WOLFGANG KREBS ) Institut für Geologie und Paläontologie, Technische Universität Braun- HORST WACHENDORF J schweig, D-33 Braunschweig, West Germany

Proterozoic- Géosynclinal and Orogenic Evolution of Central Europe

ABSTRACT plained in the sense of "the new global tec- tonics." The central European is divided into linear domelike zones of crystalline rocks INTRODUCTION that are separated by sedimentary troughs. Until recently, central Europe had not been Analyses of clasts in conglomerates and of touched by the theory of "the new global radiometric dates indicate maximum intensities tectonics." Therefore, it must be determined in of magmatic and metamorphic processes in the what respect, if any, the theory is of importance Proterozoic, at the -Ordovician to central European geosynclinal and orogenic boundary, and in the Late Devonian and evolution. Carboniferous. The geosynclinal evolution took The enormous efforts in the exploration of place in an intracontinental area. There is no the ocean floors have led to a new discussion indication of the existence of an of the theory of continental drift. Deep-seated in central Europe. The orogenic events were processes interpreted in the light of newly caused ultimately by vertical rise of light acquired geophysical and petrologic data have buoyant basic produced by gravitative required modification of Wegener's classic con- differentiation in the upper mantle. Synkine- ception. Upper-mantle research has verified matically intruded granite masses, which origi- the mobilistic interpretation of lithospheric nated by anatexis of the crust and produced rigid plates above a more plastic asthenosphere. basement uplifts, are surrounded by broad The new model supposes a conveyor-belt metamorphic aureoles, whereas postkinematic mechanism: new sea floor is created at the intrusions are characterized by local zones of mid-oceanic ridge and diverges from contact metamorphism. As granitic melts rose, the ridges to so-called Benioff zones—subduc- mobile troughs developed in front of the tion zones beneath the deep-sea trenches. How- steep-flanked plutons. Shallow-water deposits, ever, consumption of by the disconformities, and converging strata are asthenosphere at the zones is ex- typical of the sedimentary cover of the plutons. cluded because this crust is too buoyant to sink. The flanks of the basement uplifts are shown This actualistic model has been proved in the by conglomeratic sediments and by outward and of the Pacific regions, directions of sediment transport. The basins but is applied by many workers to nearly all are shown by uninterrupted sequences of thick orogenic belts of the earth, regardless of their pelagic sediments. ages. These belts are believed to have originated Deformation of the troughs was caused by always by the collision of two lithospheric vertical movements connected with granitic plates. The following specific kinds of collisions intrusion. At the rims of diapiric plutons, can be distinguished (Mitchell and Reading, gravitative sliding of the sedimentary cover 1969, 1971; Dewey and , 1970; Dewey and deep-seated faulting took place, and and Horsfield, 1970; Dickinson, 1971): (1) tholeiitic of continental origin -continent (Himalaya, Ural) ; (2) con- altered during processes of spilitization as- tinent-ocean () ; (3) ocean-island arc cended. Horizontal shortening is only of (western Pacific). subordinate importance, mainly in connection Dewey and Bird (1970) are inclined to with gravity tectonics. The genesis of the explain all phenomena of alpinotype mountain central European basement cannot be ex- belts, including horizontal shortening, magmat-

Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 84, p. 2611-2630, 4 figs., August 1973 2611

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ism, and metamorphism, by plate collision. concept, parts of this rise are superficially ex- They adapted the classic conception of a geo- posed at the southern border of the Hunsriick syncline, as illustrated by Aubouin (1965), to and Taunus, in the Odenwald, Spessart, Ruhla, the model of plate tectonics with emphasis KyfFhauser, and the Wippra zone (southeast upon rise and descent of oceanic material in Harz). Whereas Kossmat (1927), Stille (1951), a convection system. and Dvorak and Paproth (1969) considered Le Pichon (1968) originally assumed :he the crystalline core of the Moldanubian as the existence of seven different plates. Since then, central crest of the Variscan orogen (Hercynian the number of plates postulated has increased orogen in the sense of English and American considerably. In the Mediterranean, especially, literature), others have regarded the central tectonically active plates are reported to be German crystalline rise as the central massif very numerous, their relative movements seem of the Vtriscan orogen, depending on the atti- extremely complicated, and the distinction of tude of the axial planes and the source areas oceanic and continental crust is controversial. of flysch and related sediments. It is contro- The concepts of plate tectonics and the new versial waether the central German crystalline global tectonics have also been adapted to the rise trended continuously southwest-northeast Caledonian geosyncline of and during the whole geosynclinal period or was northwestern Europe. Here, various opinions only a submarine elevation of the basement and views regarding the positions of the sub- that protruded above sea level as separate islands. To the east, the Moldanubian is termi- duction zones have been discussed (Dewey, nated by the Moravo-Silesian or East Sudetan 1969; Bird and Dewey, 1970; Fitton and zone which is characterized by crystalline mas- Hughes, 1970; Mitchell and Reading, 1971). sifs, pre-flysch, flysch, and molasse sediments The discussion that follows emphasizes that of Devonian to late Carboniferous age. there is no proof for the existence of relics of an oceanic crust in the whole area of central The boundaries between the zones intro- Europe. Furthermore, there is no sign of a duced by Kossmat are in part arbitrary and Variscan continental margin that coincides hypothetical, especially the boundary between with the Hercynian or Alpine line as the Saxothuringian and Moldanubian. Instead Smith (1971), Laurent (1972), and Nicolas of forming elongated sedimentary troughs, the (1972) suggested, using a controversial analogy sub-Variscan and East Sudetan are both com- with the American Cordillera based chiefly on monly confined to primarily elliptical basins. the presence of calc-alkalic plutonic and vol- Furthermore, the Proterozoic Barrandian sedi- canic rocks. On the contrary, in the Carnic ments in central Bohemia are completely sur- Alps, late Carboniferous molasse sediments rounded by the metamorphic series of the derived from the north indicate continental Moldanubian (Fig. 2). This wedge-shaped ob- conditions in that direction (Schonenberg, long structure of the Barrandian does not con- 1970). Analysis of the basement relations in tinue to the east and west. A marked fault that region is basic to the understanding of zone, which can be followed over a distance of the continental underpinnings of central 200 km, predominates along the Elbe River. Europe. The area east of the Elbe valley, which differs in many aspects from the Saxothuringian, has CENTRAL EUROPEAN BASEMENT: been termed "Lugikum" (Lugian). On ac- PROBLEMS OF SUBDIVISION count of this difference, several interpretations In accordance with the classic work of of eastward continuation of the Saxothuringian Kossmat (1927), we distinguish the Moldanu- sedimentary troughs have been discussed (for bian in the central part of the central European example, Hirschmann, 1965; Mobus, 1968; Proterozoic-Paleozoic basement. Adjacent to Dvorak and Paproth, 1969). the north of the Moldanubian, the Saxothu- The Saxothuringian and the East Sudetan ringian, Rhenohercynian, and sub-Variscan fore- are divided into small individually developed deeps follow in broad to wedge-shaped belts sedimentary troughs and domelike to elon- (Fig. 1). Between the Rhenohercynian and gated elevations of metamorphic and magmatic Saxothuringian, the central German crystalline complexes. Therefore, in central Europe, a rise (Mitteldeutsche Kristallin-Schwelle), con- distinction between isolated sedimentary sisting of magmatic and metamorphic com- troughs that contain thick, folded Proterozoic plexes, is recognized. According to Kossmat's to Paleozoic sediments, and crystalline massifs

