Published by the General Extemion Division, University of Minnesota EDUCATION A UFELONG PROCESS VoL. XI SEPTEMBER, 1936 No. I The Development of Personality

NE of the prime aims of the educational By Richard R. Price ture and in human society. There is no per­ . process is the development and enrich­ manent good to be gotten out of unbridled en­ Director of University E:rtension, University of O ment of human personality. ergy. The great things of earth are accom­ Mim1esota What is personality? To define it simply, it plished by a balance of forces,-forces of ex­ .. pulsion and eruption and forces of restraint . is the sum total of the human attributes or men­ craves. It may be consciously cultivated. The distant planets in their lonely orbits illus­ tal and spiritual factors which affect or influ­ \Vhat are the elements or human attributes to trate this. There is centrifugal force that ence other men. Why is personality important? be cultivated by the man who would build up tends to hurl them blazing out through the in­ Because all success in life, all achievement, all a desirable personality? finite reaches of boundless space and there is accomplishment is in its essence nothing more I. The first and most pre-eminent quality or centripetal force that tends to draw them in to nor less than influencing other men. No man characteristic of great and impressive person­ can succeed alone. No man can be a success ality is enthusiasm. This word has a very in­ the center. The resultant of these two forces on a desert island. No man can be a success teresting derivation. Its primary meaning is is a stable equilibrium that keeps them swing­ as a hermit or recluse. A man succeeds in pro­ "possessed or inspired by a god." When in an­ ing regularly and smoothly in their appointed portion as he has ability to persuade or influ­ cient days a man was seen to be so possessed orbits. So in human society, freedom is lib­ ence or bend other men to do his will. This by a great idea that he was, as it were, car­ erty under the restraint of law. Without this is done through the compelling or persuading or ried away by it; carried out of himself; sub­ restraint, liberty becomes license and freedom alluring influence of personality. Personality limated,-then men looked at him with awe and becomes anarchy. So in the strong and attrac­ often succeeds where violence fails. said "a god has entered into him." tive personality, the fires and ardors of enthu­ Some men have negative or weak or color­ siasm are tempered and kept within due bounds less personality. They are like wax which Jn its modern sense, enthusiasm is a species by calm judgment and good sense ; and this readily receives impressions and as readily loses equilibrium we call poise. of inspiration by which a man is seized, car­ them when the next impression is made. Other III. A third attribute which the world ac­ ried out of himself and devoted to some cause men have a strong or v.igorous or compelling knowledges with respect as a marked charac­ or project. Therefore, a man of personality personality. So we may have refined or must be capable of throwing himself with ardor teristic of great or noble personality is stamina. charming or rugged or austere or repellent and zeal into a cause without too much cold­ The world loves a sticker and despises a quit­ personality. In the same way a personality if blooded calculation. A man who cannot be ter. We admire even our enemies they may be simple or complex. A personality may roused to white heat and to entire forgetfulness demonstrate that they can "stand the gaff." So impress you as a simple melody picked out on of himself and his petty cares, can never develop that trait of personality attracts us most which the keys, or it may be like the rich and har­ strong personality and he can never be of great enables its possessor to stand "all the slings monious rolling chords of organ music. One influence on the world's affairs. Great souls and arrows of outrageous fortune" with serene man's personality may be like the clear white thus forget self and submerge personal interests equanimity and without bitterness. But stamina light that falls through common glass. Or in this zeal for a cause. They are the heroes, is more than mere fortitude, which bears mis­ again, it may be like the gorgeous blazonry of the adventurers, the crusaders of all ages. fortunes and calamities without whining and color cast by stained glass windows through dim Without such men, no reforms, no marked ad­ without repining. That is only a negative vir­ cathedral aisles. The very same light that vances of the world's life, have ever been ac­ tue. Positively and constructively it is ability falls white and clear through the windowpane complished. By such men other men are swept to take punishment and come back for more. may be so broken up by the angles of refrac­ along as leaves are swept by a great tempest. And this has been the characteristic of great­ tion in the spectroscope as to be thrown on the A man cold, correct, calculating, astute, incapa­ hearted fighters all through history. Such men wall in all the hues of the rainbow. So ble of great enthusiasms, is also incapable of can be killed but they cannot be beaten while the experiences of life passing through some true greatness or of mightily influencing others. there is a breath of life left. men seem to find no obstruction, no richness of II. The second pre-eminent quality connected interpretation. The same experiences passing with effective personality is apparently the an­ So in the great reforms of the world's his- through other choice natures are interpreted to tithesis of the first. The quality is poise. No tory and in the little reforms of local or pa­ the world in colors and harmonies. one is permanently attracted by an effervescent rochial history, men of this type have fought or explosive individual. We do not put confi­ on, though deserted by friends and derided by personality, therefore, is the moving force of dence in wild-eyed fanatics. With the enthu­ foes, until the victory was finally won. The the world, the thing that accomplishes, the siasm that burns like a steady flame must be men who have put forth the big new ideas and human dynamic. What you are is enormously coupled the level-headed sanity and cool judg­ forced an unwilling world to accept them, have more effective than what you say, because your ment that we call poise. Tremendous power, always been men of stamina or they would words take their meaning and power and col­ exuberance, vivacity, enthusiasm, under the iron never have prevailed. Such a man's head may or from your personality. Says the sage, control of the will and intellect are always im­ be .bloody from the buffets of Fate, but it will ''What you are speaks so loudly that I cannot pressive and effective. An angry man who always be unbowed. Stamina is the heart of hear what you say." controls his feelings may sometimes be tre­ oak that carries a man through the derision Personality may be built up like the muscular mendously impressive, but the man in a rage and scorn and contempt and ridicule of the system. It may be broadened, enriched, who flies to pieces is ridiculous and futile. world,-aye and through the stripes and Im­ strengthened. No man need despair because he Force under restraint and guidance is the law prisonments unto his desired goal. Earth has lacks the rich or effective personality which he of accomplishment. That law is valid in na- (Continued on page three) 2 The Interpreter ,

Calendar The Interpreter IThe Interpreter Suggests I September 14, Monday-Registration begins. Published monthly, except July and August, by the General ExtensiOn Division, University of Min­ September 24, Thursday-English Placement nesota, at Minneapolis. Test. (See notice on this page.) Below is a list of the books studied by the ~ Entered as second-class matter, October 2. 1926, I at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn., under the September 28, Monday-Classes begin. Book Review class offered during the second Act of August 24, 1912. October 1, Thursday-English Placement semester of last year by the Extension Division, Richard R. Price ------Director Test. (For those who did not take it under the direction of Miss Melba Hurd. Read­ Advisory Committee T. A. H. Teeter H. B. Gislason September 24.) ers may find in this list some suggestions for I. W. Jones A. H. Speer October 3, Saturday-Last day for registra­ their own excursions into current literature. Curtis E ..Avery ------Editor tion without extra fee. Incidentally, Miss Hurd will offer her class in December 19, Saturday-Christmas recess Book Reviews both semesters this year, giving ~ SEPTEMBER, 1936 begins. attention to other recent books. I January 4, (1937) Monday-Classes resumed. February 1-5-Final examinations. NOVELS AND SHORT STORIES Registration February 6-First semester ends. THE LAST PURITAN. By George San­ tayana Students may register for extension classes by I mail, by telephone, or by personal application, OF TIME AND THE RIVER By Thomas from September 14 to October 3. Late registra­ Official Advisers Wolfe tions are subject to a special fee. The impor­ Extension students who have inclinations FR01f DEATH TO MORNING (short ~ tance of registering before the first meeting of toward a degree should bear in mind the fact stories). By Thomas Wolfe classes cannot be too emphatically stressed. that every candidate for a degree must, during THE SECOND YEAR By Storm Jameson The first step in registration is to apply for the last two years of his study in the Senior IT CAN'T HAPPEN HERE. By Sinclair registration blanks, program of classes, and College, proceed under the direction of an official Lewis oth~r necessary material. This can be done by adviser from the college in which the degree THE THINKING REED. By Rebecca West ! mail, by telephone, or in person, at the main will be granted. There must also be admission SP ARKENBROKE. By Charles Morgan l office of the General Extension Division on the to the Senior College, formally, upon completion THE WORLD OVER (short stories). By campus. Registration in person may be made of the first two years' work. Edith Wharton at any of the offices of the Extension Division, Students who do not keep these two things WOMAN ALIVE. By Susan Ertz i as listed below. From September 21 to October in mind, and act accordingly, may sooner or COSMOPOLITANS (short stories). By 3, all offices will be open from 8 :30 a.m. to later find themselves in an embarrassing situa­ Somerset Maugham 8 :30 p.m., including Saturday. tion where their status is called in question, or BEST SHORT STORIES OF 1936. Edited their credits (some of them) are invalidated, or by O'Brien WHERE TO REGISTER some other academic calamity impends. Such DAYS OF WRATH. By Andre Malraux Minneapolis: 402 Administration Building, unpleasant situations can be avoided by the Campus. Telephone Main 8177 proper advice and counsel. DRAMA AND POETRY 690 Northwestern Bank Building, Mar­ The General Extension Division is not em­ VICTORIA REGINA. By Laurence Hous- quette Ave. and Sixth St. South. Tele­ powered to give this advice, even to extension man phone Main 0624 students. It must come from the particular col­ WINTERSET. By Maxwell Anderson St. Paul: 500 Robert St. Telephone lege concerned. We are ready, however, to IDIOTS DELIGHT. By Robert Sherwood Cedar 7312 counsel with all extension students regarding FLOWERS OF EVIL. By Baudelaire. Trans- Duluth: 404 Alworth Building. Telephone the procedure by which admission to senior lated by George Dillon and Edna St. Vincent Melrose 7900 colleges and proper advice may be secured. Millay Students must ask for this help ; we cannot SOLSTICE. By Robinson Jeffers English Placement Tests otherwise know who wishes it or needs it. The NO FURTHER RANGE. By Robert Frost invitation is extended to all who have, or expect PUBLIC SPEECH. By Archibald MacLeish All students who plan to register for Fresh­ to have, such needs to consult the Students' man English (Composition 4) must take the Work Committee of the General Extension BIOGRAPHY, TRAVEL, AND OTHER placement test prescribed by the University. Division. NON-FICTION This test is used to determine the English course WAY OF A TRANSGRESSOR By Negley which the student will be permitted to take. He English for Engineers Farson may be declared exempt from required work in SEVEN PILLARS OF WISDOM. By T. E. English ; he may be assigned to Composition 4; Engineering students in the Extension Divi­ Lawrence or he may be required to register for Sub­ sion may this year register for a course in MONOGRAM. By G. B. Stern English designed specifically to meet their needs. freshman English. JOHN REED, MAKING OF A REVOLU­ This course will be the equivalent of Composi­ Many students have taken the placement test TIONARY. By Granville Hicks tion 4-S-6, and will offer training in the funda­ during their last year of high school. These GREEN HILLS OF AFRICA. By Ernest mentals of grammar and sentence analysis; but students need not take the test again. All other Hemingway at the same time it will give the student particu­ students, however, must take the test at the OVER AFRICAN JUNGLES. By Martin lar training in the preparation of the reports prescribed time. Even those who expect to at­ Johnson and technical papers which every successful tend the class as auditors are urged to take the THE AMERICAN LANGUAGE. By H. L. engineer must write as part of his work. All test. It should also be noted that registration Mencken beginning students who are interested in engi­ for a course in Advanced Writing implies the TEN YEARS IN A QUANDARY AND neering, as well as all advanced engineering completion of Composition 4-5-6, or exemption. HOW THEY GREW. By Robert Benchley students who have not taken Freshman Compo­ The schedule for the English Placement Tests INSIDE EUROPE. By John Gunther sition, should register for this course. is as follows: WHO OWNS AMERICA. Edited by Agar The importance to engineers of training in 7:30 Thursday, September 24, Room 110, and Tate Folwell Hall, Campus writing has been urged frequently by the Society 7 :30 Thursday, October 1, Room 110, Fol­ for the Promotion of Engineering Education, and by the engineering faculty of the University. " 'He said', George continued, 'that, when you well Hall, Campus taught, you could make the curtain go up.' " 7:30 Thursday, September 24, St. Paul Ex­ Composition 4 for Engineers, will be taught by Charles Morgan, Sparkenbroke. tension Center 200 L. 0. Guthrie, Instructor in English. lor September, 1936 3

Sound Films The Development of Personality 16 mm. Sound Motion Pictures Here is the beginning of a sound-film library a man would be still short of having a rich or (Continued from page one) available to schools and other organizations. well-rounded personality if he lacked, in his no terrors for the man who is the captain of The sound film can make a large contribution nature, a strong strain of idealism. A man his own soul and such a man binds his friends to the educational process. It can bring good should always have something bigger than he is to him with hoops of steel. music to the school. It can bring interesting or can be to think about and .to strive for. IV. No man can be said to have marked or personalities to the attention of school children. Browning expresses it well: "A man's reach compelling personality if he lacks the power of It can give accurate and up-to-date information should exceed his grasp, or what's a heaven concentration. This is nothing more nor less in many fields. For assembly and auditorium for?" Who would want to live in a world than the ability to collect the faculties and make programs, the sound film is probably unexcelled. where one's ideals had all been attained? What­ the mind work at high tension or with high Our sound-film library will be built up as fast ever lifts a man out of himself, whatever makes voltage. The river of thought may flow tran­ as the demand warrants and facilities permit. him imagine and strive to reach something big­ quilly through the mind and reveal in its bosom All sound films have an S before the number. ger, nobler, richer, better than now exists,­ pleasant images and reflections but no intense, For further information concerning these films that is idealism. purposeful or incisive thinking will be done write to the Bureau of Visual Instruction, Every true poet has had ringing in his ears until the river current is compressed into a General Extension Division, University of nobler lines than he could write; every painter flume where it may impinge with full force Minnesota. has seen canvases of unearthly beauty beside upon a specific problem. Many men are scat­ Biological Science which his own masterpieces are mere daubs; ter-brains. Their thoughts run hither and yon; Plant Life the sculptor beholds forms divine which his go from one thing to another like butterflies human chisel can but imperfectly reproduce ; the S1-Plant Growth (1 reel) .. $1.00 hunting nectar. It is hard to hold the cut­ This film is a remarkable presentation of the composer hears celestial harmonies of ravish­ It ting edge of the mind against one subject of growth of the pea plant. shows by time­ ing sweetness that all his skill cannot put on lapse photography and micro-photography the thought and drive straight through. The dif­ entire story from the time the seed first sends paper; the statesman perceives with prophetic out itS root and stalk until the ripened seeds ference between the reflective or ruminative are scattered. The processes of pollination VISion an organization of human society that and fertilization are vividly portrayed, while type of mind and that of the dynamic thinker can never be realized this side of the New the accompanying narrative clarifies this mys­ is the difference between water in a placid terious process. Jerusalem. meadow brook and water driven at high pres­ S2-Roots of Plants ( 1 reel) 1.00 The pursuit of the unattainable has made men sure through a nozzle against a clay bank. High The various forms of plant roots are first pre­ what they are. So long as men shall strive sented. Then time-lapse and micro-photography pressure thinking, concentration of the mental are employed frequently m the remainder of for something better than they have known, the picture to bring out the interesting proc­ energies, is the unmistakable sign of great per­ so long as men shall see visions and dream esses of growth, structure and other charac­ sonality. teristics. The functions of the root-cap and dreams, so long shall the progress of the race the root-hairs are vividly presented. An ex­ Concentration means power, efficiency, en­ periment in osmosis is demonstrated and care­ be assured toward "that far off divine event fully explained, followed by an animation of ergy. If the sun shines on a piece of paper no to which the whole creation moves." water absorption by the roots. particular effect is produced. But let the dif­ After all, personality is individuality and S3-Flowers at Work (I reel) 1.00 fused rays of the sun be concentrated or fo­ The parts and the physiology of plant flowers individuality is the man. Whatever may be cused by a burning glass and at once the paper are artistically presented by animation. Time­ our theories of immortality we are assured that lapse photography interspersed with animation is consumed. So the scattering, will-o' -the­ then presents various types of flowers and it would be of no value unless the individu­ cti'ferent methods of pollination. Every impor­ wisp, diffused energy of the mind may, by a tant step is carefully covered in the narrative. ality is immortal. We prize individuality be­ powerful effort of the will, be focused or The relation of insects to cross-fertilization of cause it is that which distinguishes one man flowers is clearly illustrated. The picture concentrated on one object of thought and kept closes by showing how man has modified the from someone else. Therefore, the improve­ form of flowers by cultivation. there. This effort of the will inevitably pro­ ment, the up-building of personality is, in a S4--Seed Dispersal (1 reel) .. 1.00 duces results. Arnold Bennett in his very enter­ sense, making oneself more valuable for im­ The film presents many interesting ways by taining and also instructive little book entitled which seeds of plants are scattered in order mortality and more deserving thereof. This is to insure the propagation of the species. The How to Live on Twenty-four Hours a Day methods illustrated include dispersal by the probably what Josiah Royce means when he wind, transportation by animals, and forceful gives useful directions for cultivating this power says at the conclusion of his lecture on im­ propulsion from the seed-case . The dramatic value of these examples is increased by the of concentration and consecutive thinking. mortality. "then shall this mortal put on indi­ use of time-lapse photography. Attention is given to the germination of seeds under vari­ V. With all the attributes I have mentioned, viduality." ous conditions. SS-Fungus Plants (1 reel) . 1.00 l\tlajor emphasis is given to the various mush­ rooms whose growth and reproduction a1 e Tschaikowsky illustrated by time-lapse photography an.! ani· mation. Molds and other fungi are also pre­ By Lyle G. Westergren sented by these same techniques. The economic importance of these plants is definitely shown ( W rittcn in Com position 6) by both the photography and the narrative in their use as food, their destruction of dead organic matter and their cause of disease in plants. The picture has an unusual aesthetic fOR ME TSCHAIKOWSKY is more than section of Tschaikowsky's Sixth Symphony. appeal. the name of a late nineteenth-century com­ These tones are somber and minor, but as they . S6-The Dodder (I reel) 1.00 poser. It suggests little of the man who bore slowly mount up the scale, rising in gradual The entire life story of the dodder. one of the it, but rather the ideas his music presents to crescendo, they partly dispel the pall of dark­ best known of the group of parasitic flowering plants, is shown by means of time-lapse pho­ me. ness that seems to surround me. tography, accompanied by an explanatory nar­ rative. Among the more impressive features At the very sound of the name all confusion As the exquisite melody of the symphony fol­ is the presentation of the dodder twining about ceases, the tempo of things about me and some­ lows it presents to me, in shadowy pantomime, the host plant. Animation aids in revealing details in the structure and operation of the thing within me is retarded. I feel calm for Old Russia. I see a great open steppe, wind­ suckers. The destructive character of this vlant is demonstrated, as wen as the beauty a moment, and then light fades until I imagine swept and barren, lying open to the sky, un­ of the flowers. myself surrounded by murky gloom that seems protected from the rain or blazing sun in S7-Piant Traps (1 reel) 1.00 to settle down upon me slowly and oppressively summer or the deep winter snow. Through Carnivorous plants have the unusual charac­ like a burden whose weight I bear upon my the twilight moves the figure of a peasant teristics of entrapping and digesting insects and other small ammals. The film shows how shoulders. clothed in tatters. He plods slowly along, the pitcher plant lures insects to its trap, where they drown. The sun-dew, another car­ Then through it breaks, softly at first, the weary and bent with toil, moving toward that nivorous plant, is shown throughout its life deep, rich chords which open the (Conti1med on page four) (Continued on page Jour) 4 The Interpreter lor September, 1936

phorus and rusting iron under experimental by the flickering light of human comradeship, Sound Films conditions. Mercury rust is then decomposed the dark ocean on whose rolling waves we toss (Continued from page three) to discover the component of air responsible for oxidation. Other examples of oxidation for a brief hour ; from the great night without, cycle. The enfolding of insects by its leaf and oxidizing agents follow. The process of tentacles is presented very impressively by reduction is strikingly presented in the opera­ a chill blast breaks in upon our refuge ; all the : means of time·lapse photography. The picture tion of the blast furnace, magnesium burning in dry ice, and !hermite welding. Everyday loneliness of humanity amid hostile forces is presents many unusual 1 interesting scenes. examples of oxidation and reduction conclude concentrated upon the individual soul, which Animal Life the picture. 1 must struggle alone, with what of courage it S301-Molecular Theory of Matter SSO-The Frog ( 1 reel) 1.00 can command, against the whole weight of a The frog. as the most representative amphib· (I reel) 1.00 ian, is here pictured. The entire life cycle of Evidence of molecular activity in gases, universe that cares nothing for its hopes and the frog is presented, aided by many stop· liquids. and solids is presented in support of fears." motion scenes and microscopic views. The the molecular theory of matter. Animated I development of the embryo is thus brought drawings explain such phenomena as the dif­ There comes to me, too, a march movement to the screen in a continuous scene of only a fusion of gases, the evaporation of liquids, 1 few seconds. The several changes taking and the transformation of liquids into solids, from Tschaikowsky's Six-th Symphony bringing place in the tadpole stage are carefully por· in terms of the theory. Among the features a different scene. The peasant drops his tools trayed by picture and narrative. Slow-motion of the film are the machine gun illustration of 1 photography demonstrates the graceful move· the force exerted by molecules in motion, and and stands cap in hand as a procession passes. ments of tile frog in jumping. the microscopic view of the Brownian move­ ment, direct evidences of molecular motion. There is a flash of color against the drab back­ SSI-How Nature Protects Animals ground. A company of the higher nobles of (1 reel) 1.00 S302-Eiectrostatics ( 1 reel) .. 1.00 the court pass with a military escort. There This film presents and describes various ways This film deals with static electricity as by which animals are provided with devices fundamental to an understanding of the mod· is a clatter of horses' hoofs, creaking of leather, to conceal themselves, either for the purpose ern theories of electricity. It explains how of protection, or as a means of securing food. positive and negative electrification are pro· a flash of shiny buttons on trim uniforms. Examples are given of natural protection duced and by animated drawings shows the j The cavalcade sweeps past and once more the through fleetness of foot, mimicry, protective part played by insulators and conductors. coloration, armor and secluded homes. In­ Natural photography supplemented by anima· gray mists close in. cluded in the picture are the rabbit. raccoon, tion gives a remarkable exposition of the giraffe, tiger, hon, zebra, goat, pheasant, looper movement of charges in the electroscope, the I am reminded, too, of the children of Rus­ caterpillar and the bee·hawk moth. Compton electrometer, the static machine, and Nature's display of static electricity, lightning. sia. Perhaps, as they lie asleep in their rude S52-Tiny Water Animals (1 reel) ... 1.00 surroundings they are being carried away in The life processes and activities of amoebae S303-Energy and Its Transformations dreams to the jam mountain, meeting the and paramecia are shown. The activities of (I reel) 1.00 the amoebae are given major emphasis. Re­ Sugarplum Fairy, seeing the waltzing flowers, production of amoebae is presented on the Potential, kinetic and radiant energy, as mani­ screen. The film also reveals other interesting fested in mechanical, chemical, and thermal and hearing the Dance of the Reed Flutes. creatures, such as the wheel animalcule, form, are vividly illustrated and explained. chiloden, swan animalcule and stentor. Micro­ The principle of conservation of energy, and Most of my impressions of Tschaikowsky's photography makes this an unusually interest· the concepts "power" and "work'' are demon­ music are bound up with Russia, but there is ing picture. Only through motion pictures can strated in experiments. The film closes with such material be presented and clearly demon· a review of present and future sources of also a vision of a little Italian street singer. 1 strated to large groups. energy. To the accompaniment of an old hand organ SS3-Butterflies (1 reel) 1.00 S304-Sound Waves and Their Sources she sings a simple but beautiful ditty. As The film on butterflies illustrates the complete (I reel) 1.00 life history of the cabbage butterfly and the mechanically as the old organ, she repeats swallow-tail butterfly with their different char­ This film demonstrates and explains several verse after verse in a thin, childish voice, then acteristics and habits, including their rOle in types of sound sources. The transmission of nature, that of aiding in the cross-fertilization sound waves through the air is clearly visual­ executes with painful awkwardness a little ized. The characteristics of sound waves, such of flowers. Time·lapse photography is em­ as frequency, amplitude, wave length, funda­ dance for the spectators who have gathered, ployed to show in a few seconds processes mentals, harmonics, are vividly explained vis­ which require an hour or more. The destruc­ ually with acoustic accompaniment. The high· concluding by holding out her cup for alms. tiveness of the cabbage butterfly, as well as speed camera, animation, sound effects, and its unusual control by a natural enemy, is an oscilloscope are used to clarify these phe· Tschaikowsky's music has always impressed dramatically depicted. nomena of sound. me more than that of any other composer. It S54--Aphids (I reel) 1.00 S305-Fundamentals of Acoustics has a somber quality, never lacking in melody, This film deals with a very interesting crea­ ture. It shows that most aphids have no (I reel) 1.00 that seems to portray the beauty of human as­ fathers or even grandfathers. Some are born The phenomenon of hearing and the moditica· piration. That, I believe, is why the composer's alive, while others hatch from eggs; only a tion of sound between the source and the few have wings. Ants keep them as cows, hearer are emphasized in this film. The spe· name conjures up these realistic scenes when I while the aphid itself secures its food in an cific elements explained or demonstrated are unusual way. It is beset by a host of enemies, velocity of sound, refraction, range of hear­ hear it. among which is man. These scenes are sup­ ing, lowering intensity, attenuation in air, plemented by an animated drawing of the eliminating high and low frequencies, rever­ aphid's life cycle. It is an excellent picture beration and focusing of sound. Extensive "An illogical opinion only requires rope of a little-known creature. use is made of animation and sound effects. enough to hang itself." The film concludes by indicating advances in SSS-The House-Fly (1 reel) 1.00 communication which have resulted from com­ Augustine Birrell, Obiter Dicta. The film tells the complete story of this com· bining our knowledge of sound and of elec­ mon but extremely dangerous pest. The four tricity. stages of the tty's lite cycle are shown-egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Its activities as a carrier of disease germs are presented vividly. The picture illustrates effective means for T schaikowsky Entered as second-class matter October t 19t6 eliminating the fly menace. Special emphasis at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn., 'under is laid on community action. This film is (Co11tinued from page three) the Act of August !4, 191!. highly recommended for use in health educa· tlon as well as m science. dim light in the distance which flickers in the window of the mean hovel which is his home. Literature Then there are groups of peasants in various S 100-The Barefoot Boy (1 reel) .. 1.00 and vague backgrounds, always toiling at SlOI-The Village Blacksmith (I reel) 1.00 menial labor. Their lives seem heavy with a These films, dramatized adaptations of fa. kind of crushing melancholy. But here is a mous poems, should prove of great value to school children. They will help them visual· group singing at their work. It is an old folk­ ize the pictures in the poems, and also give song. The melody has a haunting tenderness, them some understanding of how poetry should be read. The films are impressively done, and mellowed by minors. In it there is a note of the poetry is excellently read. There is music accompaniment. dejection mingled with a strain of hope. It Music is the song of an oppressed people united by their bonds of sorrow, and yet a song of souls S200-Stephen Foster ( 1 reel) 1.00 A biographic sketch of the South's best known reaching out into vast, mysterious depths of composer. We hear "Uncle Ned," "Come something beyond, toward a light which for Where My Love Lies Dreaming," "My Old Kentucky Home," and "Old Black Joe." the moment makes less intolerable the dreariness of existence. It is strange that there can be Physical Science such beauty in melancholy. S300-0xidation and Reduction ( 1 reel) 1.00 I am reminded of Bertrand Russell's words, The simultaneous process of oxidation and reduction is presented first by burning phos- "We see, surrounding the narrow raft illumined r The Interpreter Published by the General ExteJUion Division, Univenity of Minnesota EDUCATION A UFELONG PROCESS

VoL. XI OCTOBER, 1936 No.2 How to Get Along Without

HE problem of maintaining compatability By Wendell White MAINTAINING harmonious relations does T is involved in almost every human en­ Author of The Psychology of Dealing With not always necessitate presenting one's deavor. This fact is well recognized by people People, p11blished recently by The views indirectly ; there are inoffensive ways in in general, and is brought forcibly to the at­ Macmillan Company· which ideas can be expr~ssed directly. By re­ tention of those engaged in the rehabilitation of ferring to oneself in an unassuming manner, one maladjusted persons. How can we prevent the must he be understood by those who would can speak directly without causing antagonism, formation of chasms between man and man and lead him even to his own best interests." because when proceeding thus one does not put close up those that exist? How can we plane The indirect presentation of an idea appeals one's own capability above that of the other down the roughness between employer and em­ to the want for a feeling of personal worth not person. For the same reason expressing one's ployee? How can we reduce those sandpaper only by sparing the individual's feelings of self­ ideas conservatively is an effective procedure. irritations which cause marriages to founder, hood, but also by giving him the satisfaction of Likewise, there is little danger of causing dis­ businesses to go astray, and international re­ thinking that he originated the idea. This is be­ sention when one expresses one's views with lations to grow tense? The answers cannot cause in the indirect presentation of one's view respect for the other person's opinions and all be given here. Nevertheless, a partial treat­ the individual may, as a matter of course, take rights, as is done in the statements, "This is ment of this subject, however meager, may be credit for it, and so pride himself in adhering just a suggestion," and "I come to you at the worth while. to or acting upon the idea. The thought of opening session of this congress not to make One of the means of furthering harmony being one who does original thinking is to requests for special and detailed items of legis­ consists in proceeding with respect for another's many persons the greatest and most enduring lation; I come rather to counsel ..." Sim­ desire to have his personal worth recognized. satisfaction. For this reason the indirect pres­ ilarly, by showing respect for another's interest Platitudinous as this principle is, its discussion entation of one's view is an effective means of in one's view through such questions as, "May is called for as long as discord due to its vio­ getting the desired response without causing I say a word?" one can ordinarily express an lation exists. One can appeal to another's friction. The following statement by Harold idea directly without danger of being reproached want for a feeling of personal worth in various E. Burtt in regard to handling men in in­ for doing so. ways. An effective means of doing so con­ dustry is equally pertinent to the problems of There is, however, also the problem of ob­ sists in presenting one's idea indirectly, which dealing with people in other situations. jecting to the ideas of others without causing means conveying it without appearing to do "The whole technique of inaugurating new friction. This can seldom be done successfully so and thus getting the other person to regard ideas by making the worker think that he dis­ in a forthright manner. the idea as having originated with himself. covered the idea is quite effective, not only in Such a procedure may be effective because it foremanship but also in other aspects of in­ TO dissuade another from an objectionable spares the individual's feelings; that is, it dustrial relations. If the person you wish to idea just as when trying to gain acceptance avoids giving him the impression that one is at­ convince makes any suggestion remotely re­ of one's own view, one must generally proceed in tempting to dictate his thoughts or to command sembling what you want, you can say, 'there is a manner that safeguards that person's pride. his actions. Every human being likes to think an idea' and later bring forth the original propo­ Such techniques consist in exonerating the indi­ that he is considered capable of making his own sition you had in mind, giving him credit for it." vidual from blame for the view he expressed, as decisions and free to do as he chooses, that when one says, "I believe we are looking at he is a self-determining being. THIS technique of presenting one's ideas in- this from different angles ;" in making a par­ directly, while often very effective in bring­ tial concession before objecting to the view THE direct method of conveying an idea, on ing about the desired response, may, at other expressed, as in the case of the statement, the other hand, often gives a person the im­ times, fail to do so because it gives the indi­ "Under normal conditions your idea is a good pression that he is considered a mere puppet. vidual a self-satisfied feeling. If one should say, one, but this is an unusual situation;" in re­ We all resent a paternalistic or dictatorial at­ for example, "I am pleased with the way you vealing a deliberate attitude regarding an idea titude. A failure to realize this fact is often apply yourself," the person addressed might get expressed before rejecting it, saying, for ex­ manifested through the ill-advised use of telling the notion that he has shown due industry, and, ample, "That's worth thinking about;" or in and compelling technique. Lincoln advised consequently, might fail to exert himself fur­ agreeing and then raising objections as after­ against the use of such methods when he said, ther. When dealing with someone who is thoughts, as when one says, "That sounds good " ... assume to dictate to his [man's] judg­ prone to react thus, it is well to use a modified to me. I think it's a splendid idea. But let's ment, or to command his action, or to mark form of this method by making a statement see, how would it work out in ... ?" Numerous him out as one to be shunned and despised, and such as, "I wish you would apply yourself as other methods for removing objectionable ideas he will retreat within himself, close all the you did when ..." In doing so one imputes inoffensively might be cited. These are, how­ avenues to his head and heart ; and though to the individual the idea that the thing to do ever, sufficiently suggestive of such procedures. your cause be naked truth itself, transformed is to exert himself, but one does not give Knowledge of methods such as these does not to the heaviest lance, harder than steel, and approval to his standard of performance. necessarily make for harmony. Countless per­ sharper than steel can be made, and though sons who find these principles but cliches will­ you throw it with more than herculean strength fully violate them and become disagreeable as­ and precision, you will be no more able to pierce A program of Extension Classes sociates. They are persons who strive to gain him than to penetrate the hard shell of a tor­ available each day will be found ascendency through self-aggrandizement and toise with a rye straw. Such is man, and so on page four. (Continued on page two) 2 The Interpreter

