicated to Aule and Yavanna atamaitë adj. two-handed arwa adj. possessing 7

Atan noun Second Folk, an Auzel pl. Auzeldi noun Vanyarin Elvish name of Mortal Men form (and original form) of ataquanta- vb. refall Aureldi ataquë noun construction, av- vb. depart building ava- pref. indicating something atar noun father forbidden ataryo noun daddy ava- pref. without atsa noun catch, hook ava- vb refuse or prohibit atta cardinal two áva, avá negative imperative attaformaitë adj. ambidextrous particle Don't! attaformo noun ambidexter avahaira adj. remote, far attalaitë adj. biped Avamanyar noun Elves that attëa ordinal second refused to go to Aman (= Avari) atto noun father, daddy avanir noun unwill atwa adj. double avanótë adj. numberless atya adj. second avanwa adj. refused, forbidden, atya noun daddy, banned au- verbal pref. off, away avanyárima adj. not to be told or au- privative pref. without related aulë noun invention avaquet- vb. refuse, forbid Aulëonna noun Child of Aulë, a avaquétima adj. not to be said name of the Dwarves avar noun recusant, that aurë noun sunlight, day refused to go to Aman Aurel (Aureld-, pl. Aureldi) avatyar- vb. forgive noun Elf who departed from axa noun narrow path, ravine to Aman axan noun law, rule, ausa (þ) noun spectral or vague commandment apparition axo noun bone auta- vb. go away, leave áya noun awe auta- vb. invent áyan noun holy thing or object or place

C ca, cata, cana prep? behind, at caimassë noun lying in bed, back of place sickness caima noun bed caimassëa adj. bedridden, sick caimasan noun bedchamber caita- vb. lie (= lie down, not tell something untrue)


cal- vb. shine canta noun shape cala noun light canta cardinal four calambar adj.? light-fated canta adj. shaped Calaquendi pl. noun Elves of the cantëa ordinal fourth Light, Light-elves canwa noun announcement, order calar noun lamp canya adj. bold calarus (calarust-) noun polished cap- vb. jump, leap copper car- vb. make, build calassë noun clarity, brilliance car (card-) noun building, house Calavénë noun Sun cár (cas-) noun head Calaventë noun Sun carassë noun built fort or calca noun glass dwelling surrounded by bulwarks cálë noun light carasta- vb. build calima adj. bright carasta- vb. build calina adj. et nom light, bright caraxë noun jagged hedge of callo noun noble man, hero spikes calma noun lamp, light carca noun tooth calmatan noun lampwright carcanë noun row of teeth calmatéma noun k-series, velar carcaras, carcassë noun row of series: the third column of the spikes or teeth Tengwar system carda noun deed calpa noun water-vessel carda noun deed calpa- vb. draw water, scoop out, carma noun tool, weapon bale out carma noun helm calta- vb. shine Carmë noun art calwa adj. beautiful carnë adj. red, scarlet calya- vb. illuminate Carnil noun star (or planet), cam- vb. receive identified with Mars cáma noun guilt, responsibility carpa noun mouth camba noun hollow hand carpa- vb. speak cambë noun hollow of hand carpassë noun mouth-system, full camta- vb. fit, accommodate organized language can- pref. four carrëa noun tressure (net for can- vb. command, order confining the hair). cana prep? behind, at back of cas noun head place Casar noun canaquë cardinal fourteen cassa noun helmet canasta adv. if it be so, may be, casta one fourth (1/4) perhaps casta noun cause, reason canasta fraction one fourth (1/4) castol noun helmet cánë noun valour cata prep? behind, at back of cáno noun commander place cansat fraction one fourth (1/4) cauca adj. crooked 9

cauco noun humpback cilmë noun choosing cauma noun protection or shelter cilya noun chasm caurë noun fear cim- vb. heed caurëa adj. timid cinta adj. small caw- vb. bow cir- vb. sail cé, ce particle may be círa- vb. sail celma noun channel circa noun sickle celumë noun stream, flow cirincë, noun species of little celusindi noun river birds celussë noun brooklet cirissë noun slash, gash celva noun animal, living thing cirtë noun rune that moves cirya noun ship cemen noun earth ciryamo noun mariner cemna adj. earth, earthen ciryando noun sailor cemnaro noun potter cíta- vb. suppose cen- vb. see, behold coa noun house cén (cem-) noun soil, earth coimas noun life-bread cenai conj. if it be that coina adj. alive cenasit adv. if it be so, may be, coirë noun stirring perhaps coirëa adj. living cenda- vb. Watch, observe coitë noun living being cenda- noun reading coiva adj. awake cenima adj. visible col- vb. bear, carry centa noun communication, colca noun box enquiry colindo noun bearer centano noun potter colla passive participle borne, Cermië noun July worn certa noun rune cólo noun burden ces- (Þ) vb. enquire of, question combë noun gathering, collection cesta- vb. seek, search for comya- vb. gather, assemble ceulë noun renewal (transitive) ceura adj. renewed condo noun prince, leader ceuran- noun new moon coranar noun sun-round, solar ceuranar noun new sun after year solstice corco noun crow ceurë adj. renewed corda noun temple ceuta- vb. renew, refresh cordon noun idol céva adj. fresh, new corin noun circular enclosure cilin noun glass corma noun ring cilintír, cilintilla noun looking- cormë noun circular enclosure glass, mirror cormen noun circular enclosure, cilinyul noun drinking-vessel mound (made of glass) corna adj. round, globed 10

cornë noun loaf culuma noun orange (fruit not coromindo noun cupola, dome colour) coron noun mound culumalda noun tree, orange-tree coron noun globe, ball Culúrien noun another name of costa- vb. quarrel Laurelin cotto noun enemy, cúma noun Void (the) cotumo noun enemy cumbë noun mound cotya adj. hostile cumna adj. empty cú noun arch, crescent cúna adj. bent, curved cua noun dove cundo noun guardian cucua noun dove cúnë noun crescent, bow cuilë noun life cunta- vb. rule cuina adj. alive cunya- vb. rule cuiva adj. awake curu noun skill cuivë noun awakening curuni noun witch (of the good cuivëa adj. wakening magic) cuivië noun awakening curuvar, pl. curuvari noun culina adj. golden-red wizard culuina adj. orange (colour not curwë noun craft fruit)

D -dil, -ndil, ending friend -dur ending servant of -duinë ending river (of large volume).

E é adverbial particle indeed ec- vb. verb denoting an ëa vb. is opportunity, with the one having Eä noun universe the opportunity in dative ëala noun being, spirit ecca noun hole, lair Eämbar noun dispositions and eccaira adj. remote, far will of Eru, with regard to ecces- (Þ) vb. find out, bring out Creation as a whole by examining, or eyeing ëar noun sea ecco noun spine eäron noun ocean eccoita- vb. awake eces noun other, another 11

ecet noun short broad-bladed elyë pron. even thou, emphatic sword 2nd person sg. pronoun ecya adj. sharp emel noun mother effírië noun death emenya noun mummy ehtë (ehti-) noun spear emerwen noun shepherdess ehtyar noun spearman emil noun mother ela! interjection behold! emma noun picture elda noun Elf, (high-)elf emmë noun mummy, Elda-lambë noun language of the emmë pron. we, emphatic Eldar pronoun Eldalië noun Elven-folk empanya- vb. plant Eldamar place-name Elvenhome emya noun mummy Eldameldor noun Elf-lovers en interjection there, look! yon Eldandil noun Elf-friend (yonder) Eldanyárë noun History of the en adv. still Elves en- pref. re-, again- Eldarin adj. Eldarin, Elvish -enca without, -less Eldarissa, Eldaquet noun other encë cardinal six names of Qenya enda noun heart, center Elemmírë noun star/planet Endamar place-name Middle- (possibly Mercury) earth elen noun star endë noun center, middle elena adj. of the stars endëa adj. middle Elenarda place-name Star- enderi noun middle-days in the kingdom, upper sky calendar of Imladris Elenna place-name Starwards, a Endien noun autumn (alternative name of Númenor term for ) Elentári noun Star-queen, title of Endor place-name Middle-earth, Varda center of the world elenya adj. stellar endya > adj. middle Elerína adj. used as noun star- enel prep. between crowned, a name of Taniquetil enelmo noun intermediary, Elerrína adj. used as noun mediator Crowned with Stars, a name of enenquë cardinal sixteen Taniquetil enetya adj. central, middle Elessar masc. name Elf-stone enga prep. save, except Ellairë noun June engwa adj. sickly -ello ablative ending engwë noun thing elmë pron. we, emphatic pronoun enquanta- vb. refill elmenda noun wonder enquë cardinal six Elpino noun Christ enquesta fraction one sixth (1/6) elvëa adj. starlike, like stars enquete- vb. repeat, say again


enquië noun Eldarin six-day Erintion noun second half of the week month of avestalis (January) enta that yonder erma noun physical matter entë conj. moreover, furthermore Erquellë noun September ento adv. next (alternative name of ) entulessë noun return Errívë noun November entya, enetya adj. central, middle (alternative name of ) Enu masc. name the Ertuilë noun April (alternative AlmightyCreator who dwells name of) without the world Eru noun name the One = God envinyata- vb. heal, renew erumë noun desert Envinyatar noun the Renewer erúmëa adj. outer, outermost enwa adv. tomorrow Eruva noun name the One = God enwina adj. old erya adj. single, sole enya < endya adj. middle essë independent emphatic enyal- vb. recall, commemorate pronoun he, she enyárë adv. in that day (to the essë noun name, also later name future) of Tengwa #31 epë prep. before essë noun beginning epessë noun after-name, esta- vb. name nickname esta adj. first epeta adv. thereupon, thence estat- vb. distribute in even epetai adv. consequently portions epta adv. thereupon, thence estel noun trust, hope equë vb. say/says or said (a esto emphatic pronoun 3rd person tenseless pseudo-verb) dual eques (equess-) noun saying, et prep. (and adv.?) out dictum, quotation (+ablative) out of er cardinal one, alone etelehta- vb. deliver, save er- vb. remain etellë prep. (and adv.?) out erca noun prickle, spine (+ablative) out of erca- vb. prick etelyë prep. (and adv.?) out ercassë noun holly (+ablative) out of Ercoirë noun February eteminya adj. prominent (alternative name of ) etemmë prep. (and adv.?) out erda adj. solitary, deserted (+ablative) out of erdë noun seed, germ etengwë prep. (and adv.?) out erdë noun person as a whole (+ablative) out of erë, eren noun iron, steel et-henta- vb. read aloud erëa adj.? one, single etsat- vb. distribute in even eressë noun solitude portions eressëa adj. lonely, solitary etsë noun outside erinqua adj. single, alone etsir noun mouth of a river 13

etta adv. therefore Etyangol (Etyan-gold-) noun ettë noun (and/or adv.?) outside Exiled ettelë noun outer lands evandilyon noun gospel ettelëa adj. foreign exa adj.? other ettul- vb. come forth exë noun other, another

F faica adj. contemptible, mean fanya noun cloud (white) faila adj. fair-minded, just, Fanyamar place-name upper air generous fanyarë noun sky (upper airs and faina- vb. emit light clouds). fairë noun phantom, disembodied fára noun beach, shore spirit fárë noun sufficiency, plenitude fairë noun natural death (as act) fárëa adj.? enough fairë noun radiance faren adv. enough fairië noun freedom farmë noun sufficiency, plenitude Falanyel (Falanyeld-) noun farnë noun foliage name of the Teleri, apparently farnë noun dwelling Shore-singers farya- vb. suffice falas (falass-), falassë noun fas (?fats-), fatsë noun tassel shore, beach fásë noun gap, gulf falasta- vb. foam fassë noun tangled hair, shaggy fallë noun foam lock falma noun wave (crested / fasta- vb. tangle foaming) fatanyu noun hell falmar (falmarind-) noun sea- fatsë noun tassel spirit, nymph fauca adj. thirsty falqua noun mountain pass, fauta- vb. snow ravine fëa noun spirit falquan noun large sword fëalócë noun spark-dragon fána noun cloud Fëanáro masc. name Spirit of fána, fánë adj. white Fire fanga noun beard felco noun cave, mine, fangë noun long beard underground dwelling fanta- vb. veil, cloak, mantle felmë noun impulse, emotion fantarcenya adj. perspicacious felu noun bad magic Fantur masc. name lord of cloud, felya noun cave surname of Mandos fen (feng-) noun reed fanwa noun veil, screen fenda noun threshold 14

fenna noun door finya adj. clever (-fingered) feren (fern-) noun beech, beech- finya- vb. do a thing (with fine tree work) férima adj. ready to hand, fion noun bowl, goblet (quickly) available firë noun mortal man ferina adj. ready to hand, firië noun dying, death (quickly) available fírima adj. mortal ferinya adj. beechen Fírimo noun mortal ferna noun mast, beechnuts firin adj. dead (by natural cause) fernë ( pl. ferni) noun beech-tree firinga noun carcanet, necklace ferya- vb. make ready (promptly) Firya noun Mortal feuya- vb. feel disgust at, abhor fó interjection nay, no, intejection fifíru- vb. slowly fade away of displeasure / dissent filit (filic-) noun small bird foa noun breath, puff of breath fimbë (fimbi-) adj. slender foalócë noun/name serpent that finca adj. clever (in petty ways) guarded a treasure finda adj. having hair, -haired foina adj. hidden finda adj. fine and delicately fólë noun secrecy, a secret made fólima adj. secretive findë noun hair (especially of the forma noun right hand head) formaitë adj. righthanded, findel adj. having beautiful hair dexterous findelë noun tress, lock Formen noun north findessë noun head of hair, a formenya adj. northern person's hair as a whole forna adj. northern findilë noun head of hair fortë (forti-) adj. northern findilë noun head of hair forya adj. right, dexter fínë noun dexterity fuinë noun deep shadow finë (fini-) noun hair or larch fúmë noun sleep fínëa adj. dexterous fúmella noun poppy finta- vb. make, finish off, or fúmellot noun poppy decorate a thing with delicate fur- vb. conceal, lie work furin adj. hidden, concealed fintale noun trick furu noun lie finwa adj. dexterous

H haca- vb. squat hahta noun pile, mound hácala participle yawning haimë noun habit hacca noun buttocks, hams haira adj. remote, far


haiya adj. far harda noun realm, region hala noun cast shadow harma noun treasure hala noun fish (small) harna adj. wounded halatir (halatirn-) noun harna- vb. wound kingsfisher, harna noun helmet halatirno noun kingsfisher, harpa noun helmet halcin adj. frozen harwë noun wound halda adj. veiled, hidden, harya- vb. possess shadowed, shady haryon noun prince, heir halla adj. tall hasta- vb. mar haloisi noun the sea (in storm) hat- vb. fling haloitë adj. leaping hatal noun spear halta- vb. leap hatsë noun headlong movement halya- vb. veil, conceal, screen haura adj. huge from light hauta- vb. cease, take a rest, stop ham- vb. sit háya adj. far off, far away ham- vb. judge hé pronoun him (the other) hamma noun chair heca! vb. in imperative be gone! hampa adj. restrained, delayed, stand aside! kept hecil ( masc. hecilo, fem. hecilë) han prep. beyond noun one lost or forsaken by handa adj. understanding, friends, waif, outcast, outlaw intelligent hehta- vb. put aside, leave out, handassë noun intelligence exclude, abandon, forsake handë noun knowledge, helca adj. icy, ice-cold understanding, intelligence helcë noun ice handelë noun intellect helda adj. naked, stripped bare hanno noun brother, also used in helin noun violet or pansy children's play for middle finger Helinyetillë noun Eyes of háno noun brother Heartsease, a name of the pansy hanquenta vb.? or noun? answer hellë noun sky hanta- vb. thank, give thanks helma noun skin, fell hantalë noun thanksgiving helwa adj. blue (pale) hanu noun male helyanwë noun rainbow, lit. sky- hanwa noun male bridge hanya- vb. understand hen (hend-) noun eye har- vb. sit, stay hendumaica noun? adj.? sharp- har, harë adj.? adv.? near eye haran (harn-) noun king, henfanwa noun eye-screen, veil chieftain upon eyes haranyë noun last year of a henta- vb. eye, to examine (with century in the Númenórean the eyes), scan; to read (silently) calendar henta- vb. eye, to examine 16

hententa- vb. spot with eye hloirë noun venom, poison hequa prep. excluding, except hloirëa adj. venomous hér noun lord hloita- vb. poison, envenom, fill héra adj. chief, principal with poison hérë noun lordship hlón noun sound, noise heren noun order hlóna noun noise heren noun fortune, hlóna noun river etymologically governance hlonitë adj. phonetic herenya adj. fortunate, wealthy, hlussa- vb. whisper blessed, rich hlussë noun whispering sound heri noun lady hó- verbal pref. away, from hérincë noun little lady ho prep. from heru, hér noun lord, master hó noun spirit, shadow hessa adj. dead, withered höa adj. large, big hesta vb. wither hoa (höa) adj. big, large hesto noun captain hóciri- vb. cut off hí adv. here holta- vb. shut, close hilcin vb. it freezes holwë noun stink Hildo oun Follower, an Elvish holya- vb. shut, close name of Mortal Men as the hópa noun haven, harbour, small Second-born of Ilúvatar landlocked bay hilya- vb. follow hopassë noun harbourage himba adj. adhering, sticking hórë noun impulse himya- vb. stick to, adhere, hórëa adj. impulsive cleave to, abide by horma noun horde, host hína noun child hormë noun urgency hir- vb. find horro interjection of horror, pain, hir (hird-) noun entrails, bowels disgust hísë (Þ) (hísi-) noun mist horta- vb. send flying, speed, hísië (Þ) noun mist urge Hísimë (Þ) noun November hortalë noun speeding, urging histë noun dusk horya- noun have an impulse, be hiswa (Þ) adj. grey compelled to do something hiswë (Þ) noun fog hos noun folk hiuta- vb. wink, hint hossë noun army, band, troop hlaiwa adj. sick, sickly, ill hosta noun large number hlapu- vb. blow; fly or stream in hosta- vb. gather, collect, the wind assemble hlar- vb. hear hostar noun tribe hlas (hlar-) noun ear hrá, see rá pref. on behalf of, hlínë noun cobweb followed by dative hlívë noun sickness hrai- pref. denoting difficulty hloima noun poison hraia adj. awkward, difficult 17

hraicenë adj. scarcely visible, hur- vb. conceal, lie hard to see hurin adj. hidden, concealed hraicénima adj. scarcely visible, huru noun lie hard to see húta- vb. curse hranga- vb. thwart hwan (hwand-) noun sponge, hranga adj. awkward, hard, stiff, fungus awkward, difficult hwarin adj. crooked hranga- (weak verb) vb. thwart hwarma noun crossbar hravan noun wild beast; pl. hwermë noun gesture-code Hravani the Wild, used as a name hwesta noun breeze, breath, puff of non-Edain Men of air, also name of tengwa #12 hrávë noun flesh hwesta- vb. puff hresta noun shore, beach hwindë noun eddy, whirlpool hrissë noun fall of snow hwindë noun birch Hristo noun Christ hwinya- vb. swirl, eddy, gyrate hrívë noun winter hya conj. or noun other thing hríza vb. it is snowing hyalin noun paper hroa noun body hyalma noun shell, conch, horn hrómen noun east of Ulmo hrón noun flesh/substance of hyam- vb. pray Arda, matter hyan- vb. injure hróna adj. eastern hyana adj. other Hrónatani noun Eastern Men hyanda noun blade, share hróta noun dwelling hyandë vb. cleave underground, artificial cave hyapat noun shoe hróva adj. dark, dark brown, used hyar noun plough to refer to hair hyar- vb. cleave hru, ru-, hrú- pref. implying hyarma noun left hand wickedness or evil hyarmaitë adj. lefthanded hrúcarë noun evil-doing Hyarmen noun south hruo noun hyarmenya adj. southern hú noun hound hyarna adj. southern huan (hún-) noun hound hyarya adj. left huinë noun deep shadow hyatsë noun cleft, gash huiva adj. murky hye noun other person húmë numeral thousand hyellë noun glass húmë noun sleep hyelma noun glass húna adj. cursed, accursed hyóla noun trump huo noun dog


I -i ending nominative plural Ilumírë noun World-jewel, i indeclinable definite the another word for Silmaril i relative pronoun that iluquinga noun rainbow i conj. that iluvala adj. omnipotent -ië ending infinitive (or gerundial) Ilúvatar masc. name All-father, -iel patronymic (or matronymic) God daughter ilúvë noun allness, the all -ien fem. ending in certain names ilvana adj. perfect like Yávien, Silmarien ilvanya adj. perfect ier prep. as ilwë noun sky, heavens il- (pref.) no, un- Ilweran noun rainbow ilaurëa adj. daily Ilweranta noun rainbow ilca- vb. gleam (white) ilya adj. and noun all ilcë noun appearance -ima adjectival suffix Ilcorin noun not of Kor, imbë prep between describing Elves not of the imbë noun dell, deep vale Blessed Realm imi prep. in, within ilfirin adj. immortal imíca prep. among ilin adj. blue pale imlë reflexive pronoun 2nd illi noun all person formal sg. yourself, illon pl. relative pron. in ablative thyself illumë adv. always imma impersonal reflexive Ilma noun starlight pronoun itself Ilmarë noun starlight, also fem. immë reflexive pronoun 1st name, referring to a person pl. excl. ourselves Ilmarin noun mansion of the high -immë 1st person dual exclusive airs, the dwelling of Manwë and pronominal ending Varda upon Oiolossë immo general singular reflexive ilmen place-name region above pronoun same one, self air where stars are imnë reflexive pronoun 1st ilqua (ilqa) noun everything person sg. myself ilquen noun everybody imnë emphatic independent 1st ilsa noun silver (the mystic name person sg. pronoun I, I myself of) imni reflexive pronoun 1st person -ilto, ending dual ablative sg. myself Ilu noun world (the) imya adj. same, identical, ilucara adj. omnificent selfsame iluisa (Þ?) adj. omniscient -in dative pl. ending


-ina ending for 'passive' inwisti noun mind-mood participle inya adj. female inca noun idea inyë emphatic independent 1st incánus(së) noun mind person sg. pronoun I mastership ion relative pron. Genitive pl. indë reflexive pronoun 2nd from whom, of whom, pl. person pl. yourselves -ion patronymic ending son (of), indemma noun mind-picture descendant indil noun lily, or other large ipsin noun fine thread single flower írë noun desire indis noun wife, bride írë conj. when indo noun heart, mood, state írima adj. lovely, beautiful, indómë noun settled character desirable indyalmë noun clamour irin noun town indyo noun grandchild, is noun light snow descendant isca adj. pale -inen pl. instrumental ending Isil (Þ) noun Moon inga noun top, highest point isilmë (Þ) noun moonlight inga adj. first Isilya (Þ) noun third day of the ingaran noun high-king Eldarin six-day week, dedicated Ingolë noun Science/ Philosophy to the Moon as a whole isima (Þ?) noun imagination ingólemo noun one with very isqua adj. wise great knowledge -issë feminine ending ingolmo noun loremaster ista noun knowledge ingor noun summit of a mountain ista- vb. Know inkáno noun mind master Istar noun Wizard, used of inkánu noun mind master , , etc. -inqua adjectival ending istima adj. having knowledge insa impersonal reflexive Istimor pl. noun Wise Ones = pronoun 3rd person sg. itself Gnomes (Noldor) Sg. Istimo. insë reflexive pronoun 3rd person istya noun knowledge sg. personal himself and herself istyar noun scholar, learned man intë reflexive pronoun 3rd person iswa adj. wise pl. themselves íta noun flash intya- vb. guess, suppose ita- vb. sparkle intyalë noun imagination ita pron that which intyë reflexive pronoun 2nd ita, íta adv. very, extremely person intimate sg. yourself, itila adj. (or participle?) thyself twinkling, glinting inwë reflexive pronoun 1st person -iva (-ivë) plural pl. incl. ourselves ending inwis noun change of mind, mood 20

K kelva noun animal Kementári noun Earth-queen, kemen noun earth title of Yavanna kyermë noun prayer


-l or -lyë pronominal endings for lala- vb. laugh 2nd person sg. polite/formal you, lala- vb. deny thou lala negation no indeed not, on la negation no, not the contrary lá adv. no, not lalmë noun elm-tree lá prep. beyond, also used in láma noun ringing sound, echo phrases of comparison laman (lamn- or laman-) noun lá umë > laumë negation no animal (usually applied to four- indeed not, on the contrary footed beasts, and never to lacarë noun not-doing, inaction reptiles and birds) (in general) lámárë noun flock lahta- vb. pass over, cross, lámatyávë noun sound-taste surpass, excel lamba noun tongue (physical laia adv. no, not tongue, while lambë = language) laica adj. green lambë noun tongue, language laicalassë adj. green as leaves, lit. lambelë noun language green-leaf lambetengwë noun consonant laicolassë noun green-foliage lambina adj. of tongue, spoken laima noun plant with tongue laimë noun shade lámina adj. echoing laiqua adj. green lamma noun sound laiquassë noun greenness lamya- vb. sound laiquë noun herb, vegetable lanat noun weft laiquë noun herb lanca noun sharp edge, sudden Laiquendi noun Green-elves end laira adj. shady lanco (lancu-, pl. lanqui) noun lairë noun summer throat, swallow lairë noun poem landa noun boundary lairus (lairust-) noun verdigris landa adj. wide laita- vb. bless, praise lánë adv. no, not laivë noun ointment lanë (lani-) noun hem


langa- vb. cross látië noun openness lango noun passage, especially , latina adj. open, free, across or over an obstacle, also cleared (of land) neck latta noun hole, pit lango noun broad sword, also latta noun strap prow of a ship latucenda adj. of tin lanna prep. athwart latya noun opening lannë noun tissue, cloth latya- vb. open lanta noun fall lau negation no indeed not, on the lanta- vb. fall contrary lantalasselingëa adj. with a lauca adj. warm musical sound of falling leaves laumë < lá umë negation no lantalca noun boundary post or indeed not, on the contrary mark laupë noun shirt, tunic lantë noun fall laurë noun gold, but of golden lanu noun lead light and colour, not of the metal lanwa adj. within bounds, laurëa adj. golden, like gold limited, finite, (well-) defined Laurefindil masc. name lan wa noun loom (Quenya form of ) lanwë (lanwi-) noun ebb-tide Laurelin 0ame of the Golden lanya- vb. bound, enclose Tree of lanya- vb. weave Laurelindórinan noun Valley of lanyë adv. no, not Singing Gold, an earlier name of lapattë noun hare Laurenandë (Lórien) lappa noun hem of robe laurië adverb goldenly lapsa- vb. lick laurië noun goldenness lapsë noun babe lav- vb. lick lar noun fat, richeness lav- vb. yield, allow, grant lár noun league, a linear measure, lávar noun blossom (golden) 5000 rangar lavaralda noun some kind of tree lár noun ear -lda 2nd person pl. possessive lára adj. flat suffix your larca adj. swift, rapid -ldë pronominal suffix, 2nd lárëa adj. fat, rich person pl. you larma noun raiment -lë ending forming that lassë noun leaf seem properly to have been lassecanta adj. leaf-shaped and abstract lasselanta noun leaf-fall = le pronominal element you Autumn lé noun way = method, manner lasta adj. listening, hearing lé prep. with lasta- vb. listen lehta- vb. loose, slacken Lastalaica noun sharp-ears lehta adj. free, released láta adj. open lelta- vb. send 22

lelya- vb. go, proceed (in any leptafinya adj. clever (-fingered) direction), travel leptenta- vb. point to/indicate lelya adj. delicate, beautiful and léra noun, adj. free, of persons fine, slender lerina adj. free of things: not lelya- vb. appear, of beautiful guarded, reserved, made fast, or things, attract (with dative) owned lemba adj. left behind lerta- vb. can in the sense be free Lembi noun Elves remaining to do, being under no restraint behind = Telerin Ilkorins (physical or other). lemnar noun week (of five days) lerya- vb. release, set free, let go lempë cardinal five lesta- vb. leave lemya- vb. remain, tarry lesta noun measure lenca adj. slow leuca noun snake lenca- vb. loose, slacken lev- verb move (intransitive) lenda noun journey -li partitive pl. ending lenda- vb. linger li-, lin- multiplicative pref. lenga- (weak verb) vb. behave lia noun fine thread, spider lengë noun gesture, characteristic filament look, gesture or trait etc. lia- vb. twine lenna- vb. go liantassë noun vine lenu- vb. stretch liantë noun spider lenwa adj. long and thin, straight, líco noun wax narrow lícuma noun taper, candle lenwë noun leaving, departure lië noun people lenweta- vb. go away, migrate lil adverbial particle more lëo noun shade, shadow cast by lillassëa adj. having many leaves any object -lillo or -lillon ending for lepecan noun fourth finger partitive pl. ablative lepenel noun middle finger lilómëa adj. very dark, full of lepenquë cardinal fifteen darkness lepentë noun fourth finger lilótëa adj. having many flowers lepenya cardinal five lilta- vb. dance leper noun finger limba noun drop lepesta fraction one fifth (1/5) limbë adj. many lepetas noun first or index finger limbë adj. quick, swift lepetta noun lebethron, a hard- limë (limi-) noun link wood tree growing in limpa adj. frail, slender and lepinca noun little finger drooping lepincë noun little finger limpë noun drink of the Valar lepsat fraction one fifth (1/5) -lin ending for partitive pl. dative lepsë noun finger lin- pref. many lepta- vb. pick (up, out) with the lin, lind- noun musical sound, fingers melody 23

