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Chapter 4: the Ancient Greeks

Chapter 4: the Ancient Greeks

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TheAncient World

Each civilization that you will study in this unit made important contributions to history. • The developed democratic . • The ancient Chinese created paper. • The people of India invented the concept of zero.

2500 B..C.. 1500 1500 B..C.. 800 800 B..C.. 650 650 B..C..

Ancient c. 1600 B.C. c. 776 B.C. Minoan First civilization Olympic Cha & 5 pters 4 reaches Games height take place

Ancient plate

Early c. 2500 B.C. c. 1500 B.C. IndiaIndia Settlements Aryans enter develop along India Hindu temple Chap r 6 te Indus River

Early c. 1750 B.C. c. 1045 B.C. China Zhou establish begins dynasty in China Chapter 7

Zhou dynasty dragon

108 (t)National Museums of Scotland/Bridgeman Art Library, (c)Borromeo/Art Resource, NY, (b)file photo 108-111 UO2-824133 3/28/04 9:45 AM Page 109

0 1,000 miles

0 1,000 kilometers Mercator projection Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Caspian

Black Sea e H GOBI g T an i SH Hu g KU r i U E s D I up N n Mediterranean h R Persian I d r . H us Sea a R te s Gulf . N R Jiang . ang Chapters h 4 & 5 CCHINA 4 & 5 . R e l ARABIA i INDIA South PACIFIC

N Arabian Bay of China OCEAN AFRICA Red Sea Sea Sea Bengal

Equator Chapters 4 & 5 INDIAN Chapter0° 6 30°E 60°E OCEAN 90°E 120°E Chapter 7

500 B..C.. 350 350 B..C.. 200 200 B..C.. 50 50 B..C.. A..D.. 100100

490 B.C. 399 B.C. c. 330 B.C. Greeks and develops Persians fight tried for his theories about the Battle of teachings government Statue of Socrates

c. 530 B.C. c. 321 B.C. 273 B.C. Siddhartha Chandragupta Asoka begins rule in India Gautama Maurya unites founds northern India Buddhism in India Statue of the Buddha

c. 530 B.C. c. 100 B.C. c. A.D. 100 Confucius Road links Buddhism spreads develops his China and the from India to China philosophy in Middle East China

Statue of horse from Han dynasty

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1 Greek EUROPE

See Chapters 4 & 5 1

2 lighthouse AFRICA 2

See Ancient Greece Chapter 5

c. 750 B.C. c. 495–429 B.C. Greek , wrote c. 563–483 B.C. 551–479 B.C. Athenian general and and Founder of Buddhism Chinese leading Chapter 5, page 159 Chapter 6, page 207 Chapter 7, page 237 Chapter 4, page 141

110 110–111 ©Worldsat International Inc. 2004, All Rights Reserved, (tl)Getty Images, (c)Archives Charmet/Bridgeman Art Library, (bl)Scala/Art Resource, NY, (bcl)Christie’s, London/Bridgeman Art Library/SuperStock, (bcr)Vanni/Art Resource, NY, (br)Scala/Art Resource, NY 108-111 UO2-875047 9/13/06 9:50 AM Page 111

3 Harappan priest-king

ASIA See Early India Chapter 6

4 Statue of diety Siva


See Early India Chapter 6 3

5 Great of China 4

Pacific Ocean See Early China Chapter 7 Indian Ocean

c. 356–323 B.C. c. 259–210 B.C. 384–322 B.C. Macedonian Ruled c. 273–232 B.C. Built the first Great Greek philosopher general and king Philosopher-king of India Wall of China Chapter 5, page 172 Chapter 5, page 180 Chapter 6, page 212 Chapter 7, page 243

111 (t to b)Robert Harding Picture Library, Victoria & Albert Museum, London/Art Resource, NY, Digital Vision, (l to r)Alinari/Art Resource, NY, Sandro Vannini/CORBIS, Hulton/Getty Images, National Geographic Image Collection 112-115 CH4 CO-824133 3/20/04 9:45 AM Page 112

The Ancient Greeks

The Parthenon rises above the of . The people of ancient Greece built this temple to celebrate their goddess .

700 B.C. 600 B.C. 500 B.C. 400 B.C.

c. 750 B.C. c. 650 B.C. 480 B.C. 431 B.C. Greece’s Dark over- Peloponnesian Age comes to throw nobles invades War begins an end in city-states Greece

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Chapter Overview Visit Chapter Preview jat.glencoe.com for a preview Greek civilization began almost 4,000 years ago, but of Chapter 4. Greek ideas about government, science, and the arts are still important today. View the Chapter 4 video in the World History: Journey Across Time Video Program.

The Early Greeks The earliest civilizations in Greece were the Minoans and the Mycenaeans. Greece’s mountains, climate, and surrounding played a large role in their history. and Athens Athens and Sparta became the two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece. Sparta focused on its force, while Athens focused on , culture, and . Persia Attacks the Greeks The Persian Empire gained control of most of southwest Asia. However, when tried to conquer the Greeks, Athens and Sparta united to defeat them. The Age of Under the leadership of Pericles, Athens became a powerful city- and culture blossomed.

Summarizing Information Make this foldable to help you organize and summarize information about the ancient Greeks.

Step 1 Mark the Step 2 Fold Reading and Writing midpoint of a side edge the paper in As you read the chapter, of one sheet of paper. half again write information under Then fold the outside from side to each appropriate tab. Be edges in to touch the side. sure to summarize the midpoint. information you find by writing only main ideas Step 3 Open the Step 4 Label and supporting details. paper and cut along Cut along the as shown. The Sparta the inside fold lines fold lines on Early and Greeks Athens to form four tabs. both sides. Persia Attacks The the Age of Greeks Pericles

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Making Connections Use What You Know Unlock meaning by making a connection between what you read and what you already know. Your own experiences can help you understand words or ideas that are unfamiliar. Read the paragraph below. Make a con- nection between a Greek and a place that is familiar to you.

Below the was an open area called an agora (A • guh • ruh). Do you know This space had two functions: it was what an agora looks like? both a market and a place where people could meet and issues. — from page 122

You know what a market looks like. Can you also visualize a place where people could meet? If so, then you have a good idea of what an agora might look like. Try to create a picture in your mind as you read. Imagine a“see” mini-what movie as you the author is describing.

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Read to Write Foto Marburg/Art Resource, NY Resource, Foto Marburg/Art Making the Choose one of the connections from your Connection discussion. Write a Read the following paragraph from Chapter 4. What paragraph to explain ideas can you connect to your own experiences? Use the why you made such a questions below to help you begin a class discussion about connection. Use vivid things in your life that relate to life in ancient Greece. details.

At age 20, Spartan men entered the regular army. The men remained in military barracks for 10 more years. They ate all their meals in dining halls with other soldiers. A typical meal was a vile-tasting dish called black broth—pork boiled in animal blood, salt, and vinegar. Spartans returned home at age 30 but stayed in the army until age 60. They continued to train for combat. They expected to either win on the battlefield or die, but never to surren- der. One Spartan mother ordered her son to “Come home carrying your shield or being carried on it.” —from pages 126–127

• Do you have any members or friends who are 20 years old? What would they say if they were required to serve in the army for 40 years? • Have you ever seen or tasted food that looks like “black broth”? As you read the chapter, choose five words or phrases that make a connec- tion to something you already know. 115 116-123 CH4 S1-824133 3/23/05 1:55 AM Page 116

The Early Greeks

What’s the Connection? Locating Places In Chapters 1 and 2, you learned (KREET) about and . These (my•SEE•nee) civilizations grew up in great river Peloponnesus valleys with rich soil. Greece had no (PEH•luh•puh•NEE•suhs) great river valleys. Instead, it had mountains, rocky soil, and many Meeting People miles of seacoasts. (A•guh•MEHM•nahn) Focusing on the Building Your Vocabulary • The influenced peninsula (puh•NIHN•suh•luh) where people settled and what they colony (KAH•luh•nee) did. (page 117) (PAH•luhs) • The Minoans earned their living by agora (A•guh•ruh) building ships and trading. (page 118) • Mycenaeans built the first Greek Reading Strategy kingdoms and spread their power Finding Details Draw a diagram like across the Mediterranean region. the one below. In each oval write one (page 119) detail about a polis. • Colonies and trade spread Greek culture and spurred industry. (page 121) polis • The idea of developed in Greek city-states. (page 122)

20002000 B..C.. 1250 1250 B..C.. 500 500 B..C..

c. 2000 B.C. c. 1200 B.C. c. 750 B.C. GREECE Minoans ’s Dark Age control eastern civilization declines comes to an end Mycenae Mediterranean


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peninsula (puh•NIHN•suh•luh)—a body of The Geography of Greece land with water on three sides. The geography of Greece influenced Many ancient Greeks made a living from where people settled and what they did. the sea. They became fishers, sailors, and Steve Vidler/SuperStock Steve Vidler/SuperStock Reading Focus Do you rake leaves in the fall? Do you traders. Others settled in farming communi- walk uphill to school? Your answers explain how geogra- ties. Greece’s mountains and rocky soil were phy shapes your life. Read to learn how geography not for growing crops. However, the cli- shaped life in early Greece. mate was mild, and in some places people could grow , , , and grapes. If you fly over Greece today, you will see They also raised sheep and . a mountainous land framed by sparkling Ancient Greeks felt deep ties to the land, blue water. To the west is the Ionian (eye• but the mountains and seas divided them OH • nee • uhn) Sea, to the south is the from one another. As a result, early Greek , and to the east is the communities grew up fiercely independent. Aegean (ih • JEE • uhn) Sea. Hundreds of islands lie offshore, stretching across to Asia Cause and Effect How did like stepping-stones. Mainland Greece is a geography discourage Greek unity?