The Interpreter New Courses Offered During First Semester Published monthly, except July and August, _by the General Extension Division, University of Mm­ nesota, at Minneapolis. Entered as second-class matter, October 2. 1926, Classes in History How to Study at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn., under the Act of August 24, 1912. English History One of the most significant of the new Richard R. Price ------Director courses offered during the first semester is a Advisory Committee The class in English History has not been class in the art of studying. In this class Ken­ T. A. H. Teeter H. B. Gislason offered by the Extension Division for many neth H. Baker, Instructor in Psychology, will I. W. Jones A. H. Speer years. This year Mr. Edward M. Kane will deal with the problems of effective study as ap­ Curtis E. Avery - --- Editor offer a course during the first semester, in the plied to subject matter taught in colleges. Part History of England from 1485 to 1815. Dur­ OCTOBER, 1936 of the class time will be spent in the actual ing the second semester the course will cover practice of this art under the supervision of the the years from 1815 to the present time. The instructor. class meets on the Campus only. Notice! Europe Since 1871 Introductory Laboratory First semester classes in the Extension In this class Mr. Kane will discuss, and the Psychology Division begin Monday, September 28. students will investigate, the background and Saturday, October 3, is the last day for This is a new course which may be taken causes of the World \il/ar, the Versailles Con­ either with, or after, General Psychology. It registration without extra fee. Students ference and peace treaties, the new govern­ may register by mail, by telephone, or in supplies the laboratory experience which is ments in Europe, and the conflicts between necessary to satisfy the natural science require­ person. From September 21 to October Democracy, Communism and Fascism. Both ment in the Junior College. It involves simple 3, all offices of the General Extension Di­ semesters are required for credit. The class experiments, illustrating the subject matter of vision will be open from 8 :30 a.m. to 8 :30 meets on the Campus only. contemporary psychology. The class will meet p.m., including Saturday. An Introduction to Economic History on the campus under the direction of Evelyn Raskin, Assistant in Psychology. How to Get Along There is coming a steady recognition that the organization of society in all its phases is Music Without Friction posited upon the past, that an attempt to un­ derstand the factors which are working out the Physics of Tone Color and Tone (Continued from page one) future pattern of our lives must be predicated Production the subordination and humiliation of others. upon a knowledge of what has created the This is a new course, offered by Abe Pepin­ Such persons are like the foreman who said, "It present. sky, of the University Music faculty, which in­ ain't that I hate ye that I bate ye; it's to show This is no less true of the economic struc­ volves experimental analysis of vocal tones and my authority." The desire to raise one's rela­ ture than of the political. The great banks, the instruments of orchestra and wind band. tive status by overriding the self-respect of insurance companies, corporations, did not just It deals with such problems as those involved others is manifested occasionally by people in "happen" ; they grew out of .certain conditions in architectural differences of auditoriums and every stage of development. This desire finds and for certain reasons. The relation between mechanics of vocal and instrumental tone pro­ expression in situations ranging from child­ capital and labor and the problems which re­ duction. hood strife to international discord. It is often sult from this relationship have been of slow manifested by a desire for a position of au­ development. Discontent and distress among Sociology thority. The overbearing person craves an the farmers is not new. executive post, and when vested with one makes In this course, offered by Helen P. Mudgett, A particularly significant course in Recent the most tactless ruler. He does not attempt to the major features of our present economic or­ Social Trends will be offered during the first lead through the use of methods that safe­ ganization are traced to their origin. semester by Raymond F. Sletto, Assistant Pro­ guard due self-esteem on the part of others. fessor of Sociology. This course will involve On the contrary, he uses the "I'm telling you" a study of social changes since 1890 with special technique and cracks the whip over people's Political Science emphasis upon their relationships to problems of backs in order that his power over them may Extension classes in Political Science are social welfare. be obvious. Such a person is likely to hurl this year re-organized in order to make avail­ accusations of insubordination and demand re­ able more classes that carry credit in the Senior Fine Arts spect and obedience. Parents sometimes lord College, thus giving extension students an op­ David M. Robb, Assistant Professor of Fine it over their children for the satisfaction they portunity to complete the requirements for a Arts, offers a course in American Architec­ get from having their wishes complied with. minor in Political Science in the College of ture during the first semester. The class will Such parents are able to forget, for the time Education, or to continue their work toward study the historical development of architecture being, the subordinate position that they occupy either a major or minor in this subject in the in the United States from earliest colonial times in other human relationships. Bullies in College of Science, Literature, and the Arts. to the present, paying particular attention to the school, on the playground, and in shops ; in­ The classes offered deal largely with various sources of early styles, and to the distinctions timidators in business and in the professions, phases of American government and politics, between different periods and regions, as well as terrorizing organizations, and, to some extent, although in classes in such subjects as ·world to the problem of the skyscraper, the private conquering nations, are motivated by a desire to Politics, European Dictatorships, and Imperial­ house and current sociological developments. exercise arbitrary sway over others. Many ism, which will be offered at a later date, there unpleasant working and living conditions are is an opportunity to study political problems due to individuals or groups who, having feel­ of the world at large. Portraiture ings of insufficiency, domineer over other per­ During the first semester, the following This is a new course in Art Education which sons as a means of elevating their sinking self­ courses in Political Science will be offered: offers practice in portraiture, using all media regard. Such persons need help in finding ac­ American Government and Politics, Part I. for both beginning and advanced students. The ceptable means of satisfying their own de­ (A basic course.) aim of the course is to show the relationship sires for a feeling of personal worth before they Elements of Political Science. (Pri~tcip/es between plastic form and character. The class can be expected to use methods that gratify a11d practices.) will be under the direction of Elmer E. Harmes, this want in others. State and Local Government in Minnesota. Instructor in Art Education. r for October, 1936 3

Special News of First Semester Extension Classes

Classes in English Italian Canterbury Tales of Chaucer English Placement Tests A special course designed to give students a reading knowledge of Italian with no drill in \Villiam P. Dunn, Assistant Professor of All students who plan to register for composition or conversation will be offered both English, will give a class in The Canterbury Freshman English (Composition 4) must semesters by Elizabeth Nissen, Assistant Pro­ Tales of Chaucer. This course is in the se­ take the placement test prescribed by the fessor of Romance Languages. quence for the English major in the College of University. Science, Literature and the Arts. It provides The schedule for the English Placement an introductory study of Chaucer's fascinating Tests is as follows: Ancient Mythology Tales, with instruction in the reading of 14th 7 :30 Thursday, September 24, Room Century English. Edward F. D' Arms, Assistant Professor of 110, Folwell Hall, Campus Classics, a new member of the faculty, offers Shakespeare I and II in St. Paul 7 :30 Thursday, September 24, St. Paul this course in the origin, development and im­ Charles W. Nichols, Assistant Professor of Extension Center 200 portance of myth and legend in Ancient Greece 7:30 Thursday, October 1, Room 110, English, will offer in St. Paul for the first time and Rome, using the illustrated lecture method. I Folwell Hall, Campus I~ in several years the course in Shakespeare. The There are no prerequisites, and no knowledge class deals with Shakespeare's development as of Greek or Latin is required. a dramatist and involves a careful study of Music for Every Day a selected list of plays. This course is designed to give the student Rudyard Kipling Problems in Traffic and an opportunity to get the most out of music he Transportation Dr. John Walker Powell will offer an un­ hears every day. The class will involve a lec­ Students will be given instruction, is this usual non-credit course in the writings of Rud­ ture period of one hour, followed by a two-hour class, in the advanced problems of tariffs and yard Kipling, the man considered by many the listening period employing recordings of the rate structure. They will be given practice in greatest genius in English letters in our time. music discussed in the lecture. The class will the procedure before rate and classification com­ This course will be offered both in Minneapolis meet on the Campus both semesters under the mittees, state commissions and the Interstate and in St. Paul. The Minneapolis class will direction of Mr. Gerald A. Hill. meet in the Northwestern Bank Building and Commerce Commission. Students will prepare the St. Paul class in the St. Paul Extension practice informal and formal cases before reg­ Center. Air Conditioning ulatory commissions. The class will be under The New Testament as Literature Two courses in the extremely important mod­ the direction of ]. George Mann, Instructor in ern science of Air Conditioning will be offered Transportation, and will meet on the Campus Dr. Powell will continue his former class in only. the Old Testament as Literature with a study by the Mechanical Engineering Department of the New Testament as Literature, both in both semesters on the Campus. The first St. Paul and on the Campus. course is an elementary course and is designed Courses in Advertising for those engaged in selling or installing the Book Reviews It should be noted that the two courses in modern appliances for heating, cooling, and hu­ Advertising offered by the General Extension The class in current fiction, biography, plays midifying the air of houses and other buildings. Division constitute essentially a full year's and poetry, which was inaugurated the second The second course is an advanced class in the sequence of work, although they are listed as semester of last year under the direction of application of the principles of air conditioning separate courses. During the first semester, Miss Melba Hurd, will continue this year both to practical problems involving design of Elementary Advertising will be offered both semesters. A new list of authors and books will systems to meet the requirements of occupied in St. Paul and on the Campus. be dealt with. spaces and industrial plants. Readings in Contemporary Literature Courses in Economics This course differs from the book review Radio Script Writing course in that it employs lecture presentations Comparative Economic Systems of ten significant modern writers: Santayana, Luther Weaver offers practical instruction This course, offered in St. Paul only, is an Wolfe, Mann, Lawrence, Huxley, Yeates, Frost for those who wish to prepare matter for ac­ impartial analysis of the basic principles of and others. This class meets both on the cam­ tual radio use. This is not a class in broad­ various opposing systems of economics. The pus and in St. Paul. This course will be taught casting, but is designed simply to give an un­ class will be under the direction of Walter R. by Miss Helen Acker. derstanding of radio script technique in ac­ Myers, Assistant Professor of Economics. cordance with current developments. During Freshman Literature the first semester the class will meet both in International Economic Problems The course in Freshman Literature has been St. Paul and on the Campus. Arthur W. Marget, Professor of Economics revised this year. Instead of being a two­ and Finance, will offer on the Campus during credit course taught in three semesters, it is Puppetry the first semester a course in the practical ap­ now a three-credit course for two semesters, plication of the principles of economics in the thus making possible a more intensive study of This non-credit course, which proved ex­ study of selected current problems such as: English prose, poetry and drama. The class tremely popular last year, is offered again this stabilization of prices, Federal Reserve redis­ will meet in St. Paul as well as on the Campus, year both in St. Paul and on the Campus. count policy, and industrial fluctuations. under the direction of Curtis E. Avery, Instruc­ tor in English. Notice Electrical Engineering Classes in Composition A new ruling concerning refunds of This course, which meets two nights a week This year, for the first time, St. Paul stu­ tuition fees goes into effect for the first on the campus, is exactly parallel to the regular dents will have an opportunity to study ad­ semester of the current year. Applica­ sophomore course in Electrical Engineering vanced writing (English 27-28) at the St. Paul tions for refunds because of cancellation offered by the School of Engineering in the Extension Center. The course will be offered must be made no later than December 5 university proper. It is an introduction to the both on the Campus and in St. Paul. The for the first semester or April 17 for the development, principles, materials, safety, and Campus class will be taught by Mr. Avery and second semester. They will not be con­ general application of electrical engineering. the St. Paul class by Miss Ruth Christie. sidered if made later. The course carries 4!-1 credits each semester. Program of Extension Classes Available Each Day

MONDAY Political Science, Elements of International Economic Problems, ( Ec. 6:30p.m. CLASSES IN MINNEAPOLIS Psychology of Advertising 56 166) Accounting, Practice and Procedure A French 3, Intermediate Hydraulics I (AlB) (N.W. Bank) French for Graduate Students 6:30p.m. 7:00 p.m. 4:15p.m. Nineteenth Century French Readings Swimming (Women) Readings in Contemporary Literature Spanish Composition 20a Portraiture 4:30p.m. Swedish 10, Advanced 7:00p.m. 7:30p.m. 1 Neuro-Anatomy, Elementary Still Life and Pose Science and Civilization I Bacteriology 41, General Recent Social Trends (Soc. 96) Cartooning Chemistry, General Inorganic (Non­ 6:00p.m. Textiles (N.W. Bank) Vocabulary Building Legal Aspects of Social Work (Soc. metals) 127) Higher Algebra Chemistry, Quantitative Analysis 6:20p.m. Speech I, Fundamentals of (N.W. 7:30p.m. (Gravimetric) General Botany I Bank) Immunity (Bact. 116) Chemistry, Advanced Quantitative Later Childhood and Adolescence Practical Speech Making Orchestra, Section 1 Engineering Drawing I (N.W. Bank Bldg.) Supervision and Improvement of In· Electricity (Physics 43) Structural Drafting 22 Short Story Writing 69 struction Swimming (\Vomen) Advanced Mechanical Drawing 29 German, Beginning 1 lnterio r Decorating 3 Aircraft Engines I Air Conditioning, Advanced German, Beginning 3 Special Fields in Public Health Nursing Freehand Drawing, Advanced Diesel Engines German for Graduate Students Cost Accounting B.A. 131 Ellectrica1 Engineering, Elements of 8:05 p.m. Modern World History I Accounting Practice and Procedure A Air Conditioning, Elementary American Architecture Physics of Tone Color and Tone Pro­ Production Control Internal Combustion Engines Tuberculosis and Other Diseases of the duction Business Law A Foundry Practice Chest American Government and Politics, Business Law C 8:05 p.m. Parliamentary Law Part I General Insurance Home Gardening II Psychology, General I Psychology, General I 7:00p.m. Advanced Writing 27 ?t-Iodern Norwegian Literature 51 Spanish, Beginning I Book Reviews W riling for Eve1-y Day Salesmanship Spanish, Intermediate, 1 Trigonometry Canterbury Ta.les 75 Direct Mail Advertising Sociology I, Introduction to Differential Calculus Introduction to Reporting Economics 6, Princip:es of Sociology 14, Rural The Family (Soc. 119) Elementary Electricity Speech I, Fundamentals of 7:30p.m. Human Anatomy 5 Principles of Group Work Acting Speech I, Fundamentals of Stamp Collecting Behavior Problems CLASSES IN ST. PAUL Bacteriology, General Ge11eral Accounting, Advanced. ll.A. Zoology 1, General IJ9 Preventive Medicine, Elements of Orchestra, Section 2 10:00 a.m. Drawing, Freehand (Beginning) Reinforced Concrete and Concrete Accounting 20, Elements of Design Swimming-Women (Univ. Farm Gym) Accounting. 25L, Principles and Lab- Chemistry, General Inorganic Chemistry, Quantitative Analysis 6:20p.m. oratory A Advanced Writing 27 Auditing A (Gravimetric) CLASSES IN ST. PAUL Chemistry, Advanced Quantitative German 1, Beginning Radio Script Writing I Science and Civilization (Orienta· Money and Banking, Elements of Analysis 4:15 p.m. Plane Surveying Rudyard Kipling I tion I) Business English Supervision and Improvement of In­ Fire and Marine Insurance Use of Engineer's Slide Rule Readings in Contemporary Literature Cost Estimating 81 struction Textiles 4:30p.m. Accounting, Principles A and Labora- Geometry, Solid Petroleum and Petroleum Products Cost Accounting B.A.J31 (1st Nat!. tory 6:30p.m. 8:05p.m. Bank) Investments (Finance C) Swimming (Women) Garden Design and Materials 6:00 p.m. 7:00p.m. Golf, Elementary (Women) Geology A, Laboratory Vocabulary Building Europe Since 1871 Swimming-Women (Univ. Farm Gym.) Recreational Activities 6:20p.m. 8:05p.m. Elementary Tap Dancing Judging Modern Books and Plays Literature 22, Introduction to Harmony, Music 5 Composition, Subfreshman Aecounting, Elements and Principles German 3, Beginning Practical Speech Making (A.I.B.) (N.W. Bank) 14 weeks Church Music Psychology Applied to Daily Life 7:00p.m. Philosophy, Problems of (Pub. Lib. Aud.) Social Protection of the Child Auditing A FRIDAY Ancient Mythology (Pub. Lib.) Fundamental Experiences in Design Literature 22, Introduction to Advertising,· Elementary (Principles) Money and Banking, Elements of CLASSES IN MINNEAPOLIS Vocabulary Building I Introduction to Teaching-Psychological Interior Decorating 3 Foundations Business English 6:20 p.m. Technical Mechanics Ward Administration 60 7:00p.m. Traffic (Problems in) 7:30p.m. Clinical Dynamics in School Children Ancient Mythology 45 (Pt;b. Lib. 6) Vocabulary Building II 6:30p.m. Human Anatomy 5 (N.W. Bank) Accounting, Elements and Principles Immunity (Bact. 116) Income Tax Accounting I, B.A.JJ~A 7:30p.m. (AlB) (N.W. Bank) Mechanics, Elements of (Physics 3) Business Law B Engineering Drawing I (Mechanic Arts Swimming (Women) High School) 7:00p.m. Elementary Aeronautics and Airplane Cl.ASSES IN ST. PAUL Meohanical Drawing, Advanced (Me- Consultation Period (Engineers) Construction 1 chanic Arts High School) 8:05p.m. Commercial Drawing 1 6:20p.m. Psychology Applied to Daily Life Freshman Composition 4 8:05 p.m. Electrical Engineering, Elements of Rural Organization (Soc. 110) Metallography Shakespeare I Modern World History I Interior Decorating 3 CLASSES IN ST. PAUL 8:05 p.m. Psychology I, General (Pub. Lib. Statistics, Elements of Seminar in Writing 91 Au d.) 6:20p.m. Psychology 144, Abnormal French 1, Beginning THURSDAY Puppetry French Conversation & Composition 20a Spanish I, Beginning CLASSES IN MINNEAPOLIS Accounting, Principles A and Labora- Research Methods Applied to Nursing Comparative Economic Systems (Ec.84) tory Swimming (Men) Radio Script Writing Labor Problems and Trade Unionism 8:05 p.m. 4:20p.m. Freshman Composition General Psychology 6:30p.m. (Ec. 161) Accounting, Elements and Principles of Algebra, Elementary Freshman Literature 1 4:30p.m. Parliamentary Law New Testament as Literature (AlB) CLASSES IN ST. PAUL Sociology I, Introduction to 5:00p.m. 7:00p.m. Economics 6, Principles of Educational Measurements Trigonometry 4:15p.m. Textiles in Elementary Schools New Testament as Literature WEDNESDAY (N.W. Bank) 4:30p.m. 6:20p.m. Survey of Accounting (AlB) (1st Nat!. CLASSES IN MINNEAPOLIS Freshman Composition 4 Bank) Entered as second-class matter October t, 19!6, 2 :00-3 :30 p.m. Freshman Composition 6 at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn., under 6:20p.m. Composition 4, for Engi- the Act of A uuust !4, 191!. English for Every Day Interior Decorating I (Pub.Lib.) 10 neers American History 7 weeks German Conversation and Human Behavior 64 (Wilder Disp.) 6:20p.m. Composition S0-51 Speech I, Fundamentals of Descriptive Astronomy English History 4-5 Cost Accounting B.A.131 Composition, Subfreshrnan Economic History 80-81 Accounting Practice and Procedure A Composition 5, Freshman (Introduction to) Business Law C F:nglish for Every Day Practical Preventive ~fedi­ 8:05 p.m. Freshman Literature 1 cine (for Physicians) Later Childhood and Adolescence American Literature 73 Music, Introduction to Writing for Every Day Art for Every Day Principles of Ethics (Phi- Speech 2, Fundamentals of Geography 43, Political losophhy 3) Speech 3, Fundamentals of History 9, Recent American Norwegian 1, Beginning Income Tax Accounting B.A.134A Bach, Beethoven, Wagner, and Sociology I, Introduction to Accounting Practice and Procedure A Brahms Social Progress (Soc. 120) Constructive Accounting Music foT Every Day Principles of Case Work 84 Business Law A State and Local Government in Min- Elements of Play Produc- nesota tion TUESDAY Psychology 4 (Laboratory) Puppetry French 1, Beginning Accounting, Principles A CLASSES IN MINNEAPOLIS Italian Sa, Reading Knowledge and Laboratory (N.W. Swedish 7, Beginning Bank) 4:30p.m. Social Pathology 49 Advertising, Elementary Rudyard Kipling I (N.W. Bank) Speech 2, Fundamentals of B.A. 88 6:20p.m. Speech 3, Fundamentals of Retail Credits and Collec­ Freshman Composition 4 Zoology I, General tions 66 Human Geography Orientation in Simple Handicrafts Business Elnglish General Geology I Mental Tests 134 Advanced Economics (Ec. Mineralogy 23 Accounting A., Principles 103) American History i Investments B.A. 146A (Finance C) Transportation Services and How to Study Business Law A Charges I Harmony, Music 3 Statistics, Elements of Shop Mathematics I ,

Published by the General Ex.tensioa Division, University of Minnesota EDUCATION A UFELONG PROCESS

VoL. XI NOVEMBER, 1936 ~0. 3

Musical Instruments Lewis B. Hessler, Department of English, The Enemies of Books is all enthusiastic book collector. His essav on the enemies of books was origi11ally giveiz The Evolution of Primitive Sound­ as an informal talk to a group of equally en­ An Arraignment of the Borrowers, the producing Mechanisms Into Modern thusiastic bibliophiles. Thieves, and the Mutilators Who Musical Instruments Abe Pepinsky. director of the Cniversity Prey Upon Our Books Symphony Orchestra, has made a special By Abe Pepinsky study of the history of musical i11struments, By Lewis B. Hessler a11d of the physics of tone production. His E are so accustomed to the appearance and prese11t essay is an abridgment of a longer HE title is, of course, not original, but it is W tone quality of modern musical instru­ work, more of H•hich mo;• be az•ailablc for one that occurs so naturally to every lover The Interpreter at a later date. T ments that we are apt to take them for granted; of books that I need make no apology for using we find it difficult to look back to their begin­ it. For surely those who do not love books, hate nings. However, to study the metamorphosis naturally associated the contrast between man them; "he who is not with me is against me." of primitive sound-producing vehicles into ac­ and woman. The Malays speak even today of Logically, this position is untenable, but what tual musical instruments is to learn much about their larger instruments as "father," smaller has a book-lover to do with logic? No more the history of man. ones as "mother," and tiny ones as "children." than a statesman. Let us recognize, then, that The Greek word organon, meaning a tool or The Chinese speak of their masculine and there is in the world a very small body of book­ instrument, gives us a fundamental clue to the feminine cymbals. lovers and a huge army of enemies of books. meaning of instntments; for man's first instru­ The next step was the efforts of the cultured These are the two races of men, bibliophiles ments are the "organs" of his own body, and nations, and even the semi-civilized tribesmen, and misobiblists. his further inventions of tools are "organ-pro­ to achieye an absolute tuning of instruments, The first enemies of books are the borrowers, jections." Thus a club is an elongated, weighted giving finer graduation of pitch differences than those depredators who were the despair of arm ; an oar is a broadened fiat hand at the mere high, low, and medium. These men were Charles Lamb's life. They see a book on your end of a lengthened arm; or a thrown stone, untiring in scraping and whittling wooden rods shelves, and instead of asking you boldly for a fist released from the arm. and sticks, in weighting with clumps of wax, it or even slyly abstracting it, wonder coyly if Primitive peoples made and still make use of in the painstaking filing of bronze bars and you ever lend books. There is nothing else to musical organ-projections in just such simple gongs. The addition of rosin and rice paste to say than that you do, whereupon they take that forms. The clapping and stamping which con­ the drum-heads by the East Indians, and the and another for good measure. This might be stitute the release of psychic tension in a dance warming of tympani skins in Turkestan are in­ endured, although I have the Polonius attitude are really manifestations of a musical impulse. stances of the painstaking efforts to arrive at toward borrowing and lending, but, once loaned, They present a condition of tension, both to the minute pitch graduation. The Solomon tribes the book more than likely becomes the perma­ dancer and to the observer, in the intelligible held a definite congress to which representatives nent possession of the miscreant. form of a rhythm-pattern; and rhythm, of were sent to test the intonation of their pipes, course, is indispensable to music. The making and various communities then checked against N a somewhat similar classification belong of tools or organ-projections to intensify the them. With this custom began the pitch-cor­ those who read only library books. In times of sound of clapping or stamping, and hence to I rection of vocal efforts by comparison with dire necessity, of course, anyone may be forced sharpen the consciousness of the rhythm-pattern, pipes, whose enclosed air-columns were dis­ to take out a book from the library, or even to was the beginning of instrumental muszc. turbed by blowing across an edge. The octave read it there. These, however, are only the was naturally induced by over-blowing, and the occasional offenders, whereas I am speaking of HE clapping of hands and the stamping of fifth above by further wind pressure. These those strange beings who make a practice of it. T feet suggested the invention of an endless fundamental intervals played a great part in What is everyone's book is nobody's book. Is variety of percussion or rhythm-producing in­ the "ear-training" of these people. it possible to enjoy the reading of Tom Jones. struments. Stamping on a shield-like board was rebound probably a dozen times and marred found to make more noise than stamping on the JNSTRUl\fENT AL invention presently with the inane and puritanical comments of a ground. Often the process was reversed, and a reached a stage where we may differentiate section of bamboo (a "stamp-pipe") was used thousand readers? Although there are doubt­ among: to pound on the ground. Hand clapping simi­ less many honest, worthy people who haunt (I) Idiophones (those solid objects which larly suggested artificial clappers like the bronze our libraries, they must firmly, if regretfully, cymbals; and the snapping of the fingers .sug­ sound without special appliance) ; be put beyond the pale; they are enemies of gested the castanets. (2) l\fembranophones (skin-covered hollow books. vessels) ; and Two important discoveries then assisted in Now for the thieves. Some kinds of stealing the development of sound-producing instru­ (3) Aerophones (enclosed air-columns set in may perhaps be condoned, such as the theft of ments. Primitive man learned that hollow vibration by a uniquely-directed air-blast food to ward off starvation; but he who steals bodies like bamboo, gourds or nutshells per­ across the edge of the pipe). a book is the lowest of the low. He may steal mitted greater resonance through the sympa­ The bamboo section that we first met as a my lawn mower or my car, and while he may thetic vibration of the enclosed air-columns. "stamp-pipe" became a "horn" (a vibrating air­ incur my wrath, he is not necessarily the object column), and here we discover a development Next he lear~d that a differentiation of pitch of my contempt, for these articles may be re­ could be achieved by using long or short, or similar to that of the xylophone. First there placed, but the thief of a book has stolen a thick and thin objects. Thus tone replaced mere was an orchestra of pipes, with an individual unique possession; another copy is not the same. noise; and, although a tuning process was not player for each pipe; later the pipes were as­ He is as bad as the censor whom Milton ex­ yet conceived, pleasure was found in the differ­ sembled in a loose bundle in the hand of one coriatecl-"as well kill a man.'' It is not that entiation between high and low tones, which (Continued on page three) (Continued on page two) 2 The Interpreter

The Interpreter The Enemies of Books Published monthly, exce\lt July and August, by l the General ExtensiOn Division, University of Min­ nesota, at Minneapolis. Entered as second-class matter, October 2. 1926, precious thoughts and beautiful images are con­ a prom1smg love affair with a short dialogue: at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn., under the tained in a book, but in that particular book. Masculine hand-"I love you." Feminine Act of August 24, 1912. With its disappearance part of one's very life is hand-"You wouldn't kid me?" Appropriately 1 Richard R. Price ------Director gone. enough, this was a book of lectures on various ~ Advisory Committee A peculiarly insidious type of book-hater is phases of evolution. Further on in this same T. A. H. Teeter H. B. Gislason that nuisance who, observing the amount of book was a humorous sketch in which a draw­ I. W. Jones A. H. Speer wall-space occupied by one's modest library, ing of a prehistoric monster was adorned with hat, spectacles, shoes, and breasts. And finally, Curtis E. Avery - -- Editor queries, "What do you want with all those books?" An appropriate, if impudent, answer, to confound scholarly research, there appeared the cryptic words, "Boosie" and "Bwoosie,' at NOVEMBER, 1936 is that you want more. He then wishes to know whether you have read them all. If you which even profanity becomes speechless. say "yes," he thinks you a liar, if "no," a fool. Probably the commonest type of defacement Self-Instruction He is probably the proud possessor of some is the underlines, marginal comments, and inter­ sixteen volumes, but belongs to an expensive linear translations observable in all books used Reprinted, in pari, from Adult Life Enrichment, Massa· country club. He is also a member of that by university and high school students. Here chusetts Department of Education, Divisio11 of U t~i­ versity Extension. large and useless class of human beings, the the desire for learning and possibly an altruistic A recent Columbia University home study discouragers of book-buying. If he refrained concern for future readers are indicated by bulletin contains this interesting paragraph : from propagandism, he would be merely one of such words as "good," "punk," "rotten," "descrip­ "Lots of people think that all a student needs the less harmful enemies of our noble company, tion," "narration," "baloney," and "oh yeah?" is a book-or several books-especially if he but as it is, he belongs, with the thieves, to generously sprinkled in the margin and the text. is a mature student. But, begging their pardon, the killer class; his light is a death-ray. Our good companion will also gloss difficult or they are wrong. What a student needs is an­ In the nethermost circle, however, belong the archaic words (Shakespeare lends himself aptly other student-better informed, more criticaL mutilators of books. They are the garbage to this sort of busy work), give valuable in­ wiser. If that isn't so, the whole experience of heap of civilization, and the stench of them is in formation on the racial or sectarian bias of the the race has been wasted. In the church, the the nostrils of all honest men. They do not author, such as "lousy Jew" or "damned Cath­ line of prophets, saints, ministers, and evangelists make a clean kill; they draw and quarter while olic," and in other ways make himself a uni­ has marched in vain. In the schools, the teach­ the victim is alive as did the hangmen of old, versal benefactor. In one case, however, he ers, professors, philosophers, have labored to who, however, had the weak excuse that they became secretive, for he wrote an interlinear no effect. A book, like a man, is nothing until were punishing a criminal. But these modern translation in shorthand ! interpreted, criticized, understood ...... " fiends torture the innocent, like the cruel dese­ These so-called students are the despair of The teacher's job is to illuminate. Books crator of a young and beautiful child. A mo­ teachers, librarians, and book-sellers; books to make this task easier, more rapid, simpler; but ment ago I called thieyes the lowest of the low, them are the meanest of tools of less value than they do not obviate the need of teaching. It is but as I have remarked before, this is not a a hat or a bar of soap. They will not only true that books can be instructive of themselves. logical discourse, and besides, there is always scribble everywhere and anywhere in a book, Thus, there have been men like Lincoln, who, room at the bottom. The mutilator belongs but will tear out whole portions for the sake of with books alone, became self-taught. But the in no category at all, but if the thief may be a report or quiz, or to adorn their walls with number of these men is always rare and of that represented by zero, then the mutilator may be pictures. Diagrams, maps, and tables of statis­ number, those who are well taught are few. a minus quantity of whatever value you will. tics are especially desirable. Sometimes the of­ Self-instruction in its highest state of perfection It is of course conceivable that one may, by fenders are caught and severely penalized, but is perhaps the best instruction. Nevertheless. some twist of circumstances become the unwill­ mostly they go unidentified-but not uncursed. it is the most difficult of application, by all ing possessor of a loathed book and desire noth­ And the library dips into its already sadly de­ odds. The good teacher strives to make self­ ing better than to rid himself of it in a pleted funds and buys more books for more instruction more applicable, and in a way, that picturesquely vengeful manner. At such times vandals to mutilate. is the aim of all good teaching, to help the your true book-lover will comport himself like For such conditions there is only one rem­ student teach himself. The teacher is a guide. the true gentleman that he is; he will get the edy-inculcate the habit of buying books, create He teaches. The student learns. There is a book out of his sight once and for all, by in­ bibliophiles before the culprits become misobib­ vital difference in those words teach and /ear11. cineration, or by hurling it into the river, as a lists. In other words, catch them early. One Learning implies a state of mind receptive to young university instructor did his copy of a feels that this is a counsel of perfection, as he knowledge. Here is the key to the meaning of freshman rhetoric text. contemplates the history of book-shops in the education. The teacher helps to prepare the The mutilators that I have in mind are those university district that have been forced either mind of the student. \Ve may become informed who deface the books of others, particularly to sell text-books or go out of business; and one wonders at times who buys books anyway. through reading, but knowledge does not begin library books, which thousands of readers will If intoxication by books could be made as allur­ until such information has become interpreted. wish to consult without being constantly thrown ing as intoxication by liquor, something might Before finding proper expression in our O\vn off the track by marks and comments which, yet be accomplished. Until that time, however, mind, the shades of meaning, the methods of in nine cases out of ten, do not denote the most the qordes from which our intelligent classes are application generally require the help of another important passages at all, but merely the feeble supposed to be recruited must remain the worst and more experienced mind. Whether the stu­ intelligence or mental woolgathering of the enemies of books. dent is child or man does not matter a great perpetrators. deaL Age or growth does not fundamentally Not all mutilations, of course, are of the de­ alter the techniques of learning. structive, permanent kind. They are made by students (the Latin root of this word signifies "When she inveighed eloquently against the eagerness) in humorous, frolicsome, or amor­ evils of capitalism at drawing-room meetings and Fabian Conferences she was conscious of a REFUNDS ous mood. One book, for instance, a volume of Shakespeare from a large university library, comfortable feeling that the system, with all its Attention is called to the new ruling contained inky curlicues in the Spencerian inequalities and iniquities, would probably last which states that applications for refund manner on the fly-leaves, title-page, and edges, her time. It is one of the consolations of mid­ because of cancellation must be made no also a game of tit-tat-toe; another the ominous dle-aged reformers that the good they inculcate later than December 5, for the first semes­ words, "I don't mean maybe," later vigorously must live after them if it is to live at all." ter, or April 17, for the second semester. crossed out. A third marked the beginning of H. H. Munro (Saki) for November, 1936 3