linda adj. fair, beautiful (of liquë adj. wet sound) liquis noun transparence lindalë noun music lir- vb. chant Lindar noun Singers (sg. Linda), lírë (líri-) noun song what the Teleri called themselves lirilla noun lay, song lindë noun air, tune, singing, song lirit noun poem lindelë noun music lirulin noun lark lindelëa adj. melodious lís (lîs) noun honey Lindi pl. noun what the Green- liscë noun reed, sedge elves (Laiquendi, Nandor) called lissë adj. sweet themselves -lissë or -lissen ending for lindimaitar noun composer, partitive pl. locative musician litsë noun sand lindo noun singer, singing bird -líva ending for partitive pl. lindornëa adj. having many oak- possessive trees liyúmë noun host -línen ending for partitive pl. -llo ablative ending from or out of instrumental -lma pronominal ending linga- vb. hang, dangle 1stperson pl. exclusive our lingë noun musical sound -lmë 1st person pl. pronominal lingwë (lingwi-) noun fish ending exclusive we lingwilócë noun fish-dragon, sea- ló noun night serpent ló, lo prep. from, by -linna or -linnar ending for loa noun literally growth, used of partitive pl. allative a solar year (= coranar) linquë adj. wet löar noun blossom (golden) linquë noun grass, reed lócë noun dragon, snake linquë noun hyacinth (plant, not locin adj. bent jewel) loëndë noun year-middle, the linta adj. swift middle (183rd) day of the year, lintië adverb quickly inserted between the months of lintië noun swiftness, speed Nárië and Cermië (June and July) lintitinwë adj. having many stars in the Númenórean calendar and lintyulussëa adj. having many the Steward's Reckoning poplars lohta- vb. sprout, put forth leaves linya noun pool or flowers linyenwa adj. old, having many lohtë noun flower, inflorescence, years mass of flower -lion ending for partitive pl. loi- pref. denoting mistaken doing genitive loica adj. failing, short, lipil noun little glass inadequate, etc. lipsa noun soap loicarë noun mistaken action lipta- vb. drip loico noun corpse, dead body 24

loicolícuma noun corpse-candle lúcë noun enchantment loima noun mistake lucië noun debt, trespass loiparë noun mistake in writing lucindo noun debtor, one who loiquetë noun mistake in speech trespasses loita- vb. miss, fail, fall short of luhta- vb. enchant (transitive) luhta- vb. bow lom- vb. hide luimë noun flood lomba adj. or noun secret luinë adj. blue lómë noun dusk, twilight, also luinincë (luininci-) adj. bluish night luita- vb. flood, inundate lómëa adj. gloomy lúlë noun sapphire lómëar noun child of gloom lumba adj. weary lómin noun shade, shadow lumba adj. gloomy lóna noun pool, mere Lumbar name star (or planet), londë noun land-locked haven tentatively identified with Saturn londië noun harbourage lumbë noun gloom, shadow lor- vb. slumber lumbo noun cloud -lóra ending -less, without lumbulë noun shadow (heavy) lorda adj. drowsy, slumbrous lúmë noun time lórë noun slumber lumenyárë noun history, lorna adj. asleep chronological account lós (Þ) noun flower, lúmequenta noun history, inflorescence, mass of flower chronological account lossë adj. snow-white lúmequentalë noun history lossë noun snow lúmequentalëa adj. historical lossë noun blossom lumna- stative vb. be heavy lossëa adj. snow-white lumna adj. lying heavy, losselië noun white people burdensome, oppressive, ominous losta- vb. bloom Lúnaturco. Also Taras Lúna lótë noun flower, mostly applied noun Quenya form of Sindarin to larger single flowers Barad-dûr lotsë noun small single flower lunca noun wain lottë noun flower, usually smaller lunga adj. heavy loxë noun bunch, cluster lungumaitë adj. heavyhanded -lta (and -ltya) 3rd person pl. Lúnoronti noun Blue Mountains pronominal possessive suffix their luntë noun boat -ltë 3rd person pl. pronominal lúrë noun dark weather suffix they lúrëa adj. dark, overcast -lto ending for dual ablative lúsina adj. glowing (things), lú noun time, occasion hearty (people) lucando noun debtor, one who lussa- vb. whisper trespasses lussë noun whispering sound lucassë noun debt, trespass lusta adj. void, empty 25

lúto noun flood -lya 2nd person sg. formal/polite lutta- vb. flow, float pronominal suffix thy, your lutu- vb. flow, float lye pron. 2nd person sg. lúva noun bow formal/polite thou/thee, you luvu- vb. lower, brood -lyë pronominal ending thou, you luxo (luxu-) noun mud M ma? interrogative word like maitë (maiti-) adj. handed or what? handy, skilful má noun hand maivoinë noun great longing má? interrogative word when? maiwë noun gull ma, neuter personal pronoun mal conj. but something, a thing mala- vb. hurt, pain mac- vb. hew with a sword malcanë noun torture maca- vb. forge metal maldornë noun mallorn macar noun swordsman málë noun good health macar noun tradesman málimë (málimi-) noun wrist macil noun sword malina adj. yellow mahalma noun throne mallë noun street, road mahta- vb. wield a weapon, fight málo noun friend mahtar noun warrior malo (malu-) noun pollen, yellow mai- pref. well powder mai adv. well malta noun gold, also name of Maia noun Beautiful (the) tengwa #18 maica adj. sharp, piercing malumë? interrogative word at maica noun blade of a cutting what time? tool or weapon, especially sword- malwa adj. fallow, pale blade máma noun sheep mailë noun lust mámandil noun sheep-friend mailëa adj. lustful shepherd? maira adj. admirable, splendid, mamil noun mother, mummy sublime (only of great, or man pron. who splendid things) mana interrogative word maira noun admirable, excellent, mána adj. blessed precious manaitë adj. blessed maita adj. hungry manaquenta adj. blessed maitar noun artist, usually a poet manar noun doom, final end, except in compounds fate, fortune maitë? interrogative word of manca- vb. trade what sort? mancalë noun commerce


mandë noun doom, final end, márië adv. well fate, fortune márienna interjection farewell mando noun custody, prison lit. towards/to what is good Mandos (Mandost-) noun Castle maril noun glass, crystal of Custody marilla noun pearl mánë noun spirit that has gone to marta- vb. define, decree, destine the Valar or to Erumáni marta- vb. chance or happen manë adj. good (moral sense) marta adj. fey, fated manen interrogative how? marta noun fate manna adj. blessed martan (martam-) noun manomë? interrogative word in dwelling-house what place? marto noun fortune, fate manquë, manquenta adj. blessed marto noun tower manta- vb. bless martya- vb. destine manu noun departed spirit marya adj. pale, fallow, fawn manwa- vb. prepare mas? interrogative word where? manwa adj. ready massa noun bread manya- vb. bless massë noun bread (as a material) mapa- vb. grasp, seize massë? interrogative word mapta- vb. ravish, rape, where? maptalë noun ravishment, rape, masta- vb. bake seizure masta noun bread maqua noun hand-full; complete masto noun village hand with all five fingers mat- vb. eat maquet- vb. Ask mat (matt-) noun meal, meal mar? interrogative word where? time Where to? mátengwië noun language of the mar- vb. abide, be settled or fixed hands már (mar-) noun home, house, matil noun food dwelling mátima adj. edible mar (mard-) noun earth, home, matso noun food dwelling maur noun dream, vision mara? interrogative word where? maurë noun need Where to? mausta noun compulsion mára adj. useful, fit, good (of mauya- vb. compel things) mavar noun shepherd maranwë noun destiny mavoitë adj. having hands marda noun dwelling, a place maxa adj. pliant, soft dwelt in maxë noun dough mardë noun hall Máya pl. Máyar noun Beautiful mardo noun dweller (the) Mardorunando noun Redeemer me 1st person pl. exclusive of the world pronoun we, us 27

mëar noun gore Metelairë noun August mectar noun Swordsman (alternative name of ) mel- vb. love (as friend) Meterrívë noun January méla adj. loving, affectionate (alternative name of ) mélamar noun home (emotional métima adj. last sense) metta noun end melda adj. beloved, dear, sweet metya- vb. put an end to meldë noun friend, feminine mi prep. in, within meldo noun friend, lover mici prep. among melehta adj. mighty mië noun crumb, bit, small piece melehtë noun might, power mil prep. in, within (inherent) milca adj. greedy meletya adj. mighty millo noun oil melima adj. loveable, fair milmë noun desire, greed melin adj. dear milya adj. soft, gentle, weak melindo noun lover (m.) milya- vb. long for melissë noun lover ( fem. ) milyë noun mummy melmë noun love min numeral one melu noun honey mína adj. desiring to start, eager melumatya adj. honey-eating to go men pron. dative (for) us mína- vb. desire to go in some men noun way or place, spot direction men- vb. go mina prep. into ména noun region minassë noun fort, city, with a mendë noun will citadel and central watch-tower Menel noun heavens minasurie (Þ) noun enquiry menta- vb. send, cause to go minda adj. prominent, menta noun sending or message conspicuous mentë noun point, end mindë noun turret mentië noun passage, journey, mindo noun isolated tower direction of travel mindon noun tower (great, lofty) menya 1st person pl. exclusive minë numeral one independent possessive pronoun minna prep. into our Minnónar pl. noun First-born, mëoi noun cat Elves (as contrasted to Apanónar, mer- vb. wish, desire, want the After-born, Men). meren (merend-), merendë noun minquë cardinal eleven feast, festival minquesta fraction one eleventh merya adj. festive (1/11) meryalë noun holiday minta prep. inwards, [?into] met dual 1st person pronoun, mintë adj. small including the dual ending -t us minya adj. first (two) miqu- vb. kiss 28

miquelis (miquelis(s)-) noun moc- vb. hate sweet kiss moia- vb. labour, be afflicted mírë noun jewel moica adj. gentle, soft miril (mirill-) noun shining jewel moilë noun tarn mirilya- vb. glitter moina adj. familiar, dear mírima adj. very valuable, very mól noun slave, thrall precious, very lovely móla adj. of slave(s), slavish Mirimor noun Free (the), a name mólanoldorin noun language of of the Teleri the Noldor enslaved by mirroanwi pl. noun incarnates móna noun womb miruvor noun mead, a special mor noun darkness wine or cordial morco noun bear mirwa adj. precious, valuable mordo noun shadow, obscurity, mis adverbial particle less stain mísë (Þ) noun grey morë adj. black, dark, darkness mista adj. grey mórë noun blackness, dark, night, mista- vb. stray about darkness mistë noun fine rain morilindë noun nightingale mitra adj. small morion noun son of the dark mitsa adj. small morna adj. dark, black or gloomy mitta- vb. insert mornië noun darkness mitta- prep. between móro noun ink mitta noun piece moru- vb. hide mitta prep. inwards móta- noun labour, toil mittanya- vb. lead (+ allative: motto noun blot lead into) muilë noun secrecy mitya adj. interior muina adj. hidden, secret miulë noun whining, mewing mulë noun meal mixa adj. wet mulma noun flour (fine) -mma 1st person dual exlusive mundo noun bull possessive ending our mundo noun snout, nose, cape -mmë 1st person dual exclusive munta pron. nothing pronominal ending we murmë noun slumber -mo ending frequent in names murmëa adj. slumbrous and titles, sometimes with an muru- vb. slumber agental significance mussë adj. soft moalin (moalind-) noun sheepfold N -n dative ending


-n pronominal ending, 1st person nalta noun radiance, glittering sg. I reflection (from jewels, glass or -n plural sign used in some of the polished metals, or water) case endings nam- vb. judge ná vb. is (am) náma noun judgement or a desire -na ending used to form passive namárië interjection farewell participles as well as some namba noun hammer namba- vb. hammer ná conj. but, on the contrary, on =ambarauto noun hammerer of the other hand copper nac- vb. hew, cut námië noun judgement, desire náha adj. narrow namma noun claw, talon naham- vb. summon namna noun statute nahámë noun summons námo noun person, somebody nahta- vb. slay nan conj. but nahta noun bite nan- pref. backwards nahta cardinal eighteen nan (nand-) noun woodland nai imperative verb be it that =ana noun Green-elf, Danian nai- pref. ill, grievously, nancar- vb. undo, destroy abominably nanda noun water-mead naica noun dagger nanda- vb. harp naica adj. bitterly painful or nandaro noun harper grievous nandë noun valley naicë noun sharp pain nandë noun harp naicelë noun sharp pain nandelë noun harping naicelëa adj. painful nandellë noun little harp naina- vb. lament nandin noun fay of the country nainaina- vb. lament =ando noun name of a Green-elf naiquet- vb. curse or blaspheme (Laiquendi). =aira noun Heart of Flame, a nando noun valley, wide valley name of the Sun nangwa noun jaw naira adj. dreadful, horrible, nanwa adj. existing, actual, true unendurable nanwë noun ebb, lowtide naira noun wast, wide, empty nanwen- vb. return (go/come nairë noun lament back) naitë adj. true napan- vb. add naitya- vb. put to shame nápat noun thumb and index as a nal, nallë noun dale, dell pair, a dual formation. nalda adj. or noun valley used as nápo noun thumb an adjective nappa noun claw, talon nalláma, nallama noun echo nár noun flame naraca adj. harsh, rending, violent 30

narca- vb. rend néca adj pale, vague, faint, dim to narda noun knot see nárë, noun flame neccë noun angle =árië noun June. necel noun thorn narmo noun wolf nehta noun spearhead =arquelië noun October nehta- vb. slay =arquelion noun fire-fading, nehta- vb. deprive autumn nehtar noun slayer narta- vb. kindle nehtë noun any formation or =arvinyë noun January projection tapering to a point: a narwa adj. fiery red spearhead, gore, wedge, narrow násië interjection amen, promontory so nehtë noun honeycomb nassë noun person, an individual nel, nel- adv. or pref. thrice, tri- nassë noun thorn, spike nelcë noun tooth nasta noun spear-head, spear- neldë cardinal three point, gore, triangle neldëa ordinal third nasta- vb. prick, sting neldesta fraction one third (1/3) nat noun thing =eldië noun Trinity náto interjection it is that =eldion noun Day of the three (emphatic word for yes?) (younger gods), Ossë, Orome and natsë noun web, net Tulkas nattira- vb. despise neldor noun beech nauca adj. stunted nelequë (kw) cardinal thirteen =auco noun Dwarf nelesta fraction one third (1/3) naulë noun wolf-howl nelet noun tooth nauro noun werewolf nellë noun brook nausë (Þ) noun imagination nelquëa, cardinal thirteen nauta adj. bound, obliged nelsat fraction one third (1/3) nav- vb. judge nelta fraction one third (1/3) náva noun mouth neltil (neltild-) noun triangle náva-tengwë noun mouth-sign = nelya adj. third consonant -nen instrumental ending návë noun being nén (nen-) noun water návëa noun or adj. consonant néna adj. wet -ndë ending forming nouns from =énar noun name of a star (or verbal stems planet) tentatively identified with -ndil ending friend Uranus -ndor ending land nenda adj. watery, wet -ndur ending servant of nendë noun lake ne noun scent nengwë (nengwi-) noun nose nëa once, at one time (in the past) nengwëa adj. nasal nec- pref. without, -less =énimë noun February 31

nénu noun yellow water-lily nië noun tear nénuvar noun pool of lilles =iellúnë noun Sirius (a star) nenya adj. wet nieninquë noun snowdrop nér (ner-) noun man nieninquëa adj. snowdrop-like nerca noun sharp, angular nier noun honey-bee nercë noun little man, a =ierninwa noun Sirius (a star) diminutive of nér nierwes noun hive nerdo noun large, strong man -nil, final element in compounds neresta fraction one ninth (1/9) friend =ermi noun field-spirit nilda adj. friendly, loving nernehta noun man-spearhead, a nildë noun friend (fem.) battle-formation nildo noun friend (masc.) nersat fraction one ninth (1/9) nillë noun star-imagine on Nur- nertë cardinal nine menel nésa (Þ) noun sister nilmë noun friendship nésë (Þ) noun youth nilmo noun friend (masc.) nessa adj. young nimpa adj. drooping, ailing nessamelda adj. Nessa-beloved, nimpë (nimpi-) adj. small, frail name of a tree nin pron. dative of ni to me, for nessë noun youth me nessima adj. youthful nincë (ninci-) adj. small nesta fraction one ninth (1/9) nindë adj. slender neterquë cardinal nineteen ninquë adj. white, chill, palid netil noun trinket ninquissë noun whitenes nettë (netti-) noun girl, daughter, ninquita- vb. shine white sister, also used as a play-name of ninquitá- vb. whiten the fourth finger or fourth toe ninwa adj. blue netya- vb. trim, adorn ninya possessive pron my netya adj. pretty, dainty nion noun bee neuma noun snare nípa adj. small, frail neuna adj. second niquë vb. it is cold, it freezes neuro noun follower, successor niquetil noun snowcap nev- vb. try níquetil (níquetild-) noun snow -ngwa 1st person dual inclusive peak possessive pronominal ending our niquis noun frost-patterns -ngwë 1st person dual inclusive nir- vb. press, thrust, force pronominal ending we níra noun will ni 1st person sg. pron. I nírë noun tear ní prep. beneath, not touching nirmë noun act of will, exercise níca adj. small (in good sens) of will nícë noun little finger nirwa noun bolster, cushion nicu- vb. be chill, cold (of nís (niss-) noun woman weather) nísima adj. fragrant 32

=ísimaldar noun Fragrant trees, a =olmë noun knowledge, region in Númenor Philosophy (including Science) =ísinen noun Fragrance-water, a nolmo noun wise person lake in Númenor nolpa noun mole nissë noun woman nolwë noun wisdom, secret lore nisto noun woman (large) nómë noun place nítë (níti-) adj. moist, dewy nonda noun hand nitya adj. small =óquellë noun October nixë noun frost (alternative name of) -nna allative ending to, at, upon nor- vb. run, leap no prep. under nor- vb. run nó (nów-) noun conception, idea nór noun land nó conj. but nordo noun oak nó prep. before (of time), at back nórë noun land (associated with a (of spatial relationships). particular people) noa noun conception, idea norië noun race, running noa adj. former nórië noun country =ócoirë noun March (alternative nórima adj. strong/swift at name of ) running noi noun lament normë noun race, running noirë noun tomb norna adj. stiff, tough =oirinan noun Valley of the norno noun oak Tombs in Númenor =orno noun dwarf nóla adj. wise, learned nornoro- vb. run on, run nóla noun round head, knoll smoothly =ólairë noun July (alternative norolinda adj. lightly tripping name of ) norollë noun cart noldarë noun mole =orrívë noun December noldo noun one of the people of (alternative name of ) the Noldor norsa (Þ) noun giant =oldolantë noun Fall of the norta- vb. make run, specially Noldor (name of a song) used of riding horses or other =oldomar noun Gnomeland animals =oldomírë lit. noun Noldo-jewel, norta adj. horrible another word for Silmaril nortil (nortill-) noun cape (of =oldo-quentasta (Ñoldo-) noun land) Noldo-history norto noun horror =oldóran noun King of the nossë noun clan, family, 'house', Noldor kindred, family =oldorinwa adj. Noldorin, of the nosta noun birth, birthday Noldor nosta- vb. beget nólë noun long study, lore, nostalë noun species, kind knowledge 33

nostar or nostaro ( pl. nostari) =únatani noun Western Men = noun parent, Sindarin Dúnedain not- vb. reckon =unduinë noun West-flow, name nótë noun number of a river in Númenor notessë noun numeral nuquerna adj. reversed nótië noun counting núra adj. deep nótima adj. countable =ur-menel noun lesser notto noun enemy firmament, a great dome covering =ótuilë noun May (alternative Valinor, made by Varda and full name of ) of star-imagines -nt ending for dual dative núro noun servant -nta ending for dual allative =urquendi noun Gnomes -nta possessive 3rd person pl. nurru- vb. murmur, grumble, pronominal ending growl (of dog) -ntë pronomimal ending they nurta- vb. hide -nten ending for dual nurtalë noun hiding instrumental nuru, =uru noun death -ntya possessive 3rd person pl. =urufantur noun lord of Death- pronominal ending cloud, surname of Mandos nu prep. under nuruhuinë noun death-shadow nucumna adj. or passive nut- vb. tie participle humble núta- vb. set, sink (of Sun or nuhta- vb. stunt, stop short Moon) nuhuinenna adj. under shadow nútë noun bond, knot nuinë noun river (of large nútil (nútill-) noun under-point, volume, and liable to flooding). term used in children's play for nulda noun secret toe (the counterpart of ortil, ) núlë noun black arts, secrecy nuxo noun Petty dwarf nulla adj. dark, dusky, obscure, -nwa passive suffix secret nwalca adj. cruel numba adj. bent, humped nwalma noun pain númë noun going down, occident nwalmë noun torment númeheru noun Lord of the West nwalya- vb. pain, torment númen noun west, the way of the -nya pronominal suffix, 1st sunset person sg. possessive my =úmen(n)órë noun people of the nyano noun rat west nyar- vb. tell númenya adj. western nyárë noun tale, saga, history =úmerrámar noun West-wings, nyarna noun tale, saga name of a ship nyarnamaitar noun storyteller, nún adv. down below, underneath composer of nyarnar or long epic nún initial element west(ern) tales núna adj. western nyarro noun rat 34

-nyë 1st person sg. pronominal nyello noun singer suffix I nyéna- vb. lament nyelecca noun onyx nyéni noun she-goat nyelet pl. nyelexi noun nail nyenyë noun weeping nyellë noun bell nyérë noun grief, sorrow O o indefinite pronoun one, olba noun branch someone, anyone olca adj. evil, bad, wicked o conj. and olë adv. much -o genitive ending ólemë noun elbow -o , -ó, pronominal suffix ollo noun cliff, seaward precipice somebody ollo prep. away from oa, oar (öa, öar), adverbs away olmë noun odour Oarel (Oareld-) noun Elf who oloirë noun great flood departed from Beleriand to Aman oloiya- vb. inundate, flood oaris (oarits-) noun mermaid olombo noun horse ocamna noun olor noun dream occa noun knee olórëa adj. dreamy ócom- vb. gather, assemble Olórin noun name of the Maia (intransitive) that became Gandalf ocombë noun gathering, olos (olor-) dream, vision assembly, assemblage olosta adj. dreamy ohlon noun diphthong olótë noun bloom oholima adj. confidential olpë noun bottle ohta noun war olva noun plant ohtacar- vb. make war olwa noun branch oia adj. everlasting olwen (olwenn-) noun branch, Oiacúma noun Exterior Void wand, stick beyond the World olya adj. much oiala adj. unceasing, without end, óma noun voice forever óma-tengwë noun oialëa adj. eternal ómë prep. + pron. with us oiencarmë Eruo noun the One's (exclusive) [Eru's] perpetual production ómëa noun vowel oio noun endless period omentië noun meeting (meeting oira adj. eternal or junction of the directions of oirë noun everlasting two people) ol- vb. grow ompa adv. forward óla- vb. dream (impersonal) -on gen. pl. ending olassië noun foliage on, ondo noun stone


ondo noun stone as a material, opo prep. before, in front of (of also rock spatial relationships); after (of Ondolindë place-name Gondolin time) ondomaitar noun sculptor in or- vb. urge, impel, move, only of stone mental impulse Ondonórë, Ondórë place-name or prep. over Gondor (Stone-land). órava- vb. have mercy, followed onë conj. but by locative: have mercy on ongwë noun crime orco noun , pl. orcor or orqui onna noun creature órë noun heart (inner mind), also ono conj. but name of tengwa #21 onóna adj. twin-born órë noun rising onóna noun one of a pair of orë (ori-) noun grain twins; pl. ónoni twins órëa adj. of the dawn, Eastern onónë noun sister orma noun physical matter onórë noun sister Ormal noun one of the Lamps of onóro noun brother the Valar onot- vb. count up ormë noun haste, violence, wrath, onótië noun reckoning rushing Onótimo noun Reckoner orna adj. hasty onta- vb. beget, create orna adj. tall ontamo noun mason (sculptor) ornë noun tree ontar noun begetter, parent ornemalin adj. bearing yellow ontarë noun begetter, parent flowers (fem); the pl. ontari or dual ontaru orofarnë noun mountain- (see ontani) covers both sexes. dwelling ontarië noun begetter, parent oromardë noun high-hall (fem.) oron (oront-) noun mountain ontaril noun mother, begetter oronta adj. steep (fem.) orontë, oronto noun Sunrise ontaro noun begetter, parent orosta noun ascension (masc.); pl. ontari orotinga noun mountain-top ontaro, ontarë pl. ontani noun orro interjection ow! (horror, parent ( masc. and. fem. ) pain, disgust) onwë noun child orróna adj. eastern onya noun my child, my son orta- vb. rise, raise ópa noun mouth, in the sense of ortil (ortill-) noun up-point, term mouth-opening with lips as the used in children'splay for finger edges ortírië noun patronage opelë noun walled house or orto noun mountain-top village, 'town' orva noun apple orwa adj. high, lofty orya- vb. rise 36

osamna noun diphthong otoquë cardinal seventeen ósanwë noun telepathy otornassë noun brotherhood osellë (Þ) noun sister, [female] otorno noun brother, sworn associate brother, [male] associate ossa noun wall and moat otosta fraction one seventh (1/7) ossë noun terror otsat fraction one seventh (1/7) osta fraction one seventh (1/7) otsëa ordinal seventh osta noun homestead Otselen noun Seven Stars (otso + ostar noun township elen), Great Bear (constellation) osto noun strong or fortified otso cardinal seven building or place, fortress otsola noun week oswë noun hip ovéa adj. similar, alike

P pá, pa prep. on with reference to palúrë noun surface, bosom, contact of surfaces, especially bosom of Earth vertical surface palya- vb. open wide, spread, paca noun paved floor, court expand, extend pahta adj. closed, shut, private pan adv. since (in the sense of pahta noun speech, language because) paimë noun punishment panda noun enclosure paimesta noun chastisement pano noun piece of shaped wood paimeta- vb. punish pano noun plan, arrangement paitya- vb. repay, requite panta- vb. unfurl, spread out, pal- vb. shake open palan- root element (apparently panta adj. open not appearing alone) far, distant, pantië noun unfolding, opening, wide, to a great extent revealing palantír noun Seeing Stone panya- vb. fix, set palantíra- vb. watch, look afar par- vb. learn, acquire palar noun flat field, 'wang', plain information, not by experience palis noun sward, lawn but by instruction in words or palla adj. wide, expansive writing palmë noun surface parca adj. dry palpa- vb. beat, batter parca adj. naked, of persons palta noun flat of the hand parma noun book, also name of palta- vb. feel with the hand, tengwa #2 stroke etc. parmalambë noun book- palu- vb. open wide, spread, language expand, extend parma-resta noun book-fair parna adj. bare 37

passa adj. smooth, glabrous pilwë noun robbery, theft pasta- vb. smooth, iron pimpë noun tail pasta adj. smooth pir- vb. spin, turn (apparently pata- vb. walk intransitive) pataca noun consonant pirë noun toe pé noun lip pirindë noun flower that opened pel- vb. go round, revolve, return and shut quickly with any change pelecco noun axe of light pelehta- vb. hew pirnë noun flower that opened peler noun fenced field and shut quickly with any change pella postposition beyond of light pelo noun boundary (fence) pirya noun juice, syrup peltas (peltax-) noun pivot pitya adj. little pempë noun lip Pitya-nauco noun Petty-dwarf pen- vb. have not piucca noun blackberry penda adj. sloping down, piuta noun spit inclined piuta- vb. spit penda- vb. slope, incline po, pó prep. before, in front of (of pendë noun slope, downslope, spatial relationships) after (of declivity time) penga- vb. pout poica adj. clean, pure penna noun vowel poita- vb. cleanse penquanta (peñ-) adj. full to the pol- vb. can = have physical brim, with mouth full power and ability penya adj. lacking, inadequate polca noun pig Perelda noun Half-elf polda adj. strong, burly peresta fraction one half (1/2) polda adj. big Perian (Periand-) noun poldorë noun strength perina adj.? divided in middle, póna adv. forward halved pono prep. before, in front of (of perta fraction one half (1/2) spatial relationships) after (of perya- vb. divide in middle, halve time) pet- vb. knock, strike pontë (ponti-) noun back, rear pí noun small insect, fly porë (pori-) noun flour, meal pia adj. Little porocë noun hen; barn fowl pica noun small spot, dot potai adv. therefore píca- vb. lessen, dwindle, waning púrëa adj. smeared, discoloured Picinauco noun Petty-dwarve pusta noun stop, in punctuation pië noun berry full stop pilin (pilind-) noun arrow pusta- vb. stop; also intr. cease, pilinehtar noun unidentified stop plant putta noun stop (in punctuation) pilu noun thief, robber 38