Ancient Greece c. 750 B.C.

N Sea of Marmara W E S Mt. Olympus 40°N KEY BALKAN Ancient Greece PENINSULA Aegean GREECE Sea ASIA MINOR 0 100 miles Gu 0 100 kilometers lf of Thebes Cori Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection M nth e Athens d i t Mycenae e r S r PELOPONNESUS e a a n Sparta e a n

Sea of Crete Mediterranean All parts of ancient Greece were Sea near water. Knossos 1. What body of water lies east of Crete the Balkan20°E Peninsula? 30°E 2. What transportation was probably most useful to the early Greeks? Mountains and seas Find NGS online map resources @ played an important www.nationalgeographic.com/maps role in Greek history. 116-123 CH4 S1-824133 2/23/04 11:37 PM Page 118

and storerooms packed with oil, wine, and The Minoans grain. Other spaces were workshops for The Minoans earned their living by making jewelry, vases, and small ivory stat- building ships and trading. ues. The palace even had bathrooms. Reading Focus Imagine what it would be like to The Minoans made their wealth from uncover a building that is more than 5,000 years old. trade. They built ships from oak and cedar Read to learn how such a discovery unlocked clues to and sailed as far as Egypt and . Greece’s ancient past. There they traded and stone vases for ivory and metals. By 2000 B.C., Minoan The island of Crete (KREET) lies southeast ships controlled the eastern Mediterranean of the Greek mainland. There, in 1900, an Sea. They carried goods to foreign ports English archaeologist by the name of Arthur and kept the sea free of pirates. Evans made the find of a lifetime. Evans About 1450 B.C., the uncovered the of a grand palace that suddenly collapsed. Some historians think had been the center of Minoan (muh•NOH• undersea caused giant waves uhn) civilization. The Minoans were not that washed away the Minoans’ . Greeks, but their civilization was the first to Others think the cities were destroyed arise in the region that later became Greece. by a group of Greeks from the mainland. The palace at Knossos (NAH • suhs) re- These invaders were called the Mycenaeans vealed the riches of an ancient society. Its (MY •suh•NEE•uhns). twisting passageways led to many different Explain How did the : private quarters for the royal family Minoans become a trading civilization?

This wall painting from Knossos shows Minoans participating in a dangerous sport called bull leaping. Who discovered the palace at Knossos? Minoan calendar

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The First Greek Kingdoms Mycenaeans built the first Greek kingdoms and spread their power across the Mediterranean region. Reading Focus What is the most important building in the area where you live? Is it a government building, a grocery store, or a hospital? Read to find out what build- ing was most important in the Mycenaean civilization.

The Mycenaeans were originally from central Asia. They invaded the Greek mainland around 1900 B.C. and conquered the people living there. The Mycenaean leaders became the first Greek kings. Their warriors became nobles who ruled the peo- ple they had conquered. In the late 1800s, a German named Heinrich Schliemann (HYN• rihk SHLEE • MAHN) discovered one of their walled palaces in Mycenae (my • SEE • nee). He named the people of this civilization the Mycenaeans. What Were Mycenaean Kingdoms Like? The ruins at The centerpiece of each Mycenaean king- Mycenae included dom was a fortified palace on a hill. The this gate. What lay ruler lived there, surrounded by giant stone outside the of a walls. Beyond the palace walls lay large Mycenaean palace? farms, or estates, that belonged to the nobles. Slaves and farmers lived on the mask of Agamemnon estates and took shelter inside the fortress in times of danger. Mycenaean palaces hummed with activ- As a result, Mycenaeans learned much ity. Artisans tanned leather, sewed clothes, about Minoan culture. They copied the and made jars for wine and oil. Other ways Minoans worked with bronze and workers made bronze and ox-hide built ships. They learned how the shields. Government officials kept track of Minoans used the and stars to find the wealth of every person in the kingdom. their way at sea. The Mycenaeans even Then they collected wheat, livestock, and started worshiping the Earth Mother, the as taxes and stored them in the palace. Minoans’ chief goddess. Around 1400 B.C., the Mycenaeans Power From Trade and War Soon after replaced the Minoans as the major power the Mycenaeans set up their kingdoms, on the Mediterranean. They traded widely, Minoan traders began to visit from Crete. sailing to Egypt and southern . Some

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The years between 1100 B.C. and 750 B.C. TheThe GreekGreek AlphabetAlphabet were difficult for the Greeks. Overseas trade slowed and poverty took hold. Farmers Greek Written English Letter Name Sound grew only enough food to meet their own alpha a family’s needs. People also stopped teach- beta b ing others how to write or do craftwork. gamma g Before long, the Greeks had forgotten their delta d written language and how to make many epsilon e things. As a result, historians call this time z eta e the Dark Age. theta th The changes that took place in the Dark iota i Age were not all bad, however. One posi- kappa c, k tive development was a huge population l shift. Thousands of Greeks left the main- mu m land and settled on islands in the Aegean nu n xi x Sea. Other Greeks moved to the western omicron o shores of Asia Minor, to what is now the pi p country of Turkey. This wave of movement rho r expanded the reach of Greek culture. sigma s Meanwhile, a Greek-speaking people tau t known as the (DOHR • ee • uhns), upsilon y, u phi ph who lived in Greece’s northern mountains, chi ch began to move south. Many settled in the psi ps Peloponnesus (PEH •luh•puh•NEE•suhs). The omega o Dorians brought iron weapons with them, giving Greece more advanced . The was based on the Iron weapons and farm tools were stronger What happened to Phoenician alphabet. and cheaper than those made of bronze. Greek writing during the Dark Age? Gradually, people began to farm again historians think they conquered Crete and and to produce surplus food. As a result, nearby islands. trade revived. One benefit of the increased Although trade made the Mycenaeans trade was a new way of writing. As you read wealthy, they were prouder of their deeds in Chapter 3, the Greeks picked up the idea of in battle. Their most famous victory is prob- an alphabet from the Phoenicians, one of ably the . In the next chapter, you their trading partners who lived on the coast will learn the legend of how the Mycenaean of the eastern Mediterranean. king Agamemnon (A • guh • MEHM • nahn) The Greek alphabet had 24 letters that used trickery to win that war. stood for different sounds. It made reading and writing Greek much simpler than ever What Was the Dark Age? By 1200 B.C., the before. Soon people were writing down tales Mycenaeans were in trouble. Earthquakes that had been passed down by storytellers and fighting among the kingdoms had for generations. destroyed their hilltop forts. By 1100 B.C., Identify What changes Mycenaean civilization had collapsed. occurred during Greece’s Dark Age?

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Asia. With each new colony, Greek culture A Move to Colonize spread farther. Colonies and trade spread Greek culture Colonists traded regularly with their and spurred industry. “parent” cities, shipping them grains, metals, Reading Focus If you read labels, you know that fish, timber, and enslaved people. In return, your food and clothing come from all over the world. the colonists received pottery, wine, and olive Read to find out where the early Greeks got their oil from the mainland. Overseas trade got an goods. extra boost during the 600s B.C., when the Greeks began to mint . Merchants were As Greece recovered from its Dark Age, soon exchanging goods for money rather its population rose quickly. By 700 B.C., than for more goods. farmers could no longer grow enough grain The growth of trade led to the growth of to feed everyone. As a result, cities began industry. As the demand for goods grew, pro- sending people outside Greece to start ducers had to keep pace. People in different colonies (KAH•luh•nees). A colony is a settle- areas began specializing in making certain ment in a new territory that keeps close ties products. For example, pottery making to its homeland. became popular in places with large amounts Between 750 B.C. and 550 B.C., adventur- of . ous Greeks streamed to the coasts of Italy, Cause and Effect How did France, Spain, North Africa, and western new colonies affect industry?