Athletic Facilities The Evolution of Musical Instruments The statement about availability of athletic facilities for extension students, printed for the mus1c1an. Out of this bundle of variously­ single instrument to the modern instrumen­ first time in this year's bulletin of extension pitched pipes the performer selected in turn tarium. classes, page 11, needs clarification. In the first those giving him the desired melody tones. It The Greeks had stringed instruments which place, it should be stated that the facilities of­ was but a step further to the "pipes-of-Pan" were plucked, but they had no bowed instru­ fered are confined to the Men's Gymnasium (a row of pipes of graduated length) which ments. Very seldom do we find evidence of the and equipment in the Athletic Building adjoin­ constituted an actual (though very primitive) or­ lute type of instrument among the Greeks, al­ ing the Stadium. At the present time the fa­ gan. Here again is an application of the acous­ though it was used by the Egyptians for many cilities of the Women's Gymnasium are open tic principle-the shorter the pipe, the higher centuries. The Greeks were satisfied with only through the regularly scheduled extension r the tone. stringed instruments of very small range, using classes, which offer an extensive program for To blow a whole series of different pipes, one string for each individual tone. There was those who wish to avail themselves of it. r placed side by side is a cumbersome process. no thought of shortening the string to change The Men's Gymnasium, including the swim­ Too much time is required to shift from one the pitch, (at least not while playing.) The ming pool, is open to men from II :30 a.m. to position to another ; hence a new discovery chief instrument was the lyra (originally seven­ 10 p.m. Swimmers are asked to leave the pool I which gives the player all the desired notes on stringed). Originally this instrument was between 9 :30 and 9 :45 in order to have time ~ one pipe, is of utmost importance. It was dis­ nothing but the shell of a tortoise, with to dress before the building is locked up. covered that the pipe's effective length-and antelope horns attached and a yoke to carry Students who find it impossible to reach the r consequently its fundamental tone-could be the strings. The strings were plucked either ticket office in the lobby of the Athletic Build­ changed by boring a side-hole, which shortened with the fingers of the right hand or with ing before 5 :30 (the office is open until that the length of the vibrating air-column, thus a plectron (a little metal or ivory stick). time every day but Saturday) may remit a check raising the pitch. In other words, the open The barbitos and pektis were offspring of to the Athletic Department for the services side-hole was virtually a shifted bottom of the the same , somewhat narrower, tuned which they wish to secure. The locker and tube. A series of such side-holes, manipulated an octave higher, and strung with double towel cards will then be left in care of the man by the fingers of the player, which uncovered strings. Double notes (in octaves) were made in charge of the locker rooms, who is present them one by one, beginning with the hole near­ possible on the Magadis (also of the lyra type), until 10 p.m. est the bottom, gave a definite ascending scale, a triangular harp-like instrument of twenty A gymnasium or athletic uniform, cons1stmg the steps of which were determined by the strings. The psalterion and epigoneion were of a number of items-exclusive of shoes­ spacing of the holes. The scale itself was of also of similar type, strung with forty strings. may be rented for a fee of $1 per quarter. The course either accidental or arbitrary, and de­ The family name of these harp-like instruments student, of course, may provide his own uni­ pended upon the musical development of the was trigo1zo1z. They were not as common as form. people. Whether this instrumental scale was the lyra. The single-string monochord was not The schedule of open hours for the Gymna­ made to correspond with the existing vocal really a musical instrument. It was used for sium should be quite convenient for the men scale, or whether the mechanically-produced in­ teaching singing, for tuning other instruments, students in extension classes. Advantage may strumental scale set intervals for the vocal one, and for the study of acoustical phenomena. be taken of these hours either before or after is a matter of great dispute among research The wind instruments were represented in classes, depending on the student's schedule. workers. Greek art-music by the , a wood-wind It is hoped that students will make use of these Again the bamboo-section suggested a fourth instrument of long, narrow form. Often two facilities to the extent of their available time. instrumental subdivision-the chordophones, or pipes were joined side-by-side, with a single stringed instruments. The primitive musician mouthpiece, which resembled that of our oboe­ cut a thin longitudinal sliver from the hard a double reed. It is possible that one pipe Yellowstone Park in Color outer casing of the bamboo, leaving the string­ paralleled the voice, while the other accom­ Dr. ] ohn Walker Powell spent part of his like sliver attached at the ends. Near each panied. Chromatic alteration of a tone was ac­ vacation this summer in Yellowstone Park and end he forced a wedge-shaped splinter under the complished by partially stopping a side-hole in the Black Hills, and has brought home nearly string, causing tension. (Our cornstalk fiddle the pipe. Pronomos (of Thebes) instigated a 2,000 feet of colored motion picture films of is analogous.) Here was an elastic string and new technique (using a ring-key mechanism), these parks and other scenes in the Rocky a resonance chamber all contained in the one making possible a system of "cross-fingering" Mountains. bamboo-section. A multiplication of such (opening of side-holes, out of turn). The num­ Dr. Powell will be glad to exhibit these pic­ strings on one instrument again offered oppor­ ber of side-holes was also increased from the tures, and to talk about his visit to the parks, tunity for a sequence of tones, or a scale. In standard six holes. The auloi were used in to schools, Parents and Teachers Associations, this scale the pitch depended upon the length four sizes, thus producing as many registers, and other organizations within easy reach of of the individual strings, and on the tension parthe~zeioi (soprano), paidikoi (alto), teleioi Minneapolis. He will furnish his own projec­ produced by the wedge-shaped splinter inserted (tenor) and hyperteleioi (bass). The tenor tion equipment, and the pictures can be shown under the ends of these strings. Of course, aulas was the one used in the contests, while in any room which can be sufficiently darkened. these natural strings sometimes broke, and were the alto aulas was used at banquets. A pair He will be available for morning and evening then replaced with strings of various materials, of instruments, an octave apart, were used for engagements any day in the week, or for Fri­ tied into place. Soon such strings altogether marriage ceremonies. day afternoons. For further information ad­ replaced the primitive slivers. This "cane­ Asia was the birth-place of practically all dress Lecture and Lyceum Bureau, 405 Admin­ zither" became in time, the queen of East Asi­ types of instruments, but we must study their istration Building, University of Minnesota. atic instruments, the Chinese tschin and Japa­ development in Europe for an understanding of nese koto. their present-day form and usage. Our modern So much for the processes which brought instrumentarium comes down to us as a sur­ Notice about the development of more or less civilized vival of the fittest from the middle ages, con­ The Hill Reference Library of St. Paul, musical instruments. When we turn from a stantly augmented by further importations from which occupies the Market Street end of the consideration of these processes, which we can the far East. general library building, most cordially invites see in operation among primitive peoples today, There is only one part of Europe where the students enrolled in the University exten­ and turn directly to the history of musical in­ the tone utensils of antiquity are carried over sion classes to use its resources. It is open bodily into the middle ages. The Celtic North, struments we unearth some important informa­ daily from nine a.m. to ten p.m. throughout the long before the birth of Christ, already had the tion, not the least interesting part of which is year and Sundays from two to six p.m., October the fact that Europe itself did not contribute a (Continued on page four) 4, 1936 to June 6, 1937. 4 The Interpreter for November, 1936

Musical Instruments color to parallel the contrasting voices of com­ The Byzantine organ had to grow and develop positions by a Landino, a Dunstable, or a tremendously to become the pipe-organ of to­ (Collfillucd from page tlzrl'e) Dufay. The orchestral ensembles thereby shine ~ay. A considerable stretch of the imagination with highlights of unblended colors, just as ts necessary to picture the Persian zither as ancient harp and lyre, brought from Asia by did the na'ive paintings of the period. progenitor of our modern piano. But in spite Syrian merchants. These merchants also Musical Europe was now confronted with the of these marvelous improvements, we must re­ brought with them horns of great variety, some task of assimilating this enormous instrumental member that Europe contributed not one single of them highly developed. The remarkable de­ treasure. The importations had until then un­ instrument of its own. wlopment in the technique of bronze manufac­ dergone but little modification, but the intel­ ture played an important role in the production lectual movement of newer art soon had its ef­ of trumpet-like instruments. One group of Former Extension Student fect. The living conditions of western Europe Irish horns had, peculiarly, a side-hole instead Now on University Faculty had greatly improved. The tenacity with which of a cup mouthpiece at the end of the tube. the oriental held fast to time-honored methods Three years ago Mr. Edmund A. Nightingale This is interesting, for it gives evidence of a of instrument construction was not evident in was a student in the evening classes offered bv definite relationship with the African ivorv the Occident. The intimate association be­ the General Extension Division. Now M;. instruments. In the ivory instrument, it w;s tween tone-producing instruments and the social Nightingale is an Instructor in Economics on naturally difficult to bore through the solid life (rank, race, and sex) of the oriental was the faculty of the School of Business Admin­ tip of the tusk, but as the tooth is hollow seldom preserved by the occidental. In the istration. This year he is again on the campus nearer to the root, the problem was simplified Orient, trumpets and drums had always been in the evenings, this time as instructor. He by introducing a side-hole as a tone-excitor associated with persons and occasions of the teaches a class in Transportation: Services and I using the lips of the player as vibrating reeds): highest degree of dignity and honor, and, as Charges I and I I. in addition to his regular But there is no such good reason for a side­ war plunder, came into the hands of royalty work as instructor in the day classes. hole in the bronze instrument; it is merely an only. Knightly players carefully protected them idea carried over. "Soldiering, my dear madam, is the coward's from common touch. Now the instruments were Byzantine influences contributed materially art of attacking mercilessly when vou are robbed of their royal or religious association. to Europe's musical culture. Through the By­ strong, and keeping out of harm's w~y when and as a result of migration had to serve zantine empire, Hebrew and Greek influences, you are weak." purely technical and artistic ends. Asiatic in­ and traces from other Oriental sources, such Bernard Shaw, Arms a11d The 1'v!a11. struments in European territory found them­ as Syria and later, Armenia, were brought into selves in the same plight as passengers on a ''Next to lack of order, one of the most fatal effective contact with European culture. About stranded ship in hostile water: torn from their ways of wasting time as well as weakening one's the middle of the eighth century, ambassadors own sphere, and thrown into the slave market life is to hesitate before acting." from the Eastern empire brought to the courts a price was placed on them according to pure!}: Ernest Dimnet, The Art of Thi11killy. of Pepin and Charlemagne many musical in­ physical value. strmnents, among them the organ (a portable type known as positi<.'). The organ was known In the seven centuries following the first Moorish invasion, an interesting sorting -out in Alexandria as early as three centuries. FIGHT process of instrumental species took place. B. C. Among these instruments, too, we find TUBERCULOSIS vVhen two similar instruments were taken over the ficdcl (or t•ielle). This far from classic either simultaneously or by succeeding impor­ instrument which is the oldest direct predeces­ tations, the less capable instrument tended to sor of our \·iolin, compares in every detail with take on the characteristics of the one offering the jicdel brought by the Slavs into the Bal­ greater facility. Thus the lute was absorbed kan Peninsula in the early middle ages. This hy the . (It should be mentioned that [] [] instrument (played with a bow) is today still as an accompanying instrument, the virginal used there, and is known by the Greek name later also took over this function of the lute.) lira. This same name appears under western The lute came with the first Moorish invasion pictures of this instrument. Another bowed Buy and Use whereas the mandolin came some five hundred instrument of this period now claims our atten­ CHRISTMAS years later. The less effective instruments tion, the unique tromba-mari11a (marine­ SEALS were taken over by the lower classes, and some­ trumpet, sometimes called the ''nun's-fiddle")­ times finally became the playthings of children. "n elongated box-lyre with one string. The \Ve discover an interesting struggle for su­ tones on this instrument are produced as natural premacy between the ficdcl (viclle) and the harmonics (known as flageolet tones, produced geige ( rebec), in which the latter lost caste. hy lightly stopping the nodal points of the Entered as second-class matter October ~ 19t6 :\ police edict of the seventeenth century in at the post office in Minneapoli.•, Minn., '•mde; natural overtones of the vibrating string). If the Act of August 24, 1912. Paris clearly discriminated against this instru­ played as ordinarily, by stopping the string, the ment's position in society. Only the giege, and tone produced would sound much like the ''bray­ not the violin (descended from the fiedel) was ing of an ass." permitted to he played in the cabarets and Beginning with the tenth century, instru­ houses of ill-fame. We find a like discrimina­ mental importations rapidly followed, sometimes tion between the trumpet and the horn. The in a peaceful manner through merchants and horn was first the representative instrument travellers, and then again as spoils of war, or of the knightly riders, but had to give way to plunder brought back by the Crusaders. Thus, the Arabian trumpet, and then descended to highly developed oriental instruments joined the hunters, shepherds, and watchmen. The their more primitive predecessors in Europe. trumpeters even went so far as to form a privi­ In but a fe\Y centuries, Europe was flooded leged guild, giving themselves the sole right to ,,·ith a great accumulation of instruments of all use their instruments, and held themselves aloof kinds, some of them filling gaps in the instru­ from other musicians. mentarium. and some almost duplicates of in­ Thus there was among the musical instru­ struments already known to Europe. By 1400, Europe was in possession of a verv ments of the middle ages, a survival of the fit­ representative, colorful instrumentarium. Froz~1 test, and a restless improvement of the "chosen" this motley assortment, it was not difficult to instruments. The small Balkan fiedel had to choose instruments of highly differentiated tone- undergo many changes to become our violin. The Interpreter Published by the General Extension Division, Univenity of Minnesota EDUCATION A UFELONG PROCESS

VoL. XI DECEMBER, 1936 No.4

T. S. ELIOT WHY STUDY HISTORY? Ralph Sargent, formerly a member of ~ A Study of a Great Modern Poet I the English faculty at Carleton College, An Important Question Answered By Ralph Sargent is mz experienced critic of English poetry. By Helen Mudgett He is the author of At the Court of T WAS VIRGINIA WOOLF who said Queen Elizabeth, recently published by "WHAT I DON'T SEE," a man said I human nature underwent a fundamental the O.rford University Press. His presellt recently, "is why anyone takes history. change along about 1910. She meant, evidently, essay was writte11 specifically for The It isn't useful to him, like English or psy­ that it became "modern." Psychologists may Interpreter. chology." The speaker continued by explaining dispute the fundamentalness of the change, and that a student could see that a study of English historians alter the date; the fact remains, Helen P. Mudgett is a member of the would enable him to write better letters, make modern human nature has its distinctiveness. facult:y of the General Extension Divi­ better speeches, improve his social and economic One of the modern qualities is self-conscious­ sion. Her essay is an answer to the kind standing. By learning something of psychology, ness. The human animal has been measured, of question which is asked frequently of a person should be able to overcome sales' re­ analyzed, summarized, and adjusted, until its all teachers of the humanities. sistance, write more appealing advertising copy, worst secrets have been enjoyed by all. And judge more accurately a prospective employee. having unclothed the human animal, the scien­ But history, that was a different matter; it tists have further proceeded to fill his head with Eliot has laid every succeeding modern poet in simply had no dollar-and-cents value. My first an endless stream of information. There is no his debt by showing him the material he must impulse was to answer him in kind-to list oc­ modern whose cranium does not bulge with use, and demonstrating successfully new meth­ cupations and professions in which a knowledge objective facts about hygiene, sex, religion, ods for the poetic mastery of the present and of some branch of history could be proved to business, bacteria, stars, institutions. The re­ future. have a definite commercial value. My second sult is not unlike indigestion. In many cases a A man of exquisite sensibilia, of high intelli­ was this: there is something infinitely more im­ mental stalemate results, which, if it does not gence, and possessing a sense of complete re­ portant to say in behalf of history than that by actually produce disintegration, at least brings sponsibility, he has brought a knowledge of the taking "Courses X-Y-Z you will find five dollars a sense of futility, self-conscious futility. past and freedom for the present to bear on more in your pay envelope." This is age of science. But poets, as well our age. His poetry offers, therefore, a full, Nor can I ever be made to believe that the as scientists, are inhabitants of the age. Now living response to the totality of our time. most valid reason for studying English Com­ a poet differs from other people in being more position or English Literature is that thereby OOK at a simple example from his early sensitive to influences, more alive-as a com­ your earning capacity will grow; rather, it is L verse. Here Eliot is concerned with the plete person-in his surroundings. He is, in yourself who will grow. And, after all, in spite human situation of a midde-class Englishman in the words of F. R. Leavis, "at the most con­ of evidence massed by the opposition, the these days of objective analysis, when men are scious point of the race in his time." Yet it measure of a man is not the size of his pay considered simply as material for scientific takes more than highly developed sensibilia to cheque but the stature of the man himself. Has study: make a poet. He must be able to organize he learned, through one channel or another, to these sensibilia and employ them intelligently. And I have known the eyes already, known meet the problems of his daily life with sanity By means of the evocative use of words, he them all- and wisdom and serenity? Has he, by deepen­ must be able to transmit to others a personal, The eyes that fix you in a formulated phrase, ing his own personal experience, gained suf­ intelligent, and moving conception of the flux And when I am formulated, sprawling on a ficient understanding to prove a good friend and called life. pin, a good citizen? Has he stored enough of the Of course there are well-established routes When I am pinned and wriggling on the world's knowledge so that his counsel may be for the poet to follow. Any one at all acquainted wall, considered good, his opinions worthy, his guid­ with the great tradition of English poetry knows Then how should I begin ance sure? "Ecce homo!" is still one man's these. Some experiences and some ideas have To spit out all the butt-ends of my days and greatest tribute to another. become fixed as "poetic." The poet who does ways? Can history enlarge a man's capacities? It not find these experiences and ideas prevalent can help. History is perhaps the most inclusive Shall I say, I have gone at dusk through today may retire to the past and live in its of all fields of study. It is the sum of all that narrow streets glories. But the poet who writes on the sub­ man has thought or dreamed or done. It is a And watched the smoke that rises from the jects and in the manner, let us say, of Shelley record graven in stone, graven in men's minds, pipes or of Tennyson, runs the risk of being a dis­ printed on the pages of a book. History is the Of lonely men in shirt-sleeves, leaning out regarded anachronism in the twentieth century. great cathedral. lifted high above the town; it of windows? . . . The other course, filled with its own dangers, is the long road stretched over the mountain ; is to accept the present fully, discover its new I should have been a pair of ragged claws it is the crash of national anthem, the choral sources of poetic wealth, and handle them with Scuttling across the floors of silent seas. chant of the choir-boys. History is in the noises the new weapons provided by science. of the street, the newspaper headlines, the pas­ Many poets have attempted this latter course. No conventional poetic subject here: only the sions which flame between men, the loyalties The leader of them all has been T. S. Eliot. middle-class city dweller of the twentieth cen­ which bind one to another, the courage which He it was, the spearhead of a new generation, tury. This man (not unlike, you may notice, compels one to play a man's part. No person who broke the established forms, brought in un­ the "little man" of post-war Germany, or the is too small to hold a place in history; no cir­ used material, and opened the flood of revolu­ "forgotten man" of our America-but before cumstance too trifling. Every thought, every tion in English verse. Already regarded as a Hitler and before Roosevelt), this man Eliot emotion, every deed has had its share in shaping past-master (his Prufrock was written in 1917) (Continued on page three) (Co11tinued on page two) 2 The Interpreter

The Interpreter Why Study History? Published monthly, except July and August, by the General Extension Division, University of Min­ nesota, at Minneapolis. actually she links in her person today's great Entered as second-class matter, October 2 1926 (Continued from page one) at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn., under th~ merchandising system with the first tiny shop­ me and the world in which I write these words, Act of August 24, 1912. keeper who boldly proclaimed his store "open you and the world in which you read them. His­ Richard R. Price ------Director the year round." However tired she may be, tory is continuous; it never ceases. For an Advisory Committee however difficult may seem her personal life, instant of time, each of us has an opportunity T. A. H. Teeter H. B. Gislason she is not alone ; she cannot be lost, for all those I. W. Jones A. H. Speer to look back over the record made by other who have preceded her stand close. She and men; swiftly, we must judge wherein they failed Curtis E. A very --- -- Editor her position were made by them; she is helping or succeeded. We have only a life-time in to make a position for those to come. Her will which to decide what our part shall be, for part DECEMBER, 1936 and her courage are determining the kind of we have, whether we will or no. There is no position it will be. corner of the world so remote that the relent­ The third idea is a concept of history which less course of history will not seek it out. no has only recently occurred to me. To a certain person so insignificant that he does not influence extent it is responsible for the tone of this for good or ill, all those about him. ' article. Essentially, what I have been askincr of To say that history has no value for the in­ you is to "get out of the trees and take a look dividual is to say that it does not matter at the wood." The "\\·ood" is the whole field whether he expends his energies in trying to of human effort and achievement; it is history. dam the flow of human progress or whether he For the most part we wander among the trees ; exerts himself to guide and direct the forces of the paths are very tangled ones; the way is man and nature in the channels of greatest use­ often dark. To look over the map of Europe fulness. It is to say that it makes no difference today is to realize how dense is the jungle of whether he champions causes which were lost present fears and hates and ambitions. Unless before he was born, that he expounds theories the jungle is to remain "trackless," we must con­ 1 long ago proved false, that he is ignorant of the stantly remind ourselves that the wood is fair great mainsprings of human conduct, that he when seen frpm the right perspective, and tha; has no appreciation of the unbelievable aspira­ there are paths through the trees, paths which tions which man has cherished these few cen­ have been cut in the years before, paths which turies during which he has walked apart. are lighted by the wisdom of the past. Tomor­ The great service of history is I believe to row's record will show whether we floundered Protect Your Home show us how the aspirations of' men, held in helplessly in the quagmire of doubt and indeci­ their hearts as ideals, pondered in their minds, from Tuberculosis sion, whether we turned back upon the trail, or translated into deeds and words, have changed BUY whether we went forward, blazing our own the pattern and fabric of society. It is this marks upon the track of time. CHRISTMAS SEALS knowledge which makes the commonplace glamorous, that dignifies human labor and 1m­ man effort, that gives meaning and significance Parking on the Campus to our day-by-day existence. If for a few hours Students who attend extension classes on the St. Paul Association of Extension we could meditate upon the thought the care campus are warned that the parking regulations Students the love, the sacrifice, the suffering: even th~ will be rigidly enforced by the City Police De­ At a meeting held November 6, class repre­ years which have gone into the making of our partment. There will be no parking within the sentatives of the St. Paul Association of Ex­ habits and customs, we would see with quick­ campus on 15th and 17th Avenues at any time. tension Students of the University of Minnesota ened vision. Fire? Can you imagine the first The ''No Parking" signs recently placed at startled tetTor of fire? Can you visualize the elected as officers Mr. E. A. Preston, president; various points on the campus apply to extension uneasy stages by which man learned to use this Mr. Simon North, vice-president; Miss Fannie students as well as to students in the day classes. Belle Diamond, secretary; and Mr. Alden Peter­ magnificent and awful phenomenon? His son, treasurer. eventual delight in its comfort? The running The organization consists of students dele­ water in your kitchen-how great must have Annual Holiday Frolic been the dreams of them who built the first gated from the various extension classes in St. The thirteenth annual Holiday Frolic, one of conduits! The gas or electricity in your range? Paul for the purpose of promoting their social the traditional social affairs of the Evening Stu­ the handle in your broom? And the many, many and educational interests. Miss Lillian Bloom dents Association, will be held as usual on the things you cannot explain bl'cause your knowl­ was reappointed to head the current events second Saturday in December (December 12) edge is not great enough or because the ex­ group, a successful enterprise started last year, in the Minnesota Union. All extension students planation is still unknown. History is not a which meets once a month for the purpose of and their friends are invited to attend this nn­ dead thing, but living. Each year adds some­ discussing current events and topics of general usual party. Tickets are in the hands of all thing to what we know of it. For those whu interest. class representatives, and are for sale in all teach and those who learn, history is forever Mr. Robert W. Wylie, past president of the offices of the General Extension Division. association, gave a resume of the past activities new. of the association and the benefits derived from In a last moment of pondering, I realize that "The l!Ja!J who makes a vow makes an ap­ attending L'niversity of Minnesota extension there are three main ideas about history which deserve recapitulation. The first is that history pointment with himself at some distant time classes. or place. The danger of it is that himself Plans are being formulated by Mr. Preston is always new and always growing. Each hour of the day makes its own record for tomorrow. should not keep the appointment." for the yearly fall dance to be held shortly. G. Chesterton, The Defendmtl The second is that knowledge of our own im­ K. "Honest emulation in studies, in all callings, mediate past, of the history of the race, all sorts "The definition of good Prose is-proper is not to be disliked, 'tis ingcniontm cos, as one of history-economic, political, social, musical­ words in their proper places :--of good Verse­ calls it, the whetstone of wit, the nurse of wit adds dignity to any person and significance to the most proper words in their proper places." and valour . . . " any task. She may seem to be only a weary Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Table Talk Robert Burton, The Anatomy of Jlfclaltclioly. shop-girl, putting away ends of ribbon, but lor December, 1936 3

Center for Continuation T. S. Eliot-A Study of a Great Modern Poet Study Formally Opened

(Continued from page one) frock's whole futile way of existence. Or again, More than fifty civic, educational, professional, in A Cooking Egg, Eliot is dwelling on the and scientific organizations took part in the intends you to see and feel at the same time. pleasures of heaven : opening of the new Center for Continuation As T. E. Hulme insisted, "poetry always en­ Study at the University of Minnesota, Novem­ deavors to arrest you, and to make you con­ We two shall lie together, lapt ber 13 and 14. The first session of the institute tinuously see a physical thing, to prevent you In a five per cent. Exchequer Bond. began November 16, with seventy-five profes­ gliding through an abstract process." Eliot's sional men in attendance. For four weeks this These metaphors of Eliot's have an ironic twist, little man, who happens purposely to be a first session will consider the history and prin­ to be sure. But the use of irony implies that typical figure of the time, is frustrated, hopeless ciples of cooperative endeavors. Other sessions you are aware of a significance beyond the con­ of the future. But he's alive. He is quite aware will follow. The Center for Continuation Study trasted subjects, a significance which makes of his plight, and with his self-consciousness, is under the direction of Dr. Harold Benjamin. he realizes the uselessness of doing anything­ them appear odd in their new ironic light. and he reacts to the situation wtih a total de­ Eliot's greatness lies in the very fact that he sire to revert to primitive animalism. Through can pick up such obvious and banal data and him Eliot demands that you come alive in the cause them suddenly to suggest some greater New Courses Offered in modern predicament, not pass it by in waking force in human life. Aristotle said the success­ death. ful use of metaphor was the sure sign of a Correspondence Study poetic master. For, he explained, "a good meta­ With its carefully selected detail and its con­ Several new and revised courses have been phor implies the intuitive perception of the sequent concentrated intensity, The Love So11g recently added to the list offered by the Cor­ of f. Alfred Prufrock possesses a sharp power similarity in dissimilars." Through a new ar­ respondence Study Department, and are now which could not be attained through the diffuse­ rangement of the broken images of our time, ready for use. One of these is Pztblic Finance ness of a novel. By what it leaves _out it sug­ through the simple device of metaphor, Eliot (Course B.B.A. 58) which parallels in content gests forces and possibilities of great signifi­ lets us see our experience as we have not known the same course offered in day classes. Other it before. The sudden discovery of unsuspected, cance, within and around this little modern man. courses rewritten or revised recently are: Ad­ underlying relationships of things suggests that Eliot attempts no philosophizing. The only so­ <•crtising; Eleii!Cnts of M oncy and Ban!?i11g; lution hinted at is to be found in Prufrock's there must be some greater, more important English History I, II, and III; American Eco­ desire to leave the futile complexities of modern whole, of which the apparently disorganized nomic History I, II, and III; The High School; life and return to the sources of primitive events of our lives are truly integral parts. Introduction to Statistics; Newspaper Reporting vitality. Eliot's metaphors (I have not attempted to lift I, II, and I II; Social Protectiau of the Child; any of the finest from their context) fulfill the With Prufrock and the poems which followed and Mechanics in Physics. it in the next five years Eliot established the ideal set up by Middleton Murray: "Metaphor success of the new poetry. How Eliot achieved can be described as the analogy by which the this triumph and set the directions for the future human mind explores the universe of quality of poetry can be discovered by a study of his and charts the non-measurable world." Music in Havana technique, though this cannot be a study of T. S. Eliot is preoccupied with the modern Editor's note :-Following is part of a letter methods alone-one of the secrets of Eliot's scene. Yet simultaneously he preserves a living to Mr. Abe Pcpinsky from Mr. Glanville Smith, poetry is that treatment and material determine awareness of the great past. Classic poetry, the tra<•cler, and author of llllmerous essays. The and reinforce each other, are indissolubly Christian church in all its history, English and letter is mz interesthzg repercussion from Mr. welded. French verse, are a part of his daily conscious­ Pepinsky's article on the history of musical in­ Among the multitude of critics who have ness. In dealing with the larger difficulties of strmnents, which appeared in the November analyzed his verse not one, I believe, has pointed his experiences, Eliot uses again the method of Interpreter. out how Eliot took one of the obvious weak­ ''intuitive perception of similarity in dissimilars." "I have just read your article on Musical In­ nesses of modern life (its chaos of loose data) One example will suffice. \Vhile a student at struments in the Extension Division's paper, and and transformed this very weakness into a Harvard, Eliot got acquainted with a burly one fact especially arrested my attention : 'the source of poetic strength. No man is more Irishman at a bar in South Boston; this man warming of tympani skins in Turkestan,' for the aware of the myriad divergences of human ex­ Eliot has erected into another of his modern purpose of tuning. I have never been in Turke­ perience, of facts and feelings, and of how our prototypes, "apeneck Sweeney." The existence stan, but in much-nearer Havana one night a masses of information, fragmentary and un­ of such men Eliot had to account for. few years ago I heard a small amateur percus­ related, tend to produce disintegration in human Sweeney Erect begins with an evocation of sion band-small clarkey boys playing for pen­ character: he speaks of modern life in terms classic scenes: nies in the square to whomever would listen, of "fractured atoms," and "a heap of broken and singing long boleros with elaborate percus­ Paint me a cavernous waste shore images. But these same broken images are sion interludes; all very remarkable I thought Cast in the unstilled Cyclades, the source of potential unity to the literary it. There were shaken gourds, tapped ebony Paint me the bold anfractuous rocks artist. The great literary historian Taine once sticks, a struck percussion-style, a box­ Faced by the snarled and yelping seas. remarked: "Today the matter of all knowledge harp on which the performer sat plucking its is little facts, well-chosen, important, significant, two (and only) bass strings between his legs, and Display me Aeolus above amply circumstantiated and minutely noted." most remarkable of all,-and the most satanic Reviewing the insurgent gales Alive to this possibility, Eliot has taken the musician I ever heard,-a black boy of fourteen Which tangle Ariadne's hair minute facts, the fractured atoms, and struck \also sitting on the box-harp) playing on a And swell with haste the perjured sails. them together like chips of hard flint. And pair of very small drums bound together, with magically, in his hands they give off sparks in Then suddenly Eliot thrusts in Sweeney, the the palms of his hands, the balls of his thumbs, the darkness. modern, the present : and his knuckles: the drums were about the size of butter jars, and built very stoutly. A There is a well-known line in Prufrock which Sweeney addressed full length to shave curious thing was, that he had a spirit lamp illustrates the procedure. It begins with the Broadbottomed, pink from nape to base, with him, which I saw him light, and use to platitude: "I have measured out my life," and Knows the female temperament warm the drum-skins, after which rite he would ends: "with coffee spoons." "I have measured And wipes the suds around his face. fall-to, playing with a diabolical energy and out my life with coffee spoons." In the shock rhythmic inventiveness which quite made my of the sudden juxtaposition, we realize Pru- (Concluded on paye four) hair stand on encl." 4 The Interpreter lor December, 1936