Q quácë noun frog quendi, pl. quendir noun Elvish quáco noun crow woman quain cardinal ten quendu, pl. quendur noun Elvish quaista fraction one tenth man qual- vb. die Quendya original form of the qualin adj. dead word Quenya qualmë noun agony, death quenta noun tale quama- vb vomit; be sick quentalë noun account, history quámë noun sickness, nausea quentaro noun narrator quámëa adj. sick, nauseous quentasta noun historical account quanda adj and noun all (the), quentelë noun sentence the whole quenya noun speech quanta- vb. fill quer- vb. turn (transitive) quanta adj. full quessë noun feather, also name of quanta emma, quantemma noun tengwa #4 facsimile quesset (quessec-) noun pillow Quantarië noun Day of quessetéma noun qu-series, Completion, Oldyear's Day velarized series: fourth column of quantien noun last day of year the Tengwar system quapta- vb. exchange quet- vb. say, speak quárë, quár noun fist quetil noun tongue, language quat- vb. fill quetta noun word quëa noun vegetable qui conj. if quëan cardinal ten quië adv. whenever quel- vb. fail quildë noun hush, rest, quiet quelet (quelets-) noun corpse quilë noun hue, colour quelië noun waning quilta noun girdle, belt -quén (quen-) noun one, quimellë noun lady (some)body quín, quínë noun crest, ridge quendë noun Elf quinga noun bow Quendelië noun People of the quinna adj. crested Elves quiquië adv. whenever Quenderin adj. Quendian, quir- vb. stir or make spin belonging to the Elves as a whole Quendi noun Elves as a race



-r nominative plural ending ranya- vb. stray -r plural ending used on ranya noun erratic wandering with a plural subject ranya adj. free rá (ráv-) noun lion rasco noun horn rac- vb. break rassë noun horn ráca noun wolf rasta cardinal twelve racina adj. stripped, deprived ráta- vb. excell, surpass rahta- vb. stretch out, reach rato adv. soon raicë adj. crooked, bent, wrong rauca noun demon raima noun net rauco noun powerful, hostile, and raimë noun network, lace terrible creature raina adj. nettled, enlaced raumo noun storm (noise of a) raina adj. smiling, gracious raust noun hunting, preying rainë noun peace rauta noun metal raita- vb. make network or lace ráva noun bank (river) raita- vb. catch in a net ráva adj. wild, untamed rama- vb. shout rávë noun roaring noise ráma noun wing rávëa adj. roaring rámalócë noun winged dragon ravennë noun she-lion rámavoitë adj. having wings raxa noun drag or any large, flat ramba noun wall vehicle on wheels or rollers for rambë noun shout hauling stone or other weighty ran (ram-) noun noise material Rána name of the moon raxë noun danger Wanderer ré noun day (24-hour) ránasta noun lunar month rëa- vb. make network; make lace ranco (rancu-) pl. ranqui noun rehta- vb. rescue, save arm rehtië noun rescue, saving randa noun cycle, age (100 rem- vb. Snare Valian Years) remba- vb. net, entrap ránë noun straying, wandering rembë noun mesh ránen adj. errant rembina adj. entangled ranga noun yard, full pace. This remma noun snare Númenórean linar measure was rempa adj. crooked, hooked slightly longer than our yard, réna noun edge, border, margin approximately 38 inches [= 96.5 rer- vb. sow cm] resta noun sown field, acre rangwë noun fathom ría noun wreath ranta noun part ric- vb. twist 40

ric- vb. try, put forth effort, strive, romba noun horn, endeavour rómen, Rómen noun east rië noun garland rómenya adj. eastern ríë noun crown ronda adj. solid, firm riel (riell-) noun garlanded rondo noun vaulted or arched maiden roof rihta- vb. jerk, give quick twist or ronya noun hound of chase move, twitch roquen noun horseman, rider, rilma noun glittering light knight ríma noun edge, hem, border rossë noun fine rain, dew rimba adj. numerous rosta noun ascent rimbë noun crowd, host, great róta noun tube number rotelë noun cave rína adj. crowned rotsë noun pipe rinca noun twitch, jerk, trick, rotto noun small grot or tunnel sudden move ruc- vb. feel fear or horror rincë (rinci-) noun quick stroke ruc- vb. fly rinda adj. circular rúcarë noun evil-doing rindë noun circle rúcima adj. terrible ringa adj. cold rúcina adj. (or passive Ringarë noun December participle?) confused, shattered, ringë adj. cold disordered, ruined Ringil noun name of one of the rucindë noun debtor great Lamps ruhta- vb. terrify ringwë noun cold pool or lake (in ruhta noun debt, trespass mountains) ruimen noun fireplace, hearth ringwë noun rime, frost ruina adj. blazing, fiery risil (Þ) noun ring (on the ruinë noun fire, blaze ground) ruivë noun wild fire – fire as rista-, rista vb. and noun cut conflagration Rithil-Anamo place name Ring rúma- vb. shift, move, heave of Doom rúna- vb. free -ro pronominal ending he runando noun redeemer roa noun dog runda noun rough piece of wood rocco noun horse runda adj. smooth, polished rocindë noun debtor runya noun slot, footprint rohta noun debt, trespass rúnya noun red flame roimë noun hunt, hunting rusca adj. wroth roina adj. ruddy rusco (ruscu-, pl. rusqui) noun roita- vb. pursue fox róma noun horn ruscuitë adj. foxy róma noun loud sound, trumpet- rúsë (Þ) noun wrath sound rúsëa (Þ) noun wrathful 41

russa adj. red-haired ruxa adj. wroth russë noun red hair -rya 3rd person sg. pronominal russë noun corruscation ending his, her, its ruxa- vb. crumble


-s 3rd person sg. pronominal Sancossi pl. noun Goblins ending he/him, she/her, it sanda (Þ) adj. firm, true -s ending case called respective sandastan noun shield-barrier, a sa pron. 3rd person sg it battle-formation saca- vb. pursue, look for, search sánë (Þ) noun pine saca- (Þ) vb. draw, pull sanga (Þ) noun crowd, press, sahta- (Þ) vb. induce throng saila adj. wise sangië (Þ) noun necessity saira adj. wise sangwa noun poison sairina adj. magic sanomë adv. there sairon noun wizard sanwë noun thought, an act of salma noun lyre thinking salpa- vb. lick up, sup, sip sanwecenda noun thought- salpa noun bowl inspection, thought-reading salpë noun bowl sanwë-latya noun thought- salquë noun grass opening, direct, telepathic sam- vb. have thought-transfer sáma noun mind sanwë-menta noun thought- sambë (Þ) noun room, chamber sending, mental message samin (samind-) noun silk sanya (Þ) adj. regular, law- saminda, saminwa adj. silken abiding, normal samna (Þ) noun wooden post sanyë (Þ) noun rule, law samna noun diphthong sap- or sapa- vb. dig samno (Þ) noun carpenter, sar (sard-) noun stone (small) wright, builder sara (Þ) noun stiff dry grass sámo (Þ) noun helper sára adj. bitter san adv. then sarat noun letter, sign sana demonstrative that sarda adj. hard sanar noun mind sarda tengwë noun hard sound, a Sanavaldo noun Almighty (the) term for consonant, but not used sanca (Þ) noun? or adj? cleft, of semi- split sancë adj. hateful 42

sa-rincë noun hook that may be sérë noun rest, repose, peace attached to a tengwa letter to sermë noun friend (fem.) indicate a following s sermo noun friend (masc.) sarmë noun writing seron noun friend sarna adj. of stone sesta- vb. liken sarnë noun stony place si adv. here sarnië (sarniyë) noun shingle, sí adv. now pebble-bank siar, siarë adv. this day sarno noun table sicil noun dagger, knife sarqua adj. fleshy sië adv. thus Sarquindi pl. noun Cannibal- sil- vb. shine (white) ogres silima noun substance the sarta adj. steadfast, trusty, loyal were made of, invented sat- vb. set aside by Fëanor satar noun trusty follower, loyal sillumë noun this hour companion silma adj. silver, shining white satya adj. private, separate Silmaril ( full form : Silmarillë) sau- pref. denoting doing (Silmarill-) noun shining jewels something very badly made by Fëanor saucarë noun doing or making a silmë starlight, also name of thing very badly tengwa #29 saucarya adj. evil-doing Silmerossë, name Silpion (a saura (Þ) adj. foul, evil-smelling, name of) putrid silo adv. hence (from here) Sauro (Þ) masc. name Silpion name Elder of the Two (Þ), the Abhorred, name of a Trees of Valinor (Telperion, the Maia, the second Dark Lord White Tree). sav- vb. believe silumë adv. at this time sáva noun juice síma noun mind, imagination se pron. also object 3rd person simen adv. hither sg. he, she, it - him, her, it, simpa noun pipe, flute se , long sé preposition at, in simpetar noun piper seler (Þ) (sell-) noun sister simpina noun pipe, flute selma (Þ) noun fixed idea, will sin adv. thus sén collective (?) noun children sin adv. form of sí now () often sen- vb. let loose, free, let go occurring before vowels sena dative/allative pronoun to sina demonstrative this him [/her/it], at him [/her/it] sína adj. known, certain, senda adj. resting, at peace ascertained senwa adj. usual sincahonda adj. flint-hearted senya adj. usual sinda (Þ) adj. grey ser- vb. rest sindarinwa (Þ) adj. Grey-elven sercë noun blood 43

sindë (Þ) adj. grey, pale or Solonel (Soloneld-) noun name silvery grey of the Teleri Sindel (Sindeld-) (Þ) noun Grey- solor noun surf elf = Sinda solos noun helmet Sindicollo (Þ) noun Grey-cloak, solossë noun surf, surge title of Elwë (Elu). songa noun mouth, in the sense of sindië (Þ) noun greyness interior cavity behind the teeth, sinen adv. in this way; so containing tongue singë noun salt sóra adj. long, trailing singwa adj. salt (salty) sorna (þ) adj. steadfast sinomë compound noun this place sornion noun eyrie sinta (Þ) adj. short sorno (Þ) noun sinta- (Þ) vb. fade soron (or sornë) (Þ) noun eagle sintamo noun smith sov- vb. wash sinwa passive participle known, sovallë noun washing, bathing; certain, ascertained purification sinya adj. new -ssë locative ending sinyë (Þ) noun evening -ssë 3rd person sg. reflexive sio adv. hence (from here) ending sir- vb. flow -sta dual 2nd person possessive sir , sira adv. hither pronominal ending your sír, shorter form of sirë noun -sta ending occurring in the river names of certain lands síra adv. today -stë 2nd person dual pronominal sírë noun river, stream ending you siril noun rivulet sû noun sound of wind sírima adj. liquid, flowing suc- vb. drink sirpë noun stem, stalk suhtë noun resin, gum sirya noun river suhto noun draught sís adv. here sulca noun edible root sisilcala- vb. shine continuously súlë (Þ) (súli-) noun spirit, breath, (silver and gold) also name of tengwa #9 síssë adv. here Súlimë noun March sítë adj. of this sort súlo (súlu-, pl. súlwi) noun goblet siulë noun incitement sulpa noun soup sívë noun knowing, knowledge súma noun hollow cavity, bosom sívë prep. as sungwa noun drinking-vessel sívë noun peace súrë (súri-) noun wind soa (söa ) noun filth surië (Þ) noun seeking soica adj. thirsty súriquessë noun wind feather sól noun helmet (herb) solma noun helmet Súro (Þ) masc. name Sauro(n) solmë noun wave alternative form of 44

surya noun spirant consonant súya- (Þ) vb. breathe

T -t dual ending talumë adv. at this time not -t them, pronominal ending referring to the present (which is ta conj. and silumë = at this time in the tá adv. then narrower sense). ta pron. that, it tam- vb. tap ta adv. so, like that, also tama noun that matter ta pron. they, them taman noun thing made by tac- vb. fasten handicraft tai pron. that which, what, which tamba- vb. knock, keep on fact knocking tai pron. 3rd person pl., used with tambaro noun woodpecker reference to inanimates rather tambë prep. so or as (referring to than persons or living things they, something remote; contrast sívë). them tamen adv. thither tai adv. then tamin (taminn-) noun forge tailë noun lengthening, extension tamma noun tool taima noun lengthening, tamna noun artifact extension tamna adj. artificial taina adj. lengthened, ex-tended, tamo noun smith stretched, elongated tampa noun stopper taina noun sign tampë noun copper taita- vb. prolong tampo noun well taitë adj. of that sort, such tana demonstrative that tál (tal-), tala pl. táli noun foot tana- vb. show, indicate talaitë adj. footed tanca adj. firm, fixed, sure talan (talam-, pl. talami) noun tancil noun pin, brooch floor, base, ground Tancol noun Signifer, the talca noun post, mark significant star = Venus tallunë (talluni-) noun sole of tanen, tánen adv. in that way, foot therefore talma noun base, foundation, root tango noun twang talo, tó. adv. thence tangwa noun hasp, clasp talta adj. sloping, tilted, leaning taniquelassë noun name of tree talta- vb. slip, slide down, tanna noun sign collapse, slope tanna pron. in allative thither taltil (taltill-, pl. taltilli) noun toe tano noun craftsman, smith taltol noun big toe 45

tanomë adv. in the place (referred Tarmenel place-name High to) Heaven tanta- vb. play a harp tarminas noun great towering tanta noun harp building, (fort, city, castle) tower tanta adj.? double tarna noun crossing, passage tantila noun harp tarquendi noun High-elves = tanwa noun sign, token Lindar (=Vanyar) tanwë noun craft, thing made, tarquesta noun high-speech, or device, construction Qenya [Quenya]) tap- vb. stop, block tarucca adj. horned tapta adj. impeded tarwa noun garden, enclosure - vb. stand tarwë noun cross, Crucifix tár noun king (only used of the tarwesta- vb. crucify legitimate kings of whole tribes) tarya adj. tough, stiff tar adv. thither taryo noun daddy tar prep. beyond tás adv. there tar- vb. stand tasar, tasarë (Þ) noun willow- -tar or tar- element meaning king tree or queen in compounds and tassa noun index finger names tassë adv. there tara adv. thither táta noun hat tára adj. lofty tatanya noun my father or my tára adj. wise daddy taran, tarambo noun buffet, tatya- vb. double blow, bang tauca adj. stiff, wooden taras noun great towering taulë noun great tree building, (fort, city, castle) tower taura adj. mighty tarca noun horn taurë noun wood, forest (great) tárë adv.? in that day taurëa adj. forested Tarelda noun High-elf taurina adj. of wood tarhildi noun High-men, the tautamo noun carpenter (carver) Noble followers, referring to the táva noun great tree Dúnedain tavar noun wood tári noun queen, used especially tavaril noun dryad, spirit of of Varda woods (fem.) tárië noun height, allative tavaro, tavaron noun dryad, Tárion noun alternative name of spirit of woods (masc.) Valanya, the last day of the tavas noun woodland Eldarin six-day week, dedicated taxë noun nail to the Powers (Valar) te pron. 3rd person pl. they, them táris(së) noun queenship tëa noun straight line, road tarma noun pillar tec- vb. write tarmen noun high place 46

tecco noun stroke of pen or brush tengwa noun letter when not used as long mark tengwa- vb. read written matter tecil noun pen tengwanda noun tehta noun mark, sign especially tengwë noun indication, sign denoting vowels in tengwelë noun language Fëanorian writing tengwesta noun system or code tel noun roof of signs, Language telar noun brick tengwestië noun language as telco noun stem of a Tengwa abstract or phenomenon symbol tenna prep. until, up to, as far as telconta- vb. stride tennoio adv. for ever Telcontar masc. name Strider tenta- vb. point to, indicate; direct telda adj. last, final toward telë- vb. finish, end (intransitive) ter, terë, prep. through, Telellië noun Teler-folk throughout telemna adj. of silver tercáno noun herald telep- noun silver tercen noun insight, literally telepsa adj. of silver through-sight Teler noun sea-elf tercenya adj. of insight Telerin adj. Telerian teren, terenë adj. slender telerinwa adj. Telerin teret noun auger, gimlet Telimbectar noun constellation: tereva adj. fine, acute Orion, lit. Swordsman of Heaven. terhat- vb. break apart telimbo noun canopy, sky termar- vb. stand Telimectar noun constellation, terra noun fine pierced hole Orion, lit. Swordsman of Heaven. tevë- vb. hate tella adj. hindmost, last tévië noun hatred tellë noun rear tevin adj. hated telluma noun dome, Thauron (Þauron) masc. name telma noun conclusion earlier form of Sauron, before the telmë noun hood, covering change th > s telpë noun silver thelma (Þelma) noun fixed idea, telpina adj. of silver will telta- vb. canopy, overshadow, tië noun path, course, line, screen direction, way teltassë noun awning tihta- vb. blink, peer telumë noun dome, roof, canopy tildë noun spike, horn telya- vb. finish, wind up, tillë noun tip, point, used with conclude (transitive) reference to fingers and toes téma noun row, series, line timbarë noun forehead téna adj. straight, right timpë noun fine rain tencelë noun , timpinë noun spray spelling tin- vb. glint 47

tinco noun metal, also name of tolma noun knob, short rounded tengwa #1 handle, etc. tinda adj. glinting, silver tolmen noun boss (of shield) tindë noun glint toloquë (kw) cardinal eighteen tindómë noun starry twilight, tolosta fraction one eighth (1/8). starlit dusk tolpo noun bowl tinga- vb. twang, make a twang tolsat fraction one eighth (1/8). tingë noun twang toltëa ordinal eighth tingilindë noun twinkling star tolto cardinal eight tingilya noun twinkling star tolu- vb. roll up tinta- vb. kindle, cause to sparkle tolvo noun big toe, stump, stub tintila- vb. twinkle tolyo noun sticker-up, prominent tintina- vb. sparkle one, term used in children's play tinwë noun spark for middle finger or middle toe tir- vb. watch, watch over, guard, tomba noun voice, vowel heed tombo noun gong tirin noun tall tower tompë noun voice, vowel tirion noun watch-tower, tower top- vb. cover tirios (tiriost-) noun town with tópa noun roof walls and towers tópa- vb. roof tiris (tiriss-) noun watch, vigil torna adj. hard tirissë noun watch, vigil tornanga adj. iron hard, lit. hard- titta adj. little, tiny iron tiuca adj. thick, fat tosta fraction one eighth (1/8) tiuco noun thigh -tsë dual locative ending tiuta- vb. comfort, console -ttë dual 3rd person pronominal tiutalë noun comfort, consolation, ending they easement -ttë 3rd person pl. reflexive tiuya- vb. swell, grow fat ending tixë noun dot, tiny mark, point tuc- vb. draw tó noun wool tuia- vb. sprout, spring tó adv. thence tuilë noun spring, spring-time toa (töa) noun wood as material tuilindo noun swallow toa adj. of wool, woollen tuima noun sprout, bud tocot noun cock tul- vb. come tol noun island, isle tulca adj. firm, strong, tolbo noun big toe, stump, stub immovable, steadfast toldëa ordinal eighth tulca- vb. fix, set up, establish toldo cardinal eight tulco noun support tollë noun steep isle tulma noun bier tollo noun sticker-up, prominent tulta- vb. send for, fetch, summon one, term used in children's play tulwë noun pillar, standard, pole for middle finger or middle toe tulya- vb. lead (+ allative) 48

tumba noun deep valley tuv- vb. find tumbë noun trumpet -twa ending for dual possessive tumbo (tumbu-) noun valley, -tya pronominal ending, 2nd under or among hills person sg. intimate/familiar your, tumna adj. lowlying, deep, low thy tumpo (tumpu-) noun hump tyal- vb. play tunda adj. tall tyalangan noun harp-player tundo noun hill, mound tyalië noun sport, play, game tunga adj. taut, tight (of strings:) tyar- vb. cause resonant tyaro noun doer, actor, agent tuo noun muscle, sinew, vigour, tyasta- vb. put to the test physical strength tyav- vb. taste tup- vb. cover tyávë noun taste tupsë noun thatch tye pron. 2nd person tur- vb. wield, control, govern intimate/familar you, thou, thee túra adj. big, great (in power) -tyë pronominal ending, 2nd Turcil noun Númenórean person familiar/intimate you, turco noun chief thou túrë noun mastery, victory, tyel (tyeld-) noun end strength, might, power tyel- vb. end, cease túrëa adj. mighty, masterful tyelca adj. swift, agile, hasty túrion (túriond-) noun palace tyelima adj. final turma noun shield tyellë noun grade turmen noun realm tyelma noun ending turu noun wood tyelpë noun silver turu- vb. master, deafeat, have tyelpetéma noun palatal series victory over tyulma noun mast turúva adj. wooden tyulussë noun poplar-tree tussa noun bush tyur noun cheese tusturë noun tinder


ú adv. and prep. without úcar- vb. sin, trespass; do wrong ú- pref. denying presence or úcarë noun debt, trespass possession of thing or quality not- úcarindo noun sinner , un-, in- uë noun fleece u- vb. not do, not be úfantima adj. not concealable ua- negative verb not do, not be úfanwa adj. not veiled or Úamanya noun one not of Aman, obscure, perspicuous Elfe úfanwëa adj. not veiled, unveiled 49

ufárëa adj. not enough úmëa adj. abundant, swarming, ui interjection no teeming uilë noun long trailing plant, úna adj. deprived of, destitute especially seaweed únat noun thing impossible to be uito interjection it is not that or to be done (emphatic word for no?) unca- vb. hollow out Úlairë noun Nazgûl undómë noun twilight, usually of Ulban (Ulband-) noun monster the time near evening, not near (a name of Melko) dawn (that is tindómë) ulca adj. evil, bad, wicked, wrong undu adv. and prep.? down, ulco (ulcu-) pl. ulqui noun evil under, beneath úlëa adj. pouring, flooding, undulav- vb. swallow, lit. lick flowing down ullumë adv. not for ever. undumë noun abyss úlumë ? adv. ever, at all times? ungo noun cloud, dark shadow ulumpë noun camel ungwalë noun torture ulundë noun flood ungwë noun spider's web, also ulundo noun monster, deformed name of tengwa #8 and hideous creature únotë, únotëa adj. not counted, ulya- vb. pour, intr. uncounted um- vb. not to do, not to be únótima adj. not possible to úma- vb. teem count, countless Úmaia noun Maia who became unqua adj. hollow evil and followed Melkor, like the unqualë noun agony, death unquë noun hole, hollow, also úmaitë adj. clumsy(-handed), name of tengwa #16 unskilled untúp- vb. down-roof = cover Úmaneldi noun Non-Aman unuhuinë prep + noun under- Elves, Elves who never dwelt in shadow Aman unutixë noun dot or point placed Úmanya noun one not of Aman, below the line of writing Elda that did not reach Aman únyárima adj. impossible to umba noun swarm recount umbar (umbart-) noun fate, uo adv. together doom, also name of tengwa #6 úpa adj. dumb umbarta- vb. define, decree, úpahtëa adj. speechless destine in more lofty senses úquétima adj. unspeakable umbas (Þ) noun shield úr noun fire umbo(n) noun hill, lump, clump, úra adj. evil, nasty mass urcárima adj. hard to make / do úmë noun great collection or urcarnë adj. hard to make / do crowd of things of same sort urda adj. hard, difficult, arduous -úmë suffix large (of quantity) 50

úrë noun heat, also name of úsahtië (Þ) noun inducement to tengwa #36 do wrong Úrimë noun August úsië adv. on the contrary úrin adj. blazing hot uscarë (Þ) noun doing wrong urna noun oven usquë noun reek ursa (Þ) noun rage usta- vb. burn (transitive) ursa- (Þ) vb. rage uswë noun issue, escape urta- vb. burn (transitive) uswevandë noun way of escape uru noun fire úva- vb. impend, be imminent – urucarin adj. made with nearly always in a bad sense difficulty -uva future tense ending uruitë adj. fiery úvana adj. unmarred urulócë noun fire-dragon úvanë adj. without beauty urus (urust-) noun copper úvanëa adj. without beauty úruva adj. fiery úvanima noun ugly uruvoitë adj. fiery úvanimo noun monster urwa adj. on fire úvë noun abundance, great urya- vb. burn (intransitive) quantity us- (Þ) pref. denoting doing úvëa adj. abundant something bad úvië noun considering a matter us- vb. escape (with a view to decision) uxarë noun doing wrong


-va possessive ending vainë noun sheath vá exclamation I will not! or Do vainolë noun quiver (= case for not! holding arrows) va prep. from vaita- vb. enfold vacco noun jacket, cloak vaiwa noun wind vaháya adj. far away vaiwë noun wind vahta- vb. soil, stain vaiya < waiya (vaia, waia) noun vaia < waia (vaiya < waiya) envelope, especially of the Outer noun envelope, especially of the Sea or Air enfolding the world Outer Sea or Air enfolding the within the Ilurambar or world- world within the Ilurambar or walls world-walls noun Power, God, angelic vailë noun wind power vailima adj. windy vala- vb. rule, only with reference vaima noun wrap, robe to the Valar vaina adj. clad 51

Valacirca noun Sickle of the vanima adj. beautiful, fair Gods, a name of the constellation Vanimo noun beautiful, children Great Bear of the Valar, or fair folk valaina adj. of or belonging to vanta- vb. walk the Valar, divine vanta noun walk Valandor place-name land of the vanwa adj. gone, lost, no longer Valar to be had, vanished Valanya noun last day of the vanwië noun past, past time Eldarin six-day week, dedicated vanya adj. fair, beautiful to the Valar váquet- vb. say no Valaquenta noun history of the var conj. or Valar vára adj. soiled, dirty Valarauco noun Demon of Might varanda adj. sublime Valarin adj. Valian, of or relating varna adj. safe, protected, secure to the Valar varnassë noun security valassë noun divinity, valahood varnë (varni-) adj. brown, swart, Valatári noun Vala-queen dark brown Valcaraucë noun varya- vb. protect vald- noun blessedness, Vása noun Consumer (the), a happiness name of the Sun valda adj. worth, worthy, dear vasar (Þ) noun veil valdëa adj. important vasarya- (Þ) vb. veil Valië noun Vala (fem.) vávëa adj. similar, alike Valimar place-name Vali-home, váya noun sea (as waters, motion) the city of the Valar in Valinor ve prep. as, like valin adj. happy ve pron. 1st person pl. inclusive Valinor place-name land (or we people) of the Valar -vë, ending used to derive Valmar place-name Valimar adverbs from adjectives (alternative form of ) Vëa adj. adult, manly, vigorous Valmo noun Vala (masc.) vëa noun wind Valon noun Vala (masc.) vëa adj. seeming, apparent -valta suffix -less vëaner noun man (adult) valto noun luck vëassë noun vigour valya adj. having (divine) vehtë noun life (individual) authority or power vehtequentalë noun biography ván noun goose vél- vb. see vanda noun oath, pledge, solemn véla adv. alike promise vendë < wendë noun maiden, vandil noun staff virgin vanessë noun beauty venë noun small boat, vessel, dish vangwë noun blow vénë < wénë noun virginity vanië noun beauty vénëa adj. maidenly, virginal 52

venessë noun virginity virya adj. fresh venno noun husband vista noun air as substance venta noun chin vista- vb. change (transitive) véra noun personal, private, own vor, voro adv. ever verca adj. wild vora, vorë adv. always vérë noun bond, troth, compact, vórëa noun continuous, enduring, oath lasting veri noun wife vorima adj. continual, repeated verië noun boldness vórima adj. steadfast in verta- vb. marry allegiance, in keeping oath or veru noun husband promise, faithful verya adj. bold voro, voro- adv. ever, continually verya- vb. dare voronda adj. steadfast in verya vb. marry allegiance, in keeping oath or veryanwë noun wedding promise, faithful vessë noun wife vorongandelë noun harping on vesta noun matrimony one tune, continual repetition. vesta- vb. wed voronwa adj. enduring, long- vestalë noun wedding lasting vi pron., 1st person pl. inclusive voronwë noun steadfastness, we loyalty, faithfulness vië noun manhood, vigour voronwië noun endurance, lasting vil- vb. fly quality vílë noun breeze (gentle) vorosanya (Þ) adj. regular, vilin adj. airy, breezy normal vilissë noun spirit -viltë adjectival ending -less vilya noun air, sky, also name of tengwa #24 vínë noun youth vinë (vini-) noun baby vinya adj. young vinyamo noun youngster Vinyarië noun Newyear's Day Víressë noun April vírië noun youth vírin noun magic glassy substance of great lucency used in fashioning the Moon. Used of things of great and pure transparency. virya- vb. change, alter(nate) (intransitive) 53

W wá noun wind wëo noun living creature waia > vaia noun envelope, were- vb. weave especially of the Outer Sea or Air wil- vb. fly enfolding the world within the wilma noun air, lower air Ilurambar or world-walls wilwa adj. vague, fluttering to wailë noun wind and fro waina, vaina adj. blonde, fair of wilwarin (wilwarind-) noun hair butterfly waita- > vaita- noun enfold wilwarindëa adj. like a wilwarin waiwa noun wind or butterfly waiya > vaiya noun envelope, wilya noun air, sky, also name of especially of the Outer Sea or Air tengwa #24 enfolding the world within the wincë noun baby, used in Ilurambar or world-walls children's play for little finger or walda adj. excited, wild little toe walmë adj. excitement, emotion winda noun woof walta- vb. excite, rouse, stir up windelë noun loom walwistë noun change of mind winë (wini-) noun baby walya- vb. be excited winga noun foam, spray wán > ván noun goose wingë noun foam, crest of wave, wanwa noun great gale crest wanwavoitë noun windy wingil (wingild-) noun nymph wáya- vb. blow winicë noun baby, used in -wë suffix occurring in many children's play for little finger or personal names, generally but not little toe exclusively masculine winima adj. childish wén noun greenness, youth, winimo noun baby, little-one, freshness used in children's play for little -wen suffix, a frequent ending in finger or little toe feminine names maiden winta- vb. scatter, blow about wen (wend-) noun maid, girl (both transitive and intransitive) wenci noun diminutive form of wintil noun glint the stem wēn- woman, maiden. winya adj. new, fresh, young wendë > vendë noun maiden winyamo noun youngster wendelë noun maidenhood wirnë noun change wénë > vénë noun virginity wistë noun weft wentë noun brook wá noun wind wenya adj. green, yellow-green, waia > vaia noun envelope, fresh especially of the Outer Sea or Air 54

enfolding the world within the wëo noun living creature Ilurambar or world-walls were- vb. weave wailë noun wind wil- vb. fly waina, vaina adj. blonde, fair of wilma noun air, lower air hair wilwa adj. vague, fluttering to waita- > vaita- noun enfold and fro waiwa noun wind wilwarin (wilwarind-) noun waiya > vaiya noun envelope, butterfly especially of the Outer Sea or Air wilwarindëa adj. like a wilwarin enfolding the world within the or butterfly Ilurambar or world-walls wilya noun air, sky, also name of walda adj. excited, wild tengwa #24 walmë adj. excitement, emotion wincë noun baby, used in walta- vb. excite, rouse, stir up children's play for little finger or walwistë noun change of mind little toe walya- vb. be excited winda noun woof wán > ván noun goose windelë noun loom wanwa noun great gale winë (wini-) noun baby wanwavoitë noun windy winga noun foam, spray wáya- vb. blow wingë noun foam, crest of wave, -wë suffix occurring in many crest personal names, generally but not wingil (wingild-) noun nymph exclusively masculine winicë noun baby, used in wén noun greenness, youth, children's play for little finger or freshness little toe -wen suffix, a frequent ending in winima adj. childish feminine names maiden winimo noun baby, little-one, wen (wend-) noun maid, girl used in children's play for little wenci noun diminutive form of finger or little toe the stem wēn- woman, maiden. winta- vb. scatter, blow about wendë > vendë noun maiden (both transitive and intransitive) wendelë noun maidenhood wintil noun glint wénë > vénë noun virginity winya adj. new, fresh, young wentë noun brook winyamo noun youngster wenya adj. green, yellow-green, wirnë noun change fresh wistë noun weft



-xë reflexive pronominal ending oneself, myself, themselves etc .