Greek50°N Colonies and Trade 750–550 B.C.

ATLANTIC KEY OCEAN Greece Greek colonies

ITALY Black Sea Corsica GREECE

Tigr Troy ASIA is R. E MINOR u ph rat Athens es N Sparta R.

W Crete E AFRICA Mediterranean Tyre S Sea 30 40°E °N

Greek colonies and trading posts 0 500 miles EGYPT N i spread from the Black Sea in the le Red Sea R east to Spain in the west. 0 500 kilometers . 1. Which islands were home to Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection Greek colonies?0° 20°E 2. On which continents could Greek colonies be found? CHAPTER 4 The Ancient Greeks 121 116-123 CH4 S1-824133 3/17/05 11:51 AM Page 122

The Polis city-state, known as a polis (PAH•luhs), was like a tiny independent country. The idea of citizenship developed in The main gathering place in the polis Greek city-states. was usually a hill. A fortified area, called an Reading Focus Did you know that the word “” acropolis (uh•KRAH•puh•luhs), stood at the comes from polis, the Greek term for a city-state? Read to top of the hill. It provided a safe refuge in find how the Greeks also created the idea of citizenship. case of attacks. Sometimes the acropolis also served as a religious center. Temples By the end of the Dark Age, many and altars were built there to honor the nobles who owned large estates had over- many Greek gods and goddesses. thrown the Greek kings. They created city- Below the acropolis was an open area states. Like the Mesopotamian city-states called an agora (A•guh•ruh). This space had you read about in Chapter 1, those in two functions: it was both a market and a Greece were made up of a town or city and place where people could meet and debate the surrounding countryside. Each Greek issues. City-states varied in size. Some were a few miles square, while others covered hundreds of square miles. They also varied Athenian in population. Nearly 300,000 people lived Soldier’s Oath in Athens by 500 B.C. Most city-states were much smaller, however. In the Greek city of Athens, soldiers took this oath: “I will not bring dishonor upon What Was Greek Citizenship? Each my weapons nor desert the Greek city-state was run by its citizens. comrade by my side. I will strive When we speak of citizens, we mean mem- to hand on my fatherland bers of a political community who treat greater and better than I each other as equals and who have rights found it. I will not consent and responsibilities. This was very differ- to anyone’s disobeying or ent from ancient Mesopotamia or Egypt. destroying the but will prevent him, whether There, most people were subjects. They I am with others or alone. had no rights, no say in government, and I will honor the temples no choice but to obey their rulers. and the religion The Greeks were the first people to my forefathers develop the idea of citizenship. Today, the established.” word applies to almost everyone in a society. —oath of enrollment in Epheboi corps, However, in most Greek city-states, only free Greek soldier c. 300s B.C. native-born men who owned land could be citizens. From their point of view, the city- state was made up of their lands, and it was their responsibility to run it. They did not think anyone else should be a citizen. Identify six things each soldier promises Some city-states, such as Athens, eventu- to protect in taking the oath. ally dropped the land-owning requirement. Slaves and foreign-born residents, however,

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continued to be excluded. As for women Greek plate and children, they might qualify for citizen- showing soldiers ship, but they had none of the rights that in battle went with it. short , and What exactly were the rights of Greek cit- a 9-foot (2.7-m) izens? They could gather in the agora to spear. Row upon choose their officials and pass . They had row of soldiers the right to vote, hold office, own property, marched for- and defend themselves in court. In return, ward together, citizens had a duty to serve in government shoulder to shoulder. With their shields and to fight for their polis as citizen soldiers. creating a protective wall, they gave their enemies few openings to defeat them. Citizens as Soldiers In early Greece, wars made good soldiers because, as were waged by nobles riding horses and citizens, they took pride in fighting for their chariots. As the idea of citizenship devel- city-state. However, “hometown” loyalties oped, however, the military system also divided the Greeks and caused them to changed. By 700 B.C., the city-states had distrust one another. A lack of unity always begun to depend on armies of ordinary cit- existed among the Greek city-states. izens called hoplites (HAHP• LYTS). Unable to afford horses, the hoplites Explain How did citizenship fought on foot and went into battle heavily make the Greeks different from other ancient armed. Each carried a round shield, a peoples?

Study Central™ Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn? Reading Summary 1. What made the Minoans 5. Citizenship Skills Name wealthy? Review the three rights granted to Greek 2. How was a Greek city-state citizens that American citizens • Geography influenced the way have today. Greek communities developed. different from a city? Critical Thinking 6. Link to Economics Why did • The Minoan civilization, on the the use of money help trade to island of Crete, built ships and 3. Compare Create a Venn - grow? became wealthy from trade. gram to compare the Minoans and Mycenaeans. 7. Making • The Mycenaeans created the Connections Choose one first Greek kingdoms. Minoan Both Mycenaean passage from this section. Write • After the Dark Age, the Greeks set a paragraph to explain how it connects to something you up colonies and trade increased. 4. Summarize What changes already know or something you occurred in Greece during the • The idea of citizenship developed have experienced. in Greek city-states. Dark Age?

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Sparta and Athens

What’s the Connection? Locating Places Although Greek city-states devel- Sparta (SPAHR•tuh) oped the idea of citizenship, they had Athens (A•thuhnz) many different types of government. This section describes their different Meeting People and compares the best- (SOH•luhn) known city-states, Athens and Sparta. Peisistratus (py•SIHS•truht•uhs) (KLYS•thuh•NEEZ) Focusing on the • Tyrants were able to seize power Building Your Vocabulary from the nobles with the support (TY•ruhnt) of Greek farmers, merchants, and (AH•luh•GAHR•kee) artisans. (page 125) democracy (dih•MAH•kruh•see) • The Spartans focused on military helot (HEH•luht) skills to control the people they conquered. (page 126) Reading Strategy • Unlike Spartans, Athenians were Compare and Contrast Use a Venn more interested in building a diagram to compare and contrast life democracy than building a military in Sparta and Athens. force. (page 128) Sparta Both Athens

700700 B..C.. 600 600 B..C.. 500 500 B..C..

c. 650 B.C. 594 B.C. 508 B.C. Tyrants overthrow Solon takes Cleisthenes GREECE nobles in power in reforms Athenian city-states Athens government Athens PELOPONNESUS Sparta

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they could harvest and sell their crops. Tyranny in the City-States Many borrowed money from the nobles, Tyrants were able to seize power from promising to give up their fields if they the nobles with the support of Greek farmers, mer- could not repay the loans. Time and time The Art Archive/E.T. Archive The Art Archive/E.T. chants, and artisans. again, farmers lost their land. Then they Reading Focus How do you feel when someone had to work for the nobles or become labor- makes a decision that affects you without asking for ers in the city. In desperate cases, they sold your opinion? Read to find out how ancient Greeks who themselves into . were shut out of governing made their voices heard. By 650 B.C., small farmers began to demand changes in the power structure. As you read in the last section, kings Merchants and artisans also wanted to ruled the first Greek communities. However, share in governing. Both groups had by the end of the Dark Age, the nobles who become very wealthy from the trade owned large farms had seized power from between city-states. Because they did not the kings. own land, however, they were not citizens Rule by the nobles would also be short- and had no say in running the polis. lived. The first challenge to their rule came The growing unhappiness led to the rise from the owners of small farms. These of tyrants. A tyrant (TY• ruhnt) is someone farmers often needed money to live on until who takes power by force and rules with

Sparta and Athens c. 700 B.C.




