Physical Properties & Characteristic Properties vs Non-Characteristic properties TB: p. 175, 178-189 Physical Properties
• These can be observed or measured without changing the make-up of the matter of the object • These properties can be used to describe the object • Two categories: non-characteristic and characteristic properties Physical Properties Include:
• Appearance • Melting Point • Texture • Boiling Point • Color • Density • Odor • Solubility Non-Characteristic Properties
A non-characteristic property is a physical or chemical property that is not unique to one particular substance.
Basically: A NCP can be used to describe many substances Non-Characteristic Properties Examples • Temperature, • Mass, • Shape, • Colour, • Volume, & • Acidity and alkalinity (pH) Temperature • In science, temperature is measured in degrees Celsius (ºC) or sometimes in Kelvin (K) • To measure temperature we use a thermometer Mass Shape and Color Volume Acidity and Alkalinity Characteristic Properties
A characteristic property is a physical or chemical property that is unique to a particular substance. Basically: A CP can be used to identify a substance. Characteristic Properties Examples Density: The amount of matter in an object, which is calculated by dividing the mass by the volume
Magnetism: The force of attraction between a magnet and a magnetic object Characteristic Properties Examples (cont.)
Solubility: A measure of how well a substance can dissolve in another substance. – The Solute: the substance that is dissolved – The Solvent: the substance that the solute dissolves – The Solution: the result of mixing a solute and a solvent Characteristic Properties Examples (cont.) Melting Point: The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
Boiling Point: The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas Examples
• Freezing point of Water: 0ºC – Liquid water will freeze to solid ice at 0ºC • Melting Point of Ice: 0ºC – Solid ice will melt to liquid water at 0ºC • Boiling Point of Ice: 100ºC – Liquid water will change into a gas at 100ºC
Example: The English Oak
Characteristic Property • Density = 720 kg/m3
Non-Characteristic Property • Light yellow to Medium brown in colour
Non-Characteristic Property • 25-30 m tall
Below is the properties of unknown substances. Which of the following is a characteristic property?
1. Mass of 346 grams 2. Red and circular in shape 3. Temperature of 250C 4. Boiling Point of 204oC
Identify all of the non- charactertistic properties listed below 1. Volume of 200 ml 2. Square shaped 3. Temperature of 450C 4. Freezing Point of 204oC 5. Density of 24 g/ml
Exam like question!!!
Julie has a unknown substance Mass 103.5 g in a beaker. Its properties are Color yellow described in the chart to the right. Magnetic No Using the substance chart below, identify which substance Julie has Volume 50 ml in the beaker. Density Color Magnetic
Iron 7.86 g/ml Yellow-Grey Yes Water 1 g/ml Colorless No Nitroge 0.00125 g/ml Yellow No n Sulphur 2.07 g/ml Yellow No Remember!
Characteristic Properties Non-Characteristic Properties
CO2 - Turns limewater cloudy - Color
O2 - Ignites glowing splint - Shape
H2 - Pops in presence of - Texture flame - Size Density, DENSITY = m/V - Mass Melting Point - Temperature Freezing Point - Odor Boiling Point - Weight - Volume