What You Will Learn… If YOU were there... Main Ideas Rhnk_Zma^k%ZpZg]^kbg`mkZ]^k%aZl]^\b]^]bmblmbf^mhl^mme^ 1. The Spartans built a ]hpg'A^h__^klma^_ZfberZ\ahb\^[^mp^^gmph\bmb^l'Bghg^\bmr% to provide security ^o^krhg^pZgmlmh[^Zmae^mb\%mhn`a%Zg]lmkhg`'Ma^rÍk^`hh]Zm and protection. 2. The Athenians admired the ^g]nkbg`aZk]labilZg]_heehpbg`hk]^kl'Ma^hma^k\bmrbl]b__^k& mind and the arts in addition ^gm'Ma^k^%rhnÍ][^Z]fbk^]b_rhn\hne]mabgd]^^ierZg]li^Zd to physical abilities. 3. Sparta and Athens fought i^klnZlbo^er%b_rhndg^pZehmZ[hnmZlmkhghfrhkablmhkr%hkb_rhn over who should have power lZg`Zg]ieZr^][^Znmb_nefnlb\' and influence in . Which city do you choose? Why? The Big Idea The two most powerful city-states in Greece, Sparta and Athens, had very differ- ent cultures and became bitter ;NBE=BG@;:

HeVgiVch7j^aYVB^a^iVgnHdX^Zin Use the graphic organizer online to Spartan society was dominated by the military. According to take notes on Athens and Sparta. Spartan tradition, their social system was created between 900 IDENTIFY: According to legend, who was and 600 BC by a man named Lycurgus (ly-KUHR-guhs) after a responsible for the beginnings slave revolt. To keep such a revolt from happening again, he of the Spartan social system? increased the military’s role in society. The Spartans believed that military power was the way to provide security and protec- tion for their city. Daily life in Sparta refl ected this belief.

7dnhVcYBZc^cHeVgiV Daily life in Sparta was dominated by the army. Even the lives of children refl ected this domination. When a boy was born, government offi cials came to look at him. If he was not healthy, the baby was taken outside of the city and left to die. Healthy boys were trained from an early age to be soldiers.


6-8_SNLAESE485805_C09S2.indd 266 5/11/10 12:38:18 PM As part of their training, boys ran, The Spartans believed that the most RECALL: jumped, swam, and threw to increase important qualities of good soldiers were What two qualities did their strength. They also learned to endure self-discipline and obedience. To reinforce the Spartans think the hardships they would face as soldiers. For self-discipline they required soldiers to live were most important in example, boys weren’t given shoes or heavy tough lives free from comforts. For exam- clothes, even in winter. They also weren’t ple, the Spartans didn’t have luxuries like given much food. Boys were allowed to steal soft furniture and expensive food. They food if they could, but if they were caught, thought such comforts made people weak. they were whipped. At least one boy chose Even the Spartans’ enemies admired their to die rather than admit to his theft: discipline and obedience. “DcZndji]!]Vk^c\hidaZcV[dmVcY]^YYZc ^ijcYZg]^hXdVi!VaadlZY^iidiZVgdji]^hkZgn <^gahVcYLdbZc^cHeVgiV WdlZahPdg\VchRl^i]^ihXaVlhVcYiZZi]VcY Because Spartan men were often away at ANALYZE: Y^ZYgVi]Zgi]VcWZigVn]^hi]Z[i#” war, Spartan women had more rights than In a society organized –EajiVgX]![gdb Life of Lycurgus such as Sparta was, other Greek women. Some women owned why might women have To this boy—and to most Spartan soldiers— land in Sparta and ran their households more rights and courage and strength were more important when their husbands were gone. Unlike responsibilities than in a society organized as than one’s own safety. women in other Greek cities, Spartan Athens was? Soldiers between the ages of 20 and women didn’t spend time spinning cloth 30 lived in army barracks and only occa- or weaving. They thought of those tasks as sionally visited their . Spartan men the jobs of slaves, unsuitable for the wives stayed in the army until they turned 60. and mothers of soldiers.

Life in Sparta

The Spartans valued discipline, obedience, and courage above all else. Spartan men learned these values at an early age, when they were trained to be soldiers. Spartan women were also expected to be strong, athletic, and disciplined.

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6-8_SNLAESE485805_C09S2.indd 267 5/11/10 8:13:54 AM Primary Source

POINTS OF VIEW Lycurgus, a Spartan lawgiver, Views of Education thought education for boys , an Athenian, thought that education for should teach them how to fight. young boys should train both the mind and the The historian described body. He wanted students to be prepared for how education was handled in all aspects of life as adults. Sparta under Lycurgus:

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Spartan women also received physical 6i]Zc^Vch6Yb^gZi]ZB^cY training. Like the men, they learned how Sparta’s main rival in Greece was Athens. to run, jump, wrestle, and throw javelins. Like Sparta, Athens had been a leader in The Spartans believed this training would the Persian Wars and had a powerful army. help women bear healthy children. RECALL: But life in Athens was very different from How many kings officially ruled?