0 50 miles

0 50 kilometers Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection KEY Territory controlled by Sparta 38°N Territory controlled by Athens Athens



Sparta and Athens were the Athenian dominant city-states in ancient Greece. 1. How many miles apart were

20°E Sparta24°E and Athens? 2. Which city-state’s geography might make it more open to attack in a military battle? Explain. 125 124-130 CH4 S2-824133 2/23/04 11:56 PM Page 126

total authority. Today the word describes a harsh, oppressive ruler. Most early Greek Sparta tyrants, though, acted wisely and fairly. The Spartans focused on military skills During the 600s B.C., tyrants managed to to control the people they conquered. overthrow the nobles because they had the Reading Focus What would it be like to leave home backing of the common people. Key sup- when you were only seven? Read to learn how Spartan port came from the hoplites in the army, boys faced this challenge. many of whom were also farmers. Tyrants made themselves popular by As you read in the last section, Sparta building new , temples, and was founded by the Dorians—Greeks who walls. However, rule by one person was the invaded the Peloponnesus in the Dark Age. opposite of what most Greeks wanted. They Like other city-states, Sparta needed more longed for rule by with all citizens par- land as it grew, but its people did not set up ticipating in the government. colonies. Instead, they conquered and en- By 500 B.C., tyrants had fallen out of slaved their neighbors. The Spartans called favor in Greece. Most city-states became their captive workers (HEH • luhts). either or . In an This name comes from the Greek word for oligarchy (AH•luh• GAHR •kee), a few people “capture.” hold power. In a democracy (dih•MAH•kruh• see), all citizens share in running the Why Was the Military So Important? government. The oligarchy of Sparta (SPAHR• Spartans feared that the helots might some- tuh) and the democracy of Athens (A•thuhnz) day rebel. As a result, the government became two of the most powerful govern- firmly controlled the people of Sparta and ments of early Greece. trained the boys and men for war. Evaluate Why were tyrants At age seven, boys left their family to popular in the city-states? live in barracks. They were harshly treated to make them tough. The Greek historian describes life for Spartan boys: Spartan Warrior After they were twelve years old, Spartan boys and men they were no longer allowed to spent many years wear any undergarment; they had training for war. one coat to serve them a year; . . . At what age did Spartan boys leave They lodged together in little their for the bands upon beds made of the military? reeds [grasses] . . . which they were to break off with their hands without a knife. —Plutarch, “Spartan Discipline”

At age 20, Spartan men entered the reg- ular army. The men remained in military barracks for 10 more years. They ate all their meals in dining halls with other soldiers.

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Spartan girls were trained in sports.

Spartan boys began training for the military at age 7. Why did the Spartan government want its young people to be physically fit?

A typical meal was a vile-tasting dish called All Spartan men over age 30 belonged black broth—pork boiled in animal blood, to the assembly. They voted on the coun- salt, and vinegar. cil’s laws and chose five people to be Spartans returned home at age 30 but (EH • fuhrs) each year. The ephors stayed in the army until age 60. They con- enforced the laws and managed tax tinued to train for combat. They expected to collection. either win on the battlefield or die, but To keep anyone from questioning the never to surrender. One Spartan mother Spartan system, the government discour- ordered her son to “Come home carrying aged foreign visitors. It also banned travel your shield or being carried on it.” abroad for any reason but military ones. It Girls in Sparta were trained in sports— even frowned upon citizens who studied running, wrestling, and throwing the literature or the arts. . They kept fit to become healthy The Spartans succeeded in keeping con- mothers. Wives lived at home while their trol over the helots for nearly 250 years. husbands lived in the barracks. As a result, However, by focusing on military training, Spartan women were freer than other Greek the Spartans fell behind other Greeks in women. They could own property and go trade. They also knew less about science where they wanted. and other subjects. However, their soldiers were especially strong and swift. The What Was Sparta’s Government Like? Spartans would play a key role in defend- The Spartan government was an oligarchy. ing Greece. Two kings headed a council of elders. The council, which included 28 citizens over age Cause and Effect Why did 60, presented laws to an assembly. the Spartans stress military training?

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Athens Unlike Spartans, Athenians were more Web Activity Visit jat.glencoe.com and interested in building a democracy than building a click on Chapter 4—Student Web Activity military force. to learn more about ancient Greece. Reading Focus When visiting a new city, does every- thing feel strange to you? Spartans who visited Athens probably felt the same way. Read to find out why. What Was Life in Athens Like? Athenian Athens lay northeast of Sparta, at least a citizens raised their children very differ- two-day trip away. The two city-states were ently from Spartans. In Athenian schools, also miles apart in their values and systems one teacher taught boys to read, write, and of government. do arithmetic. Another teacher taught them

The Olympics Modern Olympic athletes

In ancient Greece, only men could participate in and view the Olympic games. Athletes competed by themselves, not as part of a team. Contests included running, jumping, wrestling, and . Each winning athlete won a crown of olive leaves and brought glory to his city.

In today’s Olympic games, both men and women compete. These athletes come from all over the world. They may compete in either individual or team sporting events. Olympic athletes strive to win gold, , or bronze medals. What did Olympic winners receive? What do present- A warrior’s race in the ancient Olympics day Olympic winners receive?

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sports. A third teacher taught them to sing The city of Athens and to play a stringed instrument called the was named for the . This kind of education created well- goddess Athena. What group ruled rounded Athenians with good minds and Athens during bodies. At age 18, boys finished school and the 600s B.C.? became citizens. Athenian girls stayed at home. Their mothers taught them spinning, weaving, and other household duties. Only in some wealthy families did girls learn to read, write, and play the lyre. When they mar- ried, women stayed home to keep and to teach their own daughters.

A Budding Democracy Early Athens, like other city-states, was ruled by landowning nobles during the 600s B.C. An assembly of all citizens existed, but it had few powers. Actually, the government was an oligarchy, as in Sparta. Around 600 B.C., the Athenians began to rebel against the nobles. Most farmers owed the nobles money, and many sold themselves into slavery to pay their debts. Over and over, farmers demanded an end to all debts, along with land for the poor. In 594 B.C. the nobles turned to the one continued to press Solon to give away the man both sides trusted: a noble named Solon wealthy nobles’ land. This he refused to do. (SOH • luhn). Solon canceled all the farmers’ After Solon, there were 30 years of tur- debts and freed those who had become moil. Finally, a tyrant named Peisistratus slaves. He also allowed all male citizens to (py•SIHS•truht•uhs) seized power in 560 B.C. participate in the assembly and law courts. A He won the support of the poor by dividing council of 400 wealthy citizens wrote the large estates among landless farmers. He also laws, but the assembly had to pass them. loaned money to poor people and gave them Solon’s reforms were popular among jobs building temples and other public the common people. However, the farmers works.

Token used to select jurors for Athenian courts.

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The most important leader after Stone carving of Peisistratus died was Cleisthenes (KLYS •thuh• Democracy crowning a figure NEEZ) B C . When he came to power in 508 . ., he that symbolizes reorganized the assembly to play the central Athens. What role in governing. As before, all male citizens leader is credited could belong to the assembly and vote on with making laws. However, members had new powers. Athens a democracy? They could debate matters openly, hear court cases, and appoint army generals. Most importantly, Cleisthenes created a new council of 500 citizens to help the assembly carry out daily business. The council proposed laws, dealt with foreign Non-citizens, which included all women, countries, and oversaw the treasury. foreign-born men, and slaves, were still Athenians chose the members of the excluded. Nonetheless, Cleisthenes is council each year in a lottery. They believed credited with making the government of this system was fairer than an , Athens a democracy. which might favor the rich. Cleisthenes’ reforms did not bring Explain How did all Athenians into the political process. Cleisthenes build a democracy in Athens?

Homework Helper Visit msworldhistory.com for Study Central™HomeworkNeed help Helper. with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn? Reading Summary 1. Who were the helots? 5. Explain How did Greek nobles Review the 2. Why did tyrants fall out of gain power? • The support of wealthy mer- favor with the Greeks? 6. Analyze Why was Solon pop- chants and artisans helped Critical Thinking ular among some Athenian tyrants seize power from nobles farmers and unpopular among 3. Classifying Information others? in the city-states. Draw a diagram like the one below. In each oval write a 7. Link How did • Sparta was a powerful city-state. fact about the Spartan keep It created a military state to oligarchy. one person from gaining too control the people it conquered much power? and to prevent uprisings. 8. Descriptive Writing Imagine Oligarchy that you are a 28-year-old man • Athens was a powerful demo- living in Sparta in 700 B.C. Write cratic city-state. Athenians were a letter to your 6-year-old more involved in government, 4. Evaluate Why did Athenians nephew telling him what to education, and the arts than the expect when he leaves home Spartans. choose officials by lottery? Would there be drawbacks to on his next birthday. this method? Explain.