T. S. Eliot divorced from the emotions; another is the Correspondence Study pressing of human life into the molds of abstract (Continued from page three) logic. In the result, our emotional life has been Shows Registration Gain i limited, it has shrunk and been driven much The Correspondence Study Department re­ I (The lengthened shadow of a man underground. Nine-tenths of it has always been , ports that new registrations during the five Is history, said Emerson submerged, but now we want to hide the rest months, July to October, 1936, have gained : Who had not seen the silhouette of it. thirteen per cent over the same period in 1935. Of Sweeney straddled in the sun.) In The Waste Land Eliot attempts to tap the It is probable that this gain represents an es­ hidden stream and release some of it, that in In this contrast, as crude and obvious as any pecial increase in the registration for the general its fresh flow we may be quickened to new life. in his poetry, Eliot insists upon holding in vio­ academic courses offered in the College of The poem therefore does not follow the ordi­ lent union widely disparate aspects of human Science, Literature, and the Arts. nary procedure of logical sequence. Part follows experience. The effect, of course, is a shock, About eighty per cent of the new registrations part in the free association of emotional prog­ just as Eliot intended. You will say that the for Correspondence Study each year are made ress. As Eliot has said of another poet's work: value of this method ends with the surprise of by residents of Minnesota. The remaining "The reader has to allow the images to fall recognition; that there is no true synthesis, no twenty per cent come from residents of the into his memory successively without question­ new creation, from the divergent factors. In other forty-seven states, the District of Colum­ ing the reasonableness of each at the moment ; that case you have not grasped the full effect bia, Alaska, and the Canal Zone. There are ten so that, at the end, a total effect is produced." of Eliot's method. The mere bringing together registrationo from Canada. You must not force the material into precon­ of classical beauty and "apeneck Sweeney" sug­ ceived patterns of narrative; you must not read gests that they both have a common right to merely with your head but submit your full Film Library existence; some accommodation must therefore self freely; you must see each image, let it be found for their mutual habitation in our The Bureau of Visual Instruction announces produce its emotional effect, and be carried on consciousness. That is the way Eliot's poem a new printed catalogue of films and slides es­ to the next. The complete result is not an intel­ should work on your mind; actually, that is the pecially useful to schools and other organiza­ lectual reaction merely, but a total reaction ; way it worked on his own mind. Later, he was tions which are acquiring new film equipment. emotions and thoughts are knit up into a unique, driven to consider Sweeney more fully as a This catalogue will be sent free to all who re­ overwhelming experience. fellow human, with hopes, warmth, and even quest it. suffering. The result can be seen in Eliot's The full appreciation of the poem of course The catalogue ·lists about four hundred 16 dramatic fragment Sweeney Agonistes. needs scholarly study ; the material comes from mm. silent educational films of excellent quality. They include the Eastman Teaching films, the The practice of bringing together wide oppo­ anthropology, comparative religion, literature, Ufa films which are as fine as we have in the sites and strange extremes had been used exces­ philology, and modern urban life. The beauty field of nature study, the Harvard-Pathe films sively by the "metaphysical" poets of the seven­ of Eliot's method, however, and the test of his on Human and Physical Geography, and many teenth century. From them Eliot learned the poetic success lie in the ability of The Waste others. Included in the 16 mm. silent films are method and applied it to his modern material. Land to communicate much of its feeling even when its abs_truse allusions are scarcely realized about a dozen feature films, like the "Covered It occurs constantly, in large concepts and in at all. The broken cries of our disjointed life Wagon," (5 reels), and "Grass," (4 reels). minute details, throughout his poetry. His have been composed into a chorus of bitter dis­ The catalogue also lists about thirty new verse is woven of contrasts, some bold, oftener illusionment at the terrible meaninglessness of sound films in the 16 mm. width. Most of these subtle, through which is formed the texture of modern civilization. The ~Vaste Land achieves are the Erpi films, recognized as the best in a unified conception of modern experience. the tragic view of life. And by doing that, it their line. These films deal with such subjects How much of Eliot's fame, favorable and implicitly lifts this generation out of itself. as Plant Life, Animal Life, Literature, Music, otherwise, rests on his reputation for obscurity Beyond The Waste Land it is impossible to Physical Science, Trade, and Transportation. I cannot know. Certainly his poetry does not Included also are about four hundred reels in yield up its full substance readily. Eliot is an go in utter despair for the modern plight. It was perhaps inevitable from the start that Eliot the silent 35 mm. standard width. These deal erudite and quick-witted man, dealing in com­ with such subjects as History, Literature, Ge­ plex and subtle matters. For full appreciation should be forced to gain complete satisfaction only in supra-mundane sanctions. He has now ography, Health, Travel, Science, Nature Study, he demands a background of Dante, Shake­ Industry, Agriculture. speare, Baudelaire, to name the more obvious. found his refuge, his point of perspective, in But to charge him with deliberate obscuritv is the other-worldliness of Anglo-Catholicism. to miss the very essence of his method. • Since The fVaste Land Eliot has pretty much In his most famous poem, The Waste Land, confined his poetic efforts to what might be called religious verse. He continues to write, Eliot has undertaken a complete survey of the Entered as second-class matter October !, 19!6, human situation in the post-war, scientific sharpening his technique and digesting his new at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn., under the Act of August !4, 191!. world. This work has been the target of abuse experiences. by the upholders of traditional verse. Here But his readers, it would appear, have not again technique and matter are inseparable in followed him in his particular religious solution. Eliot. A key to the understanding of The Waste Yet he remains potentially the great poet of Land can be found in one of the chief concerns our time ; he may still produce works which of Eliot, his emphasis on the "slow agonized shall be the crowning achievements of our age. drying up of human emotion in our time." As it is, The Waste Land stands as a land­ Gerontion, in Eliot's poem of that name, says: mark of the new poetry. To quote F. R. Leavis: "Even if The Waste Land had been, as used "I have lost my passion: why should I need to be said, 'a dead end' for him, it would still to keep it have been a new start for English poetry." Since what is kept must be adulterated? Eliot has suggested the possibilities and re­ I have lost my sight, smell, hearing, taste sponsibilities of modern verse; and he has forged and touch: the tools for dealing with the new problems. How should I use it for your closer contact?" He has opened the door to a wider synthesis The causes for this dangerous drying up of of human experience. To achieve that life­ emotion are many : one is the piling up of in­ giving synthesis, in all its breadth and richness, formation which is purely intellectual and is the task of the poetry of the future. Published by the General Es.teaaion Divisioo, University of Minnesota EDUCATION A UFELONG PROCESS


ABILITY to perform a complicated and By Edward F. D'Arms contact between Crete on the one hand and original task is not only dependent upon Egypt, Babylonia, Asia Minor, the Far East. Assistant Professor of Classics a preliminary knowledge of simpler tasks of the and the mainland of Greece on the other has same kind, but also upon the proved capacity been proved and Crete has been shown to be an of the individual to solve problems whose tent of the Roman Empire. The conveniences extremely important link between these widely answers are already known. No teacher of and luxuries of modern life were lacking. By varying cultures. arithmetic would permit his pupils to handle just so much the ancient world was less com­ A variety of information of all sorts has complex sums unless he were sure they already plicated. made necessary a revision of our hypotheses knew that two and two make four. Nor would To argue from these facts, however, that con­ concerning the arrival of the Greeks in their the teacher expect his pupils to solve original tinued research into the past is useless or historical site. Reference in the Hittite docu­ problems until they had already demonstrated irrelevant is far from the truth. Within the ments to the kingdom of the Achchiawa (i.e. their ability to handle problems whose answers past decade archaeology has provided many new Achaeans) in Asia Minor in the fifteenth cen­ are known. The student who begins a natural facts which have necessitated a complete re­ tury B.C. would seem to indicate that the science confines his laboratory work for some examination of our explanations of past phe­ Achaeans (1) arrived in Asia Minor before time to performing experiments which have nomena. Not only archaeology, however, has they came to Greece, or (2) arrived in Greece already been performed countless times, so that supplied new information. Students of ancient at a date earlier than that previously regarded his results can be checked by the knowledge economics, politics, religion, linguistics and as fixed, or (3) were not Greeks at all. The available from these earlier experiments. Sim­ literature have all made contributions of great great Swedish scholar Nilsson believes that the ilarly, no one would imagine that an individual significance. Some of the discoveries are of far Mycenaean civilization was essentially Greek, who had driven a car for three or four years reaching importance for our conception of the a proposition which Sir Arthur Evans denies. was therefore capable of designing and manu­ ancient world; others are, or may be, of im­ The date of the arrival of the Phoenicians with facturing a new type of automobile, or that a portance to the modern world as well. their valuable cargo, the alphabet, has recently stenographer of four years' training could, as been questioned by Professor Carpenter. If the result of her experience, design and make N entirely new chapter in the history of the he is even partly right the entire chronology of a typewriter. A Near East. which will bridge the gap be­ Greek literature and much of Greek history as This argument is evident in the sphere of tween the Babylonian Empire and the appear­ well must be revised, thus changing many long practical matters in daily life. It is just as ance of the Greeks almost a thousand years accepted theories of literary priority and rela­ cogent, although sometimes less obvious, in con­ later, has been opened to us in the discoveries tionship. nection with training in some of the subjects of concerning the Hittite Empire. The archaeo­ the modern curriculum. Unless the student has logical remains have been known for thirty or NOT the least of the great changes in recent become acquainted with the factors involved in forty years, but the actual writing of the chapter years has been the rediscovery of Herodo­ a given problem of economics or sociology, and has been made possible by the linguistic efforts tus. For centuries the Father of History was likewise, unless he is acquainted with the result of Hrozny. Gotze, Forrer and others. Starting known as the Father of Lies. Excavation and which those factors produced in that particular with a collection of inscriptions and tablets in research, however, have at last vindicated his case, it is most unlikely that in an actual situa­ several unknown languages and dialects, these reputation. His account of Egypt has been tion in the present world he can correctly as­ scholars in the last fifteen years have extracted vigorously defended within the last fifteen years, semble the relevant facts and reach a valid con­ a considerable amount of information on numer­ his ethnographical information is being found clusion. To this extent, then, the past serves ous subjects. The political organization of the ever more reliable. Most startling of all, the as the control of the present ; for this reason a Hittite Empire, the enlightened legal code, the school of the New History (despite Professor knowledge of the past is important for the economic contacts and diplomatic alliances Crane Brinton) has found that the New His­ present. And for this knowledge the man of which involved ancient Sardis, Ephesus, Pales­ tory was really written more than 2300 years today is dependent upon research into the past, tine, Egypt, Assyria, and Babylonia, the elab­ ago, for Herodotus is a social historian, not -and the past not only of thirty years ago but orate system of roads throughout the Empire, only a politically minded biographer. He makes that of three thousand years ago as well. all reveal a higher and more important civiliza­ mention of countless details condescendingly tion than was dreamed of fifty years ago. Not explained for centuries as garrulous digressions, TO the average citizen of today it would seem the least interesting discovery is the fact that but now recognized as representing the all-inclu­ that by this time all the information con­ some of the dialects used in the Hittite Empire sive view of history which considers relevant cerning the ancient world must have been col­ are closely related to Greek, Latin, and other geography, economics, religion, and folklore lected and that further research is entirely European languages. no less than wars and kings. useless or, at best, irrelevant. The complexity Similarly, the extensive investigations of Sir There are numerous other details which might of the modern world and the enormous technical Arthur Evans in Crete have resulted in a re­ be described, but brief mention must suffice. advances particularly in relation to transporta­ markably complete picture of Cretan civiliza­ The recent discovery of a Cyclops in Babylon tion and communication make the ancient world tion from the archaeological evidence. Close in 2000 B.C. suggests earlier and more im­ appear very simple. There were no steamships portant Anatolian influence in Greek mythology or automobiles in ancient Greece. The radio and Also in this issue: History and Importance than was previously believed. So too the possi- telephone were not available for the rapid trans­ of tizc Diesel Engi11e and fVriting the News. mission of information throughout the vast ex- (Continued on page two) 2 The Interpreter

The Interpreter The Changing Past Published monthly. except July and August. by the General Extension Division, Uniwrsity of :'llin­ nesota, at Minneapolis. Entered as second-class matter. October 2. 1926, !Continued frolll f'aye one) problems. Analysis of the poems of Catullus at the post office in :'lfinneapolis, :\!inn., under tlte .-\.ct of August 24, 1912. has revealed the bitterest of political campaign ble sonrce of the Laocoon story at the same Richard R. Price -- - Director literature. Solon almost single-handed, accord­ date. Relationships between the Babylonian Adt•isory Committee ing to Glover, made the Athenians eaters of fish epic of Gilgamesh, written probably about 2000 and so started them on the way to maritime T. A. H. Teeter H. B. Gislason B.C. and containing the Babylonian account I. W. Jones A. H. Speer empire. Collections of building inscriptions in of the Flood, and the Odyssey and the Aeneid Curtis E. A Yery - -- Editor ancient Greece have brought to light not only cannot be entirely explained by the fact that information concerning the public works' pro­ JANUARY, 1937 the Hittites may have acted as the connecting gram of Athens and Delos, but also much con­ link between Babylon and Homer, for recently cerning wages and working conditions in the interesting parallels have been discovered in ancient world. The great work of the .-\merican Naivete Gilgalllcslz, the Aeneid. and ceremonies of the scholars, ~feritt and \Vest, on the Tribute By Leon 1. Richardson tribe of ~Ialekulas in the New Hebrides. The Quota Lists of the A.thenian Empire furnish frescoes found in the Jewish church at Doura (Reprinted from Extension Di·vision .Vews, University valuable illustrations of the nature and effect of in .-\sia ~Iinor compel a revision of opinion on of California.) taxation. the question of Jewish art. Excavations in the Schiller, discussing poetry, once made a re­ The classical and historical disciplines remain .\gora in .\thens, at Corinth. in Boeotia and mark which was destined to become famous. among the best because of the opportunity of elsewhere in Greece have greatly increased our Viewing the subject as a critic, he judged poets dealing with things which have won the ap­ knowledge. The political researches of Homo, to be either sentimental or naive. The senti­ proval of the best minds for centuries. Here ~Iarsh. and others have revealed the existence mental poet achieved his results by conscious is the opportunity to check one's results with of party government in Rome during the second and deliberate methods, whereas the naive poet answers which are known. Further than this, and first centuries B.C. .\n ancient version of enjoyed pure inspiration. His singing, like that however, the past is not static but is constantly HOLC in the fourth century B.C. is reported of a bird, was guided by the very spirit of changing, as we know more and are more able spontaneity. Accordingly, a child, a perfect by Livy and has been noted by an American to interpret it. And our ever increasing knowl­ "·oman. and a genius are naive. This view held scholar. The agrarian policy of the Gracchi edge of the past may prove of inestimable s\\·ay a long time. About twenty years ago in the second century B.C., a rigid control of practical value in solving some of the problems Professor G. L. Kittredge put forth a stimulat­ prices and wages under Diocletian are fore­ of the present and anticipating those of the ing book on Chaucer. In it he said: "There is runners of similar modern solutions to economic future. no great harm in the air of patronage with which our times, in their seli-satisfied enlight­ enment, address the great who were of old; but A Student Speaks to higher levels. \Ve enrolled in the University we do use droll adjectives! If these great an­ of Kansas, and in time were graduated as chem­ (The follaa•ing essay zc•as a•ritte11 as the first cients show the simplicity of perfect art, we call ical engineers with bachelor's degrees. Now thcllle of the semester b3• a student iu Adz·anccd them 11aif, particularly when their irony eludes we were able to re-enter industry, this time as Writing.) us; if they tickle our fancy, they are quaint; junior chemists. We developed professionally in a normal manner; within a few years my if we find them altogether satisfactory both in By Max C. Markley form and substance, we adorn them with the friend was purchasing agent for one of his epithet modem, which we somehow think is a I have many desires in life: to have some firm's factories; and I was chief chemist for a superlative of eminence ..Vaif, quai111, ll!Odcrn­ happiness and a little sorrow; to have a measure strong medium-sized flour milling firm. His a singular \·ocabulary! .\dd com·incing, and of security, yet to be a bit insecure at all times; position as a minor executive has fulfilled his the critic has done his best, or his worst. For to have a brilliant future for my chillren, yet ambitions, but I was far from satisfied with it is we that are naif; quaintness is incompatible not to have them on pinnacles above their fel­ mine. I had developed the ability to do chemical with art; and as for modernity, what we mis­ lowmen. But the greatest of my desires is the research. Though my time was fully occupied take for that, is the everlasting truth, the en­ desire that I may never see the time when there with the routine duties and responsibilities of during quality that consists in conformity to is nothing left for me to desire. If my desires the mill control chemist, I wanted to try my changeless human nature." ~Ir. .\. D. Xock, were such that they might all be fulfilled at hand at solving many of the problems of the a distinguished critic, recently wrote: ''In . . . some time in the future, then I would be cereal chemist. prose the appearance of spontaneity is the re­ satiated with life, then I could only stagnate Then the opportunity arose for me to become sult of seli-discipline." The smooth and lucid in utter boredom. Neither would I be like the associated with the greatest of all research prose of .\natole France was wrought out football player who, having once carried the ball chemists in my field. Without hesitation I through much revision. across the line, strives repeatedly for the same seized this chance, and for the past seven years These citations show how the settled opinions goal. ~Iy objectives must always be moving have been a research chemist on the staff of vf one generation may be later upset or re­ forward a bit in advance of my accomplish­ the ~1innesota Agricultural Experiment Station. versed. Critical thinking does not take tradi­ ments. They may be approached, but never In these seven years I have achieved a certain tional things for granted. It reviews each casC", quite grasped. standing as a research cereal chemist, and have so to speak. It goes again over the evidence ~Iy goal through all my life has been dynamic, earned my degree as Doctor of Philosophy­ and accepts only what stands to reason. .\n not static. '-''hen I was in high school twenty but my goal is still ahead of me. I am no intellectual man turns things over in his mind years ago, I, and two of my friends, became longer bounded by the traditional confines of my and thinks things through. Furthermore, as interested in chemistry. \Ve determined to be­ specialty. I am exploring the uncharted areas .\lexis Carrel remarks, "intellectual pO\Yer is come chemists, and upon graduation we secured of the inter-relations between chemistry and augmented by the habit of precise reasoning." work as analytical technicians in industrial such diverse sciences as genetics and archae­ laboratories. • One of my friends was satisfied ology. Gradually I am mastering the basic "To-day I have confined myself to saying to remain a technician, and today is a routine principles of many fields of science in order to that that training of the intellect, which is best analyst in a large laboratory. Being merely be better in my own. for the individual himself, best enables him to technicians on the fringes of the chemical pro­ This broadening of the base of my knowledge discharge his duties to society." fession was not enough for my other friend or has opened yet another vista, that of the inter- John Henry Xewman, The Idea of a Cnh•cr• for me. \Ve saw the need for fundamental sity training in our science if we were to advance !Conlilllted on page four} --- ·---~ ------

lor January, 1937 3

History and Importance of the Diesel Engine

By Burton J. Robertson land, a short time before the \Vorld War. He Diesel Engine Course carried with him at the time valuable draw­ I DcparllllCIII of Enqi11eeri11q) A special three-week course in Diesel en­ ings, and plans for Diesel engine improvements. gines will be offered at the l:niversity of Whether he met foul play or an accident may ITHOUT the discovery of crude oil and Minnesota beginning February 1. 1937. This never be known; his papers were never re­ the development of methods of refin­ W course is offered by the University with the covered. The work he began has been carried ing it, the internal combustion engine might cooperation of a number of manufacturers on by others with such marked success that his never have been. The story is this: About who have provided special equipment and name will be perpetuated as long as internal one hundred years ago, salt was manufactured lecturers to supplement the lectures in theory combustion engines are used. in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and other eastern states, given by members of the University staff. The economical use of our diminishing supply from brine that was obtained from deep wells. I During the three weeks the factory lecturers of petroleum will make it imperative that all While drilling such a well on the banks of the and the equipment will visit eight different the suitable Diesel fuel remaining after the man­ Cumberland River, one operator boasted that he universities, spending two days at each. ufacture of gasoline be used in Diesel engines. would drill until he struck salt water or hell. l Thus those who attend the course will have The internal combustion engine man who One day crude oil suddenly gushed from his an opportunity to study the engines produced would keep abreast of the times must add in­ well, was accidentally ignited, and covered the by a number of manufacturers. The course formation on Diesel engines to his knowledge river with a sheet of flame for forty miles at the University of Minnesota will be of gasoline motors. He should know about the down stream. Later, men learned that kerosene limited to fifty students qualified by experi­ various fuel pumps, injection nozzles and com­ and wax candles could be made of the pungent ence or education to take the course. Appli­ bustion chambers. He should know how to unsavory liquid, and illumination moved a step cations for admission should be made to the diagnose the ills and what remedies to apply. forward. General Extension Division at once. Fifty years later the light volatile portion of this same liquid was a drug on the market, and Correspondence Study tage those types of fuel which gtve trouble in petroleum manufacturers were at their wits' Independent Writing ends to dispose of it. Thousands of gallons of the gasoline engine. It likes a Jean mixture, gasoline were thrown away because men did while the gasoline engine performs best with a .'\mbitious writers who neither desire nor not know what to do with it. The development rich one. It does not need to be choked to need the formal restrictions of a traditional of the gasoline engine, and with it the auto­ start; it does not flood; and the mixture can­ course in composition may secure criticism of mobile and the airplane, has made such demands not be made too lean for starting. It has no their manuscripts and special help in developing upon the supply of gasoline that, although sev­ carburetor, no ignition system, but it does have their individual plans for study and practice in eral times as much of it is derived from a barrel a fuel system that requires an accuracy in writing through a new course offered by the of crude oil as in the early clays, it is yearly manufacture not yet dreamed of in the gasoline Correspondence Study Department. The course becoming more and more expensive. In many engine. In fact, its symptoms and idiosyn­ is called lndcf>cndcnt lr'riting, and it is under European countries laws have been enacted to crasies are entirely different from the carburetor the supervision of Mr. Curtis E. Avery. prohibit its use in commercial trucks or busses. type of engine. This course is designed to give the student or to stipulate that it must be blended with The Diesel has become an important factor in complete freedom in writing. There are no some other material such as alcohol to conserve the field of heavy-duty mobile engines. It is restrictions as to kinds of writing. There are as much of it as possible for the use of pleasure used extensively in road building, lumbering, no academic prerequisites, but it is assumed cars and airplanes. sno\\' plowing, shovel operating and general con­ that students who register for the course will For years the gasoline engine was used for tract work. be masters of the fundamentals of composition. high speed automotive and small industrial uses; It has forged far ahead of steam in marine but soon the scarcity of petroleum, especially work; more Diesel horsepower than steam is The Cooperative Movement the more volatile portions used in the manu­ being built into boats each year. Diesel electric :\ new course in The Histor:; and Sot"ial facture of gasoline, spurred European manu­ generating plants are scattered throughout the Philosophy of the Cooperative Jfo'uement is facturers toward the development of another entire country, and many new installations are being prepared for the Correspondence Study type of engine that could use the heavier in­ being made each year. ~iotor haulage and bus Department by J\Ir. Robert vV. :Murchie, Pro­ gredients of crude oil in place of gasoline. lines are making experimental installations fessor of Sociology. :\bout forty-five years ago, a German scientist, with unusual success. The course is designed to present in concise pondering over his calculations, conceived the The aviation industry is extremely interested. form a general introduction to the study of idea of an engine that would initiate the burn­ The National Advisory Committee's experiment the cooperative movement. Topics discussed ing of the fuel by means of the heat of compres­ station at Langley Field has made more con­ are : the social and economic backgrounds of sion without the use of an electric igniter. tributions to pure Diesel research than any other cooperation; early experiments and their diffi­ His name was Rudolf Diesel. His first engine, single agency. At least one commercial Diesel culties; the rise of consumer cooperation; his­ designed to burn coal, was a failure. His engine is being used in planes in Germany, tory of the development of these movements in second engine, built to operate on that portion while Diesels are accepted as the predominating many countries; essential differences between of the crude petroleum left after the gasoline power for lighter-than-air craft. producer and consumer cooperatives; the move­ had been removed, exploded and nearly cost No one can predict the extent of its use in ment in America; present trends in cooperative him his life. Later engines, especially the large automobiles. However, if Diesel engines were philosophy-political, economic, and social. slow moving units, were very successful ; and adopted for all purposes, there would be a the Diesel engine began to supplant the steam surplus of gasoline and its price would drop engine in marine and isolated generating plants. so that gasoline cars would be the cheapest to "But though direct moral teaching does much, The Diesel engine is truly an internal com­ run. At present the first cost of the Diesel, indirect does more; and the effect my father bustion engine with bearings, crank shaft, pis­ inferior flexibility, and the greater weight of produced on my character, did not depend solely ton rings, etc., but its behavior is quite different the engine operate against its extensive use in on what he said or did with that direct object, from that of its brother, the gasoline engine. automobiles. but also, and still more, on what manner of It thrives on high compression ratios, while the Dr. Diesel disappeared during the night while tnan he \Vas." gas engine is limited. It burns to best ad van- crossing the Channel from Germany to Eng- ] ohn Stuart :.fill, "-lutobiography 4 The Interpreter for January, 1931

Writing the News Keep your point of view objective. Keep One of them should be a part of every yourself· and your opinions out of your stories. writer's equipment. (Editor's note: Following are parts of lessons Readers want to know facts-not what you In most cases the simple word is to be sez1cn and eight from Newspaper Reporting I, think about them. preferred to the elaborate. "Fire" is bet­ a course offered by the Correspondence Study Report only what you see, what you know. ter, usually, than "conflagration" or "holo­ Department. This course zvas prepared by Newspaper style is distinguished in several caust.'' "Truth" is better than "veracity"; Mr. Mitchell V. Charnley, of the Department respects from most other writing. One is this "marriage" than "nuptials" ; "died" than of J oumalism. The Interpreter will from very objectivity mentioned just above. Except "passed away"; "declared" than "averred" time to time print parts of C01·respondence in certain types of feature or human interest and "said" than "declared"; and so on. Study lessons which the editor believes will stories. or in stories of a highly specialized A void hackneyed words and phrases. Don't interest the general reader.} nature, the reporter does not appear in his work write "social function" when you mean at all. He observes and he reports; he does "party." Don't say that "a bomb was tossed In many newspaper offices are big signs that not comment. into the council meeting" when you mean read like this : Another distinction is the simplicity, brevity, that the meeting was surprised. Don't use ACCURACY-SPEED-ACCURACY terseness of newspaper writing. True, all good such timeworn phrases as "fair sex," "bated writing is characterized to some degree by these breath," "pretty blond," "broiling sun," Speed is an essential in the work of the mod­ qualities; but they are fundamental in journal­ "dull thud," "he-man," "verdant spring." ern newspaper man~£ the weekly reporter or istic style. Newspaper readers want their in­ Such phrases were good when they were editor, who is likely also to be advertising solic­ formation presented to them as simply and as new, perhaps; they're frayed and shopworn itor, "back shop" worker and job printing rapidly as possible. That means that there is 110\V. salesman, only a little less than of the daily no room for undue elaboration, either of word­ Avo'id vt!rbosity. Write "at present," not reporter. But note that the emphasis in or of detail. The simplest, the most "at the present time." Make it "to con­ signs is on accuracy. usual word-provided it is a word in good taste sider" instead of "for the purpose of con­ The fact is that the modern newspaper at­ and usage-is the best. And the most direct, sidering." "The club organized last week" tains an astonishingly high degree of accuracy briefest statement of the facts is also the best. is better than "the club which was organized in its rush of work. There are dozens of oppor­ Those are the outstanding characteristics. last week." And so on. tunities for error in every story, thousands upon You will understand them and learn to employ Warnings and suggestions like these could be thousands in every issue of a newspaper. News­ them only as you read first-class journalistic continued for many pages. A student will make paper system and the desire for accuracy have publications observantly and critically, as you no mistake in getting a book like W eseen's, or made it possible to avoid most of the pitfalls. study what your texts and other books say about any of a number of others that a librarian or Nevertheless enough errors creep into the daily style, and as you practice journalistic writing. a local teacher can recommend, that will give or weekly journal to create doubt in readers' Many books have been written about the writ­ him such hints. But he won't learn how to avoid minds, and only unceasing vigilance will reduce ing craft-books that attempt to guide the am­ such errors or weaknesses until he reads widely them to a minimum. Most errors beyond the bitious writer, be he "literary" or journalistic, enough to know how successful writers avoid purely typographical are the result of reportorial into the paths of effective printed expression. them, and until he writes enough to know how carelessness. For any novice these books may be helpful. to escape them himself. What precautions against inaccuracy can re­ But there are two other roads he can follow porters take? that are more likely to reach the goal: critical, "'Off-hand,' began John Charteris, 'I would Don't rely on memory. Take full, careful analytical reading of writing that is accepted as say that books are best insured against oblivion notes-especially on names, addresses, ages. effective-Stevenson, Samuel Johnson, Wilde, through practise of the auctorial virtues of dis­ figures and the like. Poe, Conrad, Cather, and others; and endless tinction and , of beauty and symmetry, of Use reference books freely. Use the city di­ writing of his own, followed always by critical tenderness and truth and urbanity ... ' " rectory, the telephone directory, the TVorld editing. James Branch Cabell, Be;•ond Life. Almanac; rely on authoritative printed sources. What is good newspaper writing? Ulti­ Don't write your story until you have all the mately it is the same as any other good writing: facts. If you have failed to get them, telephone ''Pessimism does win us great happy mo­ writing that expresses its thoughts, or ideas, to or go to see your news source again. Don't ments.-Max Beerbohm, And Even Now. or facts clearly, simply, without verbosity or guess-be sure. Edit your stories carefully; check every spe­ pomposity; writing that is vigorous and fresh cific fact. and living. Journalistic writing may be said \Vatch your spelling. Keep a dictionary on to put a premium on some of these qualities, your desk, and use it! for it is intended for a reader likely to be in Entered as second-class matter October 2, 1926, a hurry, and for an "average reader" rather at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn., under the Act of Auuust tM, 19H. than one with special interests or special intel­ A Student Speaks lectual and educational equipment. Sometimes (Continued from page two) its efforts at vitality, or at simplicity, become pretation of science to the layman. This inter­ faults; sometimes it becomes cheap and shoddy pretation of science calls for a higher degree of through its slanginess, its carelessness, its literary ability than that required for the writ­ cliches, its poor constructions. It need not have ing of scientific reports in the accepted formal these faults, however; and in the hands of the style. Now I am enrolled in this extension class journalistic worker who expects to advance in Advanced Writing where my modes of in his craft it must not. thought and my manner of placing my thoughts A few precautions may aid the student: on paper may secure impersonal criticism. By Be careful always to find the right word. such criticism I hope to advance a little towards the goal of the interpretation of science. Don't say "secure" when you mean ''ob­ In what manner my desires will continue to tain"; or "Olympiad" when you mean advance I cannot say. I hope that my objec­ "Olympic games"; or "over" for "more tives will keep ahead of me, and that after I than"; or "comprise" for "compose." can no longer work in the laboratory or office. Maurice H. Weseen's Words Confused and I can continue to learn a little, and come to the Misused (Crowell, New York), is a good end with a still advancing goal. reference book; there are many others. The Interpreter Published by the General Extension Division, University of Minnesota EDUCATION A LIFELONG PROCESS