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Figure 1. Index map of the central European Pro- tioned in the text. • = distinct localities; x = moun- terozoic-Paleozoic tectonic zones and localities men- tain ranges.

consisting of metamorphic series and granitoid tites occurred over a long time in some areas intrusions, is more realistic than the homoge- and emplacement cannot be assigned to any one neous and uniform arcs of Kossmat (1927, Fig. distinct orogenic phase (for example, the 3, Table 1). Erzgebirge). Geochronologic analysis shows Deformation within the sedimentary troughs magmatic activity of the Moldanubian granites occurred not only in different episodes but also during an interval from 420 to 280 m.y. ago. with variable style and intensity. Certain alpinotype deformations in the area concerned GRANITIC MAGMAS are identified in the latest Proterozoic of the Pervasive intrusion of granitic magmas into Barrandian and Lausitz ("Assyntian" phase), late Proterozoic and Paleozoic sediments is at the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary of the characteristic for the whole central European Vogtland (Saxony; "Sardic" phase), and from area. This magmatic activity is connected with the Late Devonian to the middle of the late metamorphism and migmatization of varied Carboniferous ("Reussic," "Bretonic," "Su- intensity. Except for postkinematic intrusions detic," and "Asturic" phase of the Variscan the plutons are mostly classified as: (1) exten- ) in the remaining areas of the central sive granitic massifs within the crystalline belts European basement. Oberc (1972) has shown of the so-called central German crystalline rise, that Variscan orogenesis in the Sudetan area Fichtelgebirge-Erzgebirge rise, and Moldanu- occurred in the pre-Late Devonian. bian; (2) isolated domes or diapirs in anticlinal Other alpinotype deformations have often structures within the sedimentary troughs of been discussed. These are either improbable the Saxothuringian or Rhenohercynian (for (Jaeger, 1964) or the amount of deformation example, the Berga anticline, Thuringia; is controversial. They are traced back mostly Miinchberg gneissic massif, northeast Bavaria). to tensional synsedimentary movements and As Figures 2 and 3 show, the crystalline to diastrophic sedimentation (Krebs, 1968). belts are separated by sedimentary troughs, Intrusion of syn- to postkinematic magma- some of which contain low-grade metamorphic

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Figure 2. Geological map of the central European enwald-East Thuringia-Vogtland; 10 = Münchberg Proterozoic-Paleozoic. 1 = Brabant massif; 2 = Ar- gneissic massif; 11 = Erzgebirge; 12 = Elbe Valley dennes and Rhenish Schiefergebirge; i - Vosges; 4 = Schiefergebirge; 13 = West Sudetes; 14 = East Black Forest; 5 = Odenwald; 6 = Spessart; 7 = Sudetes; 15 = Barrandian; 16 = Moldanubian; 17 = Thuringian Forest; 8 = Harz Mountains; 9 = Frank- Bavarian Forest.

rocks. The spread of granitic massifs over a ses of conglomerate clasts indicate. The clastic distance of nearly 1,000 km from southwest sediments in nearly all areas of central Europe England to the Variscan massifs of the Alps contain detritus of older ms.gmatic and meta- shows the intracontinental character of this morphic rocks. Several examples will be cited. -Paleozoic (Zwart, The upper Proterozoic Lausitz graywackes 1967). Radiometric dating and analyses of contain detritus of highly rr etamorphic rocks, clasts in conglomerates confirm rise of granitic which consequently must be older than late magma during late Proterozoic through Late Proterozoic (Brause, 1969). In Cambrian mica Permian times. The late Paleozoic granitic schist of the western Er/.gebirge and the activity extended at least over the whole mid- Fichtelgebirge, gneissic pebbles higher in meta- dle European area: from southwest England, morphic grade than their matrix have been the Central Plateau in France, and southern identified, indicating a preceding higher grade Bohemia to the Alps. Recently increasing evi- Proterozoic metamorphism (Sattran, 1961; dence for Cambrian-Ordovician magmatism Mielke, 1964). Gedinnian sandstones in the (Erzgebirge, Lausitz, Schwarzburg anticline) southeastern part of the Huns ruck contain has appeared. There is also reliable evidence magmatic and metamorphic components that for Proterozoic magmatism in Bohemia, prove pre-Devonian magmatic and metamor- Lausitz, Silesia, and in the Vosges. Only the phic activity (Meyer, 1970). Lingen und Bramsche massifs in northern Ger- These multiple metamorphic-magmatic many (Fig. 3) are undoubtedly of Mesozoic processes have been described in several areas age (Stadler and Teichmiiller, 1971). by the following authors: Vosges (von Eller These magmatic events are connected with and others, 1971); Black Forest (Mehnert, metamorphism of varied intensity as the analy- 1953-1963); Odenwald-Spessart-Ruhla (Neu-

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50 100 ISO L PEN Figure 3. Proterozoic-Paleozoic sedimentary troughs and crystalline uplifts in central Europe. See Table 1 for further details.