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Persia Attacks the Greeks

What’s the Connection? Meeting People Section 2 explained how Greeks (SY•ruhs) built strong but separate city-states. Darius (duh•RY •uhs) At the same time far to the east, the Xerxes (ZUHRK•SEEZ) Persians were building a powerful empire. It was only a matter of time (thuh•MIHS•tuh•KLEEZ) before Persia would try to invade Greece. Building Your Vocabulary satrapies (SAY•truh•peez) Focusing on the (SAY•TRAP) • The Persian Empire united a wide (ZOHR•uh•WAS • area under a single government. •uh•NIH•zuhm) (page 132) • Both Sparta and Athens played roles Reading Strategy in defeating the Persians. (page 134) Organizing Information Create a chart like the one below to list the Locating Places accomplishments of Cyrus, Darius, Persia (PUHR•zhuh) and Xerxes. Marathon (MAR•uh•THAHN) Ruler Accomplishments Cyrus (thuhr•MAH•puh•lee) Darius Salamis (SA•luh•muhs) (pluh•TEE•uh) Xerxes

650650 B..C.. 550 550 B..C.. 450 450 B..C..

660 B.C. 559 B.C. 480 B.C. Zoroaster Cyrus becomes Xerxes invades born ruler of Persia Greece

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to unite the Persians into a powerful The Persian Empire kingdom. Under Cyrus, who ruled from The Persian Empire united a wide area 559 B.C. to 530 B.C., Persia began building under a single government. an empire larger than any yet seen in the Reading Focus Have you ever seen soldiers marching world. through city streets on the news? Imagine the same thing happening in Asia in the 500s B.C. Read to learn The Rise of the Persian Empire In 539 B.C. what happened as Persian armies marched westward Cyrus’s armies swept into Mesopotamia from Asia. and captured . Then they took over northern Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, The people of Persia (PUHR•zhuh) lived , and the Phoenician cities. Cyrus in what is today southwestern . Early treated all his new subjects well. As you Persians were warriors and nomads who read in Chapter 3, he allowed the captive herded . For a time, they were domi- in Babylon to return home. Cyrus’s nated by others. Then one remarkable merciful rule helped hold his growing leader, Cyrus the Great (SY•ruhs), managed empire together.

The Persian Empire 500 B.C.

20°E 40°E 60°E

N Aral Sea 40°N Black Sea W E C a s S p GREECE i a n A ASIA S m u e D M MINOR a arya R. e M Tigr di Crete is te E R rra SO . ne Cyprus P Nineveh an O S . ea E T Byblos R u A KEY p M s hr u at I Persian Empire d es A n Tyre I R PERSIA Royal Road . Babylon EGYPT N P i l e e r R s . i Thebes an R G e ulf d S Arabian Sea e a 20°N A system of roads, including the Royal Road, helped Persian kings 500 miles 0 rule their empire. 0 500 kilometers Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection 1. About how long was the Royal Road? 2. Based on the map, why might the Persian Empire have been a threat Bronze model of Persian chariot to Greece?

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The leaders who followed Cyrus con- tinued to add to Persian territory. They King Darius conquered Egypt, western India, and , a region northeast of Greece. From Darius helped to organize the Persian government. one end to the other, the Persian Empire What methods did he use? was about the size of the continental United States today. To connect their vast holdings, the Persians built miles of roads. The Royal Road stretched from Asia Minor to Susa, the Persian . Along the way, the Persians set up roadside stations to supply food, shelter, and fresh horses to the king’s messengers.

What Was Persian Government Like? As the Persian Empire grew bigger, it became very difficult to manage. When Darius (duh•RY •uhs) came to the throne in 521 B.C., he reorganized the government to make it work better. Darius divided the empire into 20 provinces called satrapies (SAY•truh•peez). Each was ruled by an official with the title of satrap (SAY• TRAP), meaning “protector of the kingdom.” The satrap acted as tax col- lector, judge, chief of , and head recruiter for the Persian army. However, all the answered to the Persian king. The king’s power depended upon his was born in 660 B.C. He began preaching troops. By the time of Darius, Persia had a after seeing visions as a young man. large army of professional soldiers. Unlike Like the Jews, Zoroaster believed in the Greek city-states, where the citizens one god. He viewed this supreme being as took up arms in times of war, in Persia the creator of all things and a force of the government paid people to be full-time goodness. However, Zoroaster recognized soldiers. Among them were 10,000 specially evil in the world, too. He taught that trained soldiers who guarded the king. had the freedom to choose They were called the Immortals because between right and wrong, and that good- when a member died, he was immediately ness would triumph in the end. The replaced. Persians practiced Zoroastrianism for cen- turies, and it still has a small number of The Persian Religion The Persian religion followers today. was called Zoroastrianism (ZOHR •uh•WAS • Explain Why did Darius tree • uh • NIH • zuhm). Its founder, Zoroaster, create satrapies?

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against their Persian rulers. The rebellion The Persian Wars failed, but King Darius decided the main- Both Sparta and Athens played roles in land Greeks had to be stopped from inter- defeating the Persians. fering in the Persian Empire. Reading Focus Have you and a rival ever set aside your differences to work for a common cause? This hap- The In 490 B.C.a pened in ancient Greece when Sparta and Athens came Persian fleet landed 20,000 soldiers on the together to fight the Persians. Read about the outcome. plain of Marathon (MAR• uh• THAHN), only a short distance from Athens. For several days, the Persians waited there for the As the Greeks set up colonies in the Athenians to advance. The Athenians, how- Mediterranean area, they often clashed ever, did not take the bait. They had only with the Persians. By the mid-500s B.C., 10,000 soldiers compared to the Persians’ Persia already controlled the Greek cities in 20,000. They knew that attacking was too Asia Minor. In 499 B.C. the Athenian army dangerous. Instead they held back in the helped the Greeks in Asia Minor rebel hills overlooking the plain.

In Persian Wars 499–479 B.C. Motion

0 100 miles

0 100 kilometers Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection Sea of Marmara

1 Athenian army defeats Persian army. 40°N

2 Greek force, led by Spartans, falls to Aegean Persian army. Sea Thermopylae Sardis 4 Greeks defeat Persians, Plataea Marathon ending the war. Salamis 3 Greek fleet defeats Miletus Persian navy. Athens Sparta 20°E


KEY W E Greek states S Persian Empire Crete 1st Persian , 490 B.C. 30°E 2nd Persian invasion, The Persian Empire invaded Greece twice 480 B.C. andMediterranean was beaten back both times. Major battle 1. Which Seaof the major battles shown was a naval battle? 2. Why might attacks on the Greek city- states have been difficult for the Persians? 134 CHAPTER 4 The Ancient Greeks 131-137 CH4 S3-824133 7/14/04 10:09 PM Page 135

Tired of waiting, the Persian com- mander decided to sail south and attack Athens directly. He ordered his troops back ’s onto the ships, and it was then that he made a big mistake. The first to board, he History decided, would be the horsemen in the cav- alry, the strongest part of the Persian army. As soon as the was out of fight- ing range, the Greeks charged down from the hills and onto the plain of Marathon. They caught the Persian foot soldiers stand- ing in the water, waiting their turn to board the ships. Unable to defend themselves, the Persians were easily defeated. According to legend, the Athenians sent a messenger named (fy•DIHP• uh • DEEZ) home with the news. The runner raced nearly 25 miles (40.2 km) from Marathon to Athens. He collapsed from exhaustion and, with his last breath, announced, “Victory.” Then he died. Herodotus reading to a crowd Modern marathon races are named for this famous run and are just over 26 miles long. The Greek historian Herodotus (hih•RAH• duh•tuhs) wrote History of the Persian Wars. This is thought to be the first real history in After Darius died Another Persian Strike Western civilization. Herodotus described the in 486 B.C., his son Xerxes (ZUHRK • SEEZ) conflict between the Greeks and Persians as became the Persian king. Xerxes vowed one between freedom and dictatorship. Here revenge against the Athenians. In 480 B.C. he tells of Xerxes’ address to Persian nobles: he launched a new invasion of Greece, this “And truly I have pondered upon this, until at last time with about 180,000 troops and thou- I have found out a way whereby we may at once sands of warships and supply vessels. win glory, and likewise get possession of a land which is as large and as rich as our own ...while To defend themselves, the Greeks joined at the same time we obtain satisfaction and forces. Sparta sent the most soldiers, and revenge . . . My intent is to . . . march an army their king, Leonidas (lee • AH • nuh • duhs), through Europe against Greece, that thereby I served as commander. Athens provided the may obtain vengeance from the Athenians for navy. An Athenian general, Themistocles the wrongs committed by them against the (thuh•MIHS•tuh• KLEEZ), came up with a plan Persians and against my father.” to fight the Persians. —Herodotus, The Persian Wars, Book VII The Greeks knew that as the huge Persian army marched south, it depended on shipments of food brought in by boat. What reasons besides revenge does Xerxes Themistocles argued that the Greeks’ best have for invading Greece? strategy would be to attack the Persians’ ships and cut off food supplies to the army.