"PARTIES, like other human institutions, By Edward M. Kane Pinckney in South Carolina and George Clinton are denied immortality." So wrote George and Edward Livingston in New Yo~k were of Soule in an article in Harper's four years ago Departmc11t of History great value in building an opposition party in under the caption, "What will happen to the those states. Through Livingston he secured Republicans." Mr. Soule thought it very un­ the aid of Aaron Burr, a brilliant la~yer of comings, the American political parties have New York City, and Burr was able to use in likely that the great party which had dominated been indispensable as educators of the people in his political plans the convivial} fraternal club the country during most of a lifetime could long the processes necessary to free popular govern­ known as "Sons of Saint Tammany." The vic­ survive the exile into which it, had been driven ment, and they are the most powerful forces for tory of Jefferson and Burr in the presidential by the defeat of 1932. Since that article was good or ill in modern political life. written two general elections have been held Strange as it may seem, the existence of po­ election of 1800 was made possible by the fact that Burr and Tammany carried New York each one more disastrous to the party than th~ litical parties was not contemplated by the one preceding. It is natural that many political founders of the Constitution. Party to them City by 214 votes. commentators now predict the passing of the meant "faction," and they thought of "factions" party of Lincoln, Grant, and McKinley from the as dangerous to the government, if not seditious. }T is _unfortunate that in modern political dis- scene and a new political alignment including \Vashington, the first President, began his ad­ cussiOns, stress should so often be laid upon the rise of a national labor party, or perhaps a ministration by making his appointments with­ Jefferson's insistence upon the states' rights and Farmer-Labor party. out regard to political differences. But party his fear of encroachment by the national power, The student of American political history lines were soon drawn, and before \Vashington to the exclusion of the other more positive and would more readily accept the belief that the left office he more than once denounced with permanent elements of his political philosophy. Republicans are about to disappear as did the bitter anger the "Democratic clubs" and opposi­ Jefferson stood for state rights because his Whigs eighty years ago, were he not aware tion newspapers that in his opinion were stirring party was in a minority, and he strove to curb that just the same predictions had been made up sedition and even rebellion. the central power because under Hamilton and more than once concerning the death of the the Federalists he believed that power to be Democratic party. Just thirty years ago, when exercised in the interest of the moneyed classes. THE .chief basis _for the early party division for ten years the Democrats had been in a hope­ He believed the money power was certain to be less minority, and when, in the meantime, the lay 111 the conflict between the interests of merchants, capitalists and shipping men of the despotic, and he dreamed of a nation made up Republicans under William McKinley and Theo­ of communities like the Virginia he knew and dore Roosevelt had exercised an absolute control great seaboard towns, supported by most of the planters and men of large estate outside of loved, communities mainly agricultural, con­ of national policy in a manner almost un­ trolled by independent farmers without great paralleled for thoroughness or for popular sup­ Virginia, and the interests of the farmers and backwoodsmen of the frontier regions. These extremes of wealth and poverty, and with a port. it was not strange that a frequent question simple and inexpensive government mainly local was "Has not the Democratic party outlived individualistic frontiersmen, living far from the seats of wealth and authority, and naturally in its nature. The tragedy in Jefferson's situa­ its usefulness?" Yet in the space of a dozen tion as a statesman lies in the fact that though he years a President elected and re-elected by the democratic in their point of view, looked with suspicion and hostility upon Hamilton's program used all the arts of the politician, he comforted Democratic party was to secure the enactment himself with the belief that they were tempo­ in his first term of the most remarkable pro­ of protective tariffs, of a privately owned United States Bank, a standing army, and in general a rary devices; he felt that he was not setting up gram of legislation in the history of Congress a proletarian despotism, that eventually class and in his second term to fill a place in world powerful central government controlled by "the wise, the good, and the rich," operating, so the selfishness would disappear, that he could lead affairs of an importance denied to any Ameri­ the masses into a noble renunciation of all can before his time. Again, in more recent frontier farmers believed, to the profit of a despotic power. But oi course such ideals could history, the Republican landslides of 1920, 1924, vague eastern money power, and tending also, not be realized. Though the political triumph and 1928 seemed to condemn the Democrats to as Jefferson and others among Hamilton's oppo­ of ] efferson's party was complete, so much so a permanent minority position and led many ob­ nents believed, toward monarchy and the loss of that after 1816 there was no organized party servers to look for a third party better adapted the liberties gained by the Revolution. opposition. the party itself gradually was tran;­ to the role of a party of protest under modern It was to this body of voters and their local formed through the influences brought to bear economic conditions. A review of the history of leaders that Jefferson turned in his effort to by classes and by sections and hy the impact political parties in the United States is illumi­ build a party in opposition to Hamilton and the of foreign complications and foreign war. nating whenever their future is under discussion. Federalists. He was the most gifted and tire­ The period from 1815 to 1824 is traditionally What is the origin of political parties in the less political organizer America has ever had. known as "the Era of Good Feeling" because in United States, and what purpose do they serve? -~. sincere idealist, he was also a realist in po­ this period organized party opposition did not T~e. cynic: to be sure, will answer that parties litical methods. His alliances with such men of exist. Nominally there was but one party. But ongmate 111 the desire of politicians to control wealth and aristocratic connections as Charles forces were at work revolutionizing American offices and that their platforms are made to life and in 1828 these forces brought about a help them into office. Unfortunately there is revolution in the politics of the nation. Chief only too much material in our political history A program of Extension Classes a_mong many forces of the time may be men­ to support such a view; but it is nevertheless available each day will be found a false view. \Vith all their faults and short- on page four. tiOned the westward expansion of the population (Contimted Oil page two) The Interpreter

.T,:.j Interpreter Political Parties •·, ,P, monthly, except July_ and August, by the en Extension Division, University of Min- nesota; at Minneapolis. Entered as second-class matter, October 2, 1926, (Continued from page one) It is superfluous to characterize Lincoln. His at the post office In Minneapolis, Minn., under the with a demand for western recognition in poli­ story is the immortal legend of American his­ Act of August 24, 1912. tics and especially free homesteads, the birth of tory. Lincoln may be said to have combined in Richard R. Price ------Director a labor movement in the East, with a demand his philosophy the best features of both J effer­ Advisory Committee for free education, and finally the coming of son and Hamilton, and he believed the prime T. A. H. Teeter H. B. Gislason universal male suffrage. In the election of 1828 aim of government was to lift the weights from I. W. Jones A. H. Speer the frontiersmen of the West and the organized the shoulders of all men. Curtis E. Avery - -- Editor laborers of the eastern cities united to elect The period of our history from the death of FEBRUARY, 1937 Andrew Jackson to the office of President and Lincoln to the election of McKinley in 1896 is began the Democratic party, soon to be opposed on the whole the most colorless and the least by the party made up of all the elements opposed creditable in our whole political history. It was to Jackson and known as the Whig party. a period of tremendous expansion of commerce English Placement Tests Andrew Jackson is one of the great and origi­ and industry, of the unexampled growth of pri­ nal figures of our history. Only America could vate fortunes, and of ruthless exploitation of All students who plan to register in have produced his like. His success was great the natural growth of the country. Politics at­ the second semester for Freshman Eng­ and his career memorable ; but it is doubtful if tracted only commonplace men, public morality lish (Composition 4) must take the place­ he understood the forces of his time or had any was low, corruption in both city and national ment test prescribed by the University. settled philosophy of government beyond three politics was widespread and party platforms Students who took this test in high school things, namely, his firm belief in himself as the usually ignored or evaded the real problems of ~ithin recent years need not take the test tribune of the people, his faith in and love for our national life. Henry Adams exaggerates again, but such students should apply to the common man, and his burning nationalism. only slightly when he writes that he surveyed the office of the General Extension Divi­ His policy as President showed no trace of the whole range of national politics from 1870 sion at once for placement in Composi­ sectionalism. Its aim was the welfare of the to 1895 and found nothing but damaged repu­ 1 tion 4. masses irrespective of section. To him state tations. ... The schedule for the English Placement lines had little meaning; sectional lines, abso­ Once again there arose on the Western I Tests is as follows: lutely none. Frontier in 1896 an apostle of pioneer democ­ 7:30 Thursday February 4, Room 110, Folwell Jackson had only very crude ideas either of racy, one of whom it has been said, "Blessed Hall, Campus economics or of the civil service and many evils are those who mean well, for they shall be 7 :30 Thursday February 11, Room 110, Folwell were to flow from his decisions. He had, how­ spared the labor of thought." William J. Bryan Hall, Campus ever, a very dear and strong conviction of the believed and preached the doctrines of Andrew 7 :30 Thursday February 4, St. Paul Extension national character of the Union and his prompt Jackson. The issue of "free silver" in 1896 was Center 200 and fearless action against nullification as well not the true issue; it covered the much deeper as his speeches and proclamations setting forth sources of discontent, especially the discontent his reasons sank deep into the hearts of fol­ of the laboring masses. For the first time since A Merry Life lowers and opponents. Far more than Daniel 1860 there was a clear alignment of issues and Webster, he made "peaceable secession" im­ of leadership. The Republican appeal was frank­ Independence, security, freedom to travel, possible. ly to business men and to energetic leaders. flexible working hours, and prestige are the With the passing of Jackson and the rise of This appeal, backed by vastly superior organiza­ happy lot of the professional writer. sectionalism due to the slavery issue on the one tion, campaign funds and means of publicity, No one ever fires a writer, because he is not hand and the unprecedented economic changes won a decided victory. Bryan's leadership ap­ working for one particular boss, but for many. on the other, and marked by violent agitation peared to be discredited. The Republican party He is never out of a job. The writer can and by shifty evasions and compromises on the entered upon a new lease of power and prestige. travel ; his office is where he hangs his hat and part of the political leaders, shortly after 1850 Nevertheless, the future was to show that Bryan, opens his portable. If he does not feel like the Whig party was destroyed by sectional dis­ naive as some of his remedies may have been, working on Monday he can go fishing and work sension and the Democratic party was demoral­ had unerringly pointed the way for the modern all day Tuesday. Old age does not bar him ized by the same forces. And because the old Democratic party to follow. There has long from the business. His friends admire him, and parties could not cope with the new problems, heen a need for a national party which shall ladies seek him out. a new and vigorous third party arose-the Re­ consider its primary function that of insuring There is only one small requirement to be publican party, which had its origin in the the protection of the citizen in the liberties met before embarking upon his blissful life ; frontier traditions of personal liberty and the promised him under the American form of gov­ that is, to become a successful writer. demand of the western pioneer for "free land ernment and of improving and safeguarding the and free men." In Lincoln's homely phrase, well conditions under which the average man and understood on the frontier, "they wanted a clean woman must live and work. Neither of the two Words bed with no snakes in it." But the Republican great parties has ever fully realized and met :\lyriad lovely words party, under the leadership of shrewd and capa­ the need, but the aims and achievements of the Are imprisoned ble political managers came to mean much more two Democratic administrations that have held Between the than the party opposed to slavery extension. It power since 1896 seem to indicate a growing Covers of the stood not only for free labor and free home­ realization of the necessity for such a program. Dictionary. steads for settlers, but it stood for the protection There is need also of a party which shall But until of industry and of the standards of American champion the interests of industry and property, labor and for a national system of finance. It We speak them­ the interests of the conservative classes. Plain­ was the radical party of America in its early Write them­ ly, the Democratic party as it exists today can­ years, or the progressive party, while the Demo­ Love them, not satisfy this need. It has taken its stand cratic party was the conservative party. Under They are only very definitely as the party of the masses. The Black marks the leadership of Lincoln, the Republican party Republicans are the heirs and logical successors On white paper. carried the country through the Civil War and -Olive Stoddard. (Reprinted from Word re-established the Union. Its greatest contribu­ of the Federalists and the Whigs who were the Study.) tion to our history is probably Lincoln himself. conservatives of the early period. I "' lor February, 193'1 3

New Classes for the Second Semester Calendar '~ I January 25, Monday-Registration, second semester, begins. The following classes have been arranged and Athletics for the purpose of providing in" February 1 to 5-Examinations, first se­ struction and practice in some of the sports men especially for the second semester ; they are mester. not listed in the bulletin. may always enjoy; these are badminton, dia­ February 6, Saturday-First semester closes. Mental Hygiene mond ball, handball, volley ball, shuffle board, February 8, Monday-Second semester Factors and mechanisms influencing and squash, table tennis. Members of the class may classes begin. building, maintenance and defense of mental make their own choice among those sports, any February 13, Saturday-Last day for reg­ health; factors underlying deviations from men­ or all of them, in which the equipment and istration without extra fee. tal health, applied to the individual at various instruction will be available. In addition there April 5, Monday-Mid-semester grades due. ages, to special groups, and to the community. will be the privilege open to all students of May 31 to June 5-Examinations, second se­ Three credits, in Colleges of Education and using the golf gymnasium, golf course, swim­ mester. ming pools, tennis courts, etc. The fee for the Science, Literature, and the Arts. Prerequisites June 5, Saturday-S~cond semester closes. for credits, Psychology 1-2, or equivalent. class is $5, payable at registration. The fee for locker and towel service is $1.25, payable at Fee $10. first meeting. A complete uniform, except shoes, vanguard of the romantic revolt in literature A class that always has a wide appeal when­ including gym shirt, supporter, track pants, against classicism. ever it is offered. Dr. Charles E. Shepard, who socks and sweat suit may be rented for one Classicism was pre-eminently the literature of will conduct the class, is a new member of the polite society, and it was as conventional as the faculty of the Medical School. dollar. Soiled equipment may be exchanged for clean without extra charge. Class limited to 50. society for which it was written. It was urban Radio Speaking in a double sense: it dealt with the social aris­ A class for every one who may some time Fundamentals of Speech 2 and 3 tocracy and its chief virtue was, not originality, have to speak over the radio-which includes a An additional section continuing the class in but flawless execution of the recognized forms large section of society. Not primarily a course Speech 1, meeting at 6 :20 Monday. of poetry, notal'i:ll" ;\l,e heroic couplet. It was in training for the professional radio announcer. highly intellectua"l; 'inUf«:sonal, and reflected the Clean, quiet precision in enunciation and articu­ Current Books and Plays rule of Jt#son a!xJ~t?f ~~mon sense which was lation, without pedantry, is the first require­ A series of ten weekly reviews of strictly the intel~ctual 'fashion of the time. ment; the second is the ability to read aloud current literature, with especial emphasis on It ign&oo the natural beauty of the country, properly, so that it does not sound like reading. the plays of the current New York season. Miss human belb~s' in the humbler walks of life, and Both, matters that are applicable to practically Helen Acker, who will conduct the class, will the early literature of England as not sufficient­ all speech situations, with or without the radio. be in New York during January and February, ly refined. It took as its ideal of perfection the Class will "recite" over microphones and loud reviewing and interviewing, and on her return Latin literature of the Augustan period and as speakers, developing the necessary qualities of will be especially well prepared on all of the its models Virgil and Horace. the "unseen" voice. No credit. No prerequisites. contemporary literary output that can be dis­ Romanticism revolted against this coldness, Fee $10. cussed with profit in such a class. The meet­ this urbanity, this conventionality. It em­ A practical class, which will be taught by ings will start Wednesday, March 3, and close phasized the importance of the emotions and Mr. E. W. Ziebarth, Instructor in Speech, who Wednesday, May 5. No credit; no prerequisites. the imagination to which it gave free play. It comes to us from the University of Wisconsin Fee $6. St. Paul Extension Center. discovered new sources of pleasure in the beau­ where he has had much experience in broad­ ties of nature, and new depths of emotion-es­ casting, in conducting radio speech classes, and Bible as Literature pecially pity-and even moral inspiration in the in radio teaching. A study of the Bible with relation to the contemplation of the lives of humble folk. It Recreational Activities for Men history and biography out of which it grew. found in medieval life and thought, with its This class is offered through the Intramural Taught by Dr. John Walker Powell. Replaces spirit of adventure, its idealism, its superstition, Office of the Department of Physical Education the cancelled Kipling class. a tremendous stimulus to its imagination. It discovered, or rather rediscovered, the emotional potentiality of the mysterious, whether it be the The Romantic Movement supernatural, or the great mystery of life itself or that even greater mystery of death. There was inevitably a change in the works which (Editor's Note: Following are extracts from rather than upon existing institutions, traditions, aroused its admiration and challenged imitation. lessons one and two of Introduction to Litera­ and conventions. It rejected the bondage of the rhymed couplet ture III, a course offered by the Correspondence This insistence upon the· freedom of the and sought new forms to express its newly Study Department. The same course will be individual and his attempts to escape from the found freedom of thought and feeling. offered during the second semester in regular restraints imposed upon him by political organ­ These various characteristics are shown in classes both on the camPus aud in St. Paul.) izations or social conventions constitute the the works of the precursors of the Romantic outstanding characteristics of the Romantic Movement during the eighteenth century. The Romantic Movement is usually limited Movement. It is this fact also which makes it Thomson illustrates to nature; Col­ to a period of about thirty years dating from difficult, if not impossible, to give any adequate lins the use of the supernatural ; Young and the publication of the Lyrical Ballads by Words­ definition of it. Its manifestations are as vari­ Gray the interest in death and in melancholy worth and Coleridge in 1798 to the death of ous as the personalities and interests of the as poetic themes ; Macpherson, Chatterton, and Byron in 1824. It gets its name and its signifi­ various writers who contributed to it. There Percy the revival of medievalism. The group cance from the fact that it was a conscious had been, of course, periods in the history of of writers near the close of the century, Crabbe revolt against the classic tradition that had English literature when writers were un­ and Cowper and Burns, who were the more predominated during nearly the whole of the restrained by literary tradition-notably the immediate predecessors, in spirit as well as in eighteenth century. Like the political revolu­ Elizabethan-and also occasional writers who time, of Wordsworth, show the influence of the tions it was based upon a belief that every man refused to be bound by the accepted conventions political and social revolutionary ideas that had a right to an equal opportunity for the of their time. Just as there were many politi­ were prevalent. They bring into their writings development of his own powers, and that the cal events which foreshadowed the political that interest in common people and that human­ emphasis in political and social thought should revolutions, so also in the eighteenth century itarian feeling which was so characteristic of be put upon the individual and his happiness there were numerous writers who formed the Wordsworth. 4 The Interpreter for February 193'1 ------Program of Extension Classes Available Each Day

MONDAY French for Graduate Students 7:30p.m. Engineering Drawing 2 Nineteenth Century French Readings 69 Bacteriological :\fethods 152 Structural Drafting 22 CLASSES IX J!I.''/NEAPOLIS Spanish Composition 20b Orchestra, Section 1 Advanced :.\Iechanical Drawing 29 Advanced Swedish II Optics 33 Advanced Air Conditioning 4:30 p.m. Science and Civilization 2 Diesel Engines Sti11 Life and Pose Elements of Criminology 53 Swimming·-\\~omen Aircraft Engines 2 8:05p.m. 6:00 p.m. Practical Speech Making (December 29- Freehand Drawing, Ad\·anced American Sculpture and Painting Vocabulary Building March 16) Elements of Electrical Engineering Parliamentary Law 6:20p.m. Speech 2 (1'\orthwestern Bank Bldg. 603) Elementary Air Conditioning General Psychology 2 Minnesota Plant Life Speech 3 (Northwestern Bank Bldg. 603) Internal Combustion Engines 1foclern Norwegian Literature 53 , Child TrainitH< '\(l·(~rthwestern Bank Supervision of Public Health Nursing Foundry Practice Income Tax Accounting 1 Bldg.) !ental Hygiene Work Speech 2 10:00 a.m. General Psych"altog~- .Z .o. . 6:30 p.m. Speech 3 Swimming-\\" omen (t_Tniv. Farm Gym.) Beginning Spanish 2 ··:, Elementary Golf fur \\'omen Elements of Public Finance 6:20p.m. Intermediate Spanish 4 7 :00 p.m. Reinforced Concrete and Concrete Introduction to Sociology Book Reviews Freshman Composition 5 , Design 142 Social Interaction AnaJytical Geometry Advanced \\'riting 28 Speech 2 Integral Calculus Beginning German 2 Speech 3 7 30 CLASSES IN ST. PAUL Science and Civilization 2 I Rural Organization 1-l.O ... -- : p.m. Principles of Accounting B and Labo- Acting Special Bacteriology 102 4:15p.m. Bible as Literature raton· (;eneral Zoology 2 Child Psycholo&"y 80 D Interior Decorating 3 Orchestra, Sectwn 2 4:30p.m. Investn~ents-Financc Health of the School Child Elementary Golf-Women Business Law A 1 Cost Accounting B (AIB) (First 1'\atl. Principles of Accounting A Freehand Drawing, Beginning Bank Bldg.) 7:00p.m. I Principles of Accounting B and Labora- Chemistry, Qualitative Analysis !2ex 6:20p.m. Swirnming-\\"omen (University Farm ' tory 26L Chemistry, Quantitative Analysis (Vol· Gym.) 1 Auditing B umetric) 2ex Introduction to Literature 23 Radio Script \\.riting I Chemtstry, Ouantitati•e Analysis (Pre Intermediate German 4 8:05p.m. I! ... " Rural Sociology 14 Freshman Composition 4 Corporation Finance B • •· ·• Medical) 7ex Business Correspondence ...'- ·"'-, Chemtstry, Advanced Quantitative Anal- Vocabulary Building II Practical Speech :Making (December 31· Accounting Topics 182A-Audits and C It I · 124-125 .>1arch 18) .asua Y nsurance 1 \•~ .~~ ~ysisll.rves and Earthwork Investigations Labor Legislation and Social Insurance 6:30 p.m. . ··~ · ~- se of Engineer's Slide Rule Retail Advertising Swtmmm_g~\\ omen . ~!"' ·j . ost Estimating Business Correspondence lntermedtate Go!~-;-\\ om~n .... ksting of Petroleum Products 7:00p.m. FRIDAY RecreatiOnal Acttvtttes-\VIethods !52 Elements and Principles of Accounting Elements of Mechanics (AlB) (Xorthwestern Bank Bldg. ~wimming-\\.omen CLASSES IN ST. PAL'L THURSDAY 603) Rhvthmic Exercises-\Vomen 7:00p.m. El~mentarv Aeronautics and Airplane 4:00p.m. CLASSES l:V Jl/NNEAPOLIS Introduction to Educational Statistics 60 Consultation Period (Engineering Stu­ ConstruCtion II 4:15p.m. dents) Commercial Drawing 2 6:20p.m. Introduction to Educational Statistics Elements of Electrical Engineering Shakespeare 56 60 (Northwestern Bank Bldg. 603) ~~ etallography 24 Modern \\' orld History 2 CLASSES IN ST. PAU'L General Psychology 2 ( Puhllc J.ihrary 4:20p.m. 8:05p.m. General Psychology 2 6:20p.m. Seminar in \\"riting 92 Aud.) Abnormal Psychology 145 Beginning French 2 6:20p.m. Puppetry Beginning Spanish 2 Freshman Composition (for Engi· Principles of Accounting B and Labo· Elementary French Conversation 20b Principles of Accounting A and B and Swimming-~fen neers) ratorr Elements of Accounting Laboratory (Combined) German Composition 5!-52 Principles of Accounting A & B and Personnel Administration B.A.167 Principles of Economics 6 English History 6 Laboratory (Combined) Business English 8:05p.m. Introduction to Economic History 81-82 Freshman Literature 2 Current Problems in Light of American 7:00p.m. Elementary Algebra Analytical Geometry Recreational Activities for lien Parliamentary Law History Social Interaction Introduction to Music 9-10 Income Tax Accounting I Logic CLASSES IN ST. PAUL Principles of Economics 7 Beginning Norwegian 1 4:30p.m. Principles of Case \\" ork Survey of Accounting (AlB) (First Elements of Play Production WEDNESDAY Radio Speaking !\at!. Bank Bldg.) Puppetry 6:20p.m. CLASSES IN MINNEAPOLIS Elementary School Curricu­ Entered as second-class matter October t, 1926, American History 8 lum 119 at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn., under Psychological Aspects of Social Case 2:00-3:30 p.m. Principles of Accounting E the Act of August !~, 191f. \York (Wilder Disp.) Interior Decorating I (Mpls. Pub. Lib.) and Laboratory 26L Speech 2 6:20p.m. (Northwestern Bank Speech 3 Bldg. 603) Cost Accounting B Practical and Stellar Astronomy Taxonomy of Flowering Plants Advanced Ad\·ertising Pro­ Accounting Practice and Procedure B cedure Business Law B Subfreshman Composition Retail Credits and Collec· Freshman Composition 4 8:05p.m. Freshman Literature 2 tions 67ex Child Training 40 Advanced Economics 104 American Literature 74 Transportation Services and Current Problems in Light of American Art for Every Day 120 History Charges 72 i ~,...... __ Geography of Minnesota 47 ...... _. ~ -;._~--. Speech 1 Wagner's Ring of the Nibelungeu Shop Mathematics II Accounting Practice and Procedure B Music for Every Day 6:30p.m. Accounting Systems 140Bex American Political Parties Accounting Practice and Corporation Finance Introductory Laboratory Psychology Procedure B ( !\' orthwest­ Business Law D Beginning French 2 ern Bank Bidg.) Beginning Swedish 8 TUESDAY Speech I 7:00p.m. General Zoology 2 . Portraiture CLASSES IX Jf!NNEAPOLIS Advanced Interior Decoratmg 22 7:30p.m. 4:30p.m. Orientation in Simple Handiet·afts Special Bacteriology 102' Bank Principles of Accounting B Bible as Literature (Northwestern Investments-Finance 0 Tuberculosis and Its Con- VERA liAKIVIRTA Bldg.) Business Cycles. Ec. 149 trol 6:20p.m. Business Law D Chemistry. Qualitative Anal­ DIV. OF LIBRARY INSTRUCT ON Freshman Composition Principles of Economics 6 vsis 12ex Freshman Composition 6 Hydraulics 130 Ch~emistry, Quantitative LIBRARY, U. OF UINN. Geography of Asia 120 6:30p.m. Analysis (Volumetric) Zex Historical Geology 2 Swimming-\\. omen Chemistry, Quantitative MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA American History 8 Analysis (Pre·~1ed.) 7ex Harmony 4 7:00p.m. Functions of Government Elementary Neuro-Anatomy Chemistry, Advanced Quan· Intermediate French 4 College Algebra titative Analysis /;-<:~'·,; !~"/ . The Interpreter ' I Published by the General Extension Division, University of Minnesota EDUCATION A UFELONG PROC£SS