mann, 1966); Bavarian Forest (Schreyer, 1957; disturbance. Minor unconformities, major Fischer, 1967); Schiefergebirge of Thuringia block movements, and sedimentary gaps in and Vogtland (von Gaertner, 1950; Meinel, Tremadocian deposits of the Vogtland and 1970); Erzgebirge (K. Schmidt, 1959; Möbus, Thuringia (Brause and others, 1968; Douffet, 1964; Watznauer, 1968); Doberlug-Torgau 1970; Wiefel and others, 1970), however, indi- (Brause, 1969); Lausitz (Hirschmann, 1966; cate a maximum of magmatic activity in the Brause, 1969; Möbus, 1970); Lower Silesia early Ordovician ("Sardic" phase). The anom- (Obere, 1971, 1972); Moldanubian massif alously great thicknesses of Ordovician sedi- (Wurm, 1964; Dudek and Suk, 1965; Zoubek, ments (>2,500 m) in the adjoining Vogtland 1965; Vejnar, 1971). and Barrandian troughs reflect the uplift of Thus, climaxes of plutonism and related neighboring terrane and ultimately, magmatic metamorphism and migmatization were rise in the Erzgebirge area during the Lower reached repeatedly in central Europe. Though Ordovician. Carboniferous magmatic, metamorphic, and In accordance with current petrological con- tectonic effects are overwhelmingly predomi- cepts, the genesis of granitic magma, including nant in the central European basement, older compositions that range from diorite to granite, magmatic and orogenic activity cannot be may be attributed to the melting of continental denied (Lorenz, 1972, Fig. 2). The duration, crust by anatexis (Zwart, 1969, p. 8-9). This regional extent, and intensity of the acid liquifaction process causes density inversions. magmatism are doubtful in some areas. Accord- Many authors have pointed out that gravity is ing to Watznauer and others (1968), the the main factor responsible for the magmatic granitic intrusions in the eastern Erzgebirge rise in the form of density stabilization. The reflect a long, continued period of magmatism mechanism of buoyant magmas is similar to during the older Paleozoic. Therefore it is salt diapirism and is produced possibly by difficult to assign the pre-Carboniferous mag- variation of temperature related to relaxation matic activity to a definite tectonic-magmatic of pressure causing melting (Wegmann, 1930;

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Den Tex, 1963; Ramberg, 1964, 1970, 1972; elevations (Grabe and others, 1968; Weise, Shaw and others, 1971; Talbot, 1971). Ram- 1972). During the Late Devonian and early berg shows the effectiveness of the above process Carboniferous, the Lausitz-Riesengebirge crys- in centrifugal models. It becomes evident by talline massif formed the source area of clastic these experiments that the lighter granitic sediments in the adjoining sedimentary troughs. melts penetrate the overlying gneisses and According to Hirschmann (1964), the uplift of schists of higher density in which they become this crystalline massif reflects magmatic and trapped by advanced cooling. anatectic processes in the deeper crust. De- Petrological results in accordance with field vonian and early Carboniferous shallow-water observations of the granitic batholiths prove carbonates in the Vosges, Black Forest, north- that their steep flanks are presumably the eastern Bavaria, Saxony, and Silesia are bound effect of sharp lateral variations of vertical to the rims of the gneissic massifs and are thus temperature gradients. Furthermore, the tem- submarine-swell facies deposi ted near the crests perature-depth relation is not constant but of local diapiric uplifts. varies with time and local conditions (Winkler, Some postkinematic granitic intrusions also 1970). show salt-dome-like diapiric structures (for The ascent of granitic magmas caused re- example, Ramberg Pluton, Harz; Benek and gional uplift and local doming. Deeper erosion others, 1967). Pneumatolytic and hydrother- levels of the basement show the typical mal mineral deposits of economic importance "mantled gneiss dome" structure (Eskola, (Sn, Pb, Zn, As, Co, Bi, Ag, U, F, Ba) in 1948; Haller, 1956; Behr, 1968; Talbot, 1971). central Europe are genetically related only to Examples of mantled gneiss domes analogous postkinematic granitic intrusions (Benek and to the types just cited occur in the Miinchberg others, 1967). Veinlike deposits are formed gneissic massif, Granulitgebirge, eastern Erz- predominantly in the roof or at the flanks of gebirge, and Moldanubian massif. the plutons (Tischendorf and others, 1965; In the case of more deeply seated plutons, Mohr, 1969) and are mostly of late Carbon- the increasing heat flow within the sedimentary iferous to Permian age. The ascent of thor- series caused formation of concentric metamor- oughly differentiated postkinematic magma oc- phic aureoles that may be traced continuously curred during long episodes and over great around anticlinal structures (Meinel, 1968; vertical distances, concentrating the ore solu- Hempel, 1968; Mielke and Schreyer, 1969). In tions in the roofs of the postkinematic bath- the northern Rhenohercynian and sub-Va- oliths. riscan regions, high-grade coalification of organic matter (Wolf, 1972), illite crystallinity METAMORPHISM (Weber, 1972), hydrothermal ores, and mag- Regional metamorphic rocks are not exposed netic and gravimetric anomalies indicate the over the whole central European basement; presence of underlying plutons or subvolcanic they are instead fairly well confined to zones intrusions. of maximum Variscan heat flow. Such thermal Diapiric uplift of metamorphic complexes is domes are interpreted as sites of diapiric uplift significant in the Granulitgebirge as well as in of peridotitic material from the upper mantle, the isolated gneissic massifs of Miinchberg, as well as sites of anatexis of granitic rocks. Wildenfels, Frankenberg, and Eule. The Thus, rise of this basic material is combined Granulitgebirge forms "an elliptically shaped with anatectic processes in the upper crust protrusion of the squeezed-up basement" (Belousov, 1966; Winkler, 1970). Rapid transi- (Skvor and Watznauer, 1968). The crystalline tions from zones of low- to those of high-grade cores of the Miinchberg and Frankenberg metamorphism are found around the thermal gneissic massifs were clearly exposed to erosion domes and are explained by steep temperature in the Late Devonian and early Carboniferous gradients (Zwart, 1969). The thermal domes (Weise, 1972). Rise of the gneissic cores and coincide largely with ancestral elevated areas the deformation of the surrounding sedimen- of the geosyncline and are predominantly char- tary cover took place during long, continued acterized by multiple magir.atic activity. episodes, according to Kurze (1966). Granite- Low-pressure metamorphic effects are typical and gneiss-bearing Late Devonian conglomer- of the whole Variscan belt. This metamorphism ates in East Thuringia and Vogtland indicate took place at depths of between approximately pre-Late Devonian exposure of local basement 5 and 15 km (Zwart, 1969, o. 9). Intermediate