Y ya relative pronoun which yanga- vb. yawn yá adv.? postposition (?) yanta noun bridge, also name of formerly, ago tengwa #35 -ya suffix of endearment yantya- vb. add, augment yá conj. when yanwë noun bridge, joining, -ya pronominal suffix his (and isthmus probably also her, its), said to be yára adj. ancient used in colloquial Quenya yárë noun former days yaima noun implement yárëa adj. olden yaimë noun wailing yáressë noun in locative once yaimëa adj. wailing upon a time yaisa noun steel yarra- noun growl, snarl yaiwë noun mocking, scorn yaru noun gloom, blight yal- vb. summon yassë relative pronoun in locative yallumë adv.? at last in which yalmë noun clamour yassë adv. once upon a time yalúmë noun former times yat (yaht-) noun neck yalúmëa adj. olden yatta noun narrow neck, isthmus yalúmessë noun in locative yaulë noun cat onceupon a time yav- vb. bear fruit yam-, yama- vb. shout yavannamírë noun Yavanna- yámë adj.? yawning jewel, name of a tree with globed yan relative pronoun in dative and scarlet fruits for/to which or for/to whom Yavannië noun September yana demonstrative that (the yávë noun fruit former) yávië noun autumn yána adj. vast, huge yáwë noun ravine, cleft, gulf yána noun holy place, fane, yaxë noun milch cow sanctuary ye ( plural i). singular personal yanda adj. wide relative pronoun who, maybe also yando adv. also object whom


yé interjection lo! Yón noun Son yé conj.? what is more yondë noun extensive region with -yë conj. as a suffix added to the well-marked natural bounds second of a pair and yondo noun son yëa conj.? what is more yonwa noun fence, border, yello relative pronoun in boundary ablative: from whom yonyo noun son, big boy yello noun call, shout of triumph yór noun blood yelmë noun loathing yor- vb. enclose, set bounds yelta- vb. loathe, abhor to/about yelwa adj. loathsome yu- or yú- pref. twi- or both yén noun Elvish long year of 144 yualë noun twilight solar years, 52, 596 days yúcalë noun twilight yen, yendë noun daughter yul- vb. drink yenya noun (or adv.?) last year yúla noun ember, smouldering yëo relative pronoun in genitive wood from whom yulda noun draught yérë noun sexual desire yulma noun cup yerna adj. old, worn yulmë noun drinking, carousal yerya- vb. wear (out), also intr. yuncë cardinal twelve get old yunquë cardinal twelve yesta- vb. desire yunquenta cardinal thirteen yesta noun beginning yunquesta fraction one twelfth yestarë noun beginning-day, the yur- vb. run first day of the year yurasta cardinal twenty-four Yésus masc. name Jesus yúyal noun twilight yéta- vb. look at yúyo noun? adv.? both yo prep. with yomenië noun meeting, gathering (of three or more coming from different directions)



A abandon, put aside, leave out, add, augment vb. yantya- exclude, forsake vb. hehta- adhere, stick to, cleave to, abide abhor, feel disgust at vb. feuya- by vb. himya- abhor, loathe vb. yelta- adhering, sticking adj. himba abide by, stick to, adhere, cleave adjectival ending -inqua to vb. himya- adjectival suffix -ima abide, be settled or fixed vb. mar- admirable, excellent, precious ablative ending -ello noun maira abominably, ill, grievously prefix adorn, trim vb. netya- nai- adult, manly, vigorous adj. vëa abundance, great quantity noun affect, touch (one) in the úvë figurative sense; concern vb. ap- abundant adj. úvëa affect, touch (one) in the abundant, rich adj. alya figurative sense; concern vb. ap- abundant, swarming, teeming adj. affectionate, loving adj. méla úmëa after prep. apa abyss noun undumë after (of time), before, in front of accommodate, fit vb. camta- (of spatial relationships) prep. po, account, history noun quentalë pó accursed, cursed adj. húna after (of time), before, in front of acquire information, learn, not by (of spatial relationships) prep. experience but by instruction in pono words or writing vb. par- after (of time); in front of, before acre, sown field noun resta (of spatial relationships) prep. across prep. arta opo act of thinking, thought noun After-born, an Elvish name of sanwë Mortal Men as the Second-born act of will, exercise of will noun of Ilúvatar noun Apanónar nirmë after-name, nickname noun actor, doer, agent noun tyaro epessë actual, existing, true adj. nanwa again, also adv. ata actual, real, true adj. anwa again, back, re- prefix ata-, at- acute, fine adj. tereva again-, re- prefix en- add vb. napan-


age, cycle, (100 Valian Years) alternative name of Valanya, the noun randa last day of the Eldarin six-day agent, doer, actor noun tyaro week, dedicated to the Powers agile, swift, hasty adj. tyelca (Valar) noun Tárion ago, formerly adv.? postposition always adv. illumë (?) yá always adv. vora, vorë agony, death noun anqualë ambidexter noun ataformo agony, death noun qualmë ambidexter noun attaformo agony, death noun unqualë ambidextrous adj. ataformaitë Ah!, Alas! interjection ai! ambidextrous adj. attaformaitë ailing, drooping adj. nimpa ame of tengwa #24 also air, sky air as substance noun vista noun vilya air, lower air noun wilma amen, may it be so interjection air, sky, also name of tengwa #24 násië noun vilya among prep. imíca air, sky, also name of tengwa #24 among prep. mici noun wilya ancient adj. yára air, tune, singing, song noun lindë and conj. a airy, breezy adj. vilin and conj. ar alike adv. véla and conj. arë alike, similar adj. ovéa and conj. o alike, similar adj. vávëa and conj. ta alive adj. coina and conj. as a suffix added to the alive adj. cuina second of a pair -yë all noun illi and yet, but yet conj. ananta all adj. and noun ilya angelic power, Power, God noun all (the), the whole adj and noun Vala quanda angelic spirit, holy one ; fem. allative, height noun tárië Aini noun Ainu All-father, God masc. name angle noun neccë Ilúvatar angular, sharp noun nerca allness, the all noun ilúvë animal noun kelva allow, yield, grant vb. lav- animal (usually applied to four- Almighty (the) noun Sanavaldo footed beasts, and never to AlmightyCreator (the) who reptiles and birds) noun laman dwells without the world masc. (lamn- or laman-) name Enu animal, living thing that moves alone, one cardinal er noun celva alone, single adj. erinqua announcement, order noun canwa alphabet noun tengwanda another, other noun eces also adv. yando another, other noun exë also, again adv. ata answer vb.? or noun? hanquenta also, so, like that adv. ta 59

any formation or projection asleep adj. lorna tapering to a point: a spearhead, assemblage, gathering, assembly gore, wedge, narrow promontory noun ocombë noun nehtë assemble (transitive), gather vb. anyone, one, someone indefinite comya- pronoun o assemble (intransitive), gather vb. apparent, seeming adj. vëa ócom- apparition spectral or vague noun assemble, gather, collect vb. ausa (þ) hosta- appear, of beautiful things, attract assembly, gathering, assemblage (with dative) vb. lelya- noun ocombë appearance noun ilcë assist, ease, comfort vb. asya- (Þ) apple noun orva associate [female], sister noun April noun Víressë osellë (Þ) April (alternative name of) noun associate [male], brother, sworn Ertuilë brother noun otorno arch, crescent noun cú at all times, ever? adv. úlumë? arched or vaulted roof noun at last adv.? yallumë rondo at one time, once, (in the past) arduous, hard, difficult adj. urda nëa arm noun ranco (rancu-) pl. at peace, resting adj. senda ranqui at this time adv. silumë army, band, troop noun hossë at this time not referring to the Arnor = King’s-land noun present (which is silumë = at this Arandóre time in the narrower sense). adv. arrangement, plan noun pano talumë arrow noun pilin (pilind-) at, in preposition se, long sé art noun Carmë at, to, upon allative ending -nna artifact noun tamna at what time? interrogative word artificial adj. tamna malumë? artist, usually a poet except in athwart prep. lanna compounds noun maitar auger, gimlet noun teret as prep. ier augment, add vb. yantya- as prep. sívë August noun Úrimë as far as, until, up to prep. tenna August (alternative name of) as, like prep. ve noun Metelairë ascension noun orosta autumn noun yávië ascent noun rosta autumn (alternative term for) ascertained, known, certain adj. noun Endien sína autumn, fire-fading noun ascertained, known, certain =arquelion passive participle sinwa available (quickly), ready to hand ask vb. maquet- adj. férima 60

available (quickly), ready to hand away adverbs oa, oar (öa, öar) , adj. ferina away from prep. ollo avenge, do back, react vb. accar- away, from verbal prefix hó- avenge, do back, react vb. ahtar- away, off verbal prefix au- avenue of trees noun aldëon awe noun áya awake adj. coiva awkward, difficult adj. hraia awake adj. cuiva awkward, hard, stiff, difficult adj. awake vb. eccoita- hranga awakening noun cuivë awning noun teltassë awakening noun cuivië axe noun pelecco

B babe noun lapsë banned, refused, forbidden adj. baby noun vinë (vini-) avanwa baby noun winë (wini-) bare adj. parna baby, little-one, used in children's barn fowl, hen noun porocë play for little finger or little toe base, floor, ground noun talan noun winimo (talam-) baby, used in children's play for base, foundation, root noun talma little finger or little toe noun bathing, washing, purification winicë noun sovallë back, again, re- prefix ata-, at- batter, beat vb. palpa- back, rear noun pontë (ponti-) be afflicted, labour vb. moia- backwards prefix nan- be chill, cold (of weather) vb. bad magic noun felu nicu- bad, evil, wicked adj. olca be compelled to do something, bad, evil, wicked, wrong adj. ulca have an impulse noun horya- bake vb. masta- be excited vb. walya- bake (by exposure to sun), heat be gone! stand aside! vb. in vb. asta- imperative heca! bale out, draw water, scoop out be heavy stative vb. lumna- vb. calpa- be imminent, impend – nearly ball, globe noun coron always in a bad sense vb. úva- balrog noun Valcaraucë be it that imperative verb nai band, army, troop noun hossë be settled or fixed, abide vb. mar- bang, buffet, blow noun taran, be sick, vomit vb quama- . tarambo beach, shore noun fára bank (river) noun ráva beach, shore noun hresta


beach, shore noun falas (falass-), before, in front of (of spatial falassë relationships) after (of time) prep. bear noun morco pono bear fruit vb. yav- before, in front of (of spatial bear, carry vb. col- relationships); after (of time) beard noun fanga prep. opo bearer noun colindo beget vb. nosta- bearing yellow flowers adj. beget, create vb. onta- ornemalin begetter, mother (fem.) noun beat, batter vb. palpa- ontaril beautiful adj. calwa begetter, parent noun ontar Beautiful (the) noun Maia begetter, parent (fem); the pl. Beautiful (the) noun Máya pl. ontari or dual ontaru (see ontani) Máyar covers both sexes. noun ontarë beautiful and fine, delicate, begetter, parent (fem.) noun slender adj. lelya ontarië beautiful, children of the Valar, begetter, parent (masc.); pl. ontari fair folk noun Vanimo noun ontaro beautiful, fair adj. vanima beginning noun essë beautiful, fair adj. vanya beginning noun yesta beautiful, fair (of sound) adj. beginning-day, the first day of the linda year noun yestarë beautiful, lovely, desirable adj. behave vb. lenga- (weak verb) írima behind, at back of place prep? ca, beauty noun vanessë cata, cana beauty noun vanië behind, at back of place prep? bed noun caima cana bedchamber noun caimasan behind, at back of place prep? bedridden, sick adj. caimassëa cata bee noun nion behold! interjection ela! beech noun neldor behold, see vb. cen- beech, beech-tree noun feren being noun návë (fern-) being, spirit noun ëala beechen adj. ferinya believe vb. sav- beechnuts, mast noun ferna bell noun nyellë beech-tree noun fernë ( pl. ferni) beloved, dear, sweet adj. melda before prep. epë belt, girdle noun quilta before (of time), at back (of beneath, down, under adv. and spatial relationships). prep. nó prep.? undu before, in front of (of spatial beneath, not touching prep. ní relationships) after (of time) prep. bent adj. locin po, pó bent, crooked, wrong adj. raicë bent, curved adj. acúna 62

bent, curved adj. cúna blaspheme, curse vb. naiquet- bent, humped adj. numba blaze, fire noun ruinë bent, stiff dry grass noun sara blazing hot adj. úrin berry noun pië blazing, fiery adj. ruina beside, outside prefix ar- bless vb. aista- between prep. enel bless vb. manta- between prep imbë bless vb. manya- between prep. mitta- bless (a work), cause to prosper, beyond prep. han help one vb. alya- beyond postposition pella bless, hallow, treat as holy vb. beyond prep. tar aina- beyond, also used in phrases of bless, praise vb. laita- comparison prep. lá blessed adj. almárëa bier noun tulma blessed adj. amanya big adj. polda blessed adj. mána big boy, son noun yonyo blessed adj. manaitë big toe noun taltol blessed adj. manaquenta big toe, stump, stub noun tolbo blessed adj. manna big toe, stump, stub noun tolvo blessed adj. manquë, manquenta big, great (in power) adj. túra blessed, fortunate, wealthy, rich big, large adj. höa adj. herenya biography noun vehtequentalë blessed, free from evil adj. aman biped adj. attalaitë blessed, holy (of things) adj. birch noun hwindë ainima bird (small) noun aiwë blessedness, good fortune noun Birdland = lower air place-name almarë Aiwenor, Aiwenorë blessedness, good fortune noun birth, birthday noun nosta almië bit, crumb, small piece noun mië blessedness, happiness noun bite noun nahta vald- bitter adj. sára blessing, good thing, piece of bitterly painful, grievous adj. good fortune noun almë naica blight, gloom noun yaru black arts, secrecy noun núlë blink, peer vb. tihta- black, dark, darkness adj. morë block, stop vb. tap- black, dark, gloomy adj. morna blonde, fair of hair adj. waina, blackberry noun piucca vaina blackness, dark, night, darkness blood noun sercë noun mórë blood noun yór blade of a cutting tool or weapon, bloom vb. losta- especially sword-blade noun bloom noun olótë maica blossom noun lossë blade, share noun hyanda blossom (golden) noun lávar 63

blossom (golden) noun löar bound, enclose vb. lanya- blot noun motto bound, obliged adj. nauta blow noun vangwë boundary noun landa blow vb. wáya- boundary post or mark noun blow about (both transitive and lantalca intransitive), scatter vb. winta- boundary, fence noun pelo blow, buffet, bang noun taran, boundary, fence, border noun tarambo yonwa blow; fly or stream in the wind bow vb. caw- vb. hlapu- bow vb. luhta- blue adj. luinë bow noun lúva blue adj. ninwa bow noun quinga blue (pale) adj. helwa bow, crescent noun cúnë Blue Mountains noun Lúnoronti bowels, entrails noun hir (hird-) blue pale adj. ilin bowl noun salpa bluish adj. luinincë (luininci-) bowl noun salpë boat noun luntë bowl noun tolpo body noun hroa bowl, goblet noun fion bold adj. canya box noun colca bold adj. verya branch noun olba boldness noun verië branch noun olwa bolster, cushion noun nirwa branch, wand, stick noun olwen bond, knot noun nútë (olwenn-) bond, troth, compact, oath noun bread noun massa vérë bread noun masta bone noun axo bread (as a material) noun massë book, also name of tengwa #2 break vb. rac- noun parma break apart vb. terhat- book-fair noun parma-resta break asunder vb. ascat- book-language noun breast, chest noun ambos parmalambë (ambost-) border, edge, hem noun ríma breast-plate, hauberk noun border, edge, margin noun réna ambassë border, fence, boundary noun breath, breeze, puff of air, also yonwa name of tengwa #12 noun hwesta borne, worn passive participle breath, puff of breath noun foa colla breath, spirit, also name of bosom, hollow cavity noun súma tengwa #9 noun súlë (Þ) (súli-) bosom, surface, bosom of Earth breathe vb. súya- (Þ) noun palúrë breeze (gentle) noun vílë boss (of shield) noun tolmen breeze, breath, puff of air, also both noun? adv.? yúyo name of tengwa #12 noun hwesta bottle noun olpë breezy, airy adj. vilin 64

brick noun telar builder, carpenter, wright noun bride, wife noun indis samno (Þ) bridge, also name of tengwa #35 building (especially of wood), noun yanta wooden hall noun ampano bridge, joining, isthmus noun building, construction noun yanwë ataquë bright adj. calima built fort or dwelling surrounded bright, light adj. et nom calina by bulwarks noun carassë brightest adj. ancalima bull noun mundo brilliance, clarity noun calassë bunch, cluster noun loxë brilliance, glory, splendour noun burden noun cólo alcar burdensome, lying heavy, broad sword, also prow of a ship oppressive, ominous adj. lumna noun lango burly, strong adj. polda brooch, pin noun tancil burn (intransitive) vb. urya- brood, lower vb. luvu- burn (transitive) vb. urta- brook noun nellë burn (transitive) vb. usta- brook noun wentë bush noun tussa brooklet noun celussë but conj. apa brother noun háno but conj. mal brother noun onóro but conj. nan brother, also used in children's but conj. nó play for middle finger noun but conj. onë hanno but conj. ono brother, sworn brother, [male] but yet, and yet conj. ananta associate noun otorno but, on the contrary, on the other brotherhood noun otornassë hand conj. ná brown, swart, dark brown adj. butterfly noun wilwarin varnë (varni-) (wilwarind-) bud, sprout noun tuima buttocks, hams noun hacca buffet, blow, bang noun taran, by prep. ar- tarambo by, from prep. ló, lo build vb. carasta- bystander (supporter) noun build vb. carasta- artarindo build, make vb. car- bystander, mainly used in the sense witness noun astarmo

C call, shout of triumph noun yello camel noun ulumpë 65

can = have physical power and cave, mine, underground dwelling ability vb. pol- noun felco can in the sense be free to do, cease (intr.), stop vb. pusta- being under no restraint (physical cease, end vb. tyel- or other). vb. lerta- cease, take a rest, stop vb. hauta- candle, taper noun lícuma center, heart noun enda Cannibal-ogres pl. noun center, middle noun endë Sarquindi central, middle adj. enetya canopy, dome, roof noun telumë central, middle adj. entya, enetya canopy, overshadow, screen vb. certain, known, ascertained adj. telta- sína canopy, sky noun telimbo certain, known, ascertained cape (of land) noun nortil passive participle sinwa (nortill-) chair noun hamma cape, snout, nose noun mundo chamber, room noun sambë (Þ) capital of the Teleri place-name champion, eminent man noun Alqualondë aráto captain noun hesto chance, happen vb. marta- carcanet, necklace noun firinga change noun wirnë carousal, drinking noun yulmë change (intransitive) vb. ahya- carpenter (carver) noun tautamo change (transitive) vb. vista- carpenter, wright, builder noun change of mind noun walwistë samno (Þ) change of mind, mood noun inwis carry, bear vb. col- change, alter(nate) (intransitive) cart noun norollë vb. virya- cast shadow noun hala channel noun celma Castle of Custody noun Mandos chant vb. lir- (Mandost-) characteristic look, gesture noun cat noun mëoi lengë cat noun yaulë chasm noun cilya catch in a net vb. raita- chastisement noun paimesta catch, hook noun atsa cheese noun tyur cause vb. tyar- cherry tree, plum tree noun aipio cause to go, send vb. menta- chest, breast noun ambos cause to prosper, bless (a work), (ambost-) help one vb. alya- chief noun turco cause to sparkle, kindle vb. tinta- chief, principal adj. héra cause, reason noun casta chieftain, king noun haran cave noun felya (harn-) cave noun rotelë child noun hína cave (artificial), dwelling child noun onwë underground noun hróta Child of Aulë, a name of the Dwarves noun Aulëonna 66

child of gloom noun lómëar cleft, split noun? or adj? sanca childish adj. winima (Þ) children collective (?) noun sén clever (in petty ways) adj. finca children of the Valar, beautiful, clever(-fingered) adj. finya fair folk noun Vanimo clever(-fingered) adj. leptafinya chill, white, palid adj. ninquë cliff, seaward precipice noun ollo chin noun venta cloak, jacket noun vacco choosing noun cilmë cloak, veil, mantle vb. fanta- Christ noun Elpino close, shut vb. holta- Christ noun Hristo close, shut vb. holya- chronological account, history closed, shut, private adj. pahta noun lumenyárë cloth, tissue noun lannë chronological account, history cloud noun fána noun lúmequenta cloud noun lumbo circle noun rindë cloud (white) noun fanya circular adj. rinda cloud, dark shadow noun ungo circular enclosure noun corin clump, hill, lump, mass noun circular enclosure noun cormë umbo(n) circular enclosure, mound noun clumsy(-handed), unskilled adj. cormen úmaitë city, fort, with a citadel and cobweb noun hlínë central watch-tower noun cock noun tocot minassë cold adj. ringa clad adj. vaina cold adj. ringë clamour noun indyalmë cold pool or lake (in mountains) clamour noun yalmë noun ringwë clan, family, house, kindred, cold, be chill, (of weather) vb. family noun nossë nicu- clarity, brilliance noun calassë collapse, fall in vb. atalta- clasp, hasp noun tangwa collapse, slip, slide down, slope claw, talon noun namma vb. talta- claw, talon noun nappa collect, gather, assemble vb. clean, pure adj. poica hosta- cleanse vb. poita- collection, gathering noun combë cleared (of land), open, free adj. colour, hue noun quilë latin, latina come vb. tul- cleave vb. hyandë come back, return, go back vb. cleave vb. hyar- nanwen- cleave to, stick to, adhere, abide come forth vb. ettul- by vb. himya- comfort, consolation, easement cleft, gash noun hyatsë noun tiutalë cleft, ravine, gulf noun yáwë comfort, console vb. tiuta- comfort, ease noun asië (Þ) 67

comfort, ease, assist vb. asya- (Þ) conspicuous, prominent adj. command, order vb. can- minda commander noun cáno constellation, Orion, lit. commandment, law, rule noun Swordsman of Heaven. noun axan Telimectar commemorate, recall vb. enyal- constellation: Orion, lit. commerce noun mancalë Swordsman of Heaven. noun communication, enquiry noun Telimbectar centa construction, building noun compact, bond, troth, oath noun ataquë vérë construction, craft, thing made, compel vb. mauya- device noun tanwë completely, fully adv. aqua Consumer (the), a name of the composer, musician noun Sun noun Vása lindimaitar contemptible, mean adj. faica compulsion noun mausta continual, repeated adj. vorima conceal, lie vb. fur- continually, ever adv. voro, voro- conceal, lie vb. hur- continuous, enduring, lasting conceal, veil, screen from light noun vórëa vb. halya- control, wield, govern vb. tur- concealed, hidden adj. furin cooked food, meat noun apsa concealed, hidden adj. hurin copper noun tampë conception, idea noun nó (nów-) copper noun urus (urust-) conception, idea noun noa copula, dome noun telluma conch, shell, horn of Ulmo noun corpse noun quelet (quelets-) hyalma corpse, dead body noun loico conclude (transitive), finish, wind corpse-candle noun loicolícuma up vb. telya- corruscation noun russë conclusion noun telma count up vb. onot- confidential adj. oholima countable adj. nótima confused, shattered, disordered, counting noun nótië ruined adj. (or passive countless, not possible to count participle?) rúcina adj. únótima consequently adv. epetai country noun nórië considering a matter (with a view course, path, line, direction, way to decision) noun úvië noun tië consolation, comfort, easement court, paved floor noun paca noun tiutalë cover vb. top- console, comfort vb. tiuta- cover vb. tup- consonant noun lambetengwë covering, hood noun telmë consonant noun or adj. návëa craft noun curwë consonant noun pataca craft, thing made, device, construction noun tanwë 68

craftsman, smith noun tano crowned adj. rína create, beget vb. onta- crowned with Stars, a name of creature noun onna Taniquetil adj. used as noun crescent, arch noun cú Elerína crescent, bow noun cúnë crowned with Stars, a name of crest of wave, foam noun wingë Taniquetil adj. used as noun crest, ridge noun quín, quínë Elerrína crested adj. quinna Crucifix, cross noun tarwë crime noun ongwë crucify vb. tarwesta- crooked adj. cauca cruel adj. nwalca crooked adj. hwarin crumb, bit, small piece noun mië crooked, bent, wrong adj. raicë crumble vb. ruxa- crooked, hooked adj. rempa crystal, glass noun maril cross vb. langa- cup noun yulma cross, Crucifix noun tarwë cupola, dome noun coromindo cross, pass over, surpass, excel curse vb. húta- vb. lahta- curse, blaspheme vb. naiquet- crossbar noun hwarma cursed, accursed adj. húna crossing, passage noun tarna curved, bent adj. acúna crow noun corco curved, bent adj. cúna crow noun quáco cushion, bolster noun nirwa crowd of things of same sort, custody, prison noun mando great collection noun úmë cut vb. and noun rista-, rista crowd, host, great number noun cut off vb. hóciri- rimbë cut, hew vb. nac- crowd, press, throng noun sanga cycle, age (100 Valian Years) (Þ) noun randa crown noun ríë