VoL. XI MARCH, 1937 No.7

Stop the Waste By Algernon H. Speer RADIO AND CULTURE Head of Correspmzdence Study Department Recently Director Richard R. Price of not by sufferance but by established and recog­ the University of Minnesota E:rtensioll nized right. The educational broadcaster, and chemist and physicist are continuously THE Division, chairman of the university radio particularly the university or college broad­ working on waste. To many of them the committee, delivered an address before the caster, will aim at a certain level of the popu­ greatest thrill is to get something out of noth­ Natimwl Conference 011 Educational Broad­ lation and be perfectly content if he is reachinrr ing, to produce value out of the apparently castill_r/ in Washi11gton, D.C. Following is only a minority, provided it be the right and valueless. Stately trees are brought low and part of the text of this address. the significant minority. There is a place for the denuded ground is strewn with waste. The quality as well as for quantity in the radio steam plant devours the black diamond and re­ audience. turns only thirty-five per cent in power. The By Richard R. Price At this point we should pause to clear up scientist seeks methods of turning this waste FEW years ago the educational station some misconceptions about educational broad­ into profit. Individuals have twenty-four hours A which I represent was haled against its casting. No thoughtful person thinks that anv­ to their credit each day, but the mental grist will before the bar of the then Federal Radio one can be educated through the medium of the of the average person is negligible; much of Commission by a local commercial station. We radio, whatever may be the excellence of the our thinking time goes to waste. We do not were confronted with the heinous charge that program. Education does not come that way. construct worthwhile ideas in our spare time. our station was cluttering up the air with a Education is not produced by pouring informa­ Nature is thrifty. It conserves every element, miscellaneous educational program that appealed tion over a passive subject. There is required puts it in its proper place, and forms full-valued to a relatively small minority of the population, on the part of the student an effort of the mind products. Man is extravagant and thoughtless, while the masses preferred the program put out and the will, an application of the mental ener­ allowing these products and ingredients to dif­ by the commercial station. On that ground the gies to mastery of subject matter. No one by fuse themselves and scatter without use. The Commission was petitioned to put us off the air listening to radio lectures (or classroom lec­ problem of life is to save. and to allot the time to one who could make it tures for that matter) on the subject of astron­ Turning wood waste to use is a good illus­ produce revenue. omy becomes even an amateur astronomer. No tration of how to get the best out of the worst. Now I submit that True Confessions prob­ one by listening to radio lectures on Shake­ West Coast hemlock was out of favor until a ably has a larger circulation than the Atlantic speare becomes a Shakespearian scholar. It is few years ago, despised by mechanic and artisan Monthly, and that some of the tabloids are necessary for him to read and reread Shake­ alike. Even the courts ruled against it when more widely read than are the New York speare and to follow out the lines of inquiry substitution of it for other woods was planned. Times or the Boston Transcript. Yet no one suggested by the content. So with music and Now the chemist finds that its alpha cellulose moves to bar the better magazines from the other subjects. content is very high and that the ravon made therefrom is of the best. It, together ~ith other mails or to denounce their production as a In what then resides the value of educational waste of paper and ink. woods, furnishes basic tannins, resins and ad­ broadcasting? There are some incidental and ditional widely used by-products. In the pulp \Ve must reconcile ourselves to the fact that supplementary values, but there are I think mills, even the waste liquor of the sulfite proc­ educational broadcasting will be furnished to a two main factors. For want of bett~r terms I minority audience, that the mass of the people ess is now used as a valuable road treatment. will call one STIMULUS and the other IN­ Washington's law, "burn the wood waste" is will not be interested. But what of it? Edu­ FORMATION. now ignored in the face of the marvelous' by­ cational broadcasting will be automatically selec­ A listener hears a radio talk on William the products developed. Dr. Charles H. Herty, tive. It will choose its own audience. It will Conqueror and the Battle of Hastings. He says: Director of the Pulp and Paper Laboratory, speak to those people who in the long run will "That sounds interesting; I'd like to know more Savannah, Georgia, offers to the world the finest constitute the informed public opinion of this about it." So he consults his librarian and be­ of book papers and rayon from the slash pine country and who furnish the stimulus and the gins to read some book like Freeman's Nor­ of the South. Ugly waste is transformed into power to all the movements for the betterment man England. That leads to other books and beautiful things. Losses are transmuted into of human conditions. The educational creed is the first thing we know he has become a life­ gains. that ideas and not sensual stimulations ulti­ long student of history. Another listener hears Cellophane! Does that word stir your imag­ mately prevail and will ultimately make the a radio lecture on Hamlet. He becomes in­ ination? In twelve years of experimentation best contribution to social well-being. terested and forthwith he reads Hamlet. He the uses of cellophane have increased from fancy The educational broadcast, then, will not finds that hearing about a work of art and read­ wrapping paper to Milady's hats and shoes, the make a mass appeal any more than will art ing it are two different things. One play leads housewife's curtains and draperies, the man's museums, natural history museums, symphony to another and the result is that he finds solace rain garments and the electrician's wire wrap­ concerts, or books on serious or scholarly sub­ from the cares of the world in wanderinrr per. It has been used for Dr. Jean Piccard's jects. Yet we as a people cannot do without through the realms of gold. So one hears : stratosphere balloons. Cellophane's base, cellu­ one any more than the other if we are to retain lecture on the sun and is thereby stimulated lose, yields to many treatments and emerges into or advance our place as a civilized societv. to a protracted study of astronomy; another many commodities. It also comes from many There can be no argument against the use ~f hears Beethoven with critical comments and at sources as well as from wood. Let us consider the radio for entertainment, recreation and the once buys a set of records and settles down to the story of the cotton linter. lighter interests of life. But it is imperative a careful study of the Master. These typical Cotton linters are the very short and humble that serious matters concerning culture, social cases could, of course, be multiplied. So much fibers which surround the cotton seed. Build and economic theories, significant literature, for STIMULUS. (Continued on page two) philosophy and national ideals also have a place, (Continued 011 page three) 2 The Interpreter for March, 1937 The Interpreter L___ Published monthly, exce~t July and August, py s__ to_p_t_h_e_W_a_s_t_e __ _.l I,___ P_r_e_Iu_d_e_to_W_r_it_in_g _ _.. the General Extension Division, University of Mm­ nesota. at Minneapolis. Entered as second-class matter, October 2, 1926, (Contilzued from page one) (Below is a brief extract from the new C rwrespondence at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn., under the Study Course in Independent Writing.) Act of August 24, 1912. your story from a few linters with each seed; Now you must write! There is something Richard R. Price ------Director a few seeds in each boll ; a few bolls on each which you know and which the rest of the Adt•isory Committee stalk ; a few stalks on each square foot of ground and you soon appreciate how the physi­ world does not know and understand as well T. A. H. Teeter H. B. Gislason as you. Whatever that something is, it is your I. W. Jones A. H. Speer cist and chemist have delved into the hidden material. Now write about your narrow corner Curtis E. Avery -- --- Editor places of nature, found a tiny thing of worth and made it mighty in the eyes of the working as if your life depended on it. Then throw away what you have written, and begin again. That MARCH, 1937 world. In 1935, 27,000,000 pounds of cotton linters were extracted from cotton bolls by one first writing was really just thinking on paper. business firm alone. This represented a cellulose There are two principles which include most yield from 1,700,000 acres of southern cotton of everything that has ever been said about Puppetry land. The small linter cellulose was accom­ writing in any textbook. The first is: Know panied by other larger basic ingredients from what 3'011 are writing about. This means not only that you must know your subject, but that By Deborah Meader the cotton boll, the cotton seed, the cotton stalk, and the cotton bagasse. you must know what your subject is-something UPPETRY has a very old and honorable Other vegetable products transformed by the that is far more important and far more difficult P history, not only as a means of entertain­ magician scientist yield interesting by-products, than it appears at first. The second principle ment but as an art and as an aid to teaching. lacquers, varnishes, plastics, rugs, furniture, in­ is this: Be clear. All the rules you ever learned 1 It has been used to teach religion and for arlult sulations-even fabricated houses. The packing about grammar, punctuation, paragraph con­ education in the misuse of government since his­ house is yielding its share of animal by-products, struction-all these were simply means to clar­ tory began. Even the tragical comedy of Mr. from fertilizers to gelatines and perfumes. ity. But they are not enough. Perfect clarity Punch and his wife Judy carried its message The story of one more product, that of Mus­ comes from understanding your reader, and of successful revolt of the common man against cat raisin-seed oil, will illustrate man's success understanding yourself. It comes from writing authority, even against the Devil himself. At in utilizing waste products. The producing com­ simply, directly, and without ostentation. last the church authorities introduced the croc­ pany calls it the "extraction of the final squeal Write about things you know! Write simply! odile to destroy Punch in the end, feeling they of the pig out of the raisin industry." Of the Write clearly! Above all-write. must demonstrate that his wild, unmoral actions three kinds of raisins most commonly grown could not but result in disaster to him. in California, only one, the Thompson, is seed­ Puppetry is now recognized as a form of less. The Sultana seeds are not noticable, but Esperanto visual education that has peculiar advantages. the seeds of the Muscat raisin are numerous, It is creative, not mechanical. There is need forming two-thirds of its small and sugary body, (Esperanto is among the unusual subjects offered by for stimulating creative effort in mechanized and were despised and rejected of men. The the Correspondence Study Department. The course America. The appeal of puppetry to the imag­ was written by Mr. Lehman Wendell, who has taught scientist became savior. He made these seeds, this subject since 1927. Mr. Wendell is the author ination as well as its unique linking of the which have only "fifteen per cent of oil and of of a number of books in Esperanto, and is recognized arts and handicraft with the drama is of great which only ten per cent can be extracted," yield as atn international authority on this unique language. value. Even the actors themselves may he an oil, an exceptional product, which is the base He is vice-president of the American Esperanto Acad­ created by the participants. People whose in­ emy. In the short article which follows, Mr. Wendell of the finest facial creams. explains what Esperanto is, and tells something of •ts nate dramatic urge has been so inhibited through Do not these adventures of the physicist and growing importance.) shyness that they have denied its very existence, the chemist suggest to you that man should, by Although Esperanto has been in existence for find an opportunity for self-expression. While planned ingenuity, dig down deep into the protected by the screen, they gain confidence to fifty years, there are still persons who have precious minutes of his twenty-four hours of never heard the word, to say nothing of knowing demonstrate their dramatic ability, and success time, and make these minutes yield a by-product gives them courage to face an audience later. what the word stands for. Esperanto is a semi­ of thinking and knowledge,-yes, and of mental artificial language created by Dr. L. L. Zamen­ Those who seek the spot-light are benefited by health and youthfulness too? being forced into the shadow where the em­ hof of Warsaw, Poland, and first made public in Charles Lamb, after clerking hours, wrote phasis is on achievement not on personality and 1887. It is intended as an auxiliary or sec­ words that became classic. During his bumpy appearance. When subject matter that may in­ ondary language to be used in written or oral trips in the old phaeton, Dr. S. Weir Mitchell clude folktale, fantasy, satire, or history is added communication with those who do not under­ wrote sometimes three words, sometimes thirty to this you have a unique dramatic instrument. stand one's native tongue. Obviously, then, it' words or even three pages until the novel, Hugh Look for a moment at the different kinds of aim is not to supplant but merely to supplement lVJ• 11 ne, was completed. Sir William Hershel!, puppets. the national languages. the musician, by study in his odd moments be­ Esperanto's claim to universality rests upon Figures attached to and handled by a st~ck came a great astronomer. J. E. Barnard, a the fact that both its grammar and its vocab­ are called stick puppets. They usually provide hatter became a physicist and optician. The ulary are based upon the European languages for a single motion, which is made by moving prope~ use of spare time made Darwin a biol­ of today. The grammar consists of sixteen ex­ a wire attached to the movable parts up or down ogist. Lincoln studied law in and out of the ceptionless rules, so brief that they can be on the stick. This kind is best adapted to small old general store in Salem, Illinois. All these printed on a postal card, yet so fundamental in children or to adults who are not interested in persons, and many others, followed their hob­ their scope that they constitute the essence of acquiring a complicated technique. For ex­ bies into fame. all grammar. The Esperanto vocabulary con­ ample, the Community Chest of St. Pa~l suc­ "The crime of the age is the waste of leisure sists of a select list of root words taken from cessfullv used stick shadows in their dnve for time for what we earn we put into our pockets, the chief modern European languages, being funds. . They portrayed what would happen to but ~hat we spend in leisure time we put into slightly modified to meet the requirements of private agencies if contributions were n~t forth­ our characters." the Esperanto grammar. coming. Their performances were given by VVith its fundamental rules and its inter­ volunteer groups of young people who could national vocabulary Esperanto serves as an give only a limited time to rehearsal. Per­ "The stroke of the great humourist is world­ ideal aid to the acquisition of other languages. formances were generally addressed to adults. wide, with lights of Tragedy in his laughter." (Continued on page five) (Co111inued on page six) George Meredith, The Idea of Comedy The Interpreter lor March, 1931 3

Miss Caplin Gives Radio and Culture Lectures at U.C.L.A. (University of Minnesota extension students will be in· (Continued from page 1) of the American public is going to insist that terested in the following extract from an article which either through Congressional action or through appeared in the Extension Division News of the Uni· Under the head of INFORMATION come action by the Commission educational broadcast­ versity of California at Los Angel... ) the various items which tend to make men well ing be given its fair share of the use of the "Popularity of a course which she gave tor informed and also to give him a critical and the Extension Division of the University of analytical habit of mind. He hears an address best channels. one night from Mr. Thomas on the tenets of The second obstacle involves money. A plan California in Los Angeles last year is bringing Socialism. On another occasion he hears Mr. such as I have outlined would be expensive. Miss Jessie Caplin, nationally known expert in Browder set forth the social philosophy under­ There would be no revenues, since advertising textiles, back to this city for a special series .. lying Communism. He does not become a is barred. A small license fee on receiving sets of Extension lectures next month. socialist or a communist, but he does learn that has been suggested. That method has worked "Miss Caplin comes from the General Exten­ these words are not mere fighting epithets but well in other countries, largely because those sion Division of the University of Minnesota represent principles which certain men believe peoples have known no other, but it is doubtful where she is instructor in textiles. Her courses are unique inasmuch as demonstrations and and cherish. So he hears the principles and if it would be acceptable to Americans. I have simple tests given in the classroom may be theories of the Constitution expounded, first no categorical answer for this problem ; I offer immediately put to practical application. They from one point of view and then from another. only a hint. In view ·Jf the large sums of are of particular value to laundry and dry­ He learns what the practices of Public Health money that have been spent in this country on cleaning establishments personnel and retail and mean for him and for his family. He learns relatively unimportant projects, would it be too the various conflicting theories of our economic wholesale merchants and employees, to the con­ great an imposition on the sagacity of construc­ and social relations. And so on. If he re­ sumers, and indeed, to anyone interested in the tive statesmanship to budget the few millions flects on these matters, he becomes in course of increasingly large number of fabrics appearing required to establish and operate this enter­ time an informed man. For securing ends such on the market today. as these, the educational broadcaster is amply prise? Of this much I am sure. If the Ameri­ "One of the first of the country's textile ex­ justified in using to the fullest extent all the can people, or an influential part thereof, want perts to recognize the value and significance of marvelous resources, mechanical improvements, this, they will somehow provide the necessary synthetic materials, Miss Caplin calls attention and specialized techniques which have been de­ money. to appearance, wide acceptance and the recog­ veloped with astonishing efficiency by the radio The need for educational stations is empha­ nition of the fact that they are the most wear­ industry during the past ten or fifteen years. sized just now by a new development. More able materials available." Specialized educational broadcasting has a valid ant! more independent stations are passing into and legitimate place in the sun and that place the hands of newspapers. This movement is should be yielded to it ungrudgingly. going on now at an accelerating rate. Do we The Monetary Standard At this point it seems advisable to advance care to contemplate a time in this country when once more an idea that has been proposed more public opinion will be influenced, guided, molded (Following is part of lessoH three of Elements of than once by educators who are interested in by the press and the radio under one control? Money and Banking, a course offered by the radio and who see great potential values in Correspondence Study Department The answer is independent stations, particularly broadcasting as an instrument of popular edu­ educational stations, uncontrolled by factions, In March, 1933, President Roosevelt sus­ cation and as an agent in producing informed party, creed or patronage, from which may pended the redemption of Federal Reserve notes public opinion. These men envisage a new in gold. In April, all private parties were or­ national chain with full day and night coverage emanate truth without bias or distortion, facts without fear or favor, critical interpretations and dered to surrender all gold to the U. S. Govern­ and with a suitable wave length allocated to it ment, under penalty of heavy fine and imprison­ analyses of current theories against the back­ exclusively by the Federal Communications ment. On April 20, the President placed an ground of historical experience and philosophy, Commission. All broadcasts over this chain embargo on the export of gold, giving to the would be unsponsored and the independent edu­ discussion without dogma and exposition with­ Treasury the supervision over all gold move­ cational stations would be invited to become out partisanship. Freedom of the press must ments. On June 5, Congress nullified the members on the same basis as the one now used be matched by a separate and distinct freedom famous "gold clause" in American contracts, by the commercial chains. The listening public of the radio if we are to cultivate and maintain private or public. Also, on May 12, Congress would then have a choice, during all the day in this country an intelligent and informed public authorized the President to reduce the standard and evening hours, between commercially spon­ opmwn. Without that sort of public opinion weight of the dollar by not over 50 per cent, sored programs with their weight of advertis­ true democracy in government is not possible. and to vary this weight by proclamation from ing matter and educational programs which The place of the radio station in the univer­ time to time as he might see fit. The price would have to win their way and hold their sity or college is similar to that of the uni­ of one ounce of fine gold later was set at $35.00. audiences by sheer merit of content. That is to say, the weight of one dollar (gold) There are two obstacles in the way of the versity press or the bulletin service. It is a prompt adoption of this plan. I do not con­ means of conveying to the public in general and was set at one thirty-fifth of I oz. One ounce sider them insuperable, though I do acknowledge to interested groups in particular the results of contains 480 grains. On dollar, therefore, was their difficulty. the thinking done by members of the faculty, set by the President at 480 thirty-fifths grains, One obstacle is met in the difficulty of obtain­ or the conclusions arrived at through the ex­ or 13.71 plus grains. He might legally have ing a free channel with an acceptable wave amination and compilation of material. Books reduced the gold content to 11.61 grains. length. Such channels are simply not available and research monographs are too often aimed But since no private person, not even the under the present system. They are the at other scholars and are therefore technical in Federal Reserve System could obtain a dollar licensed possession of commercial stations. Very treatment. The public does not get the benefit of actual gold without Permission from the U. S. well ! The Federal Communications Commission until after a long process of percolation. Radio Treasury, and could not even keep imported or still has available the magic formula "public in­ addresses covering the same subjects demand newly mined gold in possession, could we be terest, convenience, and necessity." And in this directness and simplicity and the total absence said to be on a gold standard? On what formula mark carefully the significant word of scholarly apparatus. In some cases the "standard" are we then under such conditions? "public." The Commission also has in its author cannot do this. Then let capable inter­ Secretary Morgenthau has called it a "managed armory that final drastic weapon "re-alloca­ preters be found who can expound and make gold standard." Do you agree? tion." It is my belief that an influential part clear the findings of original scholars. (Continued on page 6) 4 The Interpreter lor March, 1931 University of Minnesota Correspondence Study Courses 1

Anthropology Introduction to Literature I 5 cr. 27les. Introduction to Anthropology...... 5 cr. 27 les. This issue of The Interpreter should be of Introduction to Literature II ...... 5 cr. 27les. J especial interest to students in the C orre­ Introduction to Literature III ...... 5 cr. 27les. Art Education The English Novel L...... 3 cr. 16 les. spondence Study Department of the General Fundamental Experiences in De- The English Novel IL ...... 3 cr. 16les. ~ sign ...... 3 cr. 16 les. Extension Division. Later English Novel...... 3 cr. 16les. Interior Decoration 3 cr. 16 les. , Shakespeare I . 3 cr. 16les. j Primitive Handicraft .... 3 cr. 16les. Shakespeare II ...... 3 cr. 16 les. I Application of Design to Needle- Educational Sociology . . 5 cr. 27les. American Literature I ..... 3 cr. 16les. craft 3 cr. 16 les. Industrial History of the United American Literature II .. 3 cr. 16les. -I States 2 cr. llles. Subfreshman Composition ($7.50) .. 0 cr. 12les. Astronomy Introduction to Secondary School Descriptive Astronomy . .. 5 cr. 27 les. Composition IV ...... 3 cr . 16les. Teaching I .... 3 cr. 16les. Composition V ..... 3 cr. 16les. Business Introduction to Secondary School Composition VI 3 cr. 16les. Business Correspondence .... 0 cr. 24 les. Teaching III 3 cr. 161es. Advanced Writing I.. .. 3 cr. 16 les . Business Law A .. 3 cr. 16 les. Introduction to Statistical Methods 3 cr. 16 les. Advanced Writing II 3 cr. 16les. Business Law B 3 cr. 16 les. Historical Foundations of Modern Short Story Writing I ...... 3 cr. 16 les. Business Law C ... 3 cr. 16 les. Education ...... 3 cr. 16 les. Short Story Writing II 3 cr. 16les . Business Law D 3 cr. 16 les. History of Modern Secondary Ed- Independent Writing 0 cr. 16les. Elements of Public Finance .. 3 cr. 16 les. ucation 3 cr. 16 les. Versification I ...... 3 cr. 16les. Life Insurance ...... 3 cr. 16 les. History of Modern Elementary Versification II ...... 3 cr. 16les. Fire and Marine Insurance . ... 3 cr. 16 les. Education ...... 3 cr. 16 les. Casualty Insurance ...... 3 cr. 16 les. Junior High School . 3 cr. 16 les. Esperanto Beginning Esperanto 0 cr. 16les. Retail Store Management ..... 3 cr. 16 les. Engineering Office Organization and Manage- Advanced Esperanto ...... 0 cr. 16 les. Engineering Drawing I ..... 3 cr. ment ...... 3 cr. 16 les. 16les. Engineering Drawing II Geology Elementary Advertising .... 3 cr. 16 les. .. .. 3 cr . 16 !es . Freehand Lettering Dynamic and Structural Geology .. 5 cr. 271es. Investments 3 cr. 16 les. 1 cr. 6 !es. Slide Rule Corporation Finance .. 3 cr. 16 les. 1 cr. 6 les. German Shop Mathematics L ...... 0 cr. 16 les. Beginning German L...... 5 cr. 27 les. Child Welfare Shop Mathematics II Ocr. 161es. Beginning German IL ...... 5 cr. 27les. Child Care and Training ($1.00) 0 cr. 16 les. College Algebra ...... 5 cr. 27les. Beginning German IlL...... 5 cr. 27 les. The Older Child and Adolescent Trigonometry 5 cr. 271es. Intermediate German IV...... 5 cr. 27 les. ($1.00) .. 0 cr. 16 les. Analytical Geometry ...... 6 cr. 321es. Intermediate German IVa...... 5 cr. 27 les. Child Training 3 cr. 16 les. Differential Calculus .... 5 cr. 271es. Introduction to Chemical German 4 cr. 20 les. The Guidance of Children's Inter- Integral Calculus ...... 5 cr. 27les. Chemical German 25...... 4 cr. 20 les. ests ...... 3 cr. 16 les. Elementary Mechanics ...... 0 cr. 16les. Chemical German 26 ...... 4 cr. 20 les. Later Childhood and Adolescence 3 cr. 16 les. Technical Mechanics-Statics 5 cr. 271es. Medical German 30...... 3 cr. 16 Jes. Technical Mechanics-Dynamics 0 cr. 27les. Classical Languages Medical German 3L ...... 3 cr. 16les. Strength of Materials ... 5 cr. 27les. Medical German 32...... 3 cr. 16 les. Greek Elementary Aeronautics ..... 0 cr. 16 les. Elementary Composition I ...... 3 cr. 16 les. Beginning Greek I 5 cr. 27les. Steel Bridge Design 3 cr. 16les. Elementary Composition II 3 cr. 16 les . Beginning Greek II ...... 5 cr. 27 les. Elementary Structural Steel Drama I ...... 4! cr. 24 les. Beginning Greek III 5 cr. 271es. Design .... 3 cr. 16 les. Drama II ...... 4! cr. 24 les. . 3 cr. 16 Jes. Epic Poetry Steel Building Design ...... 3 cr. 161es. Dramatic Poetry ... 3 cr. 16 les. Plain Concrete 3 cr. 16les. History 3 cr. 161es. Modern World L. . ... 5 cr. 27les. History-Herodotus .... Advanced Reinforced Concrete Modern World II ...... 5 cr. 27 les. Latin Design . ... 3 cr. 16les. English History I ...... 3 cr. 16les . Pharmaceutical Latin .. 0 cr. 20 les. Direct Current Machinery I ...... 0 cr. 16les. English History II ...... 3 cr. 16 les . Beginning Latin I ... 5 cr. 27 Jes. Steam Power Plants I ...... 0 cr. 161es. English History III ... 3 cr. 161es. Beginning Latin II 5 cr. 271es. Steam Power Plants II 0 cr. 20 les. American History L...... 3 cr. 16 les . Caesar ...... 5 cr. 27 les. Heating and Ventilating ...... 3 cr. 161es. American History IL...... 3 cr. 16 les. Cicero I 5 cr. 271es. Refrigeration ..... 3 cr. 16les . American History III...... 3 cr. 16 les. Cicero II 5 cr. 27les. Europe in the Middle Ages...... 5 cr. 27les. Vergil's Aeneid I ..... 5 cr. 27 Jes. English Ancient History I ...... 3 cr. 16 les. Vergil's Aeneid II 5 cr. 27 les. Freshman Literature I 3 cr. 16 les. Ancient History II...... 3 cr. 16 les ...... 5 cr. 27 Jes. Freshman Literature II 3 cr. 16les. Livy Ancient History IlL...... 3 cr. 161es. Roman Comedy ...... 4! cr. 24 Jes. Freshman Literature III 3 cr. 16les . American Economic History I . .. 3 cr. 16 les. Economics American Economic History IL... 3 cr. 16 les. Elements of Money and Banking 5 cr. 27 les. Fees for Courses American Economic History III .. 3 cr. 16 les. Principles of Economics I 5 cr. 271es. 6 lessons-$ 5.00 Home Economics Principles of Economics II .... 5 cr. 27 les. College Courses 32 lessons-$20.00 5 lessons-$ 5.00 Household Budget .. 3 cr. 16 Jes. Elements of Accounting .... 3 cr. 16 les...... 3 cr. 16 les. 27 lessons-$17.00 Textiles Labor Problems and Trade Union- 24 lessons-$15.00 Preparatory Courses ism . 3 cr. 16 les. Hygiene 20 lessons-$13.50 27 lessons-$17.00 Maternal and Child Hygiene Education 16 lessons-$10.00 20 lessons-$12.50 (no fee) ...... 0 cr. 16les. School Organization and Law .... 5 cr. 27les. 12 lessons-$ 7.50 11 lessons-$ 7.00 (Continued on page five) School Sanitation 5 cr. 27 les. The Interpreter lor March, 193'1 5

(Continued from page four) General Psychology IL...... 3 cr. 16 les. Plane Geometry B .... .~unit 20 les. Psychology Applied to Daily Life 3 cr. 16les. Solid Geometry . J unit 20 les. Journalism Higher Algebra ...... 1 unit 27 les. Rural Community Reporting ...... 3 cr. 16les. Romance Languages Beginning German I ...... 1 unit 27 les. Newspaper Reporting I 3 cr. 16les. French Beginning German II 1 unit 27 les. Newspaper Reporting IL ...... 3 cr. 16les . Beginning French I 5 cr. 27les. Beginning German III 1 unit 27 les. Newspaper Reporting IlL 3 cr. 16les. Beginning French II 5 cr. 271es. Intermediate German IV ...... 1 unit 27 les. Press Contacts ...... 3 cr. 16les . Intermediate French I .. 5 cr. 271es. Beginning French I 1 unit 27les. Newspaper and Magazine Articles Intermediate French II ...... 5 cr. 27les. Beginning French II ...... 1 unit 27 les. ,. I . 3 cr. 16 les. Scientific French I 3 cr. 16les. Intermediate French I ...... 1 unit 27 les. Newspaper and Magazine Articles Scientific French II 3 cr. 16 les. Intermediate French II ...... 1 unit 27 les. II ...... 3 cr. 16 les. Elementary French Composition 3 cr. 16 les. Beginning Spanish I 1 unit 27 les. The Supervision of School Publi- Advanced French Composition 3 cr. 16 les. Beginning Spanish II ..... 1 unit 27 les. ,.. cations 3 cr. 161es. Spanish Intermediate Spanish I ...... 1 unit 27 les. Editorial Writing L ...... 3 cr. 161es . Beginning Spanish I 5 cr. 271es. Intermediate Spanish II 1 unit 27 les. Editorial Writing II 3cr. 16les. Beginning Spanish II 5 cr. 271es. Beginning Norwegian I ...... 1 unit 27 les. Library Training Intermediate Spanish I 5 cr. 27les. Beginning Norwegian II 1 unit 27les. Intermediate Spanish II 5 cr. 271es. Intermediate Norwegian 1 unit 27 les. Elementary Cataloguing 3 cr. 161es. Elementary Composition ...... 3 cr. 16 les. Advanced Norwegian 1 unit 27les. Elementary Classification 3 cr. 161es. Advanced Composition 3 cr. 16 les. Beginning Swedish I ...... 1 unit 27 les. Elementary Reference 3 cr. 16les. Beginning Swedish II 1 unit 27les. Mathematics Scandinavian Intermediate Swedish ...... 1 unit 27 les. Norwegian Higher Algebra 5 cr. 27les. Social Science A ~ unit 20 les. Beginning Norwegian cr. 27les. ~unit Trigonometry 5 cr. 27les. 5 Social Science B 20 les. Beginning Norwegian II 5 cr. 27les. College Algebra 5 cr. 27les. Intermediate Norwegian 5 cr. 27les. Commerce Algebra 5 cr. 271es. Esperanto Advanced Norwegian cr. 27les. Logarithms 1 cr. 5 les. 5 Introduction to Norwegian Litera- (Continued from page two) Mathematics of Investment 5 cr. 271es. ture 5 cr. 27 les. This fact has been proved repeatedly in schools Analytic Geometry 5 cr. 271es. Modern Norwegian Literature where Esperanto has been employed either as Differential Calculus 5 cr. 27les. 5 cr. 271es. an introduction to a foreign language or in con­ Integral Calculus 5 cr. 271es. Ibsen 3 cr. 16 les. Bjornson 3 cr. 16 les. junction with the teaching of one or more Theory of Equations I 3 cr. 161es. foreign languages. As early as 1906 Dr. D. 0. Differential Equations 3cr. 16 !es. Swedish S. Lowell, then headmaster of the Roxbury Beginning Swecjish I 5 cr. 271es. Music Latin School, found that he could teach French Beginning Swedish II 5 cr. 27les. Harmony I ...... 3 cr. 16 les. and German and Esperanto in the same time Intermediate Swedish 5 cr. 271es. Harmony II 3 cr. 16 les. and with better results than he could teach Advanced Swedish I 5 cr. 27les. Harmony III 3 cr. 16 les. either French or German alone. ,\clvanced Swedish II 5 cr. 27les. Instrumentation and Orchestration Thirty years ago Esperanto had a literature Swedish Literature I 3 cr. 16 les. I 3 cr. 16 les. of one thousand books and pamphlets ; today Swedish Literature IL 3 cr. 16 les. Instrumentation and Orchestration that number has increased to ten thousand, and Swedish Literature IlL 3 cr. 16 les. II 3 cr. 16 les. new books appear every week. A hundred Physics Sociology magazines are printed in the language. Thirty years ago Esperanto was used for rather trivial Elementary Physics A ...... 0 cr. 16 les. Introduction to Sociology 5 cr. 271es. correspondence by the students of the language Elementary Physics B ...... 0 cr. 16 les. Rural Sociology 3 cr. 16 les. themselves. To use the language for serious Elements of Mechanics 3 cr. 16 les. Social Pathology 3 cr. 16 les. Social Protection of the Child . 3 cr. 16 les. purposes was then a utopian dream. Today we Polish The Field of Social Work 3 cr. 16 les. have quite a different picture. Beginning Polish ...... 0 cr. 16 les. Social Organization 3 cr. 161es. In 1922, the year when broadcasting was in­ Advanced Polish ...... 0 cr. 16 les. History and Philosophy of the troduced, the Esperantists succeeded in giving two Esperanto broadcasts. Regular Esperanto Political Science Cooperative Movement 0 cr. 16 les. Rural Community Organization broadcasts are now made from twenty European American Government and 3 cr. 161es. The Family and South American stations. The press, usual­ Politics I ...... 3 cr. 16les. 3 cr. 16 les. Social Progress ly conservative, gives more and more space to American Government and 3 cr. 16 les. Esperanto. In The Netherlands alone twenty­ Politics II 3 cr. 16 les. High School Courses one hundred articles about Esperanto were pub­ American Government and Elementary Bookkeeping ...... i unit 12 les. lished last year. Some papers publish one page Politics III 3 cr. 16 les. English Composition A ~ unit 20 les. of Esperanto in every issue, while other pub­ Comparative European English Composition B J unit 20 les. lications, particularly scientific journals, give Government 5 cr. 27les. English Composition C ~unit 20 les. resumes in Esperanto. Lectures in Esperanto, Elements of Political Science 5 cr. 271es. English Composition D ~unit 20 les. on all sorts of subjects, are becoming increas­ World Politics-1878-1929 5 cr. 27les. English Literature A ~unit 20 les. ingly common. American Parties and Politics 3 cr. 16 les. English Literature B ~ unit 20 les. As the years go by the popularity of Espe­ International Law 5 cr. 27les. English Literature C ~unit 20 les. ranto shifts from country to country. At the Preventive Medicine and English Literature D ~ unit 20 les. present time the movement is very strong in Public Health American History A ... ~unit 20 les. Japan, Holland, France, Sweden, Norway, Fin­ Personal and Community Health 3 cr. 161es. American History B ~ unit 20 les. land, Brazil, and Italy. Japan seems to be the Health Care of the Family..... 3 cr. 16 les. World History A .... ~ unit 20 les. leader, however, with some sixty-five clubs in Elements of Preventive Medicine 3 cr. 16 les. World History B . ~unit 20 les. Tokio alone. In Sweden numerous clubs exist Elementary Algebra A ...... ~ unit 20 les. Psychology and some of the finest Esperanto books are Elementary Algebra B ~unit 20 les. now being published in Sweden. There are General Psychology I ...... 3 cr. 161es. Plane Geometry. A ~ unit 20 les. about thirty thousand Esperantists in China. 6 The Interpreter for March, 1937 _...