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or high-pressure effects are limited to a few 1969; Vejnar, 1971). The intensity of the areas. The amphibolite facies is widespread. Variscan metamorphism decreases southeast- Sillimanite, kyanite, andalusite, and cordierite ward toward the Moravo-Silesian trough. are common index minerals. In contrast to the The eastern Erzgebirge was a domelike heat- Alpine belt, there are no high-pressure-low- flow center which, according to Watznauer temperature metamorphic minerals, such as (1968), shows high-grade metamorphic effects glaucophane. accompanied by anatectic mobilization of the In the polymetamorphic Moldanubian mas- core of the uplift (so-called Rotgneis mag- sif two facies are present (Suk, 1969; Zwart, matism). At the northwest rim of the Fichtel- 1969; Vejnar, 1971): (1) an older pre-Variscan gebirge-Erzgebirge rise, this metamorphism complex, which belongs to the high- or inter- affected Early Ordovician sediments. But a mediate-pressure facies (Barrow type): eclo- distinct metamorphic hiatus lies between the gites, garnet peridotites, kyanite granulites, gneisses of the Erzgebirge and the Ordovician and kyanite gneisses; (2) a younger Variscan phyllites of Hermsdorf-Rehefeld, and deposit complex that belongs to the low-pressure facies of sediments of the phyllites presumably post- (Abukuma type): schists and migmatites with dated metamorphism of the Erzgebirge. There- andalusite and cordierite. fore, the metamorphism is partly of Cambrian- Many Moldanubian metamorphic rocks Ordovician age (Mobus, 1964; Behr, 1964; grade into migmatites and anatectic granitic Behr and others, 1965; Skvor, 1965; Brause rocks. and others, 1968). This evidence has been con- In the central parts of the Moldanubian firmed by a number of radiometric datings massif, metamorphism connected with the late (450 to 490 m.y.) that indicate important Proterozoic Assyntian orogeny was character- magmatic activity in the Early Ordovician ized by a high-temperature intensity that led (Brause, 1970, p. 337). Finally, gneissic pebbles to anatexis in core zones of the massif. In in the Late Ordovician Lederschiefer (Vogt- other parts of the massif, high-pressure meta- land) certify a pre- or intra-Ordovician meta- morphic effects are apparent and the granulite morphism (Schulz, 1969). facies is represented. Where anatexis did not The contact metamorphism in the Erzge- take place under high-temperature-low-pres- birge is connected only with postkinematic sure conditions, the almandine-amphibolite fa- granitic intrusions. cies grades into the granulite facies. The central The so-called central German crystalline core zones of the Moldanubian massif and also rise contains only local thermal domes of those of the Black Forest were completely various ages and does not form a continuous mobilized mainly during anatexis. The autoch- metamorphic belt from southwest England to thonous granitic rocks formed from the cores Lower Silesia (von Gaertner, 1960; Schonen- are surrounded by metamorphic aureoles con- berg, 1971). The cores of these thermal domes taining low-pressure mineral assemblages. show high-grade metamorphic effects transi- Anatexis takes place under pressures of tional to low-grade effects in sediments to the 2 to 4 kbar and at temperatures of 640° to north and south (Behr, 1966; Mobus, 1968; 740°C. These conditions correspond to depths Meisl, 1970). of 5 km at a temperature gradient of 150°C per km max (Zwart, 1962; Skvor, 1970). The SEDIMENTARY TROUGHS Moldanubian granulites, however, formed in The ascent of synorogenic granitic magmas deeper crustal parts. Scharbert (1971, p. 265) was compensated isostatically by the subsidence attributed the origin of granulites to pressures of sedimentary troughs in front of the batho- of 8 to 10 kbar and temperatures of 600° to liths. Thus the synclines of the central Euro- 700°C. pean basement correspond in principle to the In the Kutna Hora Mountains of northern halokinetic marginal troughs of salt diapirs. Bohemia and in the mica-schist series of the The thickness of the sedimentary rocks in the Kiihnisch Mountains in Bavaria, mesozonal synclines is reflected by the isostatic uplift of metamorphic complexes are exposed on top of the crystalline belts that rose into the zone of katazonal Moldanubian granulites (Fischer, erosion during the synorogenic phase. This 1967). The Assyntian metamorphism dimin- rise is made evident by the coarse clastic debris ishes northwestward from the middle Bohemian eroded from the adjoining domelike uplifts. batholiths toward the Barrandian trough (Suk, According to Eskola (1948), the basal con-

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Northwest Germany, Ardennes, Northe.ist Savaria, Thuringia, West ard East Sudetes (Lugikum), Rhenish Schiefergebirge, Harz Saxony (Saxothuringian) Bchemia (Moldanubian) (sub-Variscan, Rhenohercynian), Upper Rhine massifs

Sedimentary Ardennes trough Elbe Valley trough Older Barrandian trough troughs Gedinnian Uppe* Proterozoic-lower Proterozoic (2,200 m) Carboniferous (7,000 to 8,000 m) (>1 ,700 m)

Monschau trough To-gau-Doberlug trough Younger Barrandian trough Si egeni an Cambrian Ordovi cian-Devoni an (4,500 m) (>1 ,500 m) (3,000 m)

Siegen trough i/ogtlaid trough Gorlitz-Bober-Katzbach trough Siegenian •arly Ordovician Cambrian-lower Carboniferous (5,000 to 7,000 m) (>2,300 m) (2,000 m)

Lenne trough Muravo-Silesian trough Upper Emsian-upper Givetian Silurian-lower Carboniferous (>5,000 m) (4,500 to 5,000 m)

Upper Harz-Flechtingen trough Upper Silesia molasse foredeep Dinantian-early Namurian Uamuri an-Westfali an (>3,000 m) (6,000 to 7,000 m)

Molasse foredeep Namurian-Westfalian (5,500 m)

Campine trough Upper CarboniferoLS

Ems land trough Stefani an (600 m)

Crystalline Lingen massif* Ruhla-Kyffhäuser massif •Hllmersdorf uplift massifs and Bramsche massif* Sc^warzburg anticline Mulkwitz uplift uplifts Brabant massif Berga anticline Lausitz-Riesengebirge massif Krefeld dome Hirschberc-Gefell anticline Eule gneissic massif East Sauerland anticline Münchberc cneissic massif Moldanubian massif Kassel uplift Gneissic massifs of Wilden- Southeast Hunsrück-southeast fels end Frankenberg Taunus Odenwald-Spessart massif Grarulitgebirge Vosges-Black Forest nassif Erzgebi rge

*Cretaceous. Note: Sedimentary troughs with period of maximum subsidence .ind maximum th-ckness.