D daddy noun ataryo dance vb. lilta- daddy noun atya danger noun raxë daddy noun taryo dangle, hang vb. linga- daddy, father noun atto Danian, Green-elf noun =ana dagger noun naica dare vb. verya- dagger, knife noun sicil dark brown, brown, swart adj. daily adj. ilaurëa varnë (varni-) dainty, pretty adj. netya dark shadow, cloud noun ungo dale, dell noun nal, nallë dark weather noun lúrë 69

dark, black, darkness adj. morë deafeat, master, have victory over dark, black, gloomy adj. morna vb. turu- dark, blackness, night, darkness dear adj. melin noun mórë dear, beloved, sweet adj. melda dark, dark brown, used to refer to dear, familiar adj. moina hair adj. hróva dear, worth, worthy adj. valda dark, dusky, obscure, secret adj. death noun effírië nulla death noun nuru, =uru dark, overcast adj. lúrëa death, agony noun anqualë darkness noun mor death, agony noun qualmë darkness noun mornië death, agony noun unqualë darkness, black, dark adj. morë death, dying noun firië darkness, blackness, dark, night death-shadow noun nuruhuinë noun mórë debt, trespass noun lucië dative ending -n debt, trespass noun lucassë dative pl. ending -in debt, trespass noun rohta daughter noun anel debt, trespass noun ruhta daughter patronymic (or debt, trespass noun úcarë matronymic) -iel debtor noun rocindë daughter noun yen, yendë debtor noun rucindë dawn noun ára debtor, one who trespasses noun day noun ar lucando day noun árë debtor, one who trespasses noun day (24-hour) noun ré lucindo Day of Completion, Oldyear's December noun Ringarë Day noun Quantarië December (alternative name of ) Day of Manwe noun Ar Manwen noun =orrívë Day of the Fanturi (Mandos and declivity, slope, downslope noun Lorien) noun Ar Fanturion pendë Day of the Spouses (Aule and decorate, make, or finish off a Yavanna) noun Ar Veruen thing with delicate work vb. Day of the three (younger gods), finta- Ossë, Orome and Tulkas noun decree, define, destine vb. marta- =eldion decree, define, destine in more Day of Ulmo noun Ar Ulmon lofty senses vb. umbarta- day, sunlight noun aurë deed noun carda day, twelve hours noun arya deed noun carda daytime noun arië deep adj. núra dead adj. qualin deep shadow noun fuinë dead (by natural cause) adj. firin deep shadow noun huinë dead body, corpse noun loico deep valley noun tumba dead, withered adj. hessa deep, lowlying, low adj. tumna define, decree, destine vb. marta- 70

define, decree, destine in more desiring to start, eager to go adj. lofty senses vb. umbarta- mína defined (well-) within bounds, despise vb. nattira- limited, finite adj. lanwa destine vb. martya- deformed and hideous creature, destine in more lofty senses, monster noun ulundo define, decree vb. umbarta- delayed, restrained, kept adj. destine, define, decree vb. marta- hampa destiny noun maranwë delicate, beautiful and fine, destitute, deprived of adj. úna slender adj. lelya device, craft, thing made, deliver, save vb. etelehta- construction noun tanwë dell, dale noun nal, nallë dew, fine rain noun rossë dell, deep vale noun imbë dewy, moist adj. nítë (níti-) demon noun rauca dexter, right adj. forya Demon of Might noun Valarauco dexterity noun fínë demon, terrible creature noun dexterous adj. fínëa arauco dexterous adj. finwa denoting difficulty pref. hrai- dexterous, righthanded adj. denoting easiness in doing (as- formaitë before p, t, c, q, s ) pref. asa- (Þ) dictum, saying, quotation noun deny vb. lala- eques (equess-) depart vb. av- die vb. qual- departed spirit noun manu difficult, awkward adj. hraia departure, leaving noun lenwë difficult, awkward, hard, stiff adj. deprive vb. nehta- hranga deprived of, destitute adj. úna difficult, hard, arduous adj. urda deprived, stripped adj. racina dig vb. sap- or sapa- descendant, grandchild noun dim to see, pale, vague, faint adj indyo néca descendant, son (of) patronymic diphthong noun ocamna ending -ion diphthong noun ohlon desert noun erumë diphthong noun osamna deserted, solitary adj. erda diphthong noun samna desirable, lovely, beautiful adj. direct toward, point to, indicate írima vb. tenta- desire noun írë direction of travel, passage, desire vb. yesta- journey noun mentië desire to go in some direction vb. direction, path, course, line, way mína- noun tië desire, greed noun milmë dirty, soiled adj. vára desire, judgement noun náma discoloured, smeared adj. púrëa desire, judgement noun námië disembodied spirit, phantom noun desire, wish, want vb. mer- fairë 71

disgust, horror, pain interjection doom, final end, fate, fortune horro noun manar dish, small boat, vessel noun venë doom, final end, fate, fortune disordered, confused, shattered, noun mandë ruined adj. (or passive door noun fenna participle?) rúcina dot or point placed above the line dispositions and will of Eru, with of writing noun amatixë regard to Creation as a whole dot or point placed below the line noun Eämbar of writing noun unutixë distant, far, wide, to a great extent dot, small spot noun pica root element (apparently not dot, tiny mark, point noun tixë appearing alone) palan- double adj. atwa distribute in even portions vb. double adj.? tanta estat- double vb. tatya- distribute in even portions vb. dough noun maxë etsat- dove noun cua divide in middle, halve vb. perya- dove noun cucua divided in middle, halved adj.? down below, underneath adv. nún perina down, under, beneath adv. and divinity, valahood noun valassë prep.? undu do a thing (with fine work) vb. downfall noun atalantë finya- downfallen adj. atalantëa do back, react, avenge vb. accar- down-roof = cover vb. untúp- do back, react, avenge vb. ahtar- downslope, slope, declivity noun Do not!, I will not! exclamation pendë vá drag, large, flat vehicle on wheels do wrong, sin, trespass vb. úcar- or rollers for hauling stone or doer, actor, agent noun tyaro other weighty material noun raxa dog noun huo dragon noun angulócë dog noun roa dragon, snake noun lócë doing or making a thing very draught noun suhto badly noun saucarë draught noun yulda doing wrong noun uscarë (Þ) draw vb. tuc- doing wrong noun uxarë draw water, scoop out, bale out dome, copula noun telluma vb. calpa- dome, cupola noun coromindo draw, pull vb. saca- (Þ) dome, roof, canopy noun telumë dreadful, horrible, unendurable Don't! negative imperative adj. naira particle áva, avá dream noun olor doom noun ambar dream (impersonal) vb. óla- doom, fate, also name of tengwa dream, vision noun olos (olor-) #6 noun umbar (umbart-) dream, vision noun maur dreamy adj. olórëa 72

dreamy adj. olosta dusk, twilight, night noun lómë dressed leather noun alu dusky, dark, obscure, secret adj. drink vb. suc- nulla drink vb. yul- dust noun asto drink of the Valar noun limpë Dwarf noun Casar drinking, carousal noun yulmë Dwarf noun =auco drinking-vessel noun sungwa dwarf noun =orno drinking-vessel (made of glass) dweller noun mardo noun cilinyul dwelling noun farnë drip vb. lipta- dwelling, place dwelt in noun drooping, ailing adj. nimpa marda drop noun limba dwelling or built fort surrounded drowsy, slumbrous adj. lorda by bulwarks noun carassë dry adj. parca dwelling underground, artificial dryad, spirit of woods (fem.) noun cave noun hróta tavaril dwelling, earth, home noun mar dryad, spirit of woods (masc.) (mard-) noun tavaro, tavaron dwelling, home, house noun már dual ablative ending -ilto, (mar-) dual ending -t dwelling-house noun martan dual locative ending -tsë (martam-) dumb adj. úpa dwindle, lessen, waning vb. píca- dusk noun histë dying, death noun firië

E eager to go, desiring to start adj. Earth, world noun ambar mína earthen, earth adj. cemna eagle noun sorno (Þ) Earth-queen, title of Yavanna eagle noun soron (or sornë) (Þ) noun Kementári ear noun hlas (hlar-) ease, assist, comfort vb. asya- (Þ) ear noun lár ease, comfort noun asië (Þ) earlier form of Sauron, before the easement, comfort, consolation change th > s masc. name noun tiutalë Thauron (Þauron) easily heard adj. asalastë (Þ) earth noun cemen easily seen, visible adj. ascenë earth noun kemen (Þ) earth, earthen adj. cemna easily seen, visible adj. ascénima earth, home, dwelling noun mar (Þ) (mard-) east noun hrómen earth, soil noun cén (cem-) east noun rómen, Rómen 73

eastern adj. hróna Elf, (high-) elf noun elda eastern adj. orróna Elf-friend noun Eldandil eastern adj. rómenya Elf-lovers noun Eldameldor Eastern Men noun Hrónatani Elf-stone masc. name Elessar Eastern, of the dawn adj. órëa elm noun albë eat vb. mat- elm noun alvë ebb, lowtide noun nanwë elm, elm-tree noun alalmë ebb-tide noun lanwë (lanwi-) elm-tree noun lalmë echo noun nalláma, nallama elongated, lengthened, ex-tended, echo, ringing sound noun láma stretched adj. taina echoing adj. lámina Elven-folk noun Eldalië eddy, swirl, gyrate vb. hwinya- Elvenhome place-name Eldamar eddy, whirlpool noun hwindë Elves as a race noun Quendi edge, border, margin noun réna Elves of the Light, Light-elves pl. edge, hem, border noun ríma noun Calaquendi edible adj. mátima Elves remaining behind = Telerin edible root noun sulca Ilkorins noun Lembi eight cardinal toldo Elves that refused to go to Aman eight cardinal tolto (= Avari) noun Avamanyar eighteen cardinal nahta Elves who started on the march eighteen cardinal toloquë (kw) from Cuiviénen but did not reach eighth ordinal toldëa Aman noun Alamanya eighth ordinal toltëa Elves, First-born (as contrasted to elbow noun ólemë Apanónar, the After-born, Men). Eldarin six-day week noun pl. noun Minnónar enquië Elvish long year of 144 solar Eldarin, Elvish adj. Eldarin years, 52, 596 days noun yén Elder of the Elvish man noun quendu, pl. (Telperion, the White Tree). name quendur Silpion Elvish woman noun quendi, pl. element meaning king or queen in quendir compounds and names -tar or Elvish, Eldarin adj. Eldarin tar- ember, smouldering wood noun elephant noun andamunda yúla eleven cardinal minquë eminent man, champion noun Elf noun quendë aráto Elf that refused to go to Aman, emit light vb. faina- recusant noun avar emotion, excitement adj. walmë Elf who departed from Beleriand emotion, impulse noun felmë to Aman noun Aurel (Aureld-, empty adj. cumna pl. Aureldi) empty, void adj. lusta Elf who departed from Beleriand empty, wast, wide noun naira to Aman noun Oarel (Oareld-) enchant vb. luhta- 74

enchantment noun lúcë ending occurring in the names of enclose, bound vb. lanya- certain lands -sta enclose, set bounds to/about vb. ending used to derive adverbs yor- from adjectives -vë enclosure noun panda ending used to form passive enclosure, garden noun tarwa participles as well as some end noun metta adjectives -na end noun tyel (tyeld-) endless period noun oio end (intransitive), finish vb. telë- endurance, lasting quality noun end, cease vb. tyel- voronwië end, point noun mentë enduring, continuous, lasting ending ending -dur noun vórëa ending noun tyelma enduring, long-lasting adj. ending case called respective -s voronwa ending for dual ablative -lto enemy noun cotto ending for dual allative -nta enemy noun cotumo ending for dual dative -nt enemy noun notto ending for dual instrumental - enfold vb. vaita- nten enfold noun waita- > vaita- ending for dual possessive -twa enlaced, nettled adj. raina ending for partitive pl. ablative - enough adj.? fárëa lillo or -lillon enough adv. faren ending for partitive pl. allative - enquire of, question vb. ces- (Þ) linna or -linnar enquiry noun minasurie (Þ) ending for partitive pl. dative -lin enquiry, communication noun ending for partitive pl. genitive - centa lion entangled adj. rembina ending for partitive pl. entrails, bowels noun hir (hird-) instrumental -línen entrap, net vb. remba- ending for partitive pl. locative - envelope, especially of the Outer lissë or -lissen Sea or Air enfolding the world ending for partitive pl. possessive within the Ilurambar or world- -líva walls noun vaia < waia (vaiya < ending for passive participle -ina waiya) ending forming nouns from envelope, especially of the Outer verbal stems -ndë Sea or Air enfolding the world ending forming nouns that seem within the Ilurambar or world- properly to have been universal walls noun vaiya < waiya (vaia, and abstract -lë waia) ending frequent in names and envelope, especially of the Outer titles, sometimes with an agental Sea or Air enfolding the world significance -mo within the Ilurambar or world- walls noun waia > vaia 75

envelope, especially of the Outer exchange vb. quapta- Sea or Air enfolding the world excite, rouse, stir up vb. walta- within the Ilurambar or world- excited, wild adj. walda walls noun waiya > vaiya excitement, emotion adj. walmë envenom, poison, fill with poison exclude, put aside, leave out, vb. hloita- abandon, forsake vb. hehta- errant adj. ránen excluding, except prep. hequa erratic wandering noun ranya exelling, used as the comparative escape vb. us- form of mára adj. arya escape, issue noun uswë exercise of will, act of will noun establish, fix, set up vb. tulca- nirmë etcetera adv. arta Exiled Noldor noun Etyangol eternal adj. oialëa (Etyangold-) eternal adj. oira existing, actual, true adj. nanwa even thou, emphatic 2nd person expand, open wide, spread, sg. pronoun pron. elyë extend vb. palu- evening noun sinyë (Þ) expand, open wide, spread, evening, sunset, west noun extend vb. palya- andúnë expansive, wide adj. palla ever adv. vor, voro extend, open wide, spread, ever, at all times? adv. úlumë? expand vb. palu- ever, continually adv. voro, voro- extend, open wide, spread, everlasting adj. oia expand vb. palya- everlasting noun oirë ex-tended, lengthened, stretched, everybody noun ilquen elongated adj. taina everything noun ilqua extension, lengthening noun tailë evil noun ulco (ulcu-) pl. ulqui extension, lengthening noun evil, bad, wicked adj. olca taima evil, bad, wicked, wrong adj. ulca extensive region with well- evil, nasty adj. úra marked natural bounds noun evil-doing noun hrúcarë yondë evil-doing noun rúcarë Exterior Void beyond the World evil-doing adj. saucarya noun Oiacúma evil-smelling, foul, putrid adj. extremely, very adv. ita, íta saura (Þ) eye noun hen (hend-) exalted, lofty adj. arta eye, to examine (with the eyes), examine, to eye vb. henta- scan; to read (silently) vb. henta- excel vb. arya- Eyes of Heartsease, a name of the excel, pass over, cross, surpass pansy noun Helinyetillë vb. lahta- eye-screen, veil upon eyes noun excell, surpass vb. ráta- henfanwa except, excluding prep. hequa eyrie noun sornion except, save prep. enga 76

F face noun anta family, clan, house, kindred, facsimile noun quanta emma, family noun nossë quantemma fane, hallow noun ainas fade vb. sinta- (Þ) fane, holy place, sanctuary noun fail vb. quel- yána fail, fall short of (transitive), miss far adj. haiya vb. loita- far away adj. vaháya failing, short, inadequate adj. far away beyond, further still loica beyond adv. ambela faint, pale, vague, dim to see adj far off, far away adj. háya néca far, distant, wide, to a great extent fair folk, beautiful, children of the root element (apparently not Valar noun Vanimo appearing alone) palan- fair of hair, blonde adj. waina, far, remote adj. avahaira vaina far, remote adj. eccaira fair, beautiful adj. vanima far, remote adj. haira fair, beautiful adj. vanya farewell interjection namárië fair, beautiful (of sound) adj. farewell lit. towards/to what is linda good interjection márienna fair, good adj. alya fasten vb. tac- fair, loveable adj. melima fat, rich adj. lárëa fair-minded, just, generous adj. fat, richeness noun lar faila fat, thick adj. tiuca faith, loyalty (not belief) noun fate noun marta astar fate, doom, also name of tengwa faithfulness, steadfastness, loyalty #6 noun umbar (umbart-) noun voronwë fate, doom, final end, fortune fall noun lanta noun mandë fall vb. lanta- fate, fortune noun marto fall noun lantë fate, doom, final end, fortune fall in, collapse vb. atalta- noun manar fall of snow noun hrissë fated, fey adj. marta Fall of the Noldor (name of a father noun atar song) noun =oldolantë father, daddy noun atto fallow, pale adj. malwa fathom noun rangwë fallow, pale, fawn adj. marya fawn, pale, fallow adj. marya familiar, dear adj. moina fay of the country noun nandin family, clan, family, house, fear noun caurë kindred noun nossë


feast, festival noun meren final end, doom, fate, fortune (merend-), merendë noun mandë feather, also name of tengwa #4 final, last adj. telda noun quessë find vb. hir- February noun =énimë find vb. tuv- February (alternative name of ) find out, bring out by examining, noun Ercoirë or eyeing vb. ecces- (Þ) feel disgust at, abhor vb. feuya- fine and delicately made adj. feel fear or horror vb. ruc- finda feel with the hand, stroke etc. vb. fine pierced hole noun terra palta- fine rain noun timpë fell, skin noun helma fine rain noun mistë fell, terrible adj. aica fine rain, dew noun rossë female adj. inya fine thread noun ipsin feminine ending -issë fine, acute adj. tereva feminine form of Ainu noun Aini finger noun leper fence, border, boundary noun finger noun lepsë yonwa finish off, make, or decorate a fence, boundary noun pelo thing with delicate work vb. fenced field noun peler finta- festival noun asar (Þ) finish, end (intransitive) vb. telë- festival, feast noun meren finish, wind up, conclude (merend-), merendë (transitive) vb. telya- festive adj. merya finite, within bounds, limited, fetch, send for, summon vb. tulta- (well-)defined adj. lanwa fey, fated adj. marta fire noun úr field-spirit noun =ermi fire noun uru fiery adj. uruitë fire as conflagration, wild fire fiery adj. úruva noun aparuivë fiery adj. uruvoitë fire as conflagration, wild fire fiery red adj. narwa noun ruivë fiery, blazing adj. ruina fire, blaze noun ruinë fifteen cardinal lepenquë fire-dragon noun urulócë fight, wield a weapon vb. mahta- fire-fading, autumn noun fill vb. quanta- =arquelion fill vb. quat- fireplace, hearth noun ruimen fill with poison, poison, envenom firm, fixed, sure adj. tanca vb. hloita- firm, solid adj. ronda filth noun soa (söa ) firm, strong, immovable, steadfast final adj. tyelima adj. tulca final end, doom, fate, fortune firm, true adj. sanda (Þ) noun manar first adj. esta first adj. inga 78

first adj. minya flood noun luimë first or index finger noun lepetas flood noun lúto First-born, Elves (as contrasted to flood noun ulundë Apanónar, the After-born, Men). flood, inundate vb. luita- pl. noun Minnónar flood, inundate vb. oloiya- fish noun lingwë (lingwi-) flooding, pouring, flowing adj. fish (small) noun hala úlëa fish-dragon, sea-serpent noun floor, base, ground noun talan lingwilócë (talam-) fist noun quárë (quár) flour (fine) noun mulma fit, accommodate vb. camta- flour, meal noun porë (pori-) fit, useful, good (of things) adj. flow vb. sir- mára flow, float vb. lutta- five cardinal lempë flow, float vb. lutu- five cardinal lepenya flow, stream noun celumë fix, set vb. panya- flower noun alma fix, set up, establish vb. tulca- flower (small single) noun lotsë fixed idea, will noun selma (Þ) flower that opened and shut fixed idea, will noun thelma quickly with any change of light (Þelma) noun pirindë fixed, firm, sure adj. tanca flower that opened and shut flag, shaped stone noun ambal quickly with any change of light flame noun nár noun pirnë flame noun nárë, flower, inflorescence, mass of Flame of the West, sword-name flower noun lohtë noun Andúril flower, inflorescence, mass of flash noun íta flower noun lós (Þ) flat adj. lára flower, mostly applied to larger flat field, wang, plain noun palar single flowers noun lótë flat of the hand noun palta flower, usually smaller noun lottë flat, large vehicle on wheels or flowing, liquid adj. sírima rollers for hauling stone or other flowing, pouring, flooding adj. weighty material, drag noun raxa úlëa fleece noun uë flute, pipe noun simpa flesh noun hrávë flute, pipe noun simpina flesh/substance of Arda, matter fly vb. ruc- noun hrón fly vb. vil- fleshy adj. sarqua fly vb. wil- fling vb. hat- fly or stream in the wind; blow flint-hearted adj. sincahonda vb. hlapu- float, flow vb. lutta- fly, small insect noun pí float, flow vb. lutu- foam vb. falasta- flock noun lámárë foam noun fallë 79

foam, crest of wave noun wingë forsake, put aside, leave out, foam, spray noun winga exclude, abandon vb. hehta fog noun hiswë (Þ) fort, city, with a citadel and foliage noun farnë central watch-tower noun foliage noun olassië minassë folk noun hos fort, fortress noun arta follow vb. hilya- fortress, fort noun arta Follower, an Elvish name of fortress, strong or fortified Mortal Men as the Second-born building or place noun osto of Ilúvatar oun Hildo fortunate, wealthy, blessed, rich follower, successor noun neuro adj. herenya food noun matil fortune, doom, final end, fate food noun matso noun manar foot noun tál (tal-), tala pl. táli fortune, doom, final end, fate footed adj. talaitë noun mandë footprint, slot noun runya fortune, etymologically for conj. and prep. an governance noun heren for ever adv. tennoio fortune, fate noun marto for me, to me pron. dative of ni forward adv. ompa nin forward adv. póna for/to which, for/to whom relative foul, evil-smelling, putrid adj. pronoun in dative yan saura (Þ) forbid, refuse vb. avaquet- foundation, base, root noun talma forbidden, refused, banned adj. four prefix can- avanwa four cardinal canta force, press, thrust vb. nir- fourteen cardinal canaquë forehead noun timbarë fourth ordinal cantëa foreign adj. ettelëa fourth day of the Eldarin six-day foresight noun apacenyë week, dedicated to Telperion, the forest (great), wood noun taurë White Tree noun Aldëa forested adj. taurëa fourth finger noun lepecan forever, unceasing, without end fourth finger noun lepentë adj. oiala fox noun rusco (ruscu-, pl. forge noun tamin (taminn-) rusqui) forge metal vb. maca- foxy adj. ruscuitë forgive vb. avatyar- Fragrance-water, a lake in forgive vb. apsene- Númenor noun =ísinen former adj. noa fragrant adj. nísima former days noun yárë Fragrant trees, a region in former times noun yalúmë Númenor noun =ísimaldar formerly, ago adv.? also frail, slender and drooping adj. postposition (?) yá limpa frail, small adj. nimpë (nimpi-) 80

frail, small adj. nípa friend, lover noun meldo free adj. aranya friendly, loving adj. nilda free adj. ranya friendship noun nilmë free vb. rúna- frog noun quácë Free (the), a name of the Teleri from prep. ho noun Mirimor from prep. va free from evil, blessed adj. aman from whom relative pronoun in free of things: not guarded, ablative: yello reserved, made fast, or owned from whom relative pronoun in adj. lerina genitive yëo free, let loose, let go vb. sen- from whom, of whom, pl. relative free, of persons noun, adj. léra pron. Genitive pl. ion free, open, cleared (of land) adj. from, away verbal prefix hó- latin, latina from, by prep. ló, lo free, released adj. lehta from, out of ablative ending -llo freedom noun fairië frost noun nixë fresh adj. virya frost, rime noun ringwë fresh, green, yellow-green adj. frost-patterns noun niquis wenya frozen adj. halcin fresh, new adj. céva fruit noun yávë fresh, new, young adj. winya full adj. quanta freshness, greenness, youth noun full form of Andor, land of gift, wén name of Númenor noun Andórë friend ending -dil, -ndil, full of darkness, very dark adj. friend noun málo lilómëa friend ending -ndi l full organized language, mouth- friend final element in compounds system noun carpassë -nil, full to the brim, with mouth full friend noun seron adj. penquanta (peñ-) friend (fem.) noun nildë fully, completely adv. aqua friend (fem.) noun sermë fungus, sponge noun hwan friend (feminine) noun meldë (hwand-) friend (masc.) noun nildo furthermore, moreover conj. entë friend (masc.) noun sermo future tense ending -uva friend (masc.) noun nilmo

G Galadriel, maiden crowned with a game, sport, play noun tyalië radiant garland fem. name gap, gulf noun fásë Altariel garden, enclosure noun tarwa 81

garland noun rië giver ( fem. ) noun antë garlanded maiden noun riel (riell- giver (masc.) noun anto ) glabrous, smooth adj. passa gash, slash noun cirissë glass noun calca gate, also name of tengwa #5 glass noun cilin noun ando glass noun hyellë gather, assemble (transitive) vb. glass noun hyelma comya- glass, crystal noun maril gather, assemble (intransitive) vb. gleam (white) vb. ilca- ócom- glint vb. tin- gather, collect, assemble vb. glint noun tindë hosta- glint noun wintil gatherinf, meeting (of three or glinting, silver adj. tinda more coming from different glinting, twinkling adj. (or directions) noun yomenië participle?) itila gathering, assembly, assemblage glitter vb. mirilya- noun ocombë glittering light noun rilma gathering, collection noun combë glittering reflection, radiance gen. pl. ending -on (from jewels, glass or polished generous, fair-minded, just adj. metals, or water) noun nalta faila globe, ball noun coron genitive ending -o globed, round adj. corna gentle, soft adj. moica gloom, blight noun yaru gentle, soft, weak adj. milya gloom, shadow noun lumbë germ, seed noun erdë gloomy adj. lómëa gesture, characteristic look noun gloomy adj. lumba lengë gloomy, dark, black adj. morna gesture-code noun hwermë Glorfindel (Quenya form of ) get old (intr.) also wear (out) vb. masc. name Laurefindil yerya- glory, brilliance, splendour noun giant noun norsa (Þ) alcar gift noun anna glowing (things), hearty (people) gimlet, auger noun teret adj. lúsina girdle, belt noun quilta Gnomeland noun =oldomar girl, daughter, sister, also used as Gnomes noun =urquendi a play-name of the fourth finger go vb. lenna- or fourth toe noun nettë (netti-) go vb. men- girl, maid noun wen (wend-) go away, leave vb. auta- give vb. anta- go away, migrate vb. lenweta- give quick twist or move, jerk, go back, return, come back vb. twitch vb. rihta- nanwen- give thanks, thank vb. hanta- go round, revolve, return vb. pel- given name noun anessë 82

go, proceed (in any direction), gore, spear-head, spear-point, travel vb. lelya- triangle noun nasta goblet noun súlo (súlu-, pl. súlwi) gospel noun evandilyon goblet, bowl noun fion govern, wield, control vb. tur- Goblins pl. noun Sancossi gracious, smiling adj. raina god noun Aino grade noun tyellë God, Power, angelic power noun grain noun orë (ori-) Vala grandchild, descendant noun going down, occident noun númë indyo gold, also name of tengwa #18 grant, yield, allow vb. lav- noun malta grasp, seize vb. mapa- gold, but of golden light and grass noun salquë colour, not of the metal noun grass, reed noun linquë laurë great collection, crowd of things golden, like gold adj. laurëa of same sort noun úmë goldenly adverb laurië great flood noun oloirë goldenness noun laurië great gale noun wanwa golden-red adj. culina great gate noun andon (andond-) Gondolin place-name Ondolindë great longing noun maivoinë Gondor (Stone-land). place-name great number, crowd, host noun Ondonórë, Ondórë rimbë gone, lost, no longer to be had, great quantity, abundance noun vanished adj. vanwa úvë gong noun tombo great towering building, (fort, good pref. amya- city, castle) tower noun taras good (moral sense) adj. manë great towering building, (fort, good fortune, blessedness noun city, castle) tower noun tarminas almarë great tree noun taulë good fortune, blessedness noun great tree noun táva almië great, big, (in power) adj. túra good fortune, wealth noun alma great, large prefix alat- good health noun málë great, large adj. alta good thing, blessing, piece of greed, desire noun milmë good fortune noun almë greedy adj. milca good, fair adj. alima green adj. laica good, fair adj. alya green adj. laiqua good, useful, fit (of things) adj. green as leaves, lit. green-leaf adj. mára laicalassë goods ( pl. ) noun armar green, yellow-green, fresh adj. goose noun ván wenya goose noun wán > ván Green-elf, Danian noun =ana gore noun mëar Green-elves noun Laiquendi green-foliage noun laicolassë 83

greenness noun laiquassë ground, floor, base noun talan greenness, youth, freshness noun (talam-) wén grow vb. ol- grey adj. hiswa (Þ) grow continually vb. alála- grey noun mísë (Þ) grow fat, swell vb. tiuya- grey adj. mista grow, plant vb. ala- grey adj. sinda (Þ) growl (of dog), murmur, grumble grey, pale, silvery grey adj. sindë vb. nurru- (Þ) growl, snarl noun yarra- Grey-cloak, title of Elwë (Elu). grumble, murmur, growl (of dog) noun Sindicollo (Þ) vb. nurru- Grey-elf = Sinda noun Sindel guard, watch, watch over, heed (Sindeld-) (Þ) vb. tir- Grey-elven adj. sindarinwa (Þ) guardian noun cundo greyness noun sindië (Þ) guess, suppose vb. intya- grief, sorrow noun nyérë guilt, responsibility noun cáma grievous, bitterly painful adj. gulf, gap noun fásë naica gulf, ravine, cleft noun yáwë grievously, ill, abominably prefix gull noun maiwë nai- gum, resin noun suhtë gyrate, swirl, eddy vb. hwinya-

