ELECTRONS The movement of electrons generates

to the motor. OXYGEN (O2) Oxygen flows Electrical toward the , Current where it combines with to produce water.

Hydrogen Oxygen

H20 cells also provide power (H2) Hydrogen fuel to , airport tugs and flows into the Tailpipe Emission = even NASA’s shuttles. . & Water Vapor Large fuel cells can create

ANODE electricity for houses and Negative buildings. Stationary fuel cells CATHODE can provide reliable, high- Positive quality emergency power or Electrode PEM back-up power. Proton Exchange Membrane

Automakers and bus builders use proton exchange membrane, or PEM, fuel cells to power the . A PEM combines hydrogen fuel with oxygen from the air to generate electricity. In its simplest form, a PEM fuel cell is two —the anode and the cathode—separated by a catalyst-coated membrane. Fuel cells produce electricity as long as fuel is supplied. A fuel cell stack is made up of many PEM fuel cells that are stacked together, like slices in a loaf of bread. The stack generates electricity that powers the .

2 CALIFORNIA FUEL CELL PARTNERSHIP The electricity from the fuel cell stack flows into a power module, which distributes the electricity to the that turns the of the car. The power module also distributes electricity to the air conditioning, system and other on-board devices. A high- battery, similar to those in gasoline hybrids, provides extra when accelerating or climbing a hill, and helps improve fuel economy. Regenerative braking charges the battery.

HOW A FUEL CELL WORKS POWER MODULE distributes the electricity throughout the vehicle, including the motor. BATTERY supplies extra torque and stores energy from regenerative braking.

RADIATOR dissipates heat. FUEL CELL STACK generates electricity that flows to the ELECTRIC HYDROGEN power module. MOTOR TANKS turns the supply hydrogen wheels. to the fuel cell stack.

LEARN MORE AT OUR WEBSITE! 3 “Reforming” combines natural passes a current ELECTROLYSIS ELECTRICITY REFORMING HYDROGEN gas or with superheated PRODUCES enters the anode through water, splitting water (H2) steam. The heat and a catalyst and cathode into hydrogen and PRODUCES that can be HEAT cause the molecules to collide HYDROGEN submerged in water. oxygen. The electrolyzer HYDROGEN breaks used for many apart the purposes, and break apart. Oxygen and contains a thin membrane molecules. HYDROGEN including fuel. combine to form CO coated with a catalyst to AND CARBON 2 Oxygen DIOXIDE and the released hydrogen Cathode Anode Hydrogen the reaction. Oxygen are formed. is captured for ELECTRICITY is released and gaseous many uses, including gasoline can come from hydrogen is stored for fuel. many sources. NATURAL refining and processing WATER (H20) Currently, all electrolysis is GAS (CH ) Delivered as a 4 gas or consumer goods and food. breaks into done onsite at the station enters the oxygen and reformer. using renewable electricity. Hydrogen made at a central hydrogen. Power Grid production plant is delivered Researchers are also looking Produced onsite to a station as a liquid or a at hydrogen produced compressed gas. A few stations from electrolysis as energy make hydrogen onsite. Wind —a way to save (H2) excess solar and is captured to use for fuel. and later put it back into Solar Panels Oxygen the grid. SCRUBBER Bubbles STEAM (H 0) removes the C0 Hydrogen 2 2. Bubbles Produced Steam is mixed with onsite . Hydroelectric Power

HYDROGEN STATIONS REFUEL FCEVs Hydrogen is a compressed gas and sold by —a

HYDROGEN (H2) COMPRESSOR TANKS BOOSTER and CHILLER DISPENSER —instead of is delivered or may be needed to store hydrogen as further compress and cool fills the FCEV in 3-5 . Passenger vehicles produced on site. compact H2 for a compressed gas. H2 before dispensing. minutes. Most hydrogen stations in the storage. carry fuel compressed to U.S. are added to existing gas 70 megapascals (MPa). stations and function like a Trucks, buses and material typical gas station. Hydrogen handling equipment use storage and dispensing hydrogen at 35 MPa. equipment is above ground, and hydrogen is dispensed as a compressed gas. Some stations make the hydrogen onsite, others have hydrogen delivered as a liquid, and others receive hydrogen as a compressed gas. The manner of delivery dictates the equipment at the station.


COMPRESSOR compresses the FUEL CELL separates hydrogen and DIGESTER produces HYDROGEN (H ) from 2 pushes it into BIOGAS (CH ) the biogas and produces 4 STORAGE TANKS. from waste materials. electricity and heat.

Hydrogen Storage Biogas Tanks

Fuel Cell Compressor Digester Heat Plant Electricity

SCRUBBER removes HEAT is pumped impurities. back into the digester to heat the ELECTRICITY joins the solids. plant’s grid to provide electricity to the facility.

Waste materials—sewage, crop waste, cow manure—enter a digester in which microbes

convert the waste into (CH4), a biogas similar to natural gas. A scrubber removes impurities in the biogas, including carbon and sulfur. Clean biogas enters a stationary fuel

cell that separates the CH4 into hydrogen and CO2. Excess heat generated in the reaction goes back into the digester and excess energy feeds into the plant’s electrical system. Hydrogen is compressed and stored for dispensing on site.

6 CALIFORNIA FUEL CELL PARTNERSHIP FAST FACTS The California Fuel Cell Partnership • FCEVs are available now in California, Japan, and Europe, is a collaboration of industry, and coming soon to other . government, NGOs and transit • FCEVs have driving range and refill similar to a gasoline agencies that together to vehicle, and the power and performance of an . promote the commercialization of electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel. • FCEVs are zero-emission vehicles and eligible for state and federal incentives, including rebates, tax credits and HOV stickers. Today, CaFCP members operate FCEVs and hydrogen stations in • Hydrogen stations are open and under construction in California, California, and in other regions the Northeast U.S., Japan, Germany, South Korea, the UK, of the U.S. and countries around Scandinavia, and elsewhere. the world. • Hydrogen can be made from many sources, including renewables, providing every region with .

For more information, please visit the California Fuel Cell Partnership’s website at

HYDROGEN STATION MAP The California Fuel Cell Partnership’s interactive station map provides up-to-date information about hydrogen stations open, in construction and planned throughout the state. Visit


Managed by Frontier Energy, Inc.

3300 Industrial Blvd., Suite 1000 West Sacramento, CA 95691 Phone: (916) 371-2870 Fax: (916) 375-2008

The members of the California Fuel Cell Partnership believe fuel cell vehicles powered by hydrogen have the potential to change the future of transportation.

For a complete list of members, please visit us at

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