declared that one-fourth part of our special re­ to make it transparent. They are so cunningly Writers serve by value should be silver, and until such carved and colored that when their shadows are proportion is attained the Secretary of the cast on a lighted screen one sees a lace-like, Treasury was "authorized and directed" to pur­ jeweled figure in color. They are loosely jointed By Helen Copeland chase silver from either domestic or foreign and are operated by three wires, one attached to (The following essay was written for the class sources, but was ordered not to pay more than the neck and one to each hand. When skill­ I in Advanced Writing) SO cents per ounce for domestic silver already fully manipulated they give a real illusion of mined (May 1, 1934), nor more than the mone­ life, and their graceful dignified motions and ""' For my own amusement I have divided the tary value of silver per ounce ($1.29). beautiful colors are more appealing to some people who are interested in writing into four Heavy purchases began immediately. The persons than any other form of puppet. They classes: would-have-been writers, would-be Treasury price of silver was pushed up by re­ are the first recorded colored motion picture. writers, writers, and successful writers. , peated stages. But the effect of our purchasing Shadows were used throughout the Orient. j The first class is the largest and perhaps the program was to cause silver standard countries, Perhaps they were suggested by the shadows most normal. W auld-have-been writers are especially China, to lose monetary silver by ex­ cast by the moving figures of the priests on persons who would like to have written some­ port to the United States. This loss of the the walls of their tents while engaged in their thing, would like to have had something pub­ standard money caused a faiJ of prices and marie religious ceremonies. Omar Khayyam, the Per­ lished so that they could think of themselves depression conditions worse. In consequence, our sian poet, writes; as writers and have other people think of them price for silver was moderated again, and our "For in and out, above, about, below, as writers. They do not care particularly what purchasing program was greatly reduced, tem­ Life's nothing but a magic shadow show­ they will have written, whether it is an essay, porarily at least. But the law still stands. Played in a box, whose candle is the sun, an article, a short story, or a novel, but they The principal champions of the Silver Pur­ Round which we phantom figures come and go." do want the public to like what they will write. chase Act of 1934 were and are the so-called Chinese shadows can be successfully used in a They want to have written something which "Silver Bloc," the senators and representatives simplified form by children from the sixth grade will make them famous and have it over with. from the silver-producing states. Their "talk­ on and challenge the skill and artistic ability But for some queer reason, would-have-been ing points" were chiefly two: 1) that the prin­ of adults. They have unlimited possibilities writers never want to write badly enough to cipal reason why silver had fallen in value to yet untapped. Minnesota is pioneering in their write. They want to have written without less than 30 cents per ounce, was that the great use. wntmg. Consequently the writing which they nations had so greatly reduced their monetary Puppetry is coming to be recognized as a use­ would have in the past is always in the future. use of silver, even for fractional coins. Restor­ ful tool, almost necessary to recreation leaders, The class of would-be writers is also large. ation of this monetary use would increase the to teachers (what school room that has known 'Vould-be writers usually can read intelligently, demand for silver, thus restoring its old value. puppets could ever give them up?) to social can understand what they read. Other people's It is, of course, self-evident that the silver­ workers, to occupational directors, to librarians writing seems to them simple and easily done, producing states were quite impersonal in urging as a visual means of presenting the story hour and they would like to write something of their this view. The United States, the most power­ and as a special impetus to research in the own. Their difficulty is that they do not know ful financially, should lead in this policy of library, and to those interested in advertising. what to write about. A successful writer, hav­ re-instatement of silver. 2) The advantage of Puppets have caught and held the attention of ing observed very accurately, and knowing using silver and gold, two metals, as the specie all classes of people at all age levels from the what he thinks, like an artist who paints, is base of our money should minimize the effect learned to the illiterate down through the ages. able to transfer his emotion onto paper, modify­ upon the value of the money unit of a temporary Advertising agencies are recognizing their ap­ ing some details and emphasizing others, so fluctuation in the value of one of the two metals. peal and are turning to puppets as models in that the person who reads can see exactly what It would be unlikely that both would fluctuate photography and as a means of presenting their the writer has seen. If the writer is a genius, equally and simultaneously in the same direc­ story in an amusing way. The National Dairy the picture which he has painted in words is tion. This program approximates but is not Council was one of the first to recognize their even more accurate, simpler, and more beautiful quite equivalent to symmetallism, which as gen­ adaptability to propaganda. Reports from New than the vision he has had in his mind. erally understood, involves the actual redem f>­ Y ark say that experienced puppeteers find ready Naturally only a few people belong to only tion of circulating media in the specie, either employment in commercial companies. In ad­ one class. All varieties and all imaginable in a fixed proportion of the metals, or in coins dition, puppetry is accepted as a delightful and combinations are possible. Thus, there are containing both metals in the fixed proportion. satisfying hobby. would-have-been writers who are writers, and Symmetallism does not exclude the possibility writers who are would-have-been writers. of three or more metals in stated proportions. There are even would-have-been would-be writers, and would-be would-have-been writers. Entered as second-cla.•s matter October 2, 1926, There are would-have-been successful writers, Puppetry at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn., under the Act of Augmt 24, 1912. and, heaven knows, there are certainly success­ (Continued from page two) ful would-have-been writers. It is amusing to The hand puppet is the only kind that is find niches for all the persons one knows who directly controlled by the hand as an actual part are interested in writing. of the puppet. George Sand preferred hand puppets because, she said, when her hand went into the inanimate dress of the puppet her soul The Monetary Standard went in with it and she and the puppet became (C01ztinued from page three) one. Hand puppets can give a convincing illu­ A more accurate description of our present sion of being little living figures, even though standard is : an irredeemable paper money our imaginations must supply the legs. The standard, "pegged" to gold by buying and sell­ imagination of American adults may need cul­ ing operations of the Treasury at their dis­ tivation, but that of children does not. Children cretion. This process is similar in principle see only a living band of delightful little people to that by which the British pound sterling was who represent their own conception of what pegged or stabilized at $4.76 after we entered the story book characters are really like. World War. A fund of $2,000,000,000 gold was One of the oldest kinds of puppets is that placed at the disposal of the Treasury with of the Chinese shadow. Historians report their which to accomplish the stabilization. use in China as long ago as .125 B.C. They By an act approved June 19, 1934, Congress are made of hide, treated by a secret process The Interpreter .• Published by the General Extension Division, University of Minnesota EDUCATION A UFELONG PROCESS


By David M. Robb they were little more than sedulous imitators of European styles and manners, brilliant and im­ (Departmellf of Fi11e Arts) pressive but retaining hardly anything that N the entire history of the art of painting in might be considered a rightful inheritance of I America, few if any developments can be their American origins. By contrast with them, compared for intrinsic interest and general sig­ their contemporaries Winslow Homer and nificance to the appearance in recent years of Thomas Eakins seem at first glance to be a definite school of painting in the Middle West. matter-of-fact and possibly prosaic, yet in the To realize to the full what this means, one has sober scrutiny and calm appraisal of daily ex­ only to glance back a few years, to recall the perience in their own communities that fur­ nishes the background of their work, the latter names of the "successful" painters of the end were building more surely and effectively for of the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries ; the future than the "fashionable" painters who the criterion by which an artist was judged was the extent to which his work could be com­ depended more directly upon alien inspiration pared in subject matter and style to contempo­ and forms of expression. Homer and Eakins rary art in Europe. It was this viewpoint which anticipated, in many respects, the present ten­ made such men as Whistler and John Singer dencies toward the selection of subjects for Sargent the most important American painters, portrayal that lie in the immediate experience two of the great number of artists who went of the artist and to give expression to the ideas to Europe for their study and training and who derived therefrom in ways particularly appro­ soon became expatriates in spirit as well as in priate thereto. It is only within the past few actuality. years that the "American Scene" has been much To speak of such men as American painte1"s heard of, but in those years the painters who is something of an anomaly ; in point of fact, have avowed their faithfulness to that scene have produced what is unquestionably the most vital and interesting art of the present day. The American Scene is broad, and its mani­ fold aspects are obviously not to be interpreted "Oak Le:1xe~-Red and Gray"--Georgia O'Keeffe by one painter. It is, in fact, those restless (From the L'11iversity Gallery) souls who move from place to place, looking for new subjects all the time that impress us the least in their facility in distinguishing su­ \Vestern at least, yet she interprets the rolling perficial differences without apparently being hills of New Mexico and the towering sky­ able to sense the underlying qualities that make scrapers of New York with the same intensity for unity. A painter who is poor in New York of vision and understanding of structure that will not become any better for going to Taos. characterizes her "Oak Leaves-Red and Gray" A distinction has then to be made between that is illustrated in this article and which is these less inspired artists who have attempted one of the most valued possessions of the Uni­ to find in the more exotic regions of our coun­ versity of :\finnesota Gal:ery. In her ability to try the inspiration which they feel to be lacking grasp the essential quality of the thing she por­ in their own locale and those others who have trays and to establish in harmonies of color looked for significance in their own daily ex­ the significant elements of its form, Georgia perience and often have found it. It is by their O'Keeffe is one of the greatest artists yet pro­ willingness to see in such experience the ma­ duced by the Middle \".'est. terial for works of art that the most important American painters today have been able to im­ MORE definitely associated with the Middle press upon their work the indubitable mark of \Vest and probably the outstanding figures true inspiration, and it is also for the same in the interpretation of the Middle Western reason that in the various regional developments Scene are Thomas Benton, Grant Wood and that characterize present tendencies in Ameri­ John Steuart Curry. All three were born in can painting, we see its most vital aspects, not the region, Benton in Missouri, Curry in Kan­ the least important being the Middle \Vestern sas and \V ood in Iowa. Varied in training, all school. three have evolved very personal styles in which An exception to any generalization always they portray subjects pertaining to life in the makes it more conclusive and none more so :Middle West, the area in which all three feel than that which is furnished to the above state­ very definitely. that the future of art in America "Western Landscape"-Paul Sample ment by Georgia O'Keeffe. She was born in lies. Thomas Benton has led an adventurous (From the University Gallery) \Visconsin, which makes her origins Middle (Continued 011 page two) 2 The Interpreter

The Interpreter Art in the Mid-West Published monthly, except July and August, !>Y the General Extension Division, University of Mm­ nesota, at Minneapolis. Entered as second-class matter, October 2. 1926, (Continued fnJ/11 f'a.tJC OIIC) "Baptism in Kansas" in the Vv'hitney ~I useum. at the post office in Minneapolis. ~finn., under the Act of August 24, 1912. "Hogs Killing a Rattlesnake," the unconven­ life which included travels over the greater part tionalitY of which attracted much attention to Richard R. Price -- -- Director of the United States in the years after the \\·ar, the ar;ist when it was exhibited a fe\\. years Adt•isory Committee during \vhich he made sensitive and accurate ago, and the paintings of storms and tornadoes T. A. H. Teeter H. B. Gislason studies of all phases of .\merican life. It is over the Kansas prairies of which a number I. W. Jones A. H. Speer his familiaritv with this material that makes of examples are reproduced in a recent number Curtis E. A very - --- Editor his mural "The .\rts of Life in d~corations. of Life. These also give some impression of l :\merica." in the \Vhitney :--ruseurn, New York, APRIL, 1937 his color which is used in bright hues, although such trenchant comments upon American char­ the pred~minant effect in most of them is one acter and culture, embodied in strong plasti­ of somberness. Curry is also a mural painter, callv modelled figures by vigorous and striking having been commissioned to execute works in col;rs. Benton is best known for his mural Current Books some of the recently erected government build­ paintings including a fine series for the New ings in \Vashington. School of Social Research in ='Jew York, others Henton, \\'ood and Curry have been selected Below is a list of the books studied by the in the Department of Justice Building in \\'ash­ for special notice because they appear at the Book Review class offered during the first ington, and those but recently completed for the moment to represent best the more significant semester by the Extension Division under the state capitol building at Columbia in his native aspects of painting in the Middle \Vest. Others direction of ~Iiss ~Ielba Hurd. Readers may state of :--rissouri. He is at present the director who deserve mention include Dewey .\lbinson find in this list some suggestions for their own of the art school of the \Villiam Rockhill i\el­ and Clement Haupers, both painting in ~finne­ excursions into current literature. son Gallerv of Art in Kansas City. FictioJJ sota and influencing the work of other artists The sec~nd member of this triumvirate of GONE WITH THE WE\D-1\Iargaret to a marked degree. To both, the :--Iinnesota :-fiddle \\'estern painters is Grant \V ood. His ~fitchell landscape and life have been a fertile source pictures are unlike Benton's in that the slashing of inspiration. Yet another painter who has EYELESS IX G.\ZA-Aldous Huxley action contained in the latter's works is re­ found a stimulus in the :-fiddle \Vestern scene THE BIG ~IONEY-John Dos Passos placed by a balance and poise almost classic in \\'.-\KE .-\ND RE.MEMBER-James Gray is Paul Sample whose "\Vestern Landscape"­ spirit, an effect to which the neat precision of here reproduced-is an imaginative and deco­ JOHN DAWN-Robert Tristram Coffin his lines and the enameled surfaces of the T.\LES OF THE NORTHWEST-William rative interpretation of a familiar subject. ren­ paintings contribute in no small measure. In dered with authority and convincing force. Joseph Snelling technique, his work is thus related to that of GREENGA TES-Robert C. Sheriff This brief survey of painting in the :-I iddle the Italian 15th century masters, a comparison \Vest makes at least one thing apparent: that KIT BRANDON-Sherwood Anderson which is equally apt for his mural studies in artists of today are turning once more to the ABSALOl1, ABSALOlf !-William Faulkner which a panoramic method not unlike that of THE TALLONS-William ~larch onlv source of true and vital inspiration, to life the late medieval Italian fresco painters is em­ and experience rather than to philosophical ab­ THE SECRET JOURNEY-James Hanley ployed. But the subject matter has nothing to .Von-Fiction stractions and arbitrarily imposed ideals. It do with these historical styles, coming directly mav seem to many that the paintings of these THE FLO\VERING OF NEW ENG­ as it does from his own experiences and LAND-Van Wyck Brooks me;1 deal with subjects that are intrinsically thoughts. "American Gothic," a middle aged ugly and uninteresting, that no beauty is to be LISTEN FOR A LONESmiE DRU~I­ farmer and his wife (rendered with a meticu­ found in farm yards and hogs, in bleak hills Carl Carmer lousness of detail that verges on stiffness), and flat plains. To them it can only be said THIS ENGLAND-Mary Ellen Chase standing in a barnyard, the metallic prongs of THE Fl:TCRE OF LIBERTY-George that since time immemorial, the artist has seen the pitchfork held in the farmer's hand repeat­ beauty where others could not. It is his aim Soule ing the quiet verticals of the costumes and back­ to reveal that beauty to others, but this he ~lOVERS :\ND SHAKERS-Mabel Dodge ground, is probably \Vood's best known work. cannot do without their sympathetic co-opera­ Luhan "Dinner for Threshers," a project for a wall tion. \\'ithout the capacity to see beauty and a .-\l:TOBIOGR.\PHY OF G. K. CHESTER­ painting in the \Vhitney :--1 useum in New York, willingness to let our sight be guided, no artist TON is an example of his use of specifically Ameri­ can achieve that end whether he lives today EDNA ST. VINCENT ~IILLA Y AND HER can subjects in the field of mural decoration so or lived four hundred years ago. At least one TI~ES-Eiizabeth Atkins long usurped by the pseudo-classic abstractions must admit that in the Middle West of our THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE RO- of Peace, Patriotism and the like which a pa:t own time, men are looking for that beauty in M ANTIC IDEAL-F. L. Lucas generation admired. Wood is at present associ­ their own time and world, in experiences that Poctn• ated with the University of Iowa as an instruc­ are their own and not of another race and THE. PEOPLE. YES-Carl Sandburg tor in the Department of Fine Arts. generation. In this is justification for the CALLING \\'ESTERN UNION-Genevieve Like \Vood, John Steuart Curry is connected thought that painting in the Middle West is a Taggard with a great Middle Western university, he living and vital thing. BURNING CITY-Stephen Vincent Benet having been but recently appointed as. "art~st ~IORE TH.\N BREAD-Joseph Auslander in residence" at the University of W1sconsm. PIa)'S His status is interesting for he is not an in­ Notice TONIGHT .\T EIGHT-THIRTY-Noel structor, but is only expected to paint on the Evening students of the General Ext~nsi~n Coward campus, much as a scientist might receive an Division will hold their annual open meetmg m appointment solely for purposes of r~search. the auditorium of the Main Engineering Build- Although he is a native of Kansas, Jus state ing, April 2, at eight p.m. . . Notice has failed to appreciate the true quality of his The thirteenth annual May M1xer IS sched­ work much as Missourians have criticized the uled for May 1, in the Minnesota Union. The Applications for refund because of can­ murals recently executed in their capitol build­ program offers music, vaudeville, dancing, and cellation must be made no later than ing by Benton. Fundamentally dramatic in his refreshments. Tickets may be bought Monday, April 17. These applications will not be approach, Curry's better known canvases have April 12, and thereafter, from class representa­ considered if made later. dealt with subjects full of action and movement: tives. for April, 1931 3

The New York Theater Season I I Parking on the Campus L------St~~"~illffidex~mioocla~sooilie By Helen G. Acker You. It IS merry from the time the curtain campus are warned again that the signs erected goes up until the end. The audience laughs hy the City Police Department mean exactly {Editor's not€': Ill preparation for l!cr extension at each situation, enjoys each character. and what they say, and that the laws governing course in Current Books and Plays, .l11ss Acker rc­ accepts the carefree mood completely. It is the ci'llfh• 'l'isitcd 1Vc·w York, 'l(•hcrc she_ attc_ndcd ma:l.)' parking on the campus apply to extension stu­ Broadway pla:ys. J.Uiss Acker Jtcrc"Wlfh. {ll'i.'C~ an w­ best example of skillful theater that I can formal acco111!f of the f'/a)'S winch csfcC1all:.• wtcrcstcd dents as weJI as to students in the clay classes. her.) imagine. X ot a miss anywhere. The play pre­ Campus parking, as well as parking on streets sents the Sycamore family, living-all exactly adjacent to the university campus. is under the NE\V YORK theater season is always as they please-in a house that reflects interests, control of the Police Department, not of the A interesting to a visitor from the \Vest. The gaiety, and muddles in an amiable manner. The university authorities. There will be no parking variety of plays and the great number of them living room, for example, contains a xylophone, within the campus on 15th and 17th Avenues is always surprising. This year I began by go­ a cage of snakes, a printing press, a desk and at any time. ing to see the two }.Iaxwell Anderson plays, typewriter for the mother who wishes to be Hi

George Kaufman's You Ca11't Ta!?e It with (Continued on page four) (Continued 011 payc four) 4 The Interpreter for April, 1937

New York Theater Season Joseph Conrad satisfaction after all, and that is, the ideal of honor. In the face of all disappointment, fail­ (Co11timted from page three) (C olllilllted from page three) ure, disgrace, a man can give point to his life production spectacular. The audience was en­ put his own interpretation upon it. Sometimes, by doing his duty and sticking to his guns, not thralled during every minute of the production. indeed, an event can be known in a story only hoping for rewards here or hereafter, because In addition to the plays mentioned, there are by being passed on to the center by several the hereafter does not figure in Conrad's scheme several others held over from last season that people (A saw it happen; he tells B; B tells C, of things as it did in the Christian martyr's. are still playing to delighted audiences. Helen who brings it into the narrative). The author His only reward is the one Lord Jim had, a Hayes in Victoria Regi11a is one of the finest. has to present, not a plain solid fact, worth consciousness of not running away or sur­ It is a completely charming performance, per­ just so much under all conditions, but a fact as rendering, but of being true to his sense of fectly presented, and faultlessly acted. It is it appealed to A, and then was successively what he ought to be and do. Such stoicism is really a series of episodes in the life of Queen modified by B and C. admirable and inspiring, but it may be pointed Victoria, rather than a play. Helen Hayes is Moreover, according to Conrad, we do not out that its use directly as a theme throughout winsome as the young girl of eighteen being learn a story in real life as it is told in history Conrad's work, and the fact that it is not at informed that she is to be Queen of England. or the old-fashioned novel. A story comes to all Christian, mark the great gap that lies She is equally perfect as the elderly Queen us in real life bit by bit; and the bits are between a modern novelist like Conrad and the Victoria, watching from her wheel chair the generally all out of order. We see something Victorian novelists and their predecessors. celebration in her honor at the end of her happen to a man today; we learn what led up You will notice, too, that Conrad, like most long reign. to it, the circumstances of his life, his mo­ modern novelists, is a minute psychologist. Idiot's Delight. the war play with Alfred tives afterward, possibly over a long period of Lord Jim, for instance, is a subtly elaborated ~ Lunt and Lynn Fontanne, is also still playing time, and we have to put them together like psychological analysis of its hero. Such ex­ to full houses. It is strong and dramatic and the pieces of a puzzle. As it is in life, so it tremely elaborate character study is a com­ I interestingly presented. Since it was to go out should be in the novel, which should be, not paratively new thing in the novel. It is not on tour as I left New York, perhaps audience> straightforward narrative, but the material in to be paralleled in the older novel, and espe­ in the West can see it. It has particular inter­ the order in which it would naturally come to cially not in novels of such romantic setting est because it was the Pulitzer prize play oi some observer. and action as Lord Jim, where character is last year. To apply this theory in his novels, Conrad generally drawn on very simple, sweeping lines, Of course, there are many others. Perhaps. inserts an "observer" ; he has a famous one of and is highly idealized. As has been hinted though, in the brief space left to me, a general whom he made great use, Captain Marlow, who before, Stevenson's characters in The Master comment would be of more interest than further is, in fact. the central observer in Lord Jim. of Ballalltrae are more complex than the older summary. The plays which audiences seem to Marlow sees part of the story at first-hand; romantic creations, but Conrad of course goes like best are no longer the smart, glib per­ other parts he gets at second-hand; others at miles beyond Stevenson in such elaboration as formances which present sophisticated char­ third. But they are all presented by Marlow his character study of Jim. acters in stream-lined backgrounds. Doctor (and by Conrad) with careful attention to this Faustus, an Elizabethan revival, is popular. fact and in the order in which Marlow learns New Books You Ca11't Take It with You, presenting real of them. and warm and engaging people is popular. The logic of this theory is plain and convinc­ The University of Minnesota Press, which High Tor, a poetic and romantic fantasy in ing enough, but in practice it presents great the Shakespearean manner is popular. The Xoel has just celebrated its tenth anniversary, will difficulties. For one thing, the time order is publish four books during April: Coward group, though fascinating and spark­ apt to become so confused that the reader may CHILD CARE AND TRAINING-Marion L. ling, seems almost old-fashioned. Smoothness become hopelessly muddled, or even lose track Faegre and John E. Anderson and glibness no longer compete with older and of the story altogether. It is also apt on occa­ FOLLOWING THE PRAIRIE FRON­ warmer virtues. In all, it is a surprising and TIER-Seth K. Humphrey. (Popular re- sion to force the author into absurdities. Mar· issue) · engaging theater season. low for instance in Lord Jim is required to tell PEACE OR WAR?-edited by Harold S. Jim's story to a group of friends for hours on Quigley (Day and Hour Series, Nos. 17-18) end-for longer than any group of men could INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN URBAN Candidates for TRANSPORTATION Emerson P. be supposed to sit and listen to a story. As a Schmidt Certificate matter of fact Conrad's "impressionism" like most of the other special technics in the modern Students who consider themselves eligible fur novel seems to present insuperable difficulties, an Extension Certificate should make applica­ though not so many as the most famous of all Entered as second-class matter October ~. 19~6, tion to the Students' Work Committee for a of them, "the stream of consciousness." But at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn., under check of their credits. The committee endeavors the method or technic of impressionism should the Act of August ~4. 1912. to have information about all probable candi­ be emphasized here, because Lord Jim, more dates for certificates, but the responsibility rests than any other novel on our list, gives a better with students. example of this very important tendency in the modern novelist to stress some special technic. Personal and Community Health Like most other important modern novelists, A new correspondence study course entitled Conrad has a definite philosophical idea which Perso11al a11d Commu11il)' Health has been pre­ does not lie hidden or implied in his work, but pared by Dr. R. G. Hinckley of the Health is clearly expressed and reiterated. Like Hardy, Service. Following are a few of the interesting Conrad is a pessimist. In his novels one sees topics discussed in this course: Health \'alues; a succession of young men starting out in life Heredity and Health; Weight and Its Control; filled with the highest hopes, inspired with the Food and Its Control; The Sense Organs; highest ideals, all seeking glory and honor. Hygiene of the Nervous System; Body Me­ They are all following mirages ; they are chanics and Foot Hygiene; Ventilation, Heat­ doomed to failure. They are bound for ports ing and Lighting; Communicable Diseases ; which they never reach ; they dream dreams Mental Hygiene; School and Industrial Hygi­ which never come true. Thus life ends in failure ene; \Vater Supply; Waste Disposal; .:lfajor and disappointment ; but there ·is one thing Health Problems of Advancing Years. which can make it endurable, and can give The Interpreter Published by the General Extension Division, University of Minnesota EDUCATION A UFELONG PROCESS

VoL. XI .MAY, 19:l7 ~0. 9

... Spring Birds in Minnesota Wildflowers in the Spring By Thomas S. Roberts By N. L. Huff Department of Zoology Departmellt of Botany

AY is a magical month for northern bird-lovers. It is then that the THE voice of Spring is now calling to all who love the great out-of- M vast, marvelous spring movement of the migrating birds reaches doors. and happy is he who sees in each bursting bud and unfurling its height, the why and wherefore of which is still largely shrouded in frond an acquaintance of former years. He is meeting old friends. Some mystery. The urge that prompts them to leave in the fall, often for far knowledge of plant life, even though it be nothing more than a naming distant lands, and to return in the spring has received no adequate and acquaintance, may add immeasurably to the pleasure of a holiday in the satisfying explanation and perhaps never will. The spring hegira from country or give zest and interest to a leisurely stroll through fields and l the Southland begins with the northward movement of the sun, sparse woodlands. Learning to know our wildflowers is no longer a difficult task, and limited at first, increasing as the for there are many popular books with Northland develops more inviting condi­ good illustrations, some of them in natural tions, until the great horde comes with color; and with their aid alone one finds a rush a little after mid-spring in our the naming comparatively easy. latitude. The early birds are those that Of all seasons, spring is the best time have retreated only far enough to find to begin the study of wildflowers. For winter living conditions possible, like the months Nature has been sleeping and we Robin, Bluebird and Phoebe, and they long to see the bursting buds and green come back with the advance of an average fields again. Last autumn the forest floor temperature of 35°, which is technically was covered with a fresh carpet of leaves. spring. Sometimes this is early, sometimes The Violets, Buttercups, and Bloodroots late, according to the season; so they are had already started their retreat beneath irregular in the date of their appearance. the sheltering humus; and then, with the Following them are the far-southern win­ new leaf carpet above them, the last vestige ter sojourners, mostly in late April and of their summer's activity disappeared. As May. Having no knowledge of the weather they entered the long winter sleep, a heavy conditions that may exist in their northern cover of snow was spread above the leafy homeland, they move on some mysterious carpet and this like a warm blanket of prompting and travel by a schedule which wool tempered the cold and afforded pro­ brings them to their destination with as- A male Pine Warbler attending to the wants of his family tection without which many of the sleeping tonishing accuracy each year. buds would certainly have perished. Quick­ Belonging to the first group of migrants­ disaster, for the premature prairie home is al­ ly the weeks passed by, and the wildflowers in those that move according to the weather-is most sure to be ruined by wintry blasts and their cozy beds were oblivious of the winds and the little Horned Lark, so called because of a blankets of snow. Repeated failure seems never cold; but the mounting sun of springtime and slender tuft of feathers on each side of the to teach it a lesson. warm April showers awakened all of the crown, giving to it a pert, jaunty appearance. While one watches the Larks mounting and sleeping woodfolk, and as if by magic the A scattered few are usually here during the diving, a loud, clear, whistling song may come somber brown leaf carpet was transformed into winter months, but a February thaw, that in across the prairie or field, for the early Mead­ open places lays bare patches of still frozen owlarks have arrived. They are persistent a gay tapestry of vivid green with delicate tints earth, is the signal for the return of those that singers and their beautiful, far-carrying song of many hued wildflowers everywhere. It is have wintered farther south. Soon thereafter may be heard all through the months that they :Maytime and Nature is at her best. the simple but musical little song proclaims that are here. \Vhere shall we look for the spring flowers? love-making is in progress, in defiance of the Other late March birds are the Robin, Blue­ Everywhere; but the more attractive ones will wintry conditions all about. The bird-student bird, Red-winged Blackbird, the Killdeer be found in places least disturbed by man, for should be afield at this time and witness the Plover, the Phoebe, the Song Sparrow, and it with every advance of civilization certain wild­ flight performances of these ardent and jubilant may be an early Tree Swallow and the russet­ flowers are forced either to retreat farther into little lovers. Springing from the ground away garbed, sweetly-singing Fox Sparrow. the wilderness or to perish. They have their they go, spiraling upward and upward until April brings the early spring flowers and likes and their dislikes. They select their homes almost lost to view. Here, circling about and with them some sixty or seventy migrant birds. in places. best suited to their particular needs. pouring out their feelings in gushes of song, a chiefly in the latter part of the month. A.. mong Hepaticas choose the subdued light of moist greater ecstasy seizes them, and, setting their them are the Swallows, the Hermit Thrush, the shady woodlands; the Pasque Flower the glar­ wings, they plunge straight downward in a truly noisy Flicker and Sapsucker, the Vesper, Chip­ ing light of the sunny hillside; the Columbine spectacular dive. What a thrill it must give ping and \Vhite-throated Sparrows, the fuss1· likes a ledge or crevice of a perpendicular rock them! House \Vren, and the Brown Thrasher with i;s cliff. while the Marsh Marigold finds the swamp The Horned Lark is the first of our returning wonderful, 1Iockingbird-like song. The :Hartin, or \\"et meadow more to its liking. They are birds to nest, but its eagerness usually ends in (Co11tillued on page tzco) (Continued Oil page three) 2 The Interpreter

The Interpreter Spring Birds in Minnesota Published monthly, except July and August by ~ the General Extension Division, University of Min­ I nesota, at Minneapolis. Entered as second-class matter, October 2 1926' (Collti11ued from page one) at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn., under th~ numbers, wave after wave, filling for a brief Act of August 24, 1912. period the woodlands and even the open spaces. the first of the far-southern migrants to arrive, More than thirty different kinds reach Min­ Richard R. Prict> -- -- Dirt>ctor comes in April-all too early it may be-when nesota, most of which pass through the southern j Advisory Committee storms have cleared the air of its insect food. part of the state to settle for the summer in our T. A. H. Teeter H. B. Gislason The Myrtle Warbler arrives as the vanguard evergreen forests or those of Canada. Among I. W. Jones A. H. Speer of its kind, to be joined, perhaps, as the month these are some of our rarest birds: the elusive Curtis E. A very -- -- Editor wanes, by several others of its numerous tribe. Connecticut, the shy Black-throated Blue, the 1 )Jest-building is well under way by this time Chestnut-sided, Cape ).[ay. and the exquisite I MAY, 1937 among these early birds that have reached their .... little Blue,winged. Of rare beauty are the I summer dwelling-places. vividly orange-throated Blackburnian, the ~ And now with the advent of May-when golden-hued Prothonotary, and the gaily-garbed Engineering Credits spring is well under way, many birds busy with Black-throated Green. Redstart, and Magnolia. ., their domestic duties, and some having passed All the females, and in some species the males, on to homes farther north-comes the great I A recent action taken by the faculty of the are more plainly dressed, but all are dainty and flood of the far-travellers that have passed the Institute of Technology makes it possible for attractive in form and habit. Very few have winter south of the United States. Some students to count directly toward an engineering vocal performances that merit the name "Warb­ seventy-two kinds of our birds retreat each fall degree, and without comprehensive examination. ler," but the ecstatic nuptial song of the Oven­ to lands below the United States, and all the credits earned through work taken in the Gen­ bird, the sweet voices of the Water-Thrushes individuals of twenty-six of these go all the way eral Extension Division. The specific courses and the gushing medley of the Chat, all to South America, even as far as Patagonia and mem~ for which such credit will be granted will be bers of this family, are redeeming features. Chili. These are the birds that have time-tables, designated in the Bulletin of the General Ex­ The Sparrow or Finch Family is well repre­ and how they can follow them so accurately is tension Division for 1937-38, and further an­ sented in Minnesota. Some forty-odd species beyond understanding. Almost on the exact clay nouncement of the new regulations will also be have been found, including a few strays from each year comes the Bobolink from far away made in the Bulletin of the Institute of Tech­ elsewhere. Among these are some of our com­ Brazil, the Scarlet Tanager from Colombia and nology for 1937-38. The action provides that monest native birds: the Song, Vesper, Chip­ Peru, the Rose-breasted Grosbeak and Balti­ not more than nine credits in Correspondence ping and Savannah Sparrows, which nest in all Study work may be accepted toward an engi­ more from Central and South America, parts of the state. The little Junco and the many of the tiny Warblers from the mountain neering degree. White-throated Sparrow fairly flood the brush­ forests of Peru and Bolivia, and, the gem of lands of the southern part of the state spring them all, the diminutive Ruby-throated Hum­ and fall, but make their homes in the pine for­ mingbird from the Isthmus and neighboring Coaching School ests farther north. There are many beautiful lands. Many are the dangers and divergences birds belonging to this family, among them the that they have to encounter on the way, yet with Cardinal, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Indigo Bunt­ An athletic coaching school, emphasizing foot­ unerring instinct (or intelligence?) they arrive ing, Goldfinch (commonly called "Wild Ca­ ball and basketball, but also affording instruc­ almost on the dot at or near their old home nary"), the Evening and Pine Grosbeaks (both tion for coaches of other sports, will be offered sites. Many cross the Gulf or the Caribbean winter visitants southward), the sweetly singing for one week this summer. from June 14 to both comingi and going, guided only by a Purple Finch, and the Crossbills, red and pink June 19, by the l!niversity and its General mysterious sense of direction that has as yet The Scarlet Tanager, an early May arrival, Extension Division. defied interpretation. suggests a glimpse of tropical splendor as it The faculty will include Bernard Bierman. Some make long over -sea flights-as the flashes through the more somber surroundings head football coach at the Vniversity of l\Iin­ Golden Plover, which annually departs from of the northern forest. Of the four hundred nesota; David MacMillan, head basketball Nova Scotia for South America, or from the or more species of Tanagers, dwellers in the coach ; David C. Bartelma, wrestling coach : Altcutian for the Hawaiian Islands, on non-stop American tropics, the males of most of them Philip Brain, tennis coach; George Otterness, passages without compass, radio-direction, or gaily plumaged, this is the only one that regu­ track coach; Ralph Piper, gymnastic coach and any of the numerous gadgets that are so indis­ larly graces our woodlands. With its plain­ instructor in swimming; and Lloyd Stein, head pensable to mankind when traversing the air­ colored mate it makes its home in all parts of trainer at the l,;niversity of l\Iinnesota. ways. This sense, possessed by many other the state where trees grow, and chip-churs and Football and basketball will occupy all the animals besides birds, of knowing just where warbles its Robin-like song far from its many morning periods, but there will be ample op­ they are at any given time and just how to pro­ portunity to study other phases of the athletic relatives. ceed to a fixed destination, is called the power Mention should also be made of the May­ program. The afternoons will be given over of orientation. No one as yet has adequately arriving Vireos, which dwell in our tree-tops to group discussions of a clinical nature on the explained it. Unbelievable as it may seem, and add their sweet but rather weak songs to various aspects of sports. young birds, travelling alone and for the first the general chorus ; of the Thrushes, among time, possess the ability to follow the unfamiliar them the Robin, Bluebird and the divinely­ established route of their ancestors and to reach voiced Hermit and Wood Thrushes; of the the allotted goal where their parents a wait them N. U .E.A. Meeting Woodpeckers, Nuthatches, Swallows, and Jays ; or will soon arrive. A noted English biologist the newly arrived European Starling ; and the has called this "inherited memory," for lack of The ).Jational University Extension Associa­ cheery little Chickadee and jaunty Waxwing. tion will hold its twenty-second annual meeting­ a better explanation. It is an established fact, l\1ay 13-15 at Washington University, St. whatever the solution of the conundrum. Education is the instruction of the Louis. Cniversity of Minnesota representatives Conspicuous among the May arrivals are the intellect in the laws of nature, under which who will participate in the program are Richar·1 many representatives of the Warbler Family, name I include not merely things and their R. Price, Director of the Extension Division, dainty birds all of them, and some of exquisite forces, but men and their ways ; and the fashion­ Herbert Sorenson. Assistant Professor of Edu­ beauty. They are the joy and delight of the ing of the affections and of the will into an cational Psychology, and Harold Benjamin, bird-watcher. "Warbler-time" is hailed with earnest and loving desire to move in harmony Director of the Center for Continuation Study special enthusiasm by every lover of the choicest with those laws. -Thomas Henry Huxley. at the University of Minnesota. among our northern birds. They come in great lor May, 1931 3