H habit noun haimë hammer noun namba hail interjection aia hammer vb. namba- hail interjection aiya hammerer of copper noun hail! welcome! intejection alla! =ambarauto hair (especially of the head) noun hams, buttocks noun hacca findë hand noun má hair or larch noun finë (fini-) hand noun nonda Half-elf noun Perelda handed or handy, skilful adj. hall noun mardë maitë (maiti-) hallow vb. airita- hand-full; complete hand with all hallow, bless, treat as holy vb. five fingers noun maqua aina- hang, dangle vb. linga- hallow, fane noun ainas happen, chance vb. marta- halve, divide in middle vb. perya- happiness, blessedness noun halved, divided in middle adj.? vald- perina happy adj. valin 84

harbour, haven, small landlocked have vb. sam- bay noun hópa have vb. sam- harbourage noun hopassë have an impulse, be compelled to harbourage noun londië do something noun horya- hard adj. sarda have mercy, followed by locative: hard adj. torna have mercy on vb. órava- hard sound, a term for consonant, have not vb. pen- but not used of semi-vowels noun have victory over, master, deafeat sarda tengwë vb. turu- hard to make / do adj. urcárima haven, harbour, small landlocked hard to make / do adj. urcarnë bay noun hópa hard to see, scarcely visible adj. having (divine) authority or hraicenë power adj. valya hard to see, scarcely visible adj. having beautiful hair adj. findel hraicénima having hair, -haired adj. finda hard, awkward, stiff, difficult adj. having hands adj. mavoitë hranga having knowledge adj. istima hard, difficult, arduous adj. urda having many elms adj. alalvëa hare noun lapattë having many flowers adj. lilótëa harp vb. nanda- having many leaves adj. lillassëa harp noun nandë having many oak-trees adj. harp noun tanta lindornëa harp noun tantila having many poplars adj. harper noun nandaro lintyulussëa harping noun nandelë having many stars adj. lintitinwë harping on one tune, continual having many years, old adj. repetition. noun vorongandelë linyenwa harp-player noun tyalangan having trees adj aldarwa harsh, rending, violent adj. having wings adj. rámavoitë naraca he pronominal ending -ro hasp, clasp noun tangwa he, she independent emphatic haste, violence, wrath, rushing pronoun essë noun ormë he/him, she/her, it 3rd person sg. hasty adj. orna pronominal ending -s hasty, swift, agile adj. tyelca he/him, she/her, it/it pron. also hat noun táta object 3rd person sg. se hate vb. tevë- head noun cár (cas-) hate vb. moc- head noun cas hated adj. tevin head of hair noun findilë hateful adj. sancë head of hair noun findilë hatred noun tévië head of hair, a person's hair as a hauberk, breast-plate noun whole noun findessë ambassë headlong movement noun hatsë 85

heal, renew vb. envinyata- hem, edge, border noun ríma hear vb. hlar- hen; barn fowl noun porocë hearing, listening adj. lasta hence (from here) adv. silo Heart of Flame, a name of the hence (from here) adv. sio Sun noun =aira her, his, its 3rd person sg. heart, center noun enda pronominal ending -rya heart, inner mind, also name of herald noun tercáno tengwa #21 noun órë herb noun laiquë heart, mood, state noun indo herb, vegetable noun laiquë hearth, fireplace noun ruimen here adv. hí hearty (people), glowing (things) here adv. si adj. lúsina here adv. sís heat, also name of tengwa #36 here adv. síssë noun úrë hero, noble man noun callo heat, bake (by exposure to sun) hew vb. pelehta- vb. asta- hew with a sword vb. mac- heave vb. amorta- hew, cut vb. nac- heave, shift, move vb. rúma- hidden adj. foina heavens noun Menel hidden, concealed adj. furin heavens, sky noun ilwë hidden, concealed adj. hurin heavy adj. lunga hidden, secret adj. muina heavyhanded adj. lungumaitë hidden, veiled, shadowed, shady heed vb. cim- adj. halda heed, watch, watch over, guard hide vb. lom- vb. tir- hide vb. moru- height, allative noun tárië hide vb. nurta- heir noun aryon hideous creature and deformed, heir, prince noun haryon monster noun ulundo hell noun fatanyu hiding noun nurtalë helm noun carma High Heaven place-name helmet noun cassa Tarmenel helmet noun castol high place noun tarmen helmet noun harna high, lofty adj. orwa helmet noun harpa high, lofty, noble adj. arata helmet noun sól High-elf noun Tarelda helmet noun solma High-elves = Lindar (=Vanyar) helmet noun solos noun tarquendi help one, cause to prosper, bless highest point, top noun inga (a work) vb. alya- high-hall noun oromardë helper noun sámo (Þ) high-king noun ingaran helpful, kindly adj. asëa (Þ) High-men, the Noble followers, hem noun lanë (lani-) referring to the Dúnedain noun hem of robe noun lappa tarhildi 86

high-speech, or Qenya [Quenya]) hollow adj. unqua noun tarquesta hollow cavity, bosom noun súma hill noun ambo hollow hand noun camba hill, lump, clump, mass noun hollow of hand noun cambë umbo(n) hollow out vb. unca- hill, mound noun tundo hollow, hole, also name of tengwa hill-side, upward slope noun #16 noun unquë amban holly noun ercassë him (the other) pronoun hé holy adj aina himself and herself reflexive holy adj. aira pronoun 3rd person sg. personal holy adj. airë insë holy adj. airëa hindmost, last adj. tella holy adj. aista hint, wink vb. hiuta- holy, blessed (of things) adj. hip noun oswë ainima his (and probably also her, its), holy one, angelic spirit; fem. Aini said to be used in colloquial noun Ainu Quenya pronominal suffix -ya holy place, fane, sanctuary noun his, her, its 3rd person sg. yána pronominal ending -rya holy thing or object or place noun historical adj. lúmequentalëa aian historical account noun quentasta holy thing or object or place noun history noun lúmequentalë áyan History of the Elves noun home (emotional sense) noun Eldanyárë mélamar history of the Valar noun home, earth, dwelling noun mar Valaquenta (mard-) history, account noun quentalë home, house, dwelling noun már history, chronological account (mar-) noun lumenyárë homestead noun osta history, chronological account honey noun lís (lîs) noun lúmequenta honey noun melu history, tale, saga noun nyárë honey-bee noun nier hither adv. simen honeycomb noun nehtë hither adv. sir, sira honey-eating adj. melumatya hive noun nierwes hood, covering noun telmë Hobbit noun Perian (Periand-) hook that may be attached to a hole, hollow, also name of tengwa tengwa letter to indicate a #16 noun unquë following s noun sa-rincë hole, lair noun ecca hook, also name of tengwa #14 hole, opening, mouth noun assa noun ampa hole, pit noun latta hook, catch noun atsa holiday noun meryalë hooked, crooked adj. rempa 87

hope, trust noun estel hound noun hú horde, host noun horma hound noun huan (hún-) horn noun rasco hound of chase noun ronya horn noun rassë house noun coa horn noun róma house, clan, family, kindred, horn noun tarca family noun nossë horn of Ulmo, shell, conch noun house, home, dwelling noun már hyalma (mar-) horn, spike noun tildë how? interrogative manen horn, trumpet noun romba hue, colour noun quilë horned adj. tarucca huge adj. haura horrible adj. norta huge adj. haura horrible, dreadful, unendurable huge, vast adj. yána adj. naira humble adj. or passive participle horror noun norto nucumna horror, pain, disgust interjection hump noun tumpo (tumpu-) horro humpback noun cauco horse noun olombo humped, bent adj. numba horse noun rocco hungry adj. maita horseman, rider, knight noun hunt, hunting noun roimë roquen hunting, hunt noun roimë host noun liyúmë hurt, pain vb. mala- host, , crowd, great number noun husband noun venno rimbë husband noun veru hostile adj. cotya hush, rest, quiet noun quildë hostile, powerful, and terrible hyacinth (plant, not jewel) noun creature noun rauco linquë

I I 1st person sg. pronominal suffix ice noun helcë -nyë ice-cold, icy adj. helca I emphatic independent 1st icy, ice-cold adj. helca person sg. pronoun inyë idea noun inca I pronominal ending, 1st person idea, conception noun nó (nów-) sg. -n idea, conception noun noa I 1st person sg. pron. ni identical, same, selfsame adj. I will not! or Do not! exclamation imya vá idol noun cordon I, I myself emphatic independent if conj. qui 1st person sg. pronoun imnë 88

if anybody, whoever pron. in that day adv. enyárë aiquen in that day adv.? tárë if it be so, may be, perhaps adv. in that way, therefore adv. tanen, cenasit tánen if it be so, may be, perhaps adv. in the place (referred to) adv. canasta tanomë if it be that conj. cenai in this way; so adv. sinen Ilcorin adj. Alcorin in what place? interrogative word ill, grievously, abominably prefix manomë? nai- in which relative pronoun in illuminate vb. calya- locative yassë imagination noun intyalë in, at preposition se, long sé imagination noun isima (Þ) in-, not-, un- prefix denying imagination noun nausë (Þ) presence or possession of thing or imagination, mind noun síma quality ú- immortal adj. ilfirin in, within prep. imi immovable, firm, strong, steadfast in, within prep. mi adj. tulca in, within prep. mil impeded adj. tapta inaction, not-doing (in general) impel, urge, move, only of mental noun lacarë impulse vb. or- inadequate, failing, short adj. impend, be imminent – nearly loica always in a bad sense vb. úva- inadequate, lacking adj. penya imperative particle a.á incarnates pl. noun mirroanwi implement noun yaima incitement noun siulë important adj. valdëa incline, slope vb. penda- impossible to recount adj. inclined, sloping down adj. únyárima penda impulse noun hórë indeed adverbial particle é impulse, emotion noun felmë index finger noun tassa impulsive adj. hórëa index or first finger noun lepetas in ablative pl. relative pron. illon indicate, point to vb. leptenta- in certain names like Yávien, indicate, point to, direct toward Silmarien fem. ending -ien vb. tenta- in front of, before (of spatial indicate, show vb. tana- relationships); after (of time) indicating something forbidden prep. opo prefix ava- in front of, before, (of spatial indication, sign noun tengwë relationships) after (of time) prep. individual, person noun nassë po, pó induce vb. sahta- (Þ) in front of, before, (of spatial inducement to do wrong noun relationships) after (of time) prep. úsahtië (Þ) pono infinitive (or gerundial) ending -ië 89

inflorescence noun alalmë iron hard, lit. hard-iron adj. inflorescence, flower, mass of tornanga flower noun lohtë iron, smooth vb. pasta- inflorescence, flower, mass of iron, steel noun erë, eren flower noun lós (Þ) is vb. ëa injure vb. hyan- is (am) vb. ná ink noun móro island, isle noun tol inner mind, heart, also name of isle, island noun tol tengwa #21 noun órë isolated tower noun mindo insert vb. mitta- issue, escape noun uswë insight, literally through-sight isthmus, bridge, joining noun noun tercen yanwë instrumental ending -nen isthmus, narrow neck noun yatta intellect noun handelë it pron. 3rd person sg sa intelligence noun handassë it freezes vb. hilcin intelligence, knowledge, it freezes, it is cold vb. niquë understanding noun handë it is cold, it freezes vb. niquë intelligent, understanding adj. it is not that (emphatic word for handa no?) interjection uito interior adj. mitya it is snowing vb. hríza intermediary, mediator noun it is that (emphatic word for yes?) enelmo interjection náto interrogative word mana it, he/him, she/her 3rd person sg. into prep. mina pronominal ending -s into prep. minna it, that pron. ta inundate, flood vb. luita- it/it he/him, she/her pron. also inundate, flood vb. oloiya- object 3rd person sg. se invent vb. auta- its, his, her 3rd person sg. invention noun aulë pronominal ending -rya inwards prep. minta itself impersonal reflexive inwards prep. mitta pronoun imma iron noun anga itself impersonal reflexive pronoun 3rd person sg. insa

J jacket, cloak noun vacco January (alternative name of ) jagged hedge of spikes noun noun Meterrívë caraxë jaw noun nangwa January noun =arvinyë jaws, row of teeth noun anca


jerk, give quick twist or move, judge vb. nav- twitch vb. rihta- judgement, desire noun náma jerk, twitch, trick, sudden move judgement, desire noun námië noun rinca juice noun sáva Jesus masc. name Yésus juice, syrup noun pirya jewel noun mírë July noun Cermië joining, bridge, isthmus noun July (alternative name of ) noun yanwë =ólairë journey noun lenda jump, leap vb. cap- journey, passage, direction of June noun Ellairë travel noun mentië June. noun =árië joy, merriment noun alassë just, fair-minded, generous adj. judge vb. ham- faila judge vb. nam-

K keep on knocking, knock vb. kingsfisher noun halatirno tamba- kingship noun aranus(së) kept, restrained, delayed adj. kiss vb. miqu- hampa knee noun occa kind, species noun nostalë knife, dagger noun sicil kindle vb. narta- knight, horseman, rider noun kindle, cause to sparkle vb. tinta- roquen kindly, helpful adj. asëa (Þ) knob, short rounded handle noun kindred, clan, family, house, tolma family noun nossë knock, keep on knocking vb. king noun aran tamba- king (only used of the legitimate knock, strike vb. pet- kings of whole tribes) noun tár knoll, round head noun nóla King of the Noldor noun knot noun narda =oldóran knot, bond noun nútë king, chieftain noun haran know vb. ista- (harn-) knowing, knowledge noun sívë King’s-land = Arnor noun knowledge noun ista Arandóre knowledge noun istya kingdom noun aranië knowledge, knowing noun sívë Kingdom of Arda noun knowledge, long study, lore noun Ardaranyë nólë kingsfisher noun halatir knowledge, Philosophy (including (halatirn-) Science) noun =olmë 91

knowledge, understanding, known, certain, ascertained intelligence noun handë passive participle sinwa known, certain, ascertained adj. k-series, velar series: the third sína column of the Tengwar system noun calmatéma

L labour, be afflicted vb. moia- language as abstract or labour, toil noun móta- phenomenon noun tengwestië lace, network noun raimë language of the Eldar noun Elda- lacking, inadequate adj. penya lambë lady noun heri language of the hands noun lady noun quimellë mátengwië lair, hole noun ecca language of the Noldor enslaved lake noun nendë by Morgoth noun mólanoldorin lake, pool noun ailin language, speech noun pahta lament vb. naina- language, system or code of signs lament vb. nainaina- noun tengwesta lament noun nairë language, tongue noun lambë lament noun noi language, tongue noun quetil lament vb. nyéna- large (of quantity) suffix -úmë lamp noun calar large number noun ahosta lamp, light noun calma large number noun hosta lampwright noun calmatan large sword noun falquan land ending -ndor large, big adj. höa land noun nór large, flat vehicle on wheels or land (associated with a particular rollers for hauling stone or other people) noun nórë weighty material, drag noun raxa land (or people) of the Valar large, great prefix alat- place-name Valinor large, great adj. alta land of many Elms noun large, strong man noun nerdo alalbinóre lark noun aimenal, aimenel land of many Elms noun lark noun lirulin alalvinore last adj. métima land of the Valar place-name last day of the Eldarin six-day Valandor week, dedicated to the Valar noun land-locked haven noun londë Valanya language noun lambelë last day of year noun quantien language noun tengwelë last year noun (or adv.?) yenya 92

last year of a century in the leave, go away vb. auta- Númenórean calendar noun lebethron, a hard-wood tree haranyë growing in Gondor noun lepetta last, final adj. telda left adj. hyarya last, hindmost adj. tella left behind adj. lemba lasting quality, endurance noun left hand noun hyarma voronwië lefthanded adj. hyarmaitë lasting, continuous, enduring lengthened, ex-tended, stretched, noun vórëa elongated adj. taina laugh vb. lala- lengthening, extension noun tailë Laurelin (another name of) noun lengthening, extension noun Culúrien taima law, rule noun sanyë (Þ) less adverbial particle mis law, rule, commandment noun -less suffix -valta axan -less adjectival ending -viltë law-abiding, regular, normal adj. -less, without prefix nec- sanya (Þ) -less, without suffix -enca lawn, sward noun palis -less, without ending -lóra lay, song noun lirilla lessen, dwindle, waning vb. píca- lead noun lanu lesser firmament, a great dome lead (+ allative) vb. tulya- covering Valinor, made by Varda lead (+ allative: lead into) vb. and full of star-imagines noun mittanya- =ur-menel leader, prince noun condo let go, let loose, free vb. sen- leaf noun lassë let go, release, set free vb. lerya- leaf-fall = Autumn noun let loose, free, let go vb. sen- lasselanta letter noun tengwa leaf-shaped adj. lassecanta letter, sign noun sarat league, a linear measure, 5000 lick vb. lapsa- rangar noun lár lick vb. lav- leaning, sloping, tilted adj. talta lick up, sup, sip vb. salpa- leap vb. halta- lie noun furu leap, jump vb. cap- lie noun huru, see furu leap, run vb. nor- lie (= lie down, not tell something leaping adj. haloitë untrue) vb. caita- learn, acquire information, not by lie, conceal vb. fur- experience but by instruction in life noun cuilë words or writing vb. par- life (individual) noun vehtë learned man, scholar noun istyar life-bread noun coimas learned, wise adj. nóla light noun cala leave vb. lesta- light noun cálë leave out, put aside, exclude, light snow noun is abandon, forsake vb. hehta- light, bright adj. et nom calina 93

light, lamp noun calma living being noun coitë Light-elves, Elves of the Light pl. living creature noun wëo noun Calaquendi living thing that moves, animal light-fated adj.? calambar noun celva lightly tripping adj. norolinda lo! interjection yé like a wilwarin or butterfly adj. loaf noun cornë wilwarindëa loathe, abhor vb. yelta- like gold, golden adj. laurëa loathing noun yelmë like stars, starlike adj. elvëa loathsome adj. yelwa like that, so, also adv. ta locative ending -ssë like, as prep. ve lock, tress noun findelë like what? interrogative word lofty adj. tára ma? lofty, exalted adj. arta liken vb. sesta- lofty, high adj. orwa lily, or other large single flower lofty, high, noble adj. arata noun indil lonely, solitary adj. eressëa limited, within bounds, finite, long adj. anda (well-)defined adj. lanwa long adv. ando line, path, course, direction, way long ago, once upon a time adv. noun tië andanéya line, row, series noun téma long and thin, straight, narrow linger vb. lenda- adj. lenwa link noun limë (limi-) long beard noun fangë lion noun rá (ráv-) long for vb. milya- lip noun pé long study, lore, knowledge noun lip noun pempë nólë liquid, flowing adj. sírima long sword noun andamacil listen vb. lasta- long trailing plant, especially listening, hearing adj. lasta seaweed noun uilë literally growth, used of a solar long, trailing adj. sóra year (= coranar) noun loa long-lasting, enduring adj. Little adj. pia voronwa little adj. pitya look afar, watch vb. palantíra- little finger noun lepinca look at vb. yéta- little finger noun lepincë looking-glass, mirror noun little finger noun nícë cilintír, cilintilla little glass noun lipil loom noun lanwa little harp noun nandellë loom noun windelë little lady noun hérincë loose, slacken vb. lehta- little man, a diminutive of nér loose, slacken vb. lenca- noun nercë lord noun hér little, tiny adj. titta lord of cloud, surname of Mandos living adj. coirëa masc. name Fantur 94

lord of Death-cloud, surname of lower, brood vb. luvu- Mandos noun =urufantur lowlying, deep, low adj. tumna Lord of the West noun númeheru lowtide, ebb noun nanwë lord, master noun heru, hér loyal companion, trusty follower lordship noun hérë trusty follower, loyal companion lore, long study, knowledge noun trusty follower, loyal nólë companion loremaster noun ingolmo loyal, steadfast, trusty adj. sarta lost, gone, no longer to be had, loyalty, faith (not belief) noun vanished adj. vanwa astar loud sound, trumpet-sound noun loyalty, steadfastness, faithfulness róma noun voronwë love noun melmë luck noun valto love (as friend) vb. mel- lump, hill, clump, mass noun loveable, fair adj. melima umbo(n) lovely, beautiful, desirable adj. lunar month noun ránasta írima lust noun mailë lover ( fem. ) noun melissë lustful adj. mailëa lover ( masc. ) noun melindo lying heavy, burdensome, lover, friend noun meldo oppressive, ominous adj. lumna loving, affectionate adj. méla lying in bed, sickness noun loving, friendly adj. nilda caimassë low, lowlying, deep adj. tumna lyre noun salma lower air, air noun wilma

M made fast, free of things: not maiden suffix, a frequent ending guarded, reserved, or owned adj. in feminine names -wen lerina maiden noun wendë > vendë made with difficulty adj. maiden crowned with a radiant urucarin garland, Galadriel fem. name magic adj. sairina Altariel magic glassy substance of great maiden, virgin noun vendë < lucency used in fashioning the wendë Moon. Used of things of great and maidenhood noun wendelë pure transparency noun vírin maidenly, virginal adj. vénëa Maia who became evil and make network or lace vb. raita- followed Melkor, like the Balrogs make network; make lace vb. rëa- noun Úmaia make ready (promptly) vb. ferya- maid, girl noun wen (wend-) 95

make run, specially used of riding mass, hill, lump, clump noun horses or other animals vb. norta- umbo(n) make spin, stir vb. quir- mast noun tyulma make war vb. ohtacar- mast, beechnuts noun ferna make, build vb. car- master, deafeat, have victory over make, finish off, or decorate a vb. turu- thing with delicate work vb. master, lord noun heru, hér finta- masterful, mighty adj. túrëa male noun hanu mastery, victory, strength, might, male noun hanwa power noun túrë mallorn noun maldornë matrimony noun vesta man noun nér (ner-) matter, flesh/substance of Arda man (adult) noun vëaner noun hrón manhood, vigour noun vië May (alternative name of ) noun manly, adult, vigorous adj. vëa =ótuilë manner, method = way noun lé may be cé, ce mansion of the high airs, the may be, if it be so, perhaps adv. dwelling of Manwë and Varda cenasit upon Oiolossë noun Ilmarin may be, if it be so, perhaps adv. man-spearhead, a battle-formation canasta noun nernehta may it be so, amen interjection mantle, veil, cloak vb. fanta- násië many adj. limbë mead, a special wine or cordial many prefix lin- noun miruvor mar vb. hasta- meal noun mulë marble noun alas (alast-) meal, flour noun porë (pori-) March noun Súlimë meal, meal time noun mat (matt- March (alternative name of ) noun ) =ócoirë mean, contemptible adj. faica margin, edge, border noun réna measure noun lesta mariner noun ciryamo meat, cooked food noun apsa mark, post noun talca mediator, intermediary noun mark, sign especially diacritics enelmo denoting vowels in Fëanorian meeting (meeting or junction of writing noun tehta the directions of two people) noun marry vb. verta- omentië marry vb. verya meeting, gathering (of three or mason (sculptor) noun ontamo more coming from different mass of flower, flower, directions) noun yomenië inflorescence noun lohtë melodious adj. lindelëa mass of flower, flower, melody, musical sound noun lin, inflorescence noun lós (Þ) lind-


mental message, thought-sending mind mastership noun noun sanwë-menta incánus(së) mere, pool noun lóna mind, imagination noun síma mermaid noun oaris (oarits-) mind-mood noun inwisti merriment, joy noun alassë mind-picture noun indemma mesh noun rembë mine, cave, underground dwelling message, sending noun menta noun felco metal noun rauta mirror, looking-glass noun metal, also name of tengwa #1 cilintír, cilintilla noun tinco miserable adj. angayanda method, manner = way noun lé misery noun angayassë mewing, whining noun miulë miss, fail, fall short of (transitive) middle adj. endëa vb. loita- middle adj. endya > enya mist noun hísë (Þ) (hísi-) middle adj. enya < endya mist noun hísië (Þ) middle finger noun lepenel mistake noun loima middle finger (in children's play), mistake in speech noun loiquetë brother noun hanno mistake in writing noun loiparë middle, center noun endë mistaken action noun loicarë middle, central adj. enetya mistaken doing prefix denoting middle, central adj. entya, enetya loi- middle-days in the calendar of mocking, scorn noun yaiwë Imladris noun enderi moist, dewy adj. nítë (níti-) Middle-earth place-name mole noun noldarë Endamar mole noun nolpa Middle-earth, centre of the world monster noun úvanimo place-name Endor monster (a name of Melko) noun Midyear week, week of the Trees Ulban (Ulband-) noun Aldalemnar monster, deformed and hideous might, power (inherent) noun creature noun ulundo melehtë month noun asta might, mastery, victory, strength, mood, change of mind noun inwis power noun túrë mood, heart, state noun indo mighty adj. melehta Moon noun Isil (Þ) mighty adj. meletya moonlight noun isilmë (Þ) mighty adj. taura more adj. and noun amba mighty, masterful adj. túrëa more adv. ambë migrate, go away vb. lenweta- more adv. ambë milch cow noun yaxë more adverbial particle lil mind noun sáma moreover, furthermore conj. entë mind noun sanar morning noun arin mind master noun inkáno morning (early) noun artuilë mind master noun inkánu 97

morning in the adjectival sense mouth-sign = consonant noun adj. arinya náva-tengwë mortal adj. fírima mouth-system, full organized mortal noun Fírimo language noun carpassë Mortal noun Firya move (intransitive) vb. lev- mortal man noun firë move, shift, heave vb. rúma- most, very intensive or move, urge, impel, only of mental superlative prefix an- impulse vb. or- mother noun amal much adv. olë mother noun amil much adj. olya mother noun ammë mud noun luxo (luxu-) mother noun emel multiplicative prefix li-, lin- mother noun emil mummy noun amilyë mother, begetter (fem.) noun mummy noun emenya ontaril mummy noun emmë mother, mummy noun mamil mummy noun emya mound noun coron mummy noun milyë mound noun cumbë mummy, mother noun mamil mound, circular enclosure noun murky adj. huiva cormen murmur, grumble, growl (of dog) mound, hill noun tundo vb. nurru- mound, pile noun hahta muscle, sinew, vigour, physical mountain noun oron (oront-) strength noun tuo mountain pass, ravine noun music noun lindalë falqua music noun lindelë mountain peak noun aicassë musical sound noun lingë mountain-dwelling noun musical sound, melody noun lin, orofarnë lind- mountain-top noun orotinga musician, composer noun mountain-top noun orto lindimaitar mouth noun carpa my possessive pron ninya mouth noun náva my pronominal suffix, 1st person mouth, in the sense of interior sg. possessive -nya cavity behind the teeth, my child, my son noun onya containing tongue noun songa my daddy, my father noun mouth, in the sense of mouth- tatanya opening with lips as the edges my father, my daddy noun noun ópa tatanya mouth of a river noun etsir my mother used in address noun mouth, also name of tengwa #13 amya noun anto my son, my child noun onya mouth, hole, opening noun assa myself reflexive pronoun 1st person sg. imnë 98

myself reflexive pronoun 1st myself, oneself, themselves etc person sg. imni reflexive pronominal ending –xë

N nail noun nyelet pl. nyelexi name of tengwa #24 also air, sky nail noun taxë noun wilya naked, of persons adj. parca name of tengwa #29, also naked, stripped bare adj. helda starlight silmë name vb. esta- name of tengwa #35 also bridge name (later) of Tengwa #31, noun yanta name noun essë name of tengwa #36 also heat name of a Green-elf (Laiquendi) noun úrë noun =ando name of tengwa #4, also feather name of a star (or planet) noun quessë tentatively identified with Uranus name of tengwa #5, also gate noun =énar noun ando name of Númenor, full form of name of tengwa #6, also fate, Andor, land of gift noun Andórë doom noun umbar (umbart-) name of one of the great Lamps name of tengwa #8 also spider's noun Ringil web noun ungwë name of tengwa #1, also metal name of tengwa #9, also spirit, noun tinco breath noun súlë (Þ) (súli-) name of tengwa #11, also rage name of the Maia that became noun aha Gandalf noun Olórin name of tengwa #12, breeze, name of the Teleri noun Solonel breath, puff of air noun hwesta (Soloneld-) name of tengwa #13, also mouth name of the Teleri, apparently noun anto Shore-singers noun Falanyel name of tengwa #14, also hook (Falanyeld-) noun ampa name of tree noun taniquelassë name of tengwa #16 also hole, name, also later name of Tengwa hollow noun unquë #31 noun essë name of tengwa #18, gold noun narrator noun quentaro malta narrow adj. arca name of tengwa #2, also book narrow adj. náha noun parma narrow neck, isthmus noun yatta name of tengwa #21, also heart, narrow path, ravine noun axa inner mind noun órë narrow, long and thin, straight adj. lenwa 99

nasal adj. nengwëa night noun ló nasty, evil adj. úra night, blackness, dark, darkness natural death (as act) noun fairë noun mórë nausea, sickness noun quámë night, dusk, twilight noun lómë nauseous, sick adj. quámëa nightingale noun morilindë nay, no, intejection of displeasure nine cardinal nertë / dissent interjection fó nineteen cardinal neterquë Nazgûl noun Úlairë no interjection ui near adj.? adv.? har, harë no indeed not, on the contrary nearer to, (to a further point in the negation lá umë > laumë motion) towards an object adv. no indeed not, on the contrary ambena negation lala nearer to, (to a further point in the no indeed not, on the contrary motion) towards an object adv. negation lau amna no indeed not, on the contrary necessity noun sangië (Þ) negation laumë < lá umë neck noun yat (yaht-) no longer to be had, gone, lost, neck, the bony part of the neck, vanished adj. vanwa rock ridges noun acas, axë no, nay, intejection of displeasure necklace, carcanet noun firinga / dissent interjection fó need noun maurë no, not adv. alaië neighbour noun armaro no, not negation la neighbour noun asambar, no, not adv. lá asambaro no, not adv. laia Nessa-beloved, name of a tree no, not adv. lánë adj. nessamelda no, not adv. lanyë net noun raima no, un- (prefix) il- net, entrap vb. remba- noble noun arato net, web noun natsë noble noun arquen nettled, enlaced adj. raina noble prefix Ara-, ar- network, lace noun raimë noble man, hero noun callo new adj. sinya noble, high, lofty adj. arata new moon noun ceuran- noise noun hlóna new sun after solstice noun noise noun ran (ram-) ceuranar noise, sound noun hlón new, fresh adj. céva Noldo-history noun =oldo- new, fresh, young adj. winya quentasta (Ñoldo-) Newyear's Day noun Vinyarië Noldo-jewel, another word for next adv. ento Silmaril noun =oldomírë lit. nickname, after-name noun Noldorin, of the Noldor adj. epessë =oldorinwa nicotiana, pipeweed noun nominative plural ending -i alenessë, alanessë nominative plural ending -r 100