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To ready their fleet for battle, the Greeks stayed behind and fought to the death. The needed to stall the Persian army before it Greeks lost the battle at Thermopylae, but reached Athens. The Greeks decided the their valiant stand gave Athens enough best place to block the Persians was at time to assemble 200 ships. Thermopylae (thuhr • MAH • puh • lee). Ther- The Greek fleet attacked the Persian mopylae was a narrow pass through the fleet in the strait of Salamis (SA•luh•muhs), mountains that was easy to defend. About not far from Athens. A strait is a narrow strip 7,000 Greek soldiers held off the Persians of water between two pieces of land. The there for two days. The Spartans in the Greeks expected to have the upper hand in Greek army were especially brave. As one the battle because their ships could maneu- story has it, the Greeks heard that Persian ver well in tight spaces. Greek ships were arrows would darken the sky. A Spartan smaller, faster, and easier to steer than the big warrior responded, “That is good news. We Persian ships, which became easy targets. will fight in the shade!” The Greek plan worked. After a ferocious Unfortunately for the Greeks, a traitor battle, the Greeks destroyed almost the entire directed the Persians to a mountain path Persian fleet. Still, the Persian army marched that led them around the Greeks. As the on. When their troops reached Athens, the Persians mounted a rear attack, King Greeks had already fled. Leonidas sent most of his troops to safety. The Persians burned the city. This only He and several hundred others, however, stiffened the resolve of the Greek city-states.

BattleBattle ofof SalamisSalamis

At the , smaller, faster Greek ships defeated the Persian fleet. Near what Greek city-state was the strait of Salamis located?

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In early 479 B.C., they came together to The high taxes angered their subjects form the largest Greek army ever assem- and caused many rebellions. At the same bled. With solid body armor, longer spears, time, the Persian royal family fought over and better training, the Greek army who was to be king. Many of the later crushed the Persian army at Plataea (pluh• Persian kings were killed by other family TEE•uh), northwest of Athens. members who wanted the throne. The battle was a turning point for the Persian kings had many wives and Greeks, convincing the Persians to retreat to children. The sons had little, if any, power Asia Minor. By working together, the Greek so they were constantly plotting to take city-states had saved their homeland from over the throne. As a result of such plots, invasion. six of the nine rulers after Darius were murdered. What Caused the Persian Empire to Fall? All of these problems made Persia When the Greeks defeated the Persian vulnerable to attack. By the time a young army, they helped to weaken it. The empire Greek conqueror named Alexander in- was already facing internal problems. As vaded the empire in 334 B.C., the Persians these problems worsened, the empire were no match for his troops. would gradually lose its strength. By 330 B.C., the last Persian king was dead Persia remained intact for almost 150 and Alexander ruled over all his lands. You more years. However, after Darius and will learn more about Xerxes, other Persian rulers raised taxes to and his many achievements in Chapter 5. gain more wealth. They spent the gold and silver that flowed into the treasuries on lux- Cause and Effect What led uries for the royal court. to the Persian Wars?

Study Central™ Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn? Reading Summary 1. Why was Cyrus considered a 4. Persuasive Writing Imagine fair ruler? Review the you are an adviser to Xerxes 2. What was the Royal Road? and are alarmed about his plan • The Persian Empire united its for revenge on Greece. Compose many lands under a single Critical Thinking a letter to him outlining rea- government. 3. Summarize Draw a table like sons why he should cancel his the one below. Then summarize invasion of Greece. • The Persian Empire attacked what happened at each battle 5. Greece several times. Despite in the Persian Wars. Making The Persians their rivalry, Athens and Sparta Connections wanted revenge against the joined forces to defeat the Battle Action Greeks. Describe an event in Persians. Marathon Thermopylae your own life or on the news Salamis where revenge was involved. Plataea What was the outcome?

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The Age of Pericles

What’s the Connection? Meeting People In Section 3, you learned how Pericles (PEHR•uh•KLEEZ) the Greeks defeated the Persians at (as•PAY •zhuh) Plataea. One lesson the Greeks drew from the war was that they needed Building Your Vocabulary each other for security. Athens and several other city-states soon (dih•MAH•kruh•see) banded together in a league for the common defense. (REH•prih•ZEHN•tuh•tihv) philosopher (fuh•LAH•suh•fuhr) Focusing on the • Under Pericles, Athens became very Reading Strategy powerful and more democratic. Organizing Information Create (page 139) a circle graph to show how many • Athenian men and women had very citizens, foreigners, and enslaved people lived in Athens in the 400s B.C. different roles. (page 142) • Sparta and Athens went to war for control of Greece. (page 144) Foreigners Slaves Locating Places (DEE•LAHS) Citizens

500 B..C.. 450 B.C. 400 B.C.

478 B.C. 461 B.C. 431 B.C. GREECE Pericles leads Peloponnesian Athens forms Athens War begins

Sparta Delos

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The Athenian Empire Under Pericles, Athens became very powerful and more democratic. Reading Focus Do you vote in school ? Why do you choose one classmate over another? Read to learn why Athenians kept electing Pericles.

As you read in Section 3, the Battle of Plataea in 479 B.C. put an end to the Persians’ invasion of Greece. Although the Persians retreated, they still remained a threat. In 478 B.C. Athens joined with other city-states— but not Sparta—to form the Delian League. The Delian League promised to defend its members against the Persians. It also worked to drive Persia out of Greek territo- ries in Asia Minor. Eventually, the league freed almost all of the Greek cities under Persia’s control. These ruins are of the agora—an ancient At its start, the Delian League had head- in Athens where the assembly met. quarters on the island of Delos (DEE• LAHS). What type of democracy did Athens have? However, its chief officials—the treasurers in charge of its money and the commanders Can you imagine such a system in the in charge of its fleet—were from Athens, as United States? A mass meeting of our were most of the troops. Little by little, millions of citizens would be impossible! Athens gained control over the other city- Instead, in the United States we have a states in the alliance. Soon the league was representative democracy (REH •prih•ZEHN• no longer a partnership to fight Persia but tuh•tihv). Under this type of democracy, cit- an Athenian empire. izens choose a smaller group to make laws In 454 B.C. the Athenians moved the and governmental decisions on their behalf. Delian League’s treasury from Delos to This is a much more practical system when Athens. The Athenians also began sending the population is large. troops to other Greek city-states, to help the What made direct democracy workable common people rebel against the nobles in in ancient Athens was the relatively small power. number of citizens. In the mid-400s B.C., about 43,000 male citizens over 18 years old Democracy in Athens Athenians had a made up the assembly. Usually fewer than strong faith in their democratic system. 6,000 attended the meetings, which were We call their system direct democracy held every 10 days. The assembly passed all (dih•MAH•kruh•see). In a direct democracy, laws, elected officials, and made decisions people gather at mass meetings to decide on war and foreign affairs. Ten officials on government matters. Every citizen can known as generals carried out the assembly’s vote firsthand on laws and policies. laws and policies.

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ComparingComparing GovernmentsGovernments Athenian Democracy American Democracy Type of Democracy Direct Representative

Right to Vote Only adult males born in Athens All citizens, male and female age 18 or over

Laws Proposed by the council and Approved by both of approved by a majority in the Congress and signed by the assembly president

Citizen Involvement Citizens with rights can Citizens with voting rights can vote for or against any law vote for or against the officials who make the laws

The small number of citizens made a direct democracy possible in Athens. The Achievements of Pericles Athenians 1. In Athens, how was a law approved? reelected their favorite generals again and 2. Compare Which government granted the again. After the Persian Wars, the leading fig- right to vote to more of its population? ure in Athenian politics was a general named Pericles (PEHR • uh • KLEEZ). This great states- man guided Athens for more than 30 years, Culture also blossomed under the rule from 461 B.C., when he was first elected, until of Pericles. The Age of Pericles was a 429 B.C., shortly before his death. Pericles helped Athens dominate the period of tremendous creativity and Delian League. He treated the other city- learning that peaked in the mid-400s B.C. states like subjects, demanding strict loy- The Persians had destroyed much of the alty and steady payments from them. He city during the Persian Wars. So Pericles even insisted that they use Athenian coins started a major rebuilding program. He and measures. had new temples and statues built across At the same time, Pericles made Athens the city. more democratic at home. He believed that Pericles supported artists, architects, (fuh LAH suh people’s talents were more important than , and • • • fuhrs) their social standing. For this reason, . Philosophers are thinkers who pon- Pericles included more Athenians than der questions about life. In Chapter 5, you ever before in government. He allowed will read more about the Greeks’ achieve- lower-class male citizens to run for public ments and understand why Pericles called office, and he also paid officeholders. As a Athens “the school of Greece.” result, even poor citizens could, for the first Identify What is the differ- time, be part of the inner circle running the ence between a direct democracy and a represen- government. tative democracy?