glomerates of the sedimentary rocks that lie sedimentary troughs at the traces of estab- on top of some crystalline domes contain lished subduction zones, as at the margins of boulders of the same crystalline material that the Pacific Ocean (Burrett, 1972). They are forms the domes. The Miinchberg gneissic limited instead to local sedimentary troughs in massif shows comparable relations. The mag- more or less close connection with adjacent matic and metamorphic detritus in the gray- tectonically related local crystalline uplifts wackes of the Harz Mountains reflect progres- (Fig. 3). In Saxony and Thuringia, especially, sive erosion of rocks increasingly more meta- there is a close relation between domelike morphic at depth in the source area (Lindert, buckles and troughs that they surround—all 1971). The overall composition of the upper showing the southwest-northeast Variscan Proterozoic to Lower Carboniferous gray- trend. Varying sharply from this trend in the wackes in central Europe is nevertheless uni- Elbe Valley and Jeschken Mountains is a nar- form because the conditions of granitic mag- row sedimentary trough exposed between matism were constant during the whole period. crystalline uplifts (Fig. 3). The axes of the troughs, marked by maxima Similarly, the sedimentary troughs of the of sediment thicknesses, do not correspond to Rhenohercynian, with eiormous sediment the extensive and easily traced sedimentary thicknesses (Siegen trough, 5,000 to 7,000 m, basins postulated for this region by many Lenneschiefer trough, >5,000 m, and Namur paleogeographic reconstructions, and perhaps trough, >3,500 m) are not: traceable over the confused with the extensive narrow and linear whole Rhenohercynian. In fact, the troughs

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Ruhr area Ardennes, Rhenish Northeast Bavaria, Thur1ng1a, Bohemia (sub-Variscan) Schiefergebirge, Harz Saxony (Saxothuringian) (Moldanubian) (Rhenohercynian) (m) (m) Cm) Cm)

Late Carboniferous 5,500 2,000 (molasse foredeep) (molasse intradeeps)

Early Carboniferous >3,000 >3,500 (Flysch) (Flysch)

Late Devonian

Middle Devonian 5,000 350

Early Devonian 6,000 to 8,000 150 300

Silurian several 100 60 500

Ordovician 1,000 >2,300 2,500

Cambrian 1,500 to 1,800 2,000 to 3,000 3,000 (metamorphic series (molasse) in west Erzgebirge)

7,000 to 8,000

= period of final deformation.

and their contained synclinoria disappear: the Saxonian-Silesian district contains shallow- synclines wedge out west and east (Teichmiil- water carbonates (Devonian limestones, ler, 1962). early Carboniferous limestone) as well as The mobility of the Saxothuringian differs radiolarian cherts of the pelagic facies. This from that of the Rhenohercynian sedimentary latter coexistence of sediments of different trough: the Saxothuringian basins held their bathymetric positions is caused by the simul- positions during subsidence and remained taneous vertical rise of the steep-flanked nearly stationary during the Variscan géo- batholiths and rapid subsidence of related synclinal period, whereas the time-equivalent marginal troughs. The uninterrupted and ex- Rhenohercynian basins shifted northward dur- tremely thick pelagic sedimentary sections in ing Early Devonian to late Carboniferous time the troughs contrast with the very thin and (Fig. 3; Table 1). In addition, there is a re- discontinuous sedimentary cover of the crys- markable contrast in sediment thicknesses be- talline uplifts. The characteristic Paleozoic tween the two troughs, which is as much as 50 facies of the , known as times greater in parts of the Rhenohercynian the "Thuringian" facies, comprises a nearly (Table 2). carbonate-free and monotonous pelagic section Synorogenic rise of some crystalline belts distributed in the central part of the trough. and resulting exposure of subaerial surfaces of Also, the "Hercynian" facies of the Lower relatively high relief to erosion is documented Devonian at the eastern rim of the Rhenish by coarse clastic neritic sediments. Moreover, Schiefergebirge and of the southern part of the isolated appearances of Devonian and the Harz Mountains is marked by reduced Lower Carboniferous shallow-water carbonates thickness due to elevation by an extensive at the rims of the gneissic diapirs of Miinchberg, crystalline massif during the Early Devonian. Wildenfels, Frankenberg, and the Eule massif This massif includes a deep-seated uplift near record continued though less rapid elevation of Kassel, which is probably the source area of the crystalline surfaces. Also, the "Bavarian" the early Carboniferous graywackes of the Paleozoic facies (Greiling, 1966; Erben and Harz and the eastern Rhenish Schiefergebirge. Zagora, 1968) of the northeast Bavarian- In the Saar 1 bore hole, Devonian shallow-

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Sedimentary troughs Orogenic cycles Center Crystalline massifs and diapiric uplifts

basin facies (pelagic) rise facies (neritic-pelagic) shales radiolarian cherts siallow-water carbonates siltstone -- sandstone cephalopod limestone limestone turbidites conglomerates complete sedimentation inccmplete sedimentation

pre-orogenic maximum thickness thinned sedimentary sec.tions, sedimentary gaps spilitic volcanism turbidity currents gravitat,'onal sliding flysch ol^stostromes ^ conglomerates strong deformation: lateral transport locally weak deformation of sedimentary cover: (secondary tectogenesis) vertical transport (primary tectogenesis) folding, partly overturned dome structures, verge:nce fans

cleavage thrustinc partly flat-lying cle.ivage ultrarrafic rocks burial metamorphism regional metamorphism (t) deeper erosion level: migmatization-aratexis, synkinematic gri.nitic intrusion with concentric metamorphic aureoles ("mantled gneis.*; domes") (b) higher erosion level: pyrophyllite formation stronger coalification of organic matter

postorogenic postkineniatic granitic intrusions and hydrothermal ore deposits contact metamorphisn paraiic molasse intramontane molass*; (intradeeps) block faulting subsequent magmatism