Non-Aman Elves, Elves who not possible to count, countless never dwelt in Aman noun adj. únótima Úmaneldi not to be said adj. avaquétima normal, regular adj. vorosanya not to be told or related adj. (Þ) avanyárima normal, regular, law-abiding adj. not to do, not to be vb. um- sanya (Þ) not veiled or obscure, perspicuous north noun Formen adj. úfanwa northern adj. formenya not veiled, unveiled adj. úfanwëa northern adj. forna not, un- negative prefix ala- northern adj. fortë (forti-) not-, un-, in- prefix denying nose noun nengwë (nengwi-) presence or possession of thing or nose, snout, cape noun mundo quality ú- not be, not do vb. u- not-doing, inaction (in general) not be, not do negative verb ua- noun lacarë not concealable adj. úfantima nothing pron. munta not counted, uncounted adj. November noun Hísimë (Þ) únotë, únotëa November (alternative name of ) not do, not be negative verb ua- noun Errívë not do, not be vb. u- now adv. sí not enough adj. ufárëa now, form of sí often occurring not for ever. adv. ullumë before vowels adv. sin not guarded, free of things: number noun nótë reserved, made fast, or owned numberless adj. avanótë adj. lerina Númenórean noun Turcil not of Kor, describing Elves not numeral noun notessë of the Blessed Realm noun numerous adj. rimba Ilcorin nymph noun wingil (wingild-)

O O vocative particle a obscurity, shadow, stain noun oak noun nordo mordo oak noun norno observe, watch vb. cenda- oath, bond, troth, compact noun occasion, time noun lú vérë occident, going down noun númë oath, pledge, solemn promise ocean noun airon noun vanda ocean noun eäron obliged, bound adj. nauta October noun =arquelië obscure, dark, dusky, secret adj. October (alternative name of) nulla noun =óquellë 101

odour noun olmë on behalf of, followed by dative of flat ground dotted with hills prep. hrá etc. adj. ambuna on fire adj. urwa of insight adj. tercenya on the contrary adv. úsië of iron adj. angaina on the contrary, no indeed not of or belonging to the Valar, negation lá umë > laumë divine adj. valaina on the contrary, no indeed not of silver adj. telemna negation lala of silver adj. telepsa on the contrary, no indeed not of silver adj. telpina negation lau of slave(s), slavish adj. móla on the contrary, no indeed not of stone adj. sarna negation laumë < lá umë of that sort, such adj. taitë on the contrary, on the other of the dawn, Eastern adj. órëa hand, but conj. ná of the stars adj. elena on, with reference to contact of of this sort adj. sítë surfaces, especially vertical of tin adj. latucenda surface prep. pá, pa of tongue, spoken with tongue once upon a time noun in locative adj. lambina yalúmessë of what sort? interrogative word once upon a time noun in locative maitë? yáressë of whom, pl. , from whom relative once upon a time adv. yassë pron. Genitive pl. ion once upon a time, long ago adv. of wood adj. taurina andanéya of wool, woollen adj. toa once, at one time (in the past) nëa off, away verbal prefix au- one numeral min oil noun millo one numeral minë ointment noun laivë One (the) = God noun Eru old adj. enwina One (the) = God noun Eruva old, having many years adj. one eighth (1/8) fraction tosta linyenwa one eighth (1/8). fraction tolsat old, worn adj. yerna one eighth (1/8). fraction tolosta olden adj. yalúmëa one eleventh (1/11) fraction olden adj. yárëa minquesta ominous, lying heavy, one fifth (1/5) fraction lepesta burdensome, oppressive adj. one fifth (1/5) fraction lepsat lumna one fourth (1/4) fraction canasta omnificent adj. ilucara one fourth (1/4) fraction cansat omnipotent adj. iluvala one fourth (1/4) fraction casta omniscient adj. iluisa (Þ?) one half (1/2) fraction peresta on (contact of vertical surfaces) one half (1/2) fraction perta prep. apa


one lost or forsaken by friends, open vb. latya- waif, outcast, outlaw noun hecil open wide, spread, expand, (masc. hecilo, fem. hecilë) extend vb. palu- one ninth (1/9) fraction neresta open wide, spread, expand, one ninth (1/9) fraction nersat extend vb. palya- one ninth (1/9) fraction nesta open, free, cleared (of land) adj. one not of Aman, Elda that did latin, latina not reach Aman noun Úmanya open, unfurl, spread out vb. one not of Aman, Elfe noun panta- Úamanya opening noun latya one of a pair of twins; pl. ónoni opening, hole, mouth noun assa twins noun onóna opening, unfolding, revealing one of the Lamps of the Valar noun pantië noun Ormal openness noun látië one of the people of the Noldor oppressive, lying heavy, noun noldo burdensome, ominous adj. lumna one seventh (1/7) fraction osta or conj. var one seventh (1/7) fraction otosta orange (colour not fruit) adj. one seventh (1/7) fraction otsat culuina one sixth (1/6) fraction enquesta orange (fruit not colour) noun one tenth fraction quaista culuma one third (1/3) fraction neldesta orange-tree noun culumalda one third (1/3) fraction nelesta Orc, pl. orcor or orqui noun orco one third (1/3) fraction nelsat order noun heren one third (1/3) fraction nelta order, announcement noun canwa one twelfth fraction yunquesta order, command vb. can- one who trespasses, debtor noun other adj.? exa lucando other adj. hyana one who trespasses, debtor noun other person noun hye lucindo other thing conj. or noun hya one with very great knowledge other, another noun eces noun ingólemo other, another noun exë one, alone cardinal er our pronominal ending 1stperson one, single adj.? erëa pl. exclusive -lma one, somebody noun -quén our 1st person pl. exclusive (quen-) independent possessive pronoun one, someone, anyone indefinite menya pronoun o our 1st person dual exlusive oneself, myself, themselves etc possessive ending -mma reflexive pronominal ending -xë our 1st person dual inclusive onyx noun nyelecca possessive pronominal ending - open adj. láta ngwa open adj. panta 103

ourselves reflexive pronoun 1st outer, outermost adj. erúmëa person pl. excl. immë outermost, outer adj. erúmëa ourselves reflexive pronoun 1st outlaw, one lost or forsaken, waif, person pl. incl. inwë outcast noun hecil ( masc. hecilo, out (+ablative) out of prep. (and fem. hecilë) adv.?) et outside noun etsë out (+ablative) out of prep. (and outside noun (and/or adv.?) ettë adv.?) etellë outside, beside prefix ar- out (+ablative) out of prep. (and oven noun urna adv.?) etelyë over prep. or out (+ablative) out of prep. (and overcast, dark adj. lúrëa adv.?) etemmë overshadow, canopy, screen vb. out (+ablative) out of prep. (and telta- adv.?) etengwë ow! (horror, pain, disgust) out of, from ablative ending -llo interjection orro outcast, one lost or forsaken, own, personal, private noun véra waif, outlaw noun hecil ( masc. owned, free of things: not hecilo, fem. hecilë) guarded, reserved, made fast adj. outer lands noun ettelë lerina

P pain noun nwalma parent (m. and. fem. ) noun pain, horror, disgust interjection ontaro, ontarë pl. ontani horro parent, noun nostar or nostaro pain, hurt vb. mala- (pl. nostari) pain, torment vb. nwalya- parent, begetter noun ontar painful adj. naicelëa parent, begetter (fem); the pl. palace noun túrion (túriond-) ontari or dual ontaru (see ontani) palatal series noun tyelpetéma covers both sexes. noun ontarë pale adj. isca parent, begetter (fem.) noun pale, fallow adj. malwa ontarië pale, fallow, fawn adj. marya parent, begetter (masc.); pl. ontari pale, grey, silvery grey adj. sindë noun ontaro (Þ) part noun ranta pale, vague, faint, dim to see adj partitive pl. ending -li néca pass over, cross, surpass, excell palid, white, chill adj. ninquë vb. lahta- pansy or violet noun helin passage, especially across or over paper noun hyalin an obstacle, also neck noun lango 104

passage, crossing noun tarna Philosophy, knowledge (including passage, journey, direction of Science) noun =olmë travel noun mentië phonetic adj. hlonitë passive suffix -nwa physical matter noun erma past, past time noun vanwië physical matter noun orma path, course, line, direction, way physical strength, muscle, sinew, noun tië vigour noun tuo patronage noun ortírië pick (up, out) with the fingers vb. paved floor, court noun paca lepta- peace noun rainë picture noun emma peace noun sívë piece noun mitta peace, rest, repose noun sérë piece of good fortune, good thing, peak noun aicalë blessing noun almë pearl noun marilla piece of shaped wood noun pano pebble-bank, shingle noun sarnië piercing, sharp adj. maica (sarniyë) pig noun polca peer, blink vb. tihta- pile, mound noun hahta pen noun tecil pillar noun tarma people noun lië pillar, standard, pole noun tulwë People of the Elves noun pillow noun quesset (quessec-) Quendelië pin, brooch noun tancil people of the west noun pine noun sánë (Þ) =úmen(n)órë pipe noun rotsë perfect adj. ilvana pipe, flute noun simpa perfect adj. ilvanya pipe, flute noun simpina perhaps, if it be so, may be adv. piper noun simpetar cenasit pipeweed, nicotiana noun perhaps, if it be so, may be adv. alenessë, alanessë canasta pit, hole noun latta person as a whole noun erdë pivot noun peltas (peltax-) person, individual noun nassë pl. instrumental ending -inen person, somebody noun námo place noun nómë personal, private, own noun véra place dwelt in, dwelling noun perspicacious adj. fantarcenya marda petition noun arcandë place, way, spot noun men Petty dwarf noun nuxo plain, flat field, wang noun palar Petty-dwarf noun Pitya-nauco plain, flat field, wang, plain noun Petty-dwarve noun Picinauco palar phantom, disembodied spirit noun plan, arrangement noun pano fairë planet/star (possibly Mercury) Philosophy /Science as a whole noun Elemmírë noun Ingolë plant vb. empanya- plant noun laima 105

plant noun olva poplar-tree noun tyulussë plant, grow vb. ala- poppy noun fúmella play vb. tyal- poppy noun fúmellot play a harp vb. tanta- possess vb. harya- play, sport, game noun tyalië possessing adj. arwa pledge, oath, solemn promise possessive 3rd person pl. noun vanda pronominal ending -nta plenitude, sufficiency noun fárë possessive 3rd person pl. plenitude, sufficiency noun farmë pronominal ending -ntya pliant, soft adj. maxa possessive ending -va plough noun hyar post, mark noun talca plum tree, cherry tree noun aipio potter noun cemnaro plural ending used on verbs with potter noun centano a plural subject -r pour, intr. vb. ulya- plural possessive ending -iva (- pouring, flooding, flowing adj. ivë) úlëa plural sign used in some of the pout vb. penga- case endings -n power (inherent), might noun poem noun lairë melehtë poem noun lirit Power, God, angelic power noun point to, indicate vb. leptenta- Vala point to, indicate, direct toward power, mastery, victory, strength, vb. tenta- might noun túrë point, dot, tiny mark noun tixë powerful, hostile, and terrible point, end noun mentë creature noun rauco point, tip, used with reference to praise, bless vb. laita- fingers and toes noun tillë pray vb. arca- poison noun hloima pray vb. hyam- poison noun sangwa prayer noun kyermë poison, envenom, fill with poison precious, valuable adj. mirwa vb. hloita- prefix denoting doing something poison, venom noun hloirë bad us- (Þ) pole, pillar, standard noun tulwë prefix denoting doing something polished copper noun calarus very badly sau- (calarust-) prefix implying wickedness or polished, smooth adj. runda evil hru, ru-, hrú- pollen, yellow powder noun malo prepare vb. manwa- (malu-) press, crowd, throng noun sanga pool noun linya (Þ) pool noun nendë press, thrust, force vb. nir- pool of lilles noun nénuvar pretty, dainty adj. netya pool, lake noun ailin prick vb. erca- pool, mere noun lóna prick, sting vb. nasta- 106

prickle, spine noun erca puff of air, breeze, breath, also prince, heir noun haryon name of tengwa #12 noun hwesta prince, leader noun condo puff of breath, breath noun foa princess noun aranel (aranell-) pull, draw vb. saca- (Þ) principal, chief adj. héra punish vb. paimeta- prison, custody noun mando punishment noun paimë privacy noun aquapahtië pure, clean adj. poica private, closed, shut adj. pahta purification, washing, bathing private, personal, own noun véra noun sovallë private, separate adj. satya pursue vb. roita- proceed (in any direction), go, pursue, look for, search vb. saca- travel vb. lelya- put an end to vb. metya- prohibit, refuse vb ava- put aside, leave out, exclude, prolong vb. taita- abandon, forsake vb. hehta- prominent adj. eteminya put forth leaves or flowers, sprout prominent, conspicuous adj. vb. locta- minda put forth leaves or flowers, sprout protect vb. varya- vb. lohta- protected, safe, secure adj. varna put to shame vb. naitya- protection or shelter noun cauma put to the test vb. tyasta- prow of a ship, also broad sword putrid, foul, evil-smelling adj. noun lango saura (Þ) puff vb. hwesta-


Qenya (other names of) noun question, enquire of vb. ces- (Þ) Eldarissa, Eldaquet quick stroke noun rincë (rinci-) quarrel vb. costa- quick, swift adj. limbë queen, used especially of Varda quickly adverb lintië noun tári quiet, hush, rest noun quildë queenship noun táris(së) quiver (= case for holding arrows) Quendian, belonging to the Elves noun vainolë as a whole adj. Quenderin quotation, saying, dictum noun Quenya original form of the word eques (equess-) Quendya qu-series, velarized series: fourth Quenya form of Sindarin Barad- column of the Tengwar system dûr noun Lúnaturco. Also Taras noun quessetéma Lúna


R race, running noun norië react, do back, avenge vb. accar- race, running noun normë react, do back, avenge vb. ahtar- radiance noun alta read aloud vb. et-henta- radiance noun fairë read written matter vb. tengwa- radiance, glittering reflection reading noun cenda- (from jewels, glass or polished ready adj. manwa metals, or water) noun nalta ready to hand, (quickly) available radiant one = Sun noun Ancalë adj. férima radiant, glorious adj. alcarinqua ready to hand, (quickly) available rage noun ursa (Þ) adj. ferina rage vb. ursa- (Þ) real, actual, true adj. anwa rage, also name of tengwa #11 realm noun arda noun aha realm noun artaurë raiment noun larma realm noun turmen rainbow noun iluquinga realm, region noun harda rainbow noun Ilweran rear noun tellë rainbow noun Ilweranta rear, back noun pontë (ponti-) rainbow, lit. sky-bridge noun reason, cause noun casta helyanwë recall, commemorate vb. enyal- raise, rise vb. orta- receive vb. cam- rape, ravish vb. mapta- reckon vb. not- rape, ravishment, seizure noun Reckoner noun Onótimo maptalë reckoning noun onótië rapid, swift adj. larca recusant, Elf that refused to go to rapid, swift adj. alarca Aman noun avar rat noun nyano red flame noun rúnya rat noun nyarro red hair noun russë ravine, cleft, gulf noun yáwë red, ruddy adj. aira ravine, mountain pass noun red, scarlet adj. carnë falqua redeemer noun runando ravine, narrow path noun axa Redeemer of the world noun ravish, rape vb. mapta- Mardorunando ravishment, rape, seizure noun red-haired adj. russa maptalë reed noun fen (feng-) ray of light noun alca reed, grass noun linquë ray of sunlight adj. arma reed, sedge noun liscë re-, again- prefix en- reek noun usquë re-, back, again prefix ata-, at- refall vb. ataquanta- reach, stretch out vb. rahta- refill vb. enquanta-


reflexive pronoun 1st person sg. - responsibility, guilt noun cáma immë rest vb. ser- refresh, renew vb. ceuta- rest, hush, quiet noun quildë refuse, forbid vb. avaquet- rest, repose, peace noun sérë refuse, prohibit vb ava- resting, at peace adj. senda refused, forbidden, banned adj. restrained, delayed, kept adj. avanwa hampa region noun ména return noun entulessë region above air where stars are return, go back, come back vb. place-name ilmen nanwen- region, realm noun harda return, go round, revolve vb. pel- regular, law-abiding, normal adj. revealing, unfolding, opening sanya (Þ) noun pantië regular, normal adj. vorosanya reversed adj. nuquerna (Þ) revolve, go round, return vb. pel- release, set free, let go vb. lerya- rich, abundant adj. alya released, free adj. lehta rich, fat adj. lárëa remain vb. er- rich, fortunate, wealthy, blessed remain, tarry vb. lemya- adj. herenya remote, far adj. avahaira richeness, fat noun lar remote, far adj. eccaira rider, horseman, knight noun remote, far adj. haira roquen rend vb. narca- ridge, crest noun quín, quínë rending, harsh, violent adj. right hand noun forma naraca right, dexter adj. forya renew, heal vb. envinyata- right, straight adj. téna renew, refresh vb. ceuta- righthanded, dexterous adj. renewal noun ceulë formaitë renewed adj. ceura rime, frost noun ringwë renewed adj. ceurë ring noun corma repay, requite vb. paitya- ring (on the ground) noun risil repeat, say again vb. enquete- (Þ) repeated, continual adj. vorima Ring of Doom place name Rithil- repose, rest, peace noun sérë Anamo requite, repay vb. paitya- ringing sound, echo noun láma rescue, save vb. rehta- rise vb. orya- rescue, saving noun rehtië rise, raise vb. orta- reserved, free of things: not rising noun órë guarded, made fast, or owned adj. river noun celusindi lerina river noun hlóna resin, gum noun suhtë river noun sír, shorter form of resonant, taut, tight (of strings) sirë adj. tunga river noun sirya 109

river (of large volume). ending - row, series, line noun téma duinë ruddy adj. roina river (of large volume, and liable ruddy, red adj. aira to flooding). noun nuinë ruined, confused, shattered, river, stream noun sírë disordered adj. (or passive rivulet noun siril participle?) rúcina road, straight line noun tëa rule vb. cunta- road, street noun mallë rule vb. cunya- roaring adj. rávëa rule, law noun sanyë (Þ) roaring noise noun rávë rule, law, commandment noun robber, thief noun pilu axan robbery, theft noun pilwë rule, only with reference to the robe, wrap noun vaima Valar vb. vala- rock ridges, neck, the bony part of run vb. nor- the neck noun acas, axë run vb. yur- rock, stone as a material noun run on, run smoothly vb. ondo nornoro- roll up vb. tolu- run smoothly, run on vb. roof noun tel nornoro- roof noun tópa run, leap vb. nor- roof vb. tópa- rune noun certa roof, dome, canopy noun telumë rune noun cirtë room, chamber noun sambë (Þ) running, race noun norië root, base, foundation noun talma running, race noun normë rough piece of wood noun runda rush, rushing flight, wild wind round head, knoll noun nóla noun alaco round, globed adj. corna rushing flight, rush, wild wind rouse, excite, stir up vb. walta- noun alaco row of spikes or teeth noun rushing, haste, violence, wrath carcaras, carcassë noun ormë row of teeth noun carcanë rushing, swift adj. Arauca row of teeth, jaws noun anca

S safe, protected, secure adj. varna sail vb. círa- saga, tale noun nyarna sailor noun ciryando saga, tale, history noun nyárë salt noun singë sagacious adj. finwa salt (salty) adj. singwa sail vb. cir- 110

same one, self general singular screen, veil noun fanwa reflexive pronoun immo sculptor in stone noun same, identical, selfsame adj. ondomaitar imya sea noun airë sanctuary, holy place, fane noun sea noun ëar yána sea (as waters, motion) noun váya sand noun litsë sea-elf noun Teler sapphire noun lúlë search for, seek vb. cesta- Sauro(n) alternative form of sea-serpent, fish-dragon noun masc. name Súro (Þ) lingwilócë Sauron (Þ), the Abhorred, name seaward precipice, cliff noun ollo of a Maia, the second Dark Lord second ordinal attëa masc. name Sauro (Þ) second adj. atya save, except prep. enga second adj. neuna save, deliver vb. etelehta- Second Folk, an Elvish name of save, rescue vb. rehta- Mortal Men noun Atan saving, rescue noun rehtië second half of the month of say again, repeat vb. enquete- avestalis (January) noun Erintion say no vb. váquet- secrecy noun muilë say, speak vb. quet- secrecy, a secret noun fólë say/says or said (a tenseless secrecy, black arts noun núlë pseudo-verb) vb. equë secret adj. or noun lomba saying, dictum, quotation noun secret noun nulda eques (equess-) secret lore, wisdom noun nolwë scarcely visible, hard to see adj. secret, dark, dusky, obscure adj. hraicenë nulla scarcely visible, hard to see adj. secret, hidden adj. muina hraicénima secret, secrecy noun fólë scarlet, red adj. carnë secretive adj. fólima scatter, blow about (both secure, safe, protected adj. varna transitive and intransitive) vb. security noun varnassë winta- sedge, reed noun liscë scent noun ne see vb. vél- scholar, learned man noun istyar see, behold vb. cen- Science/ Philosophy as a whole seed, germ noun erdë noun Ingolë Seeing Stone noun palantír scoop out, draw water, bale out seek, search for vb. cesta- vb. calpa- seeking noun surië (Þ) scorn, mocking noun yaiwë seeming, apparent adj. vëa screen from light, veil, conceal seize, grasp vb. mapa- vb. halya- seizure, ravishment, rape noun screen, canopy, overshadow vb. maptalë telta- 111

self, same one general singular shadow, obscurity, stain noun reflexive pronoun immo mordo selfsame, same, identical adj. shadow, shade noun lómin imya shadow, spirit noun hó send vb. lelta- shadowed, veiled, hidden, shady send flying, speed, urge vb. adj. halda horta- shady adj. laira send for, fetch, summon vb. tulta- shady, veiled, hidden, shadowed send, cause to go vb. menta- adj. halda sending, message noun menta shaggy lock, tangled hair noun sentence noun quentelë fassë separate, private adj. satya shake vb. pal- September noun Yavannië shape noun canta September (alternative name of ) shaped adj. canta noun Erquellë shaped stone, flag noun ambal series, row, line noun téma share, blade noun hyanda serpent that guarded a treasure sharp adj. ecya noun/name foalócë sharp edge, sudden end noun servant noun núro lanca servant of ending -ndur sharp pain noun naicë set aside vb. sat- sharp pain noun naicelë set bounds to/about, enclose vb. sharp, angular noun nerca yor- sharp, piercing adj. maica set free, release, let go vb. lerya- sharp-ears noun Lastalaica set up, fix, establish vb. tulca- sharp-eye noun? adj.? set, fix vb. panya- hendumaica set, sink (of Sun or Moon) vb. shattered, confused, disordered, núta- ruined adj. (or passive settled character noun indómë participle?) rúcina seven cardinal otso she, he independent emphatic Seven Stars (otso + elen), Great pronoun essë Bear (constellation) noun Otselen she/her, he/him, it 3rd person sg. seventeen cardinal otoquë pronominal ending -s seventh ordinal otsëa she/her, he/him, it/it pron. also sexual desire noun yérë object 3rd person sg. se shade noun laimë sheath noun vainë shade, shadow noun lómin sheep noun máma shade, shadow cast by any object sheepfold noun moalin (moalind- noun lëo ) shadow (heavy) noun lumbulë sheep-friend shepherd? noun shadow cast by any object, shade mámandil noun lëo she-goat noun nyéni shadow, gloom noun lumbë she-lion noun ravennë 112

shell, conch, horn of Ulmo noun shut, closed, private adj. pahta hyalma sick, bedridden adj. caimassëa shepherd noun mavar sick, nauseous adj. quámëa shepherdess noun emerwen sick, sickly, ill adj. hlaiwa shield noun turma sickle noun circa shield noun umbas (Þ) Sickle of the Gods, a name of the shield-barrier, a battle-formation constellation Great Bear noun noun sandastan Valacirca shift, move, heave vb. rúma- sickly adj. engwa shine vb. cal- sickness noun hlívë shine vb. calta- sickness, lying in bed noun shine (white) vb. sil- caimassë shine continuously (silver and sickness, nausea noun quámë gold) vb. sisilcala- sign noun taina shine white vb. ninquita- sign noun tanna shingle, pebble-bank noun sarnië sign, indication noun tengwë (sarniyë) sign, letter noun sarat shining jewel noun miril (mirill-) sign, token noun tanwa shining jewels made by Fëanor Signifer, the significant star = noun Silmaril (full form : Venus noun Tancol Silmarillë) (Silmarill-) silk noun samin (samind-) shining white, silver adj. silma silken adj. saminda, saminwa ship noun cirya Silpion (a name of) name shirt, tunic noun laupë Silmerossë, shoe noun hyapat silver noun telep- shore, beach noun fára silver noun telpë shore, beach noun hresta silver noun tyelpë shore, beach noun falas (falass-), silver (the mystic name of) noun falassë ilsa short adj. sinta (Þ) silver, glinting adj. tinda short broad-bladed sword noun silver, shining white adj. silma ecet silvery grey, grey, pale adj. sindë short rounded handle, knob noun (Þ) tolma similar, alike adj. ovéa short, failing, inadequate adj. similar, alike adj. vávëa loica sin, trespass, do wrong vb. úcar- shout vb. rama- since (in the sense of because) shout noun rambë adv. pan shout vb. yam- or yama- singer noun nyello shout, call of triumph noun yello singer, singing bird noun lindo show, indicate vb. tana- Singers (sg. Linda), what the shut, close vb. holta- Teleri called themselves noun shut, close vb. holya- Lindar 113

singing bird, singer noun lindo slay vb. nahta- singing, air, tune, song noun lindë slay vb. nehta- single, alone adj. erinqua slayer noun nehtar single, one adj.? erëa sleep noun fúmë single, sole adj. erya sleep noun húmë singular personal relative pronoun slender adj. fimbë (fimbi-) who, maybe also object whom ye slender adj. nindë (plural i). slender adj. teren, terenë sink, set (of Sun or Moon) vb. slender and drooping, frail adj. núta- limpa sinner noun úcarindo slender, delicate, beautiful and sip, lick up, sup vb. salpa- fine adj. lelya Sirius (a star) noun =iellúnë slide down, slip, collapse, slope Sirius (a star) noun =ierninwa vb. talta- sister noun nésa (Þ) slip, slide down, collapse, slope sister noun onónë vb. talta- sister noun onórë slope, downslope, declivity noun sister noun seler (Þ) (sell-) pendë sister, [female] associate noun slope, incline vb. penda- osellë (Þ) slope, slip, slide down, collapse sit vb. ham- vb. talta- sit, stay vb. har- sloping down, inclined adj. six cardinal encë penda six cardinal enquë sloping, tilted, leaning adj. talta sixteen cardinal enenquë slot, footprint noun runya skilful, handed or handy adj. slow adj. lenca maitë (maiti-) slowly fade away vb. fifíru- skill noun curu slumber vb. lor- skin, fell noun helma slumber noun lórë sky noun hellë slumber noun murmë sky (upper airs and clouds). noun slumber vb. muru- fanyarë slumbrous adj. murmëa sky, air, also name of tengwa #24 slumbrous, drowsy adj. lorda noun vilya small adj. cinta sky, air, also name of tengwa #24 small adj. mintë noun wilya small adj. mitra sky, canopy noun telimbo small adj. mitsa sky, heavens noun ilwë small adj. nincë (ninci-) slacken, loose vb. lehta- small adj. nitya slacken, loose vb. lenca- small (in good sens) adj. níca slash, gash noun cirissë small bird noun filit (filic-) slave, thrall noun mól small boat, vessel, dish noun venë slavish, of slave(s) adj. móla small grot or tunnel noun rotto 114

small insect, fly noun pí soft, gentle, weak adj. milya small landlocked bay, haven, soft, pliant adj. maxa harbour noun hópa soil, earth noun cén (cem-) small piece, crumb, bit noun mië soil, stain vb. vahta- small spot, dot noun pica soiled, dirty adj. vára small, frail adj. nimpë (nimpi-) solar year, sun-round noun small, frail adj. nípa coranar smeared, discoloured adj. púrëa sole of foot noun tallunë (talluni- smile vb. raita- ) smiling, gracious adj. raina sole, single adj. erya smith noun sintamo solemn promise, oath, pledge smith noun tamo noun vanda smith, craftsman noun tano solid, firm adj. ronda smooth adj. pasta solitary, deserted adj. erda smooth, glabrous adj. passa solitary, lonely adj. eressëa smooth, iron vb. pasta- solitude noun eressë smooth, polished adj. runda some kind of tree noun lavaralda snake noun ango (angu-, pl. somebody pronominal suffix -o, - angwi) ó, snake noun leuca somebody, one noun quén (quen- snake, dragon noun lócë ) snare noun neuma somebody, person noun námo Snare vb. rem- someone, one, anyone indefinite snare noun remma pronoun o snarl, growl noun yarra- something, thing neuter personal snout, nose, cape noun mundo pronoun ma, snow vb. fauta- son noun anon snow noun lossë Son noun Yón snow peak noun níquetil son noun yondo (níquetild-) son (of), descendant patronymic snowcap noun niquetil ending -ion snowdrop noun nieninquë son of the dark noun morion snowdrop-like adj. nieninquëa son, big boy noun yonyo snow-white adj. lossë song noun lírë (líri-) snow-white adj. lossëa song, air, tune, singing noun lindë so or as (referring to something song, lay noun lirilla remote; contrast sívë). prep. soon adv. rato tambë sorrow, grief noun nyérë so, in this way adv. sinen sound noun lamma so, like that, also adv. ta sound vb. lamya- soap noun lipsa sound of wind noun sû soft adj. mussë sound, noise noun hlón soft, gentle adj. moica sound-taste noun lámatyávë 115