6-8_SNLAESE485805_C09S2.indd 268 5/4/10 8:59:54 AM In addition to their physical training, <^gahVcYLdbZc^c6i]Zch Athenian students, unlike the Spartans, While many boys in Athens received RECALL: also learned other skills. They learned to What were Athenian good educations, girls didn’t. In fact, girls girls taught? read, write, and count as well as sing and received almost no education. Athenian play musical instruments. Boys also learned men didn’t think girls needed to be edu- about Greek history and legend. For exam- cated. A few girls were taught how to read ple, they studied the , the , and and write at home by private tutors. How- other works of Greek literature. ever, most girls only learned household Boys from very rich families often con- tasks like weaving and sewing. CONTRAST: tinued their education with private tutors. What was the basic Despite Athens’s reputation for free- difference between These tutors taught their students about dom and , women there had life in Sparta and life philosophy, geometry, astronomy, and fewer rights than women in many other in Athens? other subjects. They also taught the boys city-states. Athenian women could not how to be good public speakers. This train- ing prepared boys for participation in the s SERVEINANYPARTOFTHECITYSGOVERN Athenian assembly. ment, including the assembly and juries, Very few boys had the opportunity s LEAVETHEIRHOMES EXCEPTONSPECIAL to receive this much education, however. occasions, Boys from poor families usually didn’t get s BUYANYTHINGOROWNPROPERTY OR any education, although most of them s DISOBEYTHEIRHUSBANDSORFATHERS could read and write at least a little. Most of In fact, women in Athens had almost no rights at all. EVALUATE: the boys from poor families became farm- Considering only ers and grew food for the city’s richer citi- Athens and  Å Identifying Cause and Effect zens. A few went to work with craftspeople Sparta, in which Why did girls in Athens receive little education? city-state would to learn other trades. you rather have lived?

Life in Athens

The Athenians valued education and the arts and believed that educated people made the best citizens.

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6-8_SNLAESE485805_C09S2.indd 269 5/4/10 9:13:10 AM The Peloponnesian War, c. 431–404 BC

Athens and allies N N Sparta and allies W W E E Neutral states SeaSe of Sea of S S MMarmaraa Marmara Battle site MACEDONMACEDON

050100 Miles

050100 Kilometers HRW World History A A e e wh06as_c10loc011ba g g The Peloponnesiane e War, c.PERSIAN 431-404PERSIAN BC a a n n EMPIRELocatorEMPIRE

IonianIoniaIoniann S APPROVED(2)S 9/22/04 SegestaSegesta e e IONIAIONIA HimeraHimeraa LLocriocri SSeaea Sea TThebeshebeThebess AAthensthenAthenss a a MessanassaMessanana RRhegiumhegiuRhegiumm ATTICAATTICA SeliniusSelinius MMiletusil CCatanaatanaCatana PeloponnesusPeloponnesus SicilySicily SpartaSpartaSparta DelosDelos Gela SSyracuseyracuSyracusese CamarinaCamarina SPARTASPARTA

RhodesRhodes  MediterraneanMediterranean Sea Sea    Å  Å  1 . R e g i o n Most islands in the were allied with which city? Crete 2 . M o v e m e n t About how far did Athenian ships have to sail from Athens to invade ?

HeVgiVVcY6i]Zch;^\]i With its navy protecting the islands, SUMMARIZE: Athens was the strongest member of the What As you learned earlier, Sparta and Athens happened to league. As a result, the Athenians began worked together to win the Persian Wars. the Delian to treat other league members as their League? The Spartans fought most of the battles subjects. They refused to let members quit on land, and the Athenians fought at sea. the league and forced more cities to join After the war, the powerful Athenian fl eet it. The Athenians even used the league’s continued to protect Greece from the Per- money to pay for buildings in Athens. sian navy. As a result, Athens had a great HRW World History Without even fi ghting, the Athenians made HRW HRWWorld World History History infl uence over much of Greece. wh06as_c10map011aa the an Athenian empire. The Peloponnesianwh06as_c10map011aa War,wh06as_c10map011aa c. 431-404 BC The PeloponnesianThe Peloponnesian War, War,c. 431-404 c. Legend431-404 BC BC APPROVED(3)APPROVED(3) 10/28/04 10/28/04 DEFINE: 6i]Zc^VcEdlZg I]ZEZadedccZh^VcLVg FINAL 8/11/04 In your own words, define the After the Persian Wars ended in 480 BC, The Delian League was not the only alliance term alliance. many city-states formed an Vaa^VcXZ, or an in Greece. After the Persian Wars, many agreement to work together. They wanted cities in southern Greece, including Sparta, to punish the Persians for attacking Greece. banded together as well. This alliance was They also agreed to help defend each other called the after the and to protect trade in the Aegean Sea. To peninsula on which the cities were located. pay for this defense, each city-state gave The growth of Athenian power worried money to the alliance. Because the money many cities in the Peloponnesian League. was kept on the island of , historians Finally, to stop Athens’s growth, Sparta call the alliance the Delian League. declared war.