water limestones attain a thickness of 670 m. and thinning of the crust on the flanks of the These platform and reef limestones are con- diapirs. Deep-seated fissures originated mainly trolled by the flank of a recently discovered at the rims of the troughs. Along these zones pre-Middle Devonian crystalline uplift. of weakness, basic magma of mantle origin In the western Harz there is a striking ascended. The diapiric uplifts of Miinchberg, coincidence between the maxima of positive Granulitgebirge, and Eule are festoonlike, sur- magnetic A Z-anomalies (Horst, 1967) and rounded by slices of rr.afic to ultramafic rocks the Devonian submarine swells (Stoppel and (prasinite, serpentinite, gabbro) that were em- Zscheked, 1971). The sites of magma rise placed by tectonic transport from the mantle- during the geosynclinal stage are characterized crust boundary zone. In elevated magma cham- by thin limestone sections, sedimentary gaps, bers of the upper crust, mantle-derived magma and subaqueous slides (sedifluctions) that differentiated and contamination of crustal moved from the swells to the surrounding material took place and produced intermediate basins (Table 3). The Middle Devonian spilitic to acid melts. The rise of this Na-rich kerato- are on the flanks of the swells; the swells phyric magma generally preceded that of themselves are devoid of volcanic material. the tholeiitic basalt magma (""). The The clastic sedimentation is increasingly magmas that followed became increasingly flyschoid in the direction of the basin and basic (for example, Lahn-Dill area, Rhenish shows all signs of turbidity transport. However, Schiefergebirge, and Elbingerode complex, at the flanks of the crystalline domes, con- Harz). The tholeiite basalt-keratophyre asso- glomerates predominate, as the results of short ciation typifies the Variscan geosyncline of transportation in coastal areas. These features central Europe (Zwart, 1969, p. 9). are well exposed in the early Carboniferous Tholeiite basalt submarine volcanism in adjoining the Miinchberg gneissic massif. central Europe occurred from late Proterozoic Diapiric uplift of the crust by the buoyancy (Barrandian), Cambrian (Lausitz, Doberlug- of the granitic melts induced tensional forces Kirchhain), Ordovician and Silurian (Franken-

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wald, Barrandian), Early Devonian (Hunsriick, cal. The fault zones served repeatedly as path- Lausitz), Middle and Late Devonian (Rhenish ways for rise of magmas, particularly those of Schiefergebirge, Harz, Vogtland, East Thu- the Variscan granites of the Moldanubian ringia and East Sudetes, Moravo-Silesia) to (Skvor, 1970) and of the lower Paleozoic acid early Carboniferous (Lahn-Dill, Harz). This to basic extrusive and intrusive rocks of the volcanic activity reached its height at the Barrandian (Röhlich and Stovickovä, 1968). Middle-Late Devonian boundary. North-northwest-trending synsedimentary Ascent of ore solutions was connected with faults that form lineaments are especially evi- these volcanic events. Economically important dent in the eastern part of the Rhenish Schie- deposits of base metals are associated chiefly fergebirge (for example, the Altenbüren fault). with intermediate magmatism and are locally These lineaments not only divide areas of concentrated in distinct basin configurations different facies and thickness, but the fault (for example, sulfide ores and barites of the zones served as paths of migration for magmas Rammelsberg type: Klingenthal-Kraslice at and post-orogenic ore solutions (Pilger, 1957; the Saxonian-Bohemian border, Goslar, Meg- Schönenberg, 1958; Mohr, 1969). gen). During the subsidence of the geosyncline, gravity tectonics began with the formation of DEFORMATION synsedimentary slides and olistostromes, which Typical structures in the central European have been described repeatedly (Reichstein, basement are: (1) abundant tight folds that 1965; Greiling, 1966; Falk, 1970; Schwab and face in various directions and upon which, in others, 1970; Junker, 1971; Stoppel and some areas, foliation, lineation, and cleavage Zscheked, 1971; Lutzens, 1972). The olisto- have developed; (2) overthrusts and imbricate stromes were detached from source terranes structures; nappe structures are absent or play confined to the rims of the rising crystalline a minor role (for example, Moldanubian- domes, but these allochthonous masses may Moravian boundary); (3) synsedimentary also be transitional to autochthonous parts that faults and slides; (4) strike-slip faults; (5) are characterized by folding (Table 3). lineaments of regional extent. The autochthonous folding is generally re- The distribution and origin of the cleavage, lated to vertical uplift that was induced by especially, have often been discussed. Intensely subcrustal movements (Haller, 1956; Zwart, cleaved rocks are mainly at the crests of folds 1969). The axial planes of folds in the sedimen- and in pelitic strata. In the Saxothuringian, the tary cover dip chiefly inward toward the cores attitudes of the cleavage planes conform pre- of the diapiric domes (anticlinoria), showing a dominantly to the outlines of the plutons fanlike arrangement with respect to the domes (Schroder and others, 1965) and in the (Münchberg and Frankenberg gneissic massifs). Erzgebirge and Granulitgebirge to the meta- Diapiric movement is also known in the north- morphic domes (Franke and Schroder, 1968). ern Rhenish Schiefergebirge—the old Paleozoic The cleavage planes seem to be zones along cores of some first-order anticlines penetrate which the calcareous material was dissolved the Devonian flanks along steep thrust planes and the residue was concentrated (Plessmann, (Voigt, 1968, p. 184). 1964). In the opinion of several authors—most re- The central European basement is truncated cently Brause (1970)—the so-called central by lineaments that are arranged in two direc- German crystalline rise forms a significant tions: (1) northwest-southeast, for example, vergence fan (Fig. 4) between the Rheno- the western rim of the Moldanubian, Franken- hercynian (northwest vergence) and the wald transverse zone, Elbe Valley line; (2) Saxothuringian (southeast vergence). The southwest-northeast, for example, the southern Saxothuringian trough does not exhibit a rim of the Erzgebirge, southern rim of the uniform southeast vergence. In the Schwarz- Moldanubian. Presumably these lineaments burg and Berga anticline (Thuringia) and in are of Precambrian age and were reactivated the Vogtland-Erzgebirge, the axial planes of during the Variscan orogeny. They include folds dip to the northwest as well as to the first-order fault zones commonly character- southeast (Schroder and others, 1965; Paech, ized by strong mylonitization. The amounts of 1966) without a recognizable and regionally strike-slip movement have often been dis- extensive vergence divide. Folds of a minor cussed (Kolbel, 1954), but remain problemati- order on the northwestern margin of the Berga

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I ::: reoional metamnrnhie .series I Figure 4. Schematic cross section through the central European basement granitic rocks (synkinematic»postkinematic) (vertically exaggerated). The arrows indicate the subsidence of the sedimentary

"I * Ot i-1'. troughs and the rise of the granitic cores during the géosynclinal sedimentation and lower crust mountain building. PC = Precambrian; C = Cambrian; O = Ordovician; D = Devonian ; Dm = Middle Devonian ; Du = Upper Devonian ; C = Carboniferous ; ultramafic rocks, , granulites CI » Lower Carboniferous ; Cu = Upper Carboniferous.

