Chapter 9 Study Guide Key

7th Grade World History Vocabulary  – a unit of soldiers who ride horses. The Persian was known for their use of cavalry, helping to make them so victorious in battle  Hellenistic – Greek-like - when a cultural idea is heavily influenced by Greek ideas (Example – of created by .)  Alliance – agreement to work together – as in the Persian Wars Vocabulary  – A square fighting formation – commonly used by Alexander & in the Persian empire  – Slaves in Sparta – made up majority of population & heavily relied upon  – Great temple in dedicated to the goddess . Commissioned by after the Persian Wars. People to Know

the Great – Rebelled against the to create the Persian Empire. Known for letting others keep their customs to help prevent rebellions  I – Leader of the when Greek mainland -states sent help to the Ionian city- states. Leader during the Battle of

People to Know  I – the son of Darius. Was the leader of the Persian Wars during the battles of , Salamis & . Set up his golden throne to watch the – which he lost, forcing him to retreat to Persia  of – Father of . Conquered the Greek city-states.  Alexander the Great – Macedonian – came to power after his father was murdered. Helped to create the largest empire in the world at that point. Never lost a battle. Died at age 32 from .

People to Know  – a student of . He was a philosopher – his student is (the teacher of Alexander the great.)  Socrates – one of the best known philosophers – believed people must never stop thinking. Later is sentenced in Athens to death for “questioning the Gods?  – Created many geography rules still in use today

Battles of the Persian Wars

– 490 BCE Cause - Persians want revenge for city-states helping the rebelling Ionian . Athens asks Sparta for help – they said no due to a religious festival Athens out numbered 2 to 1 Due to better weapons & plans – Athens wins! Effect – Greeks feel pride & Persians will want revenge

Battles of the Persian Wars  – Cause - Persians are seeking revenge for Battle of Marathon Led by Xerxes – brings at least 250,000 men This is led by the Spartans – hold them off at the narrow pass – until a traitor tells them away around the mountains Spartans fight to their death Persians win Effect – Spartans march to Athens & burn it down & Greeks are motivated to fight back Battles of the Persian Wars

 Battle of Salamis – Athenians had earlier built up their Navy Athenian wants to fight in the narrow straights Tricks Xerxes into battle Xerxes sets up gold throne to watch Little Athenian ships destroy the large Persian ships because the large ships can’t maneuver Win for ! Effect - Xerxes must return to Persia

Battles of the Persian Wars  Battle of Plataea Fought by a united Greek front and left over Persians Greece Wins! Effects This ends the Persian Wars Defeat humiliating for Persians, but not a major loss Greeks save their homeland! Short Answer 1. Medes 2. He is upset because the mainland Greeks helped out the revolting Ionian Greeks. 3. Darius and Xerxes were both Persian leaders that fought against the Greek city-states. 4. 60 years old 5. Spartan life revolved around the . Everything that was done, was done for the good of the “state.” Focus was on obedience and structure. 6. Men had many more then women. More emphasis was placed on a “well rounded” education – for boys. Military service for 2 years.

Short Answer 8. His men refused to go on – they had to turn back around and head back home 9. He died of malaria – a disease commonly from a mosquito 10. After Alexander died he left his empire to “the strongest” It was split between 3 top generals 1. So many of Greek achievements are important because they are so long lasting and influence our art, , philosophy, and government. ()