6-8_SNLAESE485805_C09S2.indd 270 5/4/10 9:16:09 AM This began the nearly all of Greece, until other city-states EZadedccZh^VcLVg, a war between Athens started to resent them. This resentment and Sparta that threatened to tear all of led to a period of war. Control of Greece N N Greece apart. In 431 BC the Spartan army shifted from city-state to city-state. The W W E E Sea of Sea of marched north to Athens. They surrounded fi ghting went on for many years, which S S MarmaraMarmara MACEDONMACEDON the city, waiting for the Athenians to come weakened Greece and left it open to attack out and fi ght. But the Athenians stayed in from outside. the city, hoping that the Spartans would A A e e leave. Instead, the Spartans began to burn  Å Identifying Cause and Effect g g PERSIANPERSIAN e e What happened to Greece after the Pelopon- a a the crops in the fi elds around Athens. They n n EMPIREEMPIRE nesian War? hoped that Athens would run out of food IonianIonian S S SegestaSegestaHimeraHimera e e IONIAIONIA Locri Locri a a and be forced to surrender. Sea Sea ThebesThebesAthensAthens MessanaMessanaRhegiumRhegium SeliniusSelinius ATTICAATTICA The Spartans were in for a surprise. The CatanaCatana MiletusMiletus PeloponnesusPeloponnesus Athenian navy escorted merchant ships to NFF:KR:G=L IK>OB>P In this section SicilySicily SpartaSparta DelosDelos Gela Gela SyracuseSyracuse Athens, bringing plenty of food to the city. you read about confl icts among city- CamarinaCamarina SPARTASPARTA The navy also attacked Sparta’s allies, forc- states for control of Greece. In the next MediterraneanMediterranean Sea Sea RhodesRhodes ing the Spartans to send troops to defend section, you will learn what happened other Greek cities. At the same time, though, when all of Greece was conquered by a Crete Crete disease swept through Athens, killing foreign power. thousands. For 10 years neither side could gain an advantage over the other. Eventu- ally, they agreed to a truce. Athens kept its Section 2 Assessment ONLINE QUIZ empire, and the Spartans went home. A few years later, in 415 BC, Athens Reviewing Ideas, Terms, and People tried again to expand its empire. It sent 1. a. Recall How long did Spartan men stay in the army? its army and navy to conquer the island b. Summarize How did the army affect life in Sparta? of Sicily. This effort failed. The entire Athe- 2. a. Identify What skills did rich Athenian boys learn in nian army was defeated by Sicilian allies school? b. Elaborate How might the government of Athens have of Sparta and taken prisoner. Even worse, infl uenced the growth of its educational system? these Sicilians also destroyed most of the 3. a. Identify Which city-state won the Peloponnesian War? Athenian navy. b. Explain Why did many city-states form an alliance TakingHRW advantage HRWWorld World History of History Athens’s weakness, against Athens? Spartawh06as_c10map011aa attackedwh06as_c10map011aa Athens, and the war start- Critical Thinking The PeloponnesianThe Peloponnesianed up once War, more.War,c. 431-404 c. Although 431-404 BC BC the Athenians APPROVED(3)APPROVED(3) 10/28/04 10/28/04 4. Comparing and Contrasting Athens Sparta Both fought bravely, the Spartans won. They Look through your notes on cut off the supply of food to Athens com- Athens and Sparta to fi nd pletely. In 404 BC, the people of Athens, similarities and differences starving and surrounded, surrendered. The between the two city-states. Use a graphic organizer like Peloponnesian War was over, and Sparta the one on the right to organize the information. was in control. FOCUS ON WRITING

;^\]i^c\6bdc\i]Z8^in"HiViZh 5. Analyzing Greek Accomplishments Think about the With the defeat of Athens, Sparta became characteristics you would expect to be admired in Sparta the most powerful city-state in Greece. and Athens. Write down some of these characteristics in your notebook. How do they relate to the Persian leaders For about 30 years, the Spartans controlled you listed before?


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