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anticline show a diapiric outline and a distinct sliding of the sedimentary rocks produces over- vergence fan (Grabe and others, 1968) resulting thrusts. from local uplift. Also, in the Elbe valley area, Hellermann (1965) finds horizontal shorten- the axial planes of folds in adjoining crystalline ing minimal in the case of the East Sauerland massifs dip toward the center of the Paleozoic anticline (northern Rhenish Schiefergebirge). sedimentary basin. Furthermore, the attitude In this case, cleavage is flat dipping and shorten- of the axial planes is not uniform in the Harz ing has acted vertically. Mountains. The vergences vary and in some According to Zwart (1969, p. 9), regional areas are fanlike, especially in the sedimentary middle European basement shortening of 10 rocks surrounding the Brocken granite. The to 20 percent seems a maximum although local Brocken pluton is only a late late Carbonifer- shortening of 50 percent or more can be ob- ous postkinematic manifestation of an older served. synkinematic as well as deeper seated magmatic The areas of late Proterozoic, Cambrian- intrusion. In the western Harz, magnetic anom- Ordovician, and Devonian-Carboniferous mag- alies conform with Devonian and early Car- matism in central Europe seem to have been boniferous uplifts and their corresponding mostly stationary, whereas the trough axes—- basins. Also, in the Rhenish Schiefergebirge the zones of maximum sedimentary accumula- there is striking accordance between some tion—have in general shifted laterally from first-order anticlines and areas of Devonian to the Proterozoic Barrandian to the Cambrian- earliest Carboniferous swell facies. These Ordovician troughs of the Saxothuringian. regions of uplift are the cores of Variscan anti- During the Devonian and Carboniferous, the clines (H. Schmidt, 1936). Consequently, the Saxothuringian swells and troughs kept the areal coincidence between paleogeography, same positions, whereas the Rhenohercynian magnetic anomalies, and anticlines can be troughs migrated northward. This northward explained by continued rise of magma from shift of the mobile belts seems to have been the geosynclinal stage to orogeny. produced by advancing wavelike motions of In an initial stage of the rise of granitic rising heat-flow fronts, causing granitic diapir- massifs and diapirs, the flanks of the uplifts ism that was compensated by down-sagging dip toward the centers of the sedimentary marginal synclines (Fig. 4). The general grade basins (for example, Barrandian); in an ad- of metamorphism increases with the general vanced stage the flanks may be overturned age of the exposed rocks from the northern (for example, Miinchberg gneissic massif, Elbe rim of the Rhenish Schiefergebirge south to valley Schiefergebirge). In some areas, flat- southern Bohemia. This is consistent with the lying strata (Krefeld dome, bore hole Saar 1, host of high-grade metamorphic rocks (granu- Eule gneissic massif in Silesia) or horizontal lates, eclogites) in the Moldanubian, with the cleavage (Auma in Thuringia) are observed on granulites limited to local subcrustal uplifts in top of the crystalline uplifts. This shows that the Saxothuringian, and with the seldom the deformational style and the attitude of the katazonal metamorphic rocks in the basement structural planes reflect especially the inten- outcrops of the so-called central German crys- sity of magmatic diapirism. talline rise. In some places, the latter basement is covered by nearly 1,000 m of Devonian and Horizontal mass transport and compression Carboniferous strata (bore hole Saar 1). are secondary responses to subcrustal move- ments, triggered by the injection of magma. The pre-Devonian alpinotype deformations Overthrusts are located mainly at the margins brought only short intervals of continental of basement uplifts. Furthermore, gravity conditions marked by "uncompleted geosyn- tectonics result where the sedimentary cover clinal cycles" (Brause, 1970; Hoth and Hirsch- moves down the flanks of uplifted areas. The mann, 1970) related to the repeated rise of occurrence of local B axes of folds normal to granitic magmas from the Proterozoic to the regional B axes in some parts of the Variscan Carboniferous and connected with multiple basement and of varying amounts of shortening formation of sedimentary troughs. These de- normal to the direction of strike can be ex- formations finally culminated with the con- plained by dominant vertical rise. At the solidation of the geosynclinal belt in the margins of the crystalline uplifts, the deforma- Variscan orogeny during the late Carbonifer- tion attains maximum values and the tectonism ous. is characterized by imbricate structures. Free The Variscan deformation in the 3,500-m

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marine Paleozoic section in the Barrandian were filled with as much as 4,000 m of intra- was of minor intensity because the zones of montane molasse sediments of red bed facies maximum subsidence and of synorogenic gra- (Saar-Nahe trough and Saale trough in the nitic magmatism had shifted northward during district of Halle). the Devonian to Carboniferous. In the Bar- Direct correlation between the individual randian area, the folded Proterozoic is covered late Carboniferous-Early Permian (Autunian- by thick Cambrian molasse. After early Paleo- Saxonian) molasse troughs in central Europe is zoic magmatic activity in the Fichtelgebirge- not possible (Schwab, 1970). Instead, the Erzgebirge rise, the Barrandian area under- tectonic-magmatic evolution and the sedimen- went renewed troughlike subsidence, but little tary filling of the intramontane troughs are internal deformation. closely connected to the grabenlike inverted In the 10,000- to 15,000-m sections in the crests of the former crystalline massifs (Fig. 3). Rhenohercynian, on the contrary, the Variscan deformation was extremely intense. Though INVALIDITY OF "THE NEW GLOBAL the whole area of the Saxothuringian south to TECTONICS" IN CENTRAL EUROPE the Barrandian was penetrated by granitic The Proterozoic to Paleozoic history of the magmas during the Carboniferous, the defor- central European basement described above mational features diminish from north to took place in an intraconti nental area, there south. This demonstrates the close areal rela- being no relics of an oceanic crust in central tion between the intense deformation and the Europe. The current plate-tectonic model does thick sedimentary section to the north, which not explain geosynclinal development in such deformation was induced ultimately by buoy- an area. According to this model, the oceanic ant upwelling of basic and acid magma (Fig. 4). crust should be trapped in a subduction zone. The andesitic volcanism of the Pacific island POSTKINEMATIC MAGMATISM AND arcs is perhaps the result of mixing of early INTRAMONTANE TROUGHS melting fractions of descending oceanic litho- The Paleozoic magmatism of central Europe sphere with that of overlying upper mantle continued after the Carboniferous mountain at the contact between the two in the subduc- building. The rise of granites lasted into the tion zone, but there are no signs of a Variscan Early Permian. Postkinematic granites pene- subduction zone, to say nothing of extensive trate the folded sedimentary series and meta- linear belts of either andesitic volcanism or morphic complexes discordantly. The lower granodioritic batholiths in central Europe density and accompanying buoyancy of gra- (Zwart, 196S, p. 9, 13-16). nitic melts in relation to their sedimentary and It should be pointed out here that from the metamorphic cover caused granitic intrusion Proterozoic to the late Carboniferous in up to a subvolcanic level. Granitic plutons as central Europe, geosynclinal development was well as rhyolitic volcanic rocks, including acid not limited to demonstrable continental mar- tuff, are widespread. In Thuringia and in the gins and that orogenesis in that region was not Harz Mountains, late Carboniferous-Early in any way the result of plate collision. Instead, Permian granites are in the neighborhood of the geosynclinal and orogenic evolution was Early Permian rhyolitic sheets and probably due to rising heat fronts that have acid dikes. Ignimbritic volcanic rocks are been induced by physical-chemical phase trans- mainly known from northwest Saxony, the formations in the upper mantle. The heat northern Black Forest, and from the northern fronts formed the centers oi: granitization. The Vosges. In addition to these anatectic and con- deformation of the sedimentary trough fillings taminated acid magmas, basic magma of was essentially regulated by adjacent granitic mantle origin was extruded along deep-seated diapirism. Horizontal shortening was of sec- fractures, especially in the Saar-Nahe trough. ondary importance and was accomplished The volcanism is chiefly linked to some chiefly by gravity sliding. Paleozoic uplifts that are sites of tectonic inversion: the crests of the crystalline massifs— CONCLUSIONS such as the Hunsriick-Taunus-Odenwald-Spes- 1. The basement (Proterozoic-Carbonifer- sart or the Ruhla-Kyffhauser—broke down by ous) of central Europe is characterized by local tension to grabenlike structures oriented in a metamorphic uplifts, mostly elliptical in shape northeast-southwest direction. The grabens and with migmatitic or gtanitic cores. These