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PERICLES c. 495– 429 B.C. Pericles was born just outside Athens, to a wealthy and powerful family. He received his education from philosophers. As a young man, he was known for his skill Pericles with words. Later, when he became a political leader, he strongly supported democracy. Although he was from a wealthy family himself, he believed that citizenship should not be limited to the wealthy and powerful. He made changes to take power from the few and give it to the many. However, in describing Pericles’ rule over Athens, Greek historian wrote “In name democracy, but in fact the rule of one man.” The “Age of Pericles” was Athens’s , and the city blossomed under his leadership. Pericles wanted Athens to be a model for the world. He made it a “Athens...is the centerpiece of art, philosophy, and democracy. school of Greece.” Pericles’ goal was to make Athens a city that Greeks —— Pericles, as recorded could be proud of. He hired hundreds of workers to by Thucydides construct public buildings in Athens. The most well known is the Parthenon. Based on the value of money today, it cost about $3 billion to build. Workers hauled 20,000 tons of marble from a nearby mountain and spent almost 15 years completing it. Pericles was a private person. He avoided being in public as much as possible. He spent most of his time alone, with family, or with close friends. He married and had three sons. In 429 B.C. Pericles died from the plague.

Consider what Thucydides wrote about Pericles’ rule in Athens. Do research to find out how the U.S. Constitution ensures that our government is not dominated by one leader.

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43,000 of these were men with political Daily Life in Athens rights. Foreigners in Athens numbered Athenian men and women had very about 35,000. The population also included different roles. about 100,000 enslaved people. Reading Focus School may be difficult at times, but Slavery was common in the ancient how would you feel if you could not go to school? Read world. There was at least one enslaved per- on to learn about the limits placed on some Athenians. son in most Athenian homes, and wealthy Athenian households often had many. Some worked as household servants— In the 400s B.C., more people lived in cooks, maids, or tutors. Others toiled in the Athens than in any other Greek city-state. fields, in industry, and in artisans’ shops. Athens had about 285,000 residents in all. Without their labor, Athens could not have Some 150,000 were citizens, although only supported its bustling economy.

AthenianAthenian HomesHomes

Many wealthy Athenians had large homes made of mud bricks and tiled roofs. They had many small windows to let light and air in the house. Where are religious influences seen in the house? Altar and Greek usually had an Yarn was spun and cloth altar to the favorite family god. was woven here.


Family Room

Kitchen Dining Room Cooking was often done Men ate their meals alone over an open fire. while served by women.

Athenian urn

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What Drove the Athenian Economy? Many Athenians depended on farming for a living. Herders raised sheep and goats for wool, milk, and cheese. Some farmers grew grains, vegetables, and fruit for local Women’s Duties In ancient Athens, a use. Others grew grapes and olives to woman’s place was in the home. Her two make wine and to sell abroad. main responsibilities were caring for the Athens did not have enough farmland household and raising children. The Greek to grow crops for all its people. As a result, (ZEH•nuh•fuhn) recorded the city had to import grain from other a man’s explanation of women’s duties. places. During the 400s B.C., Athens “Thus your duty will be to remain indoors and became the trading center of the Greek send out those servants whose work is outside, world. Merchants and artisans grew and superintend those who are to work indoors . . . and take care that the sum laid by wealthy by making and selling pottery, for a year be not spent in a month. And when jewelry, leather goods, and other products. wool is brought to you, you must see that cloaks are made for those that want them. You Roles of Men and Women Athenian men must see too that the dry corn is in good con- usually worked in the morning and then dition for making food.” exercised or attended meetings of the assem- —Xenophon, and bly. In the evenings, upper-class men enjoyed The second floor of each home was all-male gatherings where they drank, dined, the women’s quarters. An Athenian and discussed politics and philosophy. woman lived there with her children. She For Athenian women, life revolved was expected to around home and family. Girls married keep her children early—at 14 or 15—and were expected to well and happy. She have children and take care of household encouraged them duties. Poor women might also work with to learn sports and play with toys, and their husbands in the fields or sell goods in taught them how the agora. Respectable upper-class women, to interact with however, stayed at home. They supervised friends and family the household servants and worked wool members. Although into cloth—spinning, dyeing, and weaving boys left home at it. They rarely went out, except to or age seven to attend festivals. Even then, they could leave the school, girls stayed house only if a male relative went with them. with their mothers, Although Athenian women could not learning how to Greek woman attend school, many learned to read and to care for a house and servant and children. play music. Still, even educated women were not considered the equals of men. They had no political rights and could not own Connecting to the Past property. Fathers took charge of unmarried 1. Why do you think women and children daughters. Husbands looked after their lived on the second floor of the home? wives. Sons or other male relatives looked 2. Over what areas of life did an Athenian after widows. woman have authority?

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A few women did move more freely in public life. Aspasia (as • PAY • zhuh) is The perhaps the most famous example. Sparta and Athens went to war for con- Aspasia was not a native Athenian. This trol of Greece. gave her special status. She was well- Reading Focus Have you ever tried to get people to educated and taught public speaking to work together and been frustrated when they will not many Athenians. Her writings have not cooperate? Read to find out how the Greek city-states’ survived, but , the famous Greek refusal to cooperate nearly led to their destruction. philosopher, said her work helped shape his ideas. Pericles often consulted As the Athenian empire became rich and Aspasia, as did many other Athenian powerful, other city-states grew suspicious of leaders. In this way, she became influen- its aims. Led by Sparta, they joined forces tial in politics even though she was not against Athens. Sparta and Athens had built allowed to vote or hold office. two very different kinds of , and nei- Describe How did Athenian ther state understood or trusted the other. men and women spend their time? The two groups clashed several times over

In The Peloponnesian War 431–404 B.C. Motion

20°E 30°E N Black Sea Adriatic W E Sea S Sea of KEY Marmara 422 B.C. Sparta and allies 405 B.C. 410 B.C. Athens and allies 429 B.C. °N PERSIAN Neutral states 411 B.C. EMPIRE Spartan victory C04-26P Aegean 406 B.C. Athenian victory Sea of Greek soldiers marching Ionian 424 B.C. Thebes to battle 407 B.C. Sea C04-25A Corinth Athens Map: The 418 B.C. Miletus Peloponnesian War Delos Sparta 425 B.C.

Mediterranean Sea Crete

0 100 miles 0 100 kilometers TheLambert Peloponnesian Azimuthal Equal-Area War projection between Sparta and Greek warriors Athens lasted for over 25 years. 1. In what year was the earliest battle of the war fought? In whose territory? 2. Which major cities were allied with Sparta? How do you think having those allies helped the Spartans to win the war? 144 CHAPTER 4 The Ancient Greeks Gianni Dagli Orti/CORBIS 138-146 CH4 S4-824133 7/14/04 10:22 PM Page 145

what Sparta and its allies saw as Athenian aggression. Finally, war broke out in 431 B.C. Pericles’ It would drag on until 404 B.C. and shatter Oration any possibility of future cooperation among Pericles was a dominant figure in Athenian the Greeks. Historians call this conflict the politics between 461 B.C. and 429 B.C., a Peloponnesian War because Sparta was period historians call the Age of Pericles. located in the Peloponnesus. In his Funeral Oration, given during the Peloponnesian War, Pericles described Pericles’ Funeral Oration In the first win- democracy, the importance of the individual, ter of the war, the Athenians held a public and citizenship. funeral. Its purpose was to honor those who “Our constitution is called had died in battle. The relatives of the dead a democracy because wept for their loved ones. The rest of the cit- power is in the hands not izens joined in a procession. of a minority but of the As was the custom, a leading Athenian whole people. When it is a question of settling addressed the crowd. On this day, Pericles private disputes, everyone spoke. He talked about the greatness of is equal before the law; Athens and reminded the people that they when it is a question of made their government strong. putting one person before In this famous speech, called the Funeral another in positions of Oration, Pericles pointed out that Athenians public responsibility, what were part of a community. As citizens, they counts is not membership of a particular class, but agreed to obey the rules in their constitu- Pericles the actual ability which tion—their framework of government. the man possesses. No one . . . is kept [out of They accepted certain duties, such as pay- government] because of poverty. And, just as our ing taxes and defending the city. They also political life is free and open, so is our day-to- gained certain rights, such as the ability to day life in our relations with each other.” vote and run for office. —Pericles, as recorded by Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War Pericles’ speech reminded Athenians of the power of democracy and gave them the courage to keep fighting. Its ideas are still important for people living in democratic When Pericles said “everyone is equal nations today. before the law,” what did he mean? Why Was Athens Defeated? At the begin- ning of the Peloponnesian War, both Sparta Athenians stayed put and had the navy and Athens thought they knew how to win. deliver supplies from their colonies and The Spartans and their allies surrounded allies. Because Sparta did not have a navy, it Athens. They hoped that the Athenians could not attack the Athenian ships. would send out an army to fight. However, Athens escaped serious harm for some Pericles knew that Spartan forces could beat time. Then, in the second year of the war, a the Athenians in open battles. Believing his deadly disease spread through the over- people would be safe behind the city walls, crowded city. It killed more than a third he urged farmers and others on the of the people, including Pericles himself in outskirts to move inside the city. There 429 B.C. Despite these terrible losses, the