Wildflowers in the Spring Candidates for Certificate (Continued from page o11e) Students who consider themselves eligible for not in these places purely by chance, but rather an Extension Certificate should make applica­ because the sum total of conditions of these tion to the Students' Work Committee for a particular homes meets the respective needs for check of their credits. The committee endeavors their own existence. The Cactus will not thrive to have information about all probable candi­ in a swamp or in the deep shady woods ; nor dates for certificates, but the responsibility rests can the Showy Orchid endure the winds and with students. dry soil of the great plains. The structure of each species is suited to some particular set of conditions found in nature, and it is only under these conditions that it will be found at its best. Adult Education \Vhen man steps in and changes these condi­ In English tions, the delicate wildflowers there must perish. Some plants, especially weeds, are able to grow (Reprinted from National T.Jniversity Extension under a great variety of conditions. But the Association Bulletin) majority of our wildflowers have specific prefer­ Following is an excerpt from George B. ences, and some of them are so exacting in their Zehmer's letter printed by the University of demands that only in occasional places do they Virginia Extension Division of which Mr. find in nature all conditions suited to their needs. Trailing Arbutus Zehmer is director. He writes from London, They are so finely adjusted that any slight where he is studying adult education. change in these conditions may mean death and patches. Not far away in \\·ell drained soil at·c "'I think I am safe in saying that the method disappearance from that locality. This un­ slender scapes of Dutchman's Breeches, each employed in the adult education classes here is doubtedly accounts for the rareness of certain gracefully curved and bearing several white superior to the method in vogue in America. of our Orchids and other uncommon species. waxy two-spurred flowers that dangle on their The important difference is that in the United If you would see Calypso, one of the rarest and slender pedicels like jewels of pearl or ivory. States the emphasis is on lectures by the in­ most delicately beautiful of all our native Or­ Several pale green leaves, finely cut and lace­ structor or leader. In England, the emphasis chids you must venture into some northern like, arise from the base of the flower stalk, and is on essays by the students, for examination Cedar swamp or low mossy woodland seldom these are nearly as attractive as are the delicate and criticism by the tutor, and class discussion frequented by man. Clear the timber offering flowers themselves. One of the most strikingly in which the student is supposed to take an shade and protection, drain the mossy humus, beautifnl of all the spring flowers in the hard­ active part. Student participation is predicated or even trample the soil about its roots, and this i wood forest is the Showy Orchis, with its two on the supposition that he will so prepare him­ delicate fairy of the North may vanish. r broad fleshy lily-like leaves springing from the self that he can make a definite contribution. The most interesting place to search for base of the scape which lifts the flowers several The usual procedure is an hour's lecture or in­ spring flowers is in the primitive forest or in I inches above the ground. The delicate waxy formal talk by the tutor foiiowed by an hour's I remnants of this forest that for one reason or flowers, rose purple with a lip of pure white, I( discussion. Furthermore, classes do not have another have not been greatly changed from the ~ are showy and very fragrant. to follow rigidly a prescribed syllabus prepared primitive condition. Such wild remnants are Another Orchid to be looked for here is the hy a university or board of education com­ often left, even in densely populated districts, Yellow Lady Slipper which grows also in mittee. True, a printed or mimeographed sylla­ where there is rough land along streams, or l swamps and open meadows. Jack-in-the-Pulpit bus is usually required but students and in­ where there are steep banks unsuitable for cul­ is a denizen of low rich woodlands. Here too, structor work this out together and submit to tivation or pasture. To such places we must be we look for Trilliums, the Trout Lily, the educational authority concerned for ap­ content to go when a more prolonged trip to Anemones, Bishop's Cap, and the wild Blue . proval. Accordingly, the course of study is less some distant wilderness is not possible. Here Phlox. In open more stony ground and on formal and academic and, I think, more vital during the ages an ample layer of leaf mould rocky cliffs the Columbine makes its home, and psychological in its organization." has accumulated, and this affords an ideal seed while in low swampy ground and in wet bed for the choicest of our wildflowers. In many meadows the Marsh Marigold or Cowslip such places Hepatica is the first showy wild­ flourishes. Of Violets we have many and they flower to makes its appearance in spring. The vary greatly in their habitats. The Birdfoot better know nor more admired than is the last snowbank heaped on the shady hillside has Violet thrives in the dry sanely soil of open Trailing Arbutus. Unfortunately this attractive scarcely disappeared when great tufts of fuzzy prairies, the small Sweet White Violet prefers harbinger of spring is not universally dis­ buds are lifted on hairy scapes through the the swamp or wet meadow, while others in­ tributed, for lime in the soil is poison to it, and brown leaf carpet and above the purplish ever­ cluding the Downy Yellow and Canada Violets, it is therefore confined to the lime-free soil such green leaves of last year. In another day or as well as several species of blue or purple as is commonly found beneath the Hemlocks and two of warm sunshine they burst forth as color thrive best in moist shady woodlands Pines of our northern coniferous forests. Here, beautiful clumps of gayly tinted flowers, in along with Spring Beauties, Hepaticas, and in regions not frequented by forest fires or by delicate shades of pink, blue, lavender, and Trilliums. flower pickers, this prostrate plant forms lovely white. This is one of the most admired of all On the open prairies the most showy flower carpets of its rounded evergreen leaves. Its our spring flowers because in many places it of early spring is generally a large purple trailing woody vine creeps over the sandy loam is first to brave the chilly winds of early spring. Anemone known as the Pasque Flower. This Following Hepatica closely, and in the same flower has a superficial resemblance to the and brown Pine needles and in early May when locality, one usually finds the Bloodroot. The Crocus and is often wrongly so called. Its ail else in nature is awakening from winter flower bud neatly wrapped in a silvery green tufts of showy purple or lavender flowers pre­ slumber its flowers brust forth in great pro­ leaf-coat pushes its way upward and soon ex­ cede the leaves and are very attractive. It is fusion, waxy, shell pink, and very fragrant. It pands into a large showy white flower. \Vild found at its best in the sanely soil of exposed is a gem of the evergreen forest, and is justly Ginger, with a pair of rounded yellow-green hillsides or dry prairie lands. entitled to the reputation it holds of being the leaves and a brownish purple flower half hid­ Every locality has its Mayflower, but of all most attractive and most charming of all our den in the leaf carpet, grows here in dense the species meriting this appellation none is early spring wildflowers. ..

4 The Interpreter lor May, 1937

The Art and Methods of the Cartoonist

By Stan Asch I shall not discuss the significance of the ani­ eye has shifted to a farm yard where he sees mated cartoon, but some explanation of how it lllsfructor in Cartooning a farmer standing at the barn door holding a is made may be of interest. The creation of milk pail, with cows in the barn behind him. HE modern cartoon and its creators were. an animated cartoon film requires the efforts of A woman of sophisticated appearance, obviously T just getting started forty years ago. To­ scores of cartoonists laboring as a team. "The a visitor from the city, stands before him ex­ day, in the face of criticism, some of us insist Three Little Pigs" film required twelve thou­ tending a tiny tea cup and saying "Get me that funny paper work is a real art. Of course. sand drawings and took four months to make. some milk-with perhaps a dash of cream." we must be prepared to back this up with good About one hundred cartoonists are employed at In many instances the cartoonist is apt to reasons for our contention. The first thing we the Walt Disney Studios where this film was think of the spoken line first. This suggests point out is that the cartoon of modern times made. When a character in a film is to be ani­ the change of scene. Perhaps if the farmer is really a hybrid. It is partly literary and mated (walking, running, etc.) it is necessary were actually milking the cows, the woman partly pictorial. Today the creator of the news­ that the subject be photographed in perhaps could point her finger at a calf with the ques­ paper strip, the best example of the modern thirty relative positions to complete the action. tion "Is this one for condensed milk?" or "Is cartoon, depends upon keen ability in draftsman­ If you have ever seen a strip of movie film you this one for cream?" The cartoonist fingers ship, composition, creative imagination (such as remember that it was composed of a successive through more pages of the magazine and finds a writer might have) and power of human in­ series of framed pictures. For each of these, another cartoon to work on. This time it's a sight. in an animated film, a picture more or less picture of two Indians standing beside a tepee If cartoons have a purposeful reason for their complete in itself must be drawn-hence as and watching a smoke signal rise from the top place in contemporary life it is simply that they many as twelve thousand (or more) drawings of a distant hill. The redskin sending the signal serve to amuse or inform. Comic art in America are required for the complete production. The has caused the conventional smoke circles to has a very definite excuse for its existence progress of animation has taken fast steps since take the form of rising pretzels. An Indian in according to Editor a11d Publisher, which stated film sound came to the screen, but its possi­ the foreground, interpreting the message, cries recently that "the comics have brought the bilities have not been exhausted and probably "\\'hoopee !-a beer party!" The artist decides American people more moments of happiness. won't be until film sound, technicolor and three to twist the smoke signals to form dollar greater relief from the dull routine of life, than dimensional perspective (such as miniature stage signs ($). At the same time he pictures an all other instrumentalities of this generation.'' sets for the characters) have been brought to Indian woman pointing to the distant message This, of course, is a very handsome compliment. perfection. "The Three Little Pigs" was but from the entrance of the tepee. Her husband, [And perhaps extravagant. Editor.] a feeble promise of future movie cartoons. The a fat redskin, seated on the ground also observes The cartoonist's art is divided into fiye "Little Pigs" film is now preserved in the Mu­ the signal. While the artist's mind is thus oc­ branches. The first and most important of seum of Motion Picture History at Washington cupied the idea is completed with the caption these, from the public point of view, is the news­ and is regarded as a pioneer production. "It's ] unior over at Indian college-he wants paper strip for week-day and Sunday release. An introduction to cartoon art would be in­ us to send him more money." The animated-{)r motion picture-cartoon. the complete without an explanation in some meas­ The fact that a number of successful car­ editorial, sports, magazine and commercial car­ ure of how comic artists get ideas. It is not toonists have incomes in excess of $100,000 a toons are the others. Caricature tends to fine possible to be all revealing here about cartoon year has induced many talented persons to be­ art and may not be classed with these. ideas, but to start with we've got to disillusion lieve that cartooning promises handsome re­ Much has been said about the late trend those who still believe that cartoonists actually wat·ds to all comers. Unfortunately such oppor­ toward drama, pathos and adventure on the create "gags" out of thin air. (Professionals tunities come only to those who are able and comic page. You may agree with Robert call ideas "gags.") The notion that the car­ willing to spend years gathering experience in Benchley, who asserts that "the tone of comic toonist produces a new idea each time he draws preparation for real success. These people are strips has become, in the past few years, almost a picture is not correct. Every comic artist rare. It makes little difference whether a be­ entirely defeatist-most of the daily comic knows that there is nothing new under the sun ginner has a lot of talent or only a little to strips are not comic at all, but grim stories oi in humor. The professional has learned that start with; inexperience will treat him quite real life in which old men go blind and little the idea behind every cartoon has been used the same. girls meet Life face to face and find it in­ with more or less variation any number of times supportable." If you support this view you before it is laughed at in some clever cartoon. probably no longer read the comics, but appar­ Ideas for magazine cartoons are born in much ently most people are inclined to disagree with the same way as those for political cartoons or Entered as second-class matter October !, 19!6, at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn., under Mr. Benchley. comic strips. Hence it will suffice to explain the Act of August !4, 191t. At any rate cartoons have improved techni­ gagwork for the magazine comic. cally with rapid strides during the past decade. To make it simpler it should be said first "Tarzan," "Flash Gordon" and others of this that new humor comes from old, or that pro­ type are the work of real artists. But it's very fessionals get their ideas by revamping or true that many newspaper strips no longer de­ switching an old idea into a new one, or at pend upon humor alone for their appeal. They least by getting from an old idea the germ for place their entertainment value rather upon a a gag. Here is an example: suppose a cartoon­ successful combination of the humor of the old­ ist has gone to the public library to examine fashioned comic with the more serious aspects a back copy of fudge. As he turns a page he of the new; such as "Terry and the Pirates'' finds a cartoon picturing a wealthy old gentle­ or "Joe Palooka." Then of course, many strips man sitting beside his radio. The man in the have no humor in them at all. picture is listening to a program which does The political cartoon which once was em­ not suit his taste and is addressing his butler, ployed as an instrument for stinging satire, is "I say, Parker, get me a violin solo on the now popular as the best editorial medium for radio with perhaps a dash of flute." The spoken analysis of the headlines. The sports cartoon line appears below the cartoon. As the artist presents timely views on national or local sports in an interesting and reportorial manner stress­ looks at the picture he studies the possibility ing graphic values. of changing its gag plot. Suddenly his mind's Published by the General Extension Division, University of Minnesota • EDUCATION A UFELONG PROCESS

VoL. XI JUNE, 1937 No. 10

The Solar System Editor's N ole: One of the most valuable The Tuberculosis Fight .. weapons in the fight against tuberculosis is By Willem J. Luyten education. For this reason, THE INTERPRE­ By J. Arthur Myers, M.D. Associate Professor of Astronomy TER, primarily an educational paper, is Professor of Preventh•e Medicine alld pleased to print the accompanying article. Public Health ~ HERE are probably few astronomical The editor feels that Dr. Myers has made I T questions that interest the layman as pro­ a very real contribution to adult education. f 0 R the past forty years no new instrument I foundly as does the problem of the origin of * * * of precision has been added to our arma­ ~ the earth and of the solar system. Nearly all Mr. Luyten, head of the Department of mentarium in the fight against tuberculosis. primitive religions (the first indication that Astronomy at the University of Minnesota, Indeed, in 1895 we already had the microscope; man had left savagery behind him and had has been granted a Guggenheim Fellowship the tubercle bacillus had been discovered; tuber­ begun trying to use his intellect) attempt some to continue his study of the southern hemi­ culin had been prepared; the sanatorium was in ~ sort of explanation as to how the earth came use; lung collapse had been employed; and that I sphere, the most complete survey of this into being. But for many thousands of years portion of the sky ever attempted. and one year the x-ray was presented. However, in no improvement was made on the version given which has already resulted in the discovery 1895 approximately two hundred persons per ~ in the first chapter of the Book of Genesis, of two new stars. 100,000 of the population lost their lives from and we cannot really speak of any theory for Mr. Luyten will leave for Holland in June, tuberculosis each year. Now, in 1937, only the origin of the solar system until the eigh­ where he will work with Professor Eynar slightly more than fifty per 100,000 population teenth century. It was only then that a serious Hertsprung, famous Danish astronomer. die each year in the United States; and in Min­ I attempt was made to analyze the problem m nesota slightly less than forty. Along with the the light of our knowledge of the laws of sharp decline in the mortality curve has gone nature. all theories for the ongm of the solar system, parallel declining curves in morbidity and in­ This first theory is generally credited to and the one which remained almost unchal­ fection from tuberculosis. Although we prob­ Buffon, the great French naturalist, a very lenged for a hundred years. Toward the end ably do not know all of the causes for the rapid r versatile person who knew a great deal about of the nineteenth century it was subjected to decrease in tuberculosis, there can be no doubt I almost everything. It is said of him that he rigorous mathematical analysis by Moulton at that organized effort against the disease has translated Newton's Fluxions into French and Chicago and failed to pass the test. In particu­ been a major factor. thereafter appropriately died of calculus. lar it was shown that a mass of gas such as Since 1895, we have learned how to use our Buffon conceived the idea of a collision between that, left to its own resources, could not throw weapons and have multiplied many-fold those ~ the sun and another body. The debris formed off a ring, and that, moreover, such a ring which have proved of most value. For example, in this way might become the planets. While would not condense into a planet. in 1895 the number of hospital beds for the l he spoke of the other body as a "comet" it is We now know a great many more facts and isolation of tuberculous patients was extremely I clear from his further description of the process details about the solar system and the earth­ small; now more than 115,000 beds in sanato­ that he meant a body of considerable mass. its characteristics and idiosyncrasies in particu­ riums and general hospitals are at all times I Since we now know that comets are composed lar. We have strong reasons to believe that the employed for this purpose. Even in 1900, x-ray of extremely tenuous vapors, it would be closer equipment was seldom available. In many cities, ~ crust of the earth is about 1,850,000,000 years to the truth if we translated Buffon's descrip­ old; and hence, in round numbers, that the there was not a single apparatus of this kind; tion into modern language and spoke of the planetary system was formed two billions years now such equipment is to be found everywhere, collisions between the sun and another star. ago. On the other hand we think we know how even in many small villages; and portable x-ray Even so, there were many inconsistencies in long a star lives, how quickly it ages; and we equipment which can be carried from home to this theory and the famous French astronomer, are convinced that two billion years ago the home in the physician's car is now available. Laplace, set out to devise a better one. He sun was not very much different from what it In 1900, the tuberculin test had been used but visualized a gigantic primordial nebula-a great is now, and that it probably never was as large not in an extensive or practical way except in mass of tenuous gas, almost spherical in shape as the whole planetary system. The nebular determining the presence or absence of tubercu­ and rotating very slowly. As time went on, hypothesis is pretty well disposed of, therefore, losis in the bodies of cattle. Now no examina­ this nebula would contract; and as it shrank it and the question is, what next? Chamberlin tion of a human body is considered complete would have to rotate faster. This again would and Moulton promptly devised a new theory unless the tuberculin test has been administered. flatten it into a disk-like object. Eventually the known as the planetesimal hypothesis, in which, Indeed, the number of tests given by physicians speed of rotation would be so great that a ring roughly speaking, it was thought that the sun, each year runs into the millions in the United would be thrown off; this ring might condense passing through a cloud of small particles­ States alone. In 1895, artificial collapse of the and form a planet. Inside the ring would be planetesimals-might have acquired a planetary lung had been used only in Europe; now it is a left a more nearly spherical mass of gas which system gradually; but this theory, too, met with standard procedure employed not only by spe­ would simply repeat the process. Thus the serious mathematical difficulties. cialists in the field of diseases of the chest but planets could be visualized as having been It was modified then, and eventually radically also by numerous general practitioners through­ formed in slow succession by the contraction changed, chiefly by the English astronomers, out the country. At present we need only to of a nebula once as large as the orbit of the Jeans and Jeffreys, until it returned nearly to intensify the use of the information and the outermost planet (eight billion miles in diam­ the original idea of Buffon (viz., the collision et]uipment in hand to bring tuberculosis under eter) into the present size of the sun-less than between the sun and another star). Jeans, how­ control. The procedure is simple and easily one million miles across. This is, in substance, ever, stops short of an actual collision and con- executed, yet one is startled anew to see the the nebular hypothesis, the most celebrated of (Continued on page three) (Continued 011 page two) ..

2 The Interpreter

The Interpreter The Tuberculosis Fight Published monthly, except July and August by the General ExtensiOn Division University of Min- nesota, at Minneapolis. ' Entered as seco!ld-class matter, October 2, 1926, (Co11tinued from page one) roomed with students whom we had alreadv at the post office m Minneapolis, Minn. under the found to have tuberculosis in communicabl~ Act of August 24, 1912. ' reports each year of the deaths of more United , form. Richard R. Price ------Director States citizens than the \Vorld War claimed. A student who had lived in one fraternity Advisory Committee Tuberculosis is one of our contagious dis­ house reported to the Students' Health Service T. A. H. Teeter H. B. Gislason eases, as demonstrated by the large number of in March, 1924. The tuberculosis involving his I. W. Jones A. H. Speer children or young adults living in homes where l~ngs was already so advanced and so progres­ Curtis E. Avery ------Editor the disease exists in communicable form in SIVe that he lived only three weeks and died in some member of the family and by large num­ the Health Service Hospital. The material he JUNE, 1937 bers of students of nursing and medicine who was coughing from his lungs was teeming with w~rk with tuberculous patients unprotected, who tubercle bacilli. He had been in intimate con­ quiCkly develop the first phase of tuberculous tact with students in his fraternity; in less than Conservation of Human disease in their bodies. In the control of con­ two years, six of his fraternity brothers reported tagious disease we now have excellent examples. because of illness due to tuberculosis of the Resources such as diphtheria and typhoid fever, which have lungs. (Extracts from. an address made by John Temple been reduced from major agents in disabilitv Gra~es, II, editor of The Birmingham News at a Tuberculosis exists in the human lung and and destruction of life to relatively unimporta;t rneetmg of the In~titute .o~ .Rural Affairs. RePrinted often in communicable form a long time before here .from ~.rtenswn Dtv1swn News, Virginia Poly­ positions. Much of this reduction came through techmc Instttute.) it causes symptoms. Indeed, observations have efforts and methods initiated before we em­ There was never a time when more was re­ shown that there is an average period of two ployed, in a large way, specific immunizing quired of human beings, more humanness, more and one-half years after this disease can be agents. Indeed, the greatest accomplishment competence, more science, more character, more detected by the tuberculin test and the x-ray was achieved through preventing the germs of taste. Our engineers and inventors have cre­ film before it causes any external manifesta­ the sick person or the carrier from reaching ated for us a machine age, and unless we man­ tions. Therefore, tuberculosis must be sought the body of the well person. It is a funda­ age somehow, as human beings, to live up to among the apparently healthy students in order mental law in biology that when the death rate the coils, wheels, and gears we are in danger to detect the disease while it is amenable to of any living organism exceeds the birth rate of being destroyed by our own device. Upon treatment and before tubercle bacilli are being and continues to do so, that species is on its our own human qualities hangs the decision disseminated to others. way to extinction, whether it be an organism now as to whether machines shall be the villains , In 1928, Dr. Diehl, director of the Students' so small that it must be magnified many hun­ or the heroes of our mortal plot. Health Service, made a provision whereby the dred times in order to be seen by the human tuberculin test was administered to all entering eye, or whether it is the human family, itself. Some of us, faced with ~hes~ threat~ of the students. Much to our surprise, it was found Tuberculosis is rapidly being controlled by machine give the coward's answer, the defeatist's that slightly less than 35 per cent of the stu­ preventing the tubercle bacillus from reaching gesture. We say that the automobile must be dents reacted positively to this test. Generally the bodies of uninfected persons from the sick mechanically controlled against speeds beyond speaking, only the positive reactors have been person or the carrier ; in other words, it is not a certain limit, that the radio and the press must contaminated with and have, at the time of the being permitted to perpetuate its kind to any­ be censored against misuse by dictators or dema­ test, foci of living tubercle bacilli in their in thing like the extent it did in 1900. We do gogues, that the labor-saving machine must be their bodies. As years passed, the incidence not have an immunizing agent for tuberculosis, limited by law both in production and introduc­ of positive reactors among students of entering such as we have for diphtheria, typhoid fever, tion. But the brave answer, the civilized sen­ classes gradually decreased until now it is ap­ and smallpox. However, even if such an agent sible one, is that we shall become human beings proximately 25 per cent. is never developed, we can still control tuber­ capable of living up to our machines. We can Another significant fact had been established ; culosis, because we have at our command and live up to our automobiles through organiza­ namely, that ordinary physical examination fre­ are already using all that we need to· reduce tion for better driving, better roads, better law­ quently fails to reveal evidence of tuberculosis the disease to one of minor importance. abiding. We can live up to our radios through of the lungs when the x-ray film readily dis­ Since the fall of 1920, the Students' Health education at both ends of the great lines of com­ closes the location of the disease. Thus, in Service at the University of Minnesota has pro­ munication, education for those who send and 1928, 1929, and 1930, some of the students who vided a special tuberculosis clinic. In 1920, and for those who receive, so that these modern had reacted positively to the tuberculin test for several years thereafter, students came to messages which have attained the speed of light but whose physical examinations did not reveai this clinic only after they were ill or had some may attain, too, the health of light, and light's any disease, later became acutely ill, at which other reason to suspect that they had tubercu­ power of defeat over darkness. We can Jive up time they were found to have extensive disease losis. It was not unusual for a student to to our labor-saving machines through both the and were spreaders of tubercle bacilli. report for examination because of profuse hem­ organization and the education required to de­ This fact having been established, Dr. Diehl orrhage from the lungs the night before, or a velop a distribution system for the great gen­ arranged for x-ray examination of the chests recent alarming loss in weight, or a persistent erosities of production these machines make of all students entering the University who re­ rough. possible. Through organization and eduration acted positively to the tuberculin test. When For a number of years, there was an aver­ we can live up to our machines, but even that this procedure was instituted in the fall of 1931, age of forty students per year who reported is not enough. If the miracle of machinery is twenty freshmen were found with frank tuber­ because of symptoms, and who had frank tu­ to be real we must make the miracle of human culosis, seven of whom already had the disease berculosis. In the lungs of most of these stu­ being still more real.. We must move beyond in the moderate or far advanced stage, but none dents the disease had already reached the our machines, understand the infinite superioritv of whom had symptoms or appeared ill. The moderate or the far advanced stage; thus, they of man whom God makes to machines which one who had the most advanced disease weighed had lost their best chances of complete recov­ men make. 198 pounds and the year before had been a star ery. The fact that the majority of these stu­ high school athlete. Thus, by this simple pro­ dents were disseminators of tubercle bacilli made Plain living and high thinking are no more : cedure, twenty cases of tuberculosis were the campus an unsafe place for others as far as The homely beauty of the good old cause screened out, who by the old method of dealing tuberculosis is concerned. On a number of oc­ Is gone; our peace, our fearful innocence with tuberculosis would have entered the Uni- And pure religion breathing household' laws. casions, students reported for examinations be­ - \Vordsworth cause of illness and gave histories of having (Continued on page four) lor June, 1937 3

employment. So we loaded our ships and After the Revolution started on unchartered voyages to far-off seas. The Solar System \Ve had little enough to fill the vessels-some furs, a wild-growing weed, called ginseng,­ (Below is reprinted a part of lesson I of the course in (Continued from page one) American Economic Hutory, offered by the Correspond· and ice. This was not Yankee shrewdness, but ence Study Department.) necessity. \Ve did what we could, and we were siders only an approach between two stars so With this lesson we begin a new phase in the lucky. The furs appealed to the Chinese love close that the huge tidal waves produced by history of the North American continent. The for personal adornment; the ginseng was the mutual attraction of the stars topple over American Revolution has come and gone, leav­ thought to be an herb foretold by Confucius in each and break into a fine spray of "star­ ing thirteen mutually suspicious and quarreling long centuries ago, and the ice was sheerly beau­ dust" which then would form the planets. colonies to make some kind of unified and ef­ tiful. It did not matter that the crystal-sub­ Attractive as this theory appears, it again has fective government. I wish you could clear stance vanished, even while they looked upon been unable to withstand the cold logic of facts your thought of all the conventions which you it, for while it lasted it gave pleasure. The and mathematical analysis. For now we know "'I have learned about the American Revolution· Chinese believe in cherishing a lovely thing, that stars are extremely tenuous on their sur­ I wish you would free your mind of the roman~ however fragile, and placing its value above faces-thousands and millions of times thinner tic concept that, with the surrender at York­ the price of pearls. than the air we breathe. Hence the tidal waves town, we were born a great and free nation. These were small ships which took to the would not amount to much. Moreover, recent It would not lessen your pride in this America eastern trade, tiny boats to begin the years­ work indicates that in their atmosphere the or dim your loyalty to see the truth ; it neve; long voyage from which they might never re­ stars consist mainly of hydrogen, the lightest of lessens truth to see it truly. There is a much turn. One so small, a mere thirty-eight ton all gases-three hundred to one in number of greater story to tell of our development than vessel, with a nineteen-year old Nantucket lad particles (i.e., hydrogen, "as against all others the one usually told. There is the story of hard­ as sailing-master and a crew of a negro, a combined) ; and the planets, as we know them, ship, of disillusionment, of fear, of loss of faith Portuguese, and a thirteen-year old French boy, are notoriously poor in hydrogen. How could in our experiment, of civil war smouldering that the English would not believe that it had lumps of iron and rock come out of almost from Maine to Carolina. There is the storv of crossed the Atlantic, rounded the Cape and pure hydrogen gas? So again it is thumbs fought its way across the Indian Ocean. Master men who dared to set themselves against. the down and we turn to Jeffrey's version of the and crew were arrested as spies of the French manifest wishes of the masses and make theory. l government. Yet they had made the crossing, I through the sheer effort of their own will and He visualizes an actual collision; almost ex­ as others had done and still more were to do. determination, a country which would stand be­ actly what Buffon had proposed. Again we I There were fifteen of our ships in Chinese I neath the impact of foreign and domestic war. stumble over the mathematics of the problem waters when the new Constitution got under Who can tell, in the long reach of history, how (not to mention the same old trouble with way in 1789. Their navigation equipment con­ much they were motivated by selfish interest, hydrogen gas) and find that, in addition to sisted of a sextant, a Guthrie Grammar, con­ how much by vision that these things must be? being excessively improbable, such a collision taining a "New System of Modern Geography" Nor can one tell how great a part chance between two stars that hit, not like billiard and a few maps which gave definite location played in keeping us safe while we made our balls, but more like lumps of mud, could not of the Garden of Eden, but indefinite location early trial-steps in self-government. It can­ possibly shear off enough matter to form the not do us injury to know that often we have of most else. Quite a story unfolded from the I planets. Even if this could be done, these I sailing ports of New England. The sea may almost failed, to know that sometimes we have planets still could not be given the amount of I failed; there is no harm in knowing that we have been no "wet-nurse for democracy" but spin they so evidently possess. In order to I were wonderfully protected during our early she made fortunes for those who mastered her. overcome this last difficulty, Lyttleton and years, protected from European intervention by It gave life to us, until we turned from her f Russell have recently suggested that the sun the terrible wars which swept the mother­ to look inland to the prairie and the range. might have been a double star and that the continent. Into the making of our past history How queer for us, born with the pounding other partner of this binary system might have has gone hope and faith and the courage to roar of the ocean in our ears, to grow to ma­ been hit by an intruder in such a way as to persist; with these same qualities