soup noun sulpa spirit noun vilissë south noun Hyarmen Spirit of Fire masc. name southern adj. hyarmenya Fëanáro southern adj. hyarna spirit of woods, dryad (fem.) noun sow vb. rer- tavaril sown field, acre noun resta spirit of woods, dryad (masc.) spark noun tinwë noun tavaro, tavaron spark-dragon noun fëalócë spirit that has gone to the Valar or sparkle vb. ita- to Erumáni noun mánë sparkle vb. tintina- spirit, being noun ëala speak vb. carpa- spirit, breath, also name of speak, say vb. quet- tengwa #9 noun súlë (Þ) (súli-) spear noun ehtë (ehti-) spirit, shadow noun hó spear noun hatal spit noun piuta spearhead noun nehta spit vb. piuta- spear-head, spear-point, gore, splendid, admirable, sublime triangle noun nasta (only of great, or splendid things) spearman noun ehtyar adj. maira species of little birds noun splendour, glory, brilliance noun cirincë, alcar species, kind noun nostalë split, cleft noun? or adj? sanca speech noun quenya (Þ) speech, language noun pahta spoken with tongue, of tongue speechless adj. úpahtëa adj. lambina speed, send flying, urge vb. sponge, fungus noun hwan horta- (hwand-) speed, swiftness noun lintië sport, play, game noun tyalië speeding, urging noun hortalë spot with eye vb. hententa- spelling, writing system noun spot, way, place noun men tencelë spray noun timpinë spider noun liantë spray, foam noun winga spider filament, fine thread noun spread out, unfurl, open vb. lia panta- spider's web, also name of tengwa spread, open wide, expand, #8 noun ungwë extend vb. palu- spike, horn noun tildë spread, open wide, expand, spike, thorn noun nassë extend vb. palya- spin, turn (apparently intransitive) spring, spring-time noun tuilë vb. pir- spring, sprout vb. tuia- spine noun ecco sprout, bud noun tuima spine, prickle noun erca sprout, put forth leaves or flowers spirant consonant noun surya vb. locta- spirit noun fëa 116

sprout, put forth leaves or flowers steadfast adj. sorna (þ) vb. lohta- steadfast in allegiance, in keeping sprout, spring vb. tuia- oath or promise, faithful adj. squat vb. haca- vórima staff noun vandil steadfast in allegiance, in keeping stain, shadow, obscurity noun oath or promise, faithful adj. mordo voronda stain, soil vb. vahta- steadfast, firm, strong, immovable stalk, stem noun sirpë adj. tulca stand vb. tar- steadfast, trusty, loyal adj. sarta stand vb. termar- steadfastness, loyalty, faithfulness stand aside!, be gone! vb. in noun voronwë imperative heca! steel noun yaisa standard, pillar, pole noun tulwë steel, iron noun erë, eren star noun elen steep adj. aiqua star (or planet), identified with steep adj. oronta Mars noun Carnil steep isle noun tollë star (or planet), tentatively stellar adj. elenya identified with Saturn name stem of a Tengwa symbol noun Lumbar telco star/planet (possibly Mercury) stem, stalk noun sirpë noun Elemmírë stick to, adhere, cleave to, abide star-imagine on Nur-menel noun by vb. himya- nillë stick, branch, wand noun olwen Star-kingdom, upper sky place- (olwenn-) name Elenarda sticker-up, prominent one, term starlight noun Ilma used in children's play for middle starlight, also fem. name, finger or middle toe noun tollo referring to a Maia noun Ilmarë sticker-up, prominent one, term starlight, also name of tengwa used in children's play for middle #29 silmë finger or middle toe noun tolyo starlike, like stars adj. elvëa sticking, adhering adj. himba starlit dusk, starry twilight noun stiff dry grass noun sara (Þ) tindómë stiff, awkward, hard, difficult adj. Star-queen, title of Varda noun hranga Elentári stiff, tough adj. norna starry twilight, starlit dusk noun stiff, tough adj. tarya tindómë stiff, wooden adj. tauca Starwards, a name of Númenor still adv. en place-name Elenna sting, prick vb. nasta- state, heart, mood noun indo stink noun holwë statute noun namna stir up, excite, rouse vb. walta- stay, sit vb. har- stir, make spin vb. quir- 117

stirring noun coirë stripped bare, naked adj. helda stone noun on, ondo stripped, deprived adj. racina stone (small) noun sar (sard-) stroke of pen or brush when not stone as a material, rock noun used as long mark noun tecco ondo stroke, feel with the hand, etc. vb. stony place noun sarnë palta- stop (in punctuation). noun putta strong or fortified building or stop short, stunt vb. nuhta- place, fortress noun osto stop, block vb. tap- strong, burly adj. polda stop, cease, take a rest vb. hauta- strong, firm, immovable, steadfast stop, in punctuation full stop noun adj. tulca pusta strong, large man noun nerdo stop; also intr. cease, stop vb. strong, swift at running adj. pusta- nórima stopper noun tampa stump, big toe, stub noun tolbo storm (noise of a) noun raumo stump, big toe, stub noun tolvo storyteller, composer of nyarnar stunt, stop short vb. nuhta- or long epic tales noun stunted adj. nauca nyarnamaitar sublime adj. varanda straight line, road noun tëa sublime, admirable, splendid straight, long and thin, narrow (only of great, or splendid things) adj. lenwa adj. maira straight, right adj. téna substance the Silmarils were strap noun latta made of, invented by Fëanor noun stray vb. ranya- silima stray about vb. mista- substance/flesh of Arda, matter straying, wandering noun ránë noun hrón stream or fly in the wind, blow successorfollower noun neuro vb. hlapu- such, of that sort adj. taitë stream, flow noun celumë sudden end, sharp edge noun stream, river noun sírë lanca street, road noun mallë sudden move, twitch, jerk, trick strength noun poldorë noun rinca strength, mastery, victory, might, suffice vb. farya- power noun túrë sufficiency, plenitude noun fárë strengthening noun antoryamë sufficiency, plenitude noun farmë stretch vb. lenu- suffix occurring in many personal stretch out, reach vb. rahta- names, generally but not stretched, lengthened, ex-tended, exclusively masculine -wë elongated adj. taina suffix of endearment -ya stride vb. telconta- summer noun lairë Strider masc. name Telcontar summit of a mountain noun ingor strike, knock vb. pet- summon vb. naham- 118

summon vb. yal- Swan-wing noun Alquarámë summon, send for, fetch vb. tulta- sward, lawn noun palis summons noun nahámë swarm noun umba Sun noun Anar swarming, abundant, teeming adj. Sun noun Calavénë úmëa Sun noun Calaventë swart, brown, dark brown adj. sunlight, day noun aurë varnë (varni-) sunrise noun anarórë sweet adj. lissë Sunrise noun orontë, oronto sweet kiss noun miquelis sun-round, solar year noun (miquelis(s)-) coranar sweet, beloved, dear adj. melda sunset, west, evening noun swell, grow fat vb. tiuya- andúnë swift adj. linta sup, lick up, sip vb. salpa- swift, agile, hasty adj. tyelca support noun tulco swift, quick adj. limbë suppose vb. cíta- swift, rapid adj. larca suppose, guess vb. intya- swift, rapid adj. alarca sure, firm, fixed adj. tanca swift, rushing adj. arauca surf noun solor swift, strong at running adj. surf, surge noun solossë nórima surface noun palmë swiftness, speed noun lintië surface, bosom, bosom of Earth swirl, eddy, gyrate vb. hwinya- noun palúrë sword noun macil surge, surf noun solossë swordsman noun macar surpass, excell vb. ráta- Swordsman noun mectar surpass, pass over, cross, excel sworn brother, brother, [male] vb. lahta- associate noun otorno swallow noun tuilindo syrup, juice noun pirya swallow, lit. lick down vb. system or code of signs, language undulav- noun tengwesta swallow, throat noun lanco (lancu-, pl. lanqui)

T table noun sarno tale, saga, history noun nyárë tail noun pimpë tall adj. halla take a rest, cease, stop vb. hauta- tall adj. orna tale noun quenta tall adj. tunda tale, saga noun nyarna tall tower noun tirin 119

talon, claw noun namma that demonstrative sana talon, claw noun nappa that demonstrative tana tangle vb. fasta- that (the former) demonstrative tangled hair, shaggy lock noun yana fassë that matter noun tama tap vb. tam- that which pron ita taper, candle noun lícuma that which, what, which fact pron. tarn noun moilë tai tarry, remain vb. lemya- that yonder demonstrative enta tassel noun fas (?fats-), fatsë that, it pron. ta tassel noun fatsë thatch noun tupsë taste vb. tyav- the indeclinable definite article i taste noun tyávë the defintite article in taut, tight (of strings) resonant the Golden Tree of Valinor 0ame adj. tunga of Laurelin tear noun nië the One's [Eru's] perpetual tear noun nírë production noun oiencarmë Eruo teem vb. úma- the Renewer noun Envinyatar teeming, abundant, swarming adj. the sea (in storm) noun haloisi úmëa the Supreme, the chief Valar noun telepathic thought-transfer, Aratar thought-opening, direct noun thee, you, thou pron. 2nd person sanwë-latya intimate/familar tye telepathy noun ósanwë thee/thou, you pron. 2nd person Teler-folk noun Telellië sg. formal/polite lye Telerian adj. Telerin theft, robbery noun pilwë Telerin adj. telerinwa their 3rd person pl. pronominal tell vb. nyar- possessive suffix -lta (-ltya) temple noun corda them, pronominal ending -t ten cardinal quain them, they pron. ta ten cardinal quëan them, they pron. 3rd person pl., terrible adj. rúcima used with reference to inanimates terrible, powerful and, hostile, rather than persons or living creature noun rauco things tai terrible creature, demon noun them, they pron. 3rd person pl. te arauco them, they pron. 3rd person dual terrible, fell adj. aica tú terrify vb. ruhta- themselves reflexive pronoun 3rd terror noun ossë person pl. intë thank, give thanks vb. hanta- themselves, oneself, myself etc thanksgiving noun hantalë reflexive pronominal ending -xë that relative pronoun i then adv. san that conj. i then adv. tá 120

then adv. tai third adj. nelya thence adv. talo, tó third day of the Eldarin six-day thence adv. tó week, dedicated to the Moon thence, thereupon adv. epeta noun Isilya (Þ) thence, thereupon adv. epta third day of the Valinorian week there adv. sanomë of 5 days, dedicated to Aule and there adv. tás Yavanna noun Arveruen there adv. tassë 3rd person dual emphatic there, look! yon (yonder) pronoun esto interjection en 3rd person pl. reflexive ending - therefore adv. etta ttë therefore adv. potai 3rd person sg. reflexive ending - therefore, in that way adv. tanen, ssë tánen thirsty adj. fauca thereupon, thence adv. epeta thirsty adj. soica thereupon, thence adv. epta thirteen cardinal nelequë (kw) they 3rd person pl. pronominal thirteen cardinal nelquëa, suffix -ltë thirteen cardinal yunquenta they pronomimal ending -ntë this demonstrative sina they dual 3rd person pronominal this day adv. siar, siarë ending -ttë this hour noun sillumë they, them pron. ta this place compound noun sinómë they, them pron. 3rd person pl., thither adv. tamen used with reference to inanimates thither pron. in allative tanna rather than persons or living thither adv. tar things tai thither adv. tara they, them pron. 3rd person pl. te thorn noun necel they, them pron. 3rd person dual thorn, spike noun nassë tú thou, you pronominal endings for thick, fat adj. tiuca 2nd person sg. polite/formal –l, - thief, robber noun pilu lyë thigh noun tiuco thou, you pronominal ending, 2nd thing noun engwë person familiar/intimate -tyë thing noun nat thou, you pronominal ending -lyë thing impossible to be or to be thou, you, thee pron. 2nd person done noun únat intimate/familar tye thing made by handicraft noun thou/thee, you pron. 2nd person taman sg. formal/polite lye thing made, craft, device, thought, an act of thinking noun construction noun tanwë sanwë thing, something neuter personal thought-inspection, thought- pronoun ma, reading noun sanwecenda third ordinal neldëa 121

thought-opening, direct, tilted, sloping, leaning adj. talta telepathic thought-transfer noun time noun lúmë sanwë-latya time, occasion noun lú thought-sending, mental message timid adj. caurëa noun sanwë-menta tinder noun tusturë thousand numeral húmë tiny mark, dot, point noun tixë thrall, slave noun mól tiny, little adj. titta thread (fine) noun ipsin tip, point, used with reference to thread (fine), spider filament noun fingers and toes noun tillë lia tissue, cloth noun lannë three cardinal neldë to prep. ana threshold noun fenda to a great extent, far, distant, wide thrice, tri- adv. or prefix nel, nel- root element (apparently not thrive vb. al- appearing alone) palan- throat, swallow noun lanco to him [/her/it], at him [/her/it] (lancu-, pl. lanqui) dative/allative pronoun sena throne noun mahalma to me, for me pron. dative of ni throng, crowd, press noun sanga nin (Þ) to, at, upon allative ending -nna through, throughout prep. ter, to, towards prefix: ana- terë today adv. síra thrust, press, force vb. nir- toe noun pirë thumb noun nápo toe noun taltil (taltill-, pl. taltilli) thumb and index as a pair, a dual together adv. uo formation. noun nápat toil, labour noun móta- thus adv. sië token, sign noun tanwa thus adv. sin tomb noun noirë thwart vb. hranga- tomorrow adv. enwa thwart vb. hranga- tongue (physical tongue, while thy, your 2nd person sg. lambë = language) noun lamba formal/polite pronominal suffix - tongue, language noun lambë lya tongue, language noun quetil thy, your pronominal ending, 2nd too adv. acca person sg. intimate/familiar -tya tool noun tamma thyself, yourself reflexive tool, weapon noun carma pronoun 2nd person formal sg. tooth noun carca imlë tooth noun nelcë thyself, yourself reflexive tooth noun nelet pronoun 2nd person intimate sg. top, highest point noun inga intyë torment noun angaitya tie vb. nut- torment noun nwalmë tight, taut (of strings) resonant torment, pain vb. nwalya- adj. tunga torture noun malcanë 122

torture noun ungwalë triangle, spear-head, spear-point, touch (in the literal sense) vb. gore noun nasta appa- tribe noun hostar touch (one) in the figurative trick noun fintale sense; concern, affect vb. ap- trick, twitch, jerk, sudden move tough, stiff adj. norna noun rinca tough, stiff adj. tarya trim, adorn vb. netya- towards, to prefix: ana- Trinity noun =eldië tower noun marto trinket noun netil tower (fort, city, castle), great troll noun hruo towering building, noun taras troop, army, band noun hossë tower (great, lofty) noun mindon troth, bond, compact, oath noun tower, watch-tower noun tirion vérë town noun irin true adj. naitë town with walls and towers noun true, firm adj. sanda (Þ) tirios (tiriost-) true, existing, actual adj. nanwa town, walled house, village noun true, real, actual adj. anwa opelë trump noun hyóla township noun ostar trumpet noun tumbë trade vb. manca- trumpet, horn noun romba tradesman noun macar trumpet-sound, loud sound noun trailing, long adj. sóra róma transparence noun liquis trust, hope noun estel travel, go, proceed (in any trusty follower, loyal companion direction) vb. lelya- noun satar treasure noun harma trusty, steadfast, loyal adj. sarta treat as holy, hallow, bless vb. try vb. nev- aina- try, put forth effort, strive, tree noun alda endeavour vb. ric- tree noun ornë tube noun róta tree-tangled adj. aldarembina tune, air, singing, song noun lindë treetop noun aldinga tunic, shirt noun laupë trespass, debt noun lucië turn (apparently intransitive), spin trespass, debt noun lucassë vb. pir- trespass, debt noun rohta turn (transitive) vb. quer- trespass, debt noun ruhta turret noun mindë trespass, debt noun úcarë twang noun tango trespass, sin, do wrong vb. úcar- twang noun tingë tress, lock noun findelë twang, make a twang vb. tinga- tressure (net for confining the twelve cardinal rasta hair). noun carrëa twelve cardinal yuncë tri-, thrice adv. or prefix nel, nel- twelve cardinal yunquë triangle noun neltil (neltild-) twelve hours, day noun arya 123

twenty-four cardinal yurasta twinkling star noun tingilindë twi- or both prefix yu- or yú- twinkling star noun tingilya twilight noun yualë twinkling, glinting adj. (or twilight noun yúcalë participle?) itila twilight noun yúyal twist vb. ric- twilight, dusk, night noun lómë twitch, jerk, give quick twist or twilight, usually of the time near move vb. rihta- evening, not near dawn (that is twitch, jerk, trick, sudden move tindómë) noun undómë noun rinca twin-born adj. onóna two prefix at- twine vb. lia- two cardinal atta twinkle vb. tintila- two-handed adj. atamaitë

U ugly noun úvanima understanding, intelligent adj. un-, no (prefix) il- handa un-, not negative prefix ala- understanding, knowledge, un-, not-, in- prefix denying intelligence noun handë presence or possession of thing or undo, destroy vb. nancar- quality ú- unendurable, dreadful, horrible unceasing, without end, forever adj. naira adj. oiala unfolding, opening, revealing uncounted, not counted adj. noun pantië únotë, únotëa unfurl, spread out, open vb. under prep. no panta- under prep. nu unidentified plant noun under shadow adj. nuhuinenna pilinehtar under, down, beneath adv. and universe noun Eä prep.? undu unmarred adj. alahasta underground dwelling, cave, mine unmarred adj. úvana noun felco unskilled, clumsy (-handed) adj. underneath, down below adv. nún úmaitë under-point, term used in unspeakable adj. úquétima children's play for toe (the untamed, wild adj. ráva counterpart of ortil) noun nútil until, up to, as far as prep. tenna (nútill-) unwill noun avanir under-shadow prep + noun unwise adj. alasaila unuhuinë up prefix am- understand vb. hanya- up adv. amba up to, until, as far as prep. tenna 124

uphill adj. ambapenda urge, impel, move, only of mental uphill adj. ampenda impulse vb. or- upon, to, at allative ending -nna urge, send flying, speed vb. upper air place-name Fanyamar horta- upper sky, Star-kingdom place- urgency noun hormë name Elenarda urging, speeding noun hortalë up-point, term used in us (for) pron. dative men children'splay for finger noun us (two) dual 1st person pronoun, ortil (ortill-) including the dual ending -t met uprising-flower noun ambalotsë useful, fit, good (of things) adj. upward slope noun ampendë mára upward slope, hill-side noun usual adj. senwa, senya amban

V vague, fluttering to and fro adj. valuable, precious adj. mirwa wilwa vanished, gone, lost, no longer to vague, pale, faint, dim to see adj be had adj. vanwa néca Vanyarin form (and original Vala (fem.) noun Valië form) of Aureldi noun Auzel pl. Vala (masc.) noun Valmo Auzeldi Vala (masc.) noun Valon vast, huge adj. yána valahood, divinity noun valassë vaulted or arched roof noun Vala-queen noun Valatári rondo Valian, of or relating to the Valar vegetable noun quëa adj. Valarin vegetable, herb noun laiquë Vali-home, the city of the Valar veil noun vasar (Þ) in Valinor place-name Valimar veil vb. vasarya- (Þ) Valimar (alternative form of ) veil upon eyes, eye-screen noun place-name Valmar henfanwa valley adj. or noun nalda veil, cloak, mantle vb. fanta- valley noun nandë veil, conceal, screen from light Valley of Singing Gold, an earlier vb. halya- name of Laurenandë (Lórien) veil, screen noun fanwa noun Laurelindórinan veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady Valley of the Tombs in Númenor adj. halda noun =oirinan velar series, k-series: the third valley, under or among hills noun column of the Tengwar system tumbo (tumbu-) noun calmatéma valley, wide valley noun nando venom, poison noun hloirë valour noun cánë venomous adj. hloirëa 125

verb denoting an opportunity, violent, harsh, rending adj. with the one having the naraca opportunity in dative vb. ec- violet or pansy noun helin verdigris noun lairus (lairust-) virgin, maiden noun vendë < very dark, full of darkness adj. wendë lilómëa virginal, maidenly adj. vénëa very valuable, very precious, very virginity noun vénë < wénë lovely adj. mírima virginity noun venessë very, extremely adv. ita, íta virginity noun wénë > vénë very, most intensive or visible adj. cenima superlative prefix an- visible, easily seen adj. ascenë vessel, small boat, dish noun venë (Þ) victory noun apairë visible, easily seen adj. ascénima victory, mastery, strength, might, (Þ) power noun túrë vision, dream noun olos (olor-) vigorous, adult, manly adj. vëa vision, dream noun maur vigour noun vëassë voice noun óma vigour, manhood noun vië voice, vowel noun tomba vigour, muscle, sinew, physical voice, vowel noun tompë strength noun tuo Void (the) noun cúma village noun masto void, empty adj. lusta village, walled house, town noun vomit, be sick vb quama- opelë vowel noun óma-tengwë vine noun liantassë vowel noun ómëa violence, haste, wrath, rushing vowel noun penna noun ormë vowel, voice noun tomba vowel, voice noun tompë

W waif, one lost or forsaken by wall noun ramba friends, outcast, outlaw noun wall and moat noun ossa hecil ( masc. hecilo, fem. hecilë) walled house, village, town noun wailing noun yaimë opelë wailing adj. yaimëa wand, branch, stick noun olwen wain noun lunca (olwenn-) wakening adj. cuivëa Wanderer name of the moon walk vb. pata- Rána walk vb. vanta- wandering, straying noun ránë walk noun vanta waning noun quelië 126

waning, lessen, dwindle vb. píca- we, us 1st person pl. exclusive want, wish, desire vb. mer- pronoun me war noun ohta weak, soft, gentle adj. milya warm adj. lauca wealth, good fortune noun alma warrior noun mahtar wealthy, fortunate, blessed, rich wash vb. sov- adj. herenya washing, bathing, purification weapon, tool noun carma noun sovallë wear (out), also intr. get old vb. wast, wide, empty noun naira yerya- watch, look afar vb. palantíra- weary adj. lumba watch, observe vb. cenda- weave vb. lanya- watch, vigil noun tiris (tiriss-) web, net noun natsë watch, vigil noun tirissë wed vb. vesta- watch, watch over, guard, heed wedding noun veryanwë vb. tir- wedding noun vestalë watch-tower, tower noun tirion week noun otsola water noun nén (nen-) week (of five days) noun lemnar water-mead noun nanda week of the Trees, Midyear week water-vessel noun calpa noun Aldalemnar watery, wet adj. nenda weeping noun nyenyë wave noun solmë weft noun lanat wave (crested/foaming) noun weft noun wistë falma well prefix mai- wax noun líco well adv. mai way = method, manner noun lé well adv. márië way of escape noun uswevandë well noun tampo way, path, course, line, direction well (happily) said adj. alaquenta noun tië werewolf noun nauro way, place, spot noun men west(ern) initial element nún we 1st person pl. pronominal west, sunset, evening noun ending exclusive -lmë andúnë we 1st person dual exclusive west, the way of the sunset noun pronominal ending -mmë númen we 1st person dual inclusive western adj. andúna pronominal ending -ngwë western adj. númenya we pron. 1st person pl. inclusive western adj. núna ve Western Men = Sindarin we pron., 1st person pl. inclusive Dúnedain noun =únatani vi West-flow, name of a river in we, emphatic pronoun pron. elmë Númenor noun =unduinë we, emphatic pronoun pron. West-wings, name of a ship noun emmë =úmerrámar wet adj. linquë 127

wet adj. liquë wicked, evil, bad adj. olca wet adj. mixa wicked, evil, bad, wrong adj. ulca wet adj. néna wide adj. landa wet adj. nenya wide adj. yanda wet, watery adj. nenda wide, expansive adj. palla what is more conj.? yé wide, far, distant, to a great extent what is more conj.? yëa root element (apparently not what the Green-elves (Laiquendi, appearing alone) palan- Nandor) called themselves pl. wide, wast, empty noun naira noun Lindi wield a weapon, fight vb. mahta- what, that which, which fact pron. wield, control, govern vb. tur- tai wife noun veri when conj. írë wife noun vessë when conj. yá wife, bride noun indis when? interrogative word má? wild adj. verca whenever adv. quië wild beast; pl. Hravani the Wild, whenever adv. quiquië used as a name of non-Edain Men where? where to? interrogative noun hravan word mar? wild fire – fire as conflagration where? where to? interrogative noun ruivë word mara? wild fire, fire as conflagration where? interrogative word mas? noun aparuivë where? interrogative word wild wind, rush, rushing flight massë? noun alaco which relative pronoun ya wild, excited adj. walda which fact, that which, what pron. wild, untamed adj. ráva tai will noun mendë whining, mewing noun miulë will noun níra whirlpool, eddy noun hwindë will, fixed idea noun selma (Þ) whisper vb. hlussa- willow-tree noun tasar, tasarë whisper vb. lussa- (Þ) whispering sound noun hlussë wind noun súrë (súri-) whispering sound noun lussë wind noun vailë white adj. fána, fánë wind noun vaiwa white people noun losselië wind noun vaiwë white, chill, palid adj. ninquë wind noun vëa whiten vb. ninquitá- wind noun wá whitenes noun ninquissë wind noun wailë who pron. man wind noun waiwa whoever, if anybody pron. wind feather (herb) noun aiquen súriquessë whole(the), all (the) adj and noun wind up, finish, conclude quanda (transitive) vb. telya- 128

windy adj. vailima without, -less suffix -enca windy noun wanwavoitë without, -less prefix nec- wing noun ráma wizard noun curuvar, pl. winged dragon noun rámalócë curuvari wink, hint vb. hiuta- wizard noun sairon winter noun hrívë Wizard, used of Gandalf, wisdom, secret lore noun nolwë Saruman, Radagast etc. noun wise adj. isqua Istar wise adj. iswa wolf noun narmo wise adj. saila wolf noun ráca wise adj. saira wolf-howl noun naulë wise adj. tára woman noun nís (niss-) Wise Ones = Gnomes (Noldor) woman noun nissë Sg. Istimo. pl. noun Istimor woman (large) noun nisto wise person noun nolmo womb noun móna wise, learned adj. nóla wonder noun elmenda wish, desire, want vb. mer- wood noun tavar witch (of the good magic) noun wood noun turu curuni wood as material noun toa (töa) with prép. as wood, forest (great) noun taurë with prep. lé wooden adj. turúva with prep. yo wooden hall, building (especially with a musical sound of falling of wood) noun ampano leaves adj. lantalasselingëa wooden post noun samna (Þ) with mouth full, full to the brim wooden, stiff adj. tauca adj. penquanta (peñ-) woodland noun nan (nand-) with us (exclusive) prep. + pron. woodland noun tavas ómë woodpecker noun tambaro wither vb. hesta woof noun winda withered, dead adj. hessa wool noun tó within bounds, limited, finite, woollen, of wool adj. toa (well-) defined adj. lanwa word noun quetta within, in prep. imi world (the) noun Ilu within, in prep. mi world, Earth noun ambar within, in prep. mil World-jewel, another word for without privative prefix au- Silmaril noun Ilumírë without prefix ava- worn, borne passive participle without adv. and prep. ú colla without beauty adj. úvanëa worn, old adj. yerna without beauty adj. úvanë worth, worthy, dear adj. valda without end, unceasing, forever worthy, worth, dear adj. valda adj. oiala wound vb. harna- without, -less ending -lóra wound noun harwë 129

wounded adj. harna wrist noun málimë (málimi-) wrap, robe noun vaima write vb. tec- wrath noun rúsë (Þ) writing noun sarmë wrath, haste, violence, rushing writing system, spelling noun noun ormë tencelë wrathful noun rúsëa (Þ) wrong, crooked, bent adj. raicë wreath noun ría wrong, evil, bad, wicked adj. ulca wright, carpenter, builder noun wroth adj. rusca samno (Þ) wroth adj. ruxa

Y yard, full pace. This Númenórean you pronominal element le linar measure was slightly longer you 2nd person dual pronominal than our yard, approximately 38 ending -stë inches [= 96.5 cm] noun ranga you, thou pronominal endings for Yavanna-jewel, name of a tree 2nd person sg. polite/formal -l or with globed and scarlet fruits -lyë noun yavannamírë you, thou pronominal ending, 2nd yawn vb. yanga- person familiar/intimate -tyë yawning participle hácala you, thou pronominal ending -lyë yawning adj.? yámë you, thou, thee pron. 2nd person year-middle, the middle (183rd) intimate/familar tye day of the year, inserted between you, thou/thee pron. 2nd person the months of Nárië and Cermië sg. formal/polite lye (June and July) in the young adj. nessa Númenórean calendar and the young adj. vinya Steward's Reckoning noun loëndë young, new, fresh adj. winya yellow adj. malina youngster noun vinyamo yellow bird noun ambalë youngster noun winyamo yellow bird noun ammalë your 2nd person pl. possessive yellow powder, pollen noun malo suffix -lda (malu-) your dual 2nd person possessive yellow water-lily noun nénu pronominal ending -sta yellow-green, green, fresh adj. your, thy 2nd person sg. wenya formal/polite pronominal suffix - yield, allow, grant vb. lav- lya yon (yonder), there, look! your, thy pronominal ending, 2nd interjection en person sg. intimate/familiar -tya you pronominal suffix, 2nd person pl. -ldë 130

yourself, thyself reflexive youth noun nésë (Þ) pronoun 2nd person formal sg. youth noun nessë imlë youth noun vínë yourself, thyself reflexive youth noun vírië pronoun 2nd person intimate sg. youth, greenness, freshness noun intyë wén yourselves reflexive pronoun 2nd youthful adj. nessima person pl. indë

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