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uplifts are adjoined by similarly shaped sedi- James Gilluly and Wallace M. Cady for their mentary troughs. The basement is not divided critical reviews. into long continuous zones in the sense of Kossmat (1927). REFERENCES CITED 2. Plutonism and metamorphism of the Aubouin, J., 1965, Geosynclines: Developments in central European basement occurred repeat- geotectonics, v. 1: Amsterdam, Elsevier, 335 p. edly with culminations in the Proterozoic, Behr, H.-J., 1964, Die Phyllite von Hermsdorf- early Paleozoic, and Carboniferous. Deforma- Rehefeld und das Alter der Vergneisung im tion of the sedimentary series is connected with Erzgebirge: Deutsch. Akad. Wiss. Berlin ascent of granitic magmas. Monatsber., v. 6, p. 530-538. 3. Rise of granitic magmas was due to 1966, Das metamorphe Grundgebirge im density stabilization in the crust. Thüringer Becken: Deutsch. Gesell. Geol. 4. The crystalline uplifts are overlain at Wiss. Ber., A, v. 11, p. 39-56. their tops and surrounded at their margins by 1968, Altersbeziehungen zwischen Mag- matismus, Metamorphose und ringförmigen shallow-water sediments, both coarse clastic Grossstrukturen im sächsischen Erzgebirge: rocks and carbonates, that are relatively thin Freiberger Forschungshefte, C 241, p. 27-43. and may be partly missing owing to both Behr, H.-J., Jordan, H„ and Weber, W„ 1965, Ein stratigraphic convergence and unconformable paläozoischer Beleg für das Alter der Ver- overlap. Deep-seated faults along which basic gneisung im Erzgebirge—Chitinozoen in den magmas were emplaced and extruded are Phyllitarealen von Hermsdorf-Rehefeld: prominent at the margins of these uplifts. Deutsch. Akad. Wiss. Berlin Monatsber., v. 7, The margins are also sites of gravity tectonics. p. 408-415. The sedimentary cover of the tops as well as Belousov, V. V., 1966, Modern concepts of the the steep flanks of the uplifts are commonly structure and development of the earth's crust metamorphosed, because the cores of the up- and the upper mantle of : Geol. Soc. London Quart. Jour., v. 122, p. 293-314. lifts were above centers of subcrustal heat flow Benek, R., Möbus, G., and Lindert, W., 1967, that produced metamorphic aureoles in the Postkinematische Granite im Variscikum: upper crust. Deutsch. Akad. Wiss. Berlin Abh., Kl. 5. The sedimentary basins shifted north- Bergbau, Hüttenwes. u. Montangeol., v. 1, ward from the Proterozoic of the Barrandian 160 p. to the Carboniferous of the sub-Variscan fore- Bird, J. M., and Dewey, J. F., 1970, Lithosphere deep. Except for some minor subsidence, and plate-continental margin tectonics and the evolution of Appalachian orogen: Geol. Soc. until Variscan orogeny, positions of the sedi- America Bull., v. 81, p. 1031-1060. mentary troughs of Bohemia, and of Saxony Brause, H., 1969, Das verdeckte Altpaläozoikum and Thuringia were stabilized after the Protero- der Lausitz und seine regionalgeologische zoic and the early Paleozoic, respectively. The Stellung: Deutsch. Akad. Wiss. Berlin Abh., basins of the Rhenish Schiefergebirge and the Kl. Bergbau, Hüttenwes. u. Montangeol., Harz, on the other hand, migrated northward 1968, v. 1. during the Devonian and Carboniferous. 1970, Ur-Europa und das gefaltete sächsische 6. In central Europe, the Proterozoic-Pa- Paläozoikum: Deutsch. Gesell. Geol. Wiss. leozoic heat-flow front dipped to the north, Ber., A, Geol. Paläont., v. 15, p. 327-367. Brause, H., Gotte, W„ and Douffet, H„ 1968, which is demonstrated by southward succession Gesetzmässigkeiten in der saxothuringischen from rocks of low to rocks of high metamorphic Zone des Variszikums und ihre Beziehungen grade. zu älteren Orogenen: Internat. Geol. Cong., 7. The central European basement devel- 23d, Prague, Rept. See. 3, p. 199-212. oped in an intracontinental area. There are no Burrett, C. F., 1972, Plate tectonics and the indications of an oceanic crust. The theory of Hercynian orogeny: Nature, v. 239, p. 155— "the new global tectonics" is not valid for the 157. Proterozoic-Carboniferous geosynclinal evolu- Den Tex, E., 1963, A commentary on the correla- tion and orogenesis of Central Europe. tion of metamorphism and deformation in space and time: Geologie en Mijnbouw, v. 42, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS p. 170-176. Dewey, J. F., 1969, Continental margins: A model We thank Mrs. U. Busch and Mr. H. Kriiger for the transition from Atlantic type to for translation, and G. Weber for preparation Andean type: Earth and Planetary Sei. Let- of the figures and drawing the maps, as well as ters, v. 6, p. 189-197.

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