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Athenians fought on. The standoff contin- down the city walls and broke up the ued for another 25 years. Athenian empire. The war was over at last. The historian Thucydides recorded The Peloponnesian War weakened all of what he saw: the major Greek city-states, both the win- ners and the losers. Many people died in the This, then, was the calamity fighting, and many farms were destroyed. which fell upon Athens, and the Thousands of people were left without jobs. times were hard indeed, with men The war also made it impossible for the dying inside the city and the land Greeks to unite and work together again. outside being laid waste. After defeating Athens, Sparta tried —Thucydides, to rule all of Greece. Within 30 years, History of the Peloponnesian War however, the city-states rebelled. Sparta fought Persia again and tried to maintain Finally, desperate to win, the Spartans control of rebellious allies. While they made a deal with the Persian Empire. In were fighting amongst themselves, the exchange for enough money to build a Greeks failed to notice that to their north, navy, they gave the Persians some Greek the kingdom of Macedonia was growing territory in Asia Minor. in power. This would eventually cost In 405 B.C. Sparta’s new navy destroyed them their freedom. the Athenian fleet. The next year, after losing more battles on land, Athens surrendered. Cause and Effect What The Spartans and their allies then tore effects did the Peloponnesian War have on Greece?

Homework Helper Study Central™Visit Needmsworldhistory.com help with the for material in this section?Homework Visit Helper. jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn? Reading Summary 1. What caused the 4. Analyze What caused the Peloponnesian War? Review the lack of trust between Sparta and Athens? • Democracy and culture in Athens 2. According to Pericles, what flourished under the leadership duties did Athenian citizens 5. Interpreting Visuals of Pericles. have? Examine the drawing of the Critical Thinking Athenian home on page 142. • Athenian men worked as farmers, What does it show about the artisans, and merchants, while 3. Summarize Use a chart like role of women in Athens? most women stayed secluded at the one below to summarize home. what Athens was like in the 6. Civics Link How did the direct Age of Pericles. democracy of Athens differ • Athens and Sparta fought each from the democracy we have other in the Peloponnesian War. Government in the United States? The fighting led to the defeat of Athens and the weakening of all Economy 7. Expository Writing Describe the Greek states. the role of the Delian League in Culture the of the Athenian Wars empire.

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Study anywhere, anytime! Download quizzes and flash cards to your PDA from glencoe.com. Section The Early Greeks

Vocabulary Focusing on the peninsula • The geography of Greece influenced where people colony settled and what they did. (page 117) polis • The Minoans earned their living by building ships agora and trading. (page 118) • Mycenaeans built the first Greek kingdoms and spread their power across the Mediterranean region. (page 119) • Colonies and trade spread Greek culture and spurred industry. (page 121) Minoan • The idea of citizenship developed in Greek city-states. (page 122) calendar Section Sparta and Athens

Vocabulary Focusing on the tyrant • Tyrants were able to seize power from the nobles with the support of oligarchy Greek farmers, merchants, and artisans. (page 125) democracy • The Spartans focused on military skills to control the people they helot conquered. (page 126) • Unlike Spartans, Athenians were more interested in building a democracy than building a military force. (page 128) Section Persia Attacks the Greeks

Vocabulary Focusing on the satrapies • The Persian Empire united a wide area under a single government. (page 132) satrap • Both Sparta and Athens played roles in defeating the Persians. (page 134) Zoroastrianism Section The Age of Pericles

Vocabulary Focusing on the direct democracy • Under Pericles, Athens became very powerful and more democratic. (page 139) representative • Athenian men and women had very different roles. (page 142) democracy • Sparta and Athens went to war for control of Greece. (page 144) philosopher

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Review Vocabulary Section 2 • Sparta and Athens Write the vocabulary word that completes each 7. Why were tyrants able to seize control sentence. Write a sentence for each word not from Greek nobles? used. 8. Describe the differences between Athens a. satrap d. direct democracy and Sparta. b. agora e. oligarchy Section 3 • Persia Attacks the Greeks 9. What system did Darius use to unite his c. democracy f. peninsula large empire under one government? 1. In a(n) ___, a few wealthy people hold 10. Why did Sparta and Athens unite during power. the Persian Wars? 2. The Greek mainland is a(n) ___, a body of Section 4 • The Age of Pericles land with water on three sides. 11. How was democracy expanded during the 3. In a(n) ___, people at mass meetings make Age of Pericles? decisions for the government. 12. What was the result of the Peloponnesian 4. A(n) ___ acted as tax collector, judge, chief War? of police, and army recruiter. Critical Thinking Review Main Ideas 13. Cause and Effect How did the geography Section 1 • The Early Greeks of Greece help to encourage trade? 5. How did the geography of Greece influ- 14. Conclude Did the people of ancient Athens ence where people settled and how they have a full democracy? Explain. made a living? 15. Explain Do you think people would enjoy 6. How did the Greek colonies help industry more freedom in an oligarchy or a tyranny? to grow? Explain.

Making Connections Use What You Know

16. Which of these experiences would help 17. The lives of Athenian girls were very you to better understand the meaning of different than the lives of girls today. democracy? Write a paragraph that explains the ___ a. running for class president differences. As examples, use your ___ b. trading CDs with your friend own experiences or the experiences of someone you know. ___ c. picking up litter in your neighborhood ___ d. checking out a book at a library To review this skill, see pages 114–115.

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Self-Check Quiz To help you prepare for Geography Skills the Chapter Test, visit jat.glencoe.com Study the map below and answer the follow- ing questions. 18. Place What sea lies along the west coast of Greece? Linking Past and Present 19. Location Where was Knossos? 24. Making Comparisons Choose a person 20. Movement If you traveled from Athens to mentioned in Chapter 4. Write a descrip- Troy, in what direction would you be going? tion of someone in the news today who has similar ideas or has acted in similar ways. Give examples of their similarities. Ancient Greece Building Citizenship Skills 25. Analyze Democracy is not easy to achieve or maintain. Make a chart like the one below to identify things that challenged 40°N N Troy or threatened democracy in Athens. GREECE Aegean W E Ionian Sea S Democratic Idea Challenges Sea Athens Mycenae M ed Sparta ite rra nea n Sea Knossos Crete 20°E 30°E Analyze

Study the following quote, then answer Read to Write the questions that follow. 21. Paraphrasing Select a quotation or “Our constitution does not copy the laws of primary source from one of the sections in neighbouring states; we are rather a pattern this chapter. Reread it and then paraphrase to others than imitators ourselves. Its admin- what you have read. Remember that when istration favours the many instead of the few; you paraphrase, you restate in your own this is why it is called a democracy....The words all of the words in the passage, not freedom which we enjoy in our government just the main ideas. extends also to our ordinary life. . . . Further, 22. Descriptive Writing Work in a small group we provide plenty of means for the mind to to create a script for a play about an Athenian refresh itself from business. We celebrate citizen who visits Sparta for the first time. games and all the year round.” Perform your play for the class. —Pericles, as recorded by Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War 23. Using Your Use the information from your completed chapter opener fold- ables to create a brief study guide for the 26. According to Pericles, why is Athens chapter. Your study guide should include at considered a democracy? least five questions for each section. 27. What does Pericles mean when he says, Questions should focus on the main ideas. “we provide plenty of means for the Exchange your study guide with a partner mind to refresh itself from business”? and answer each of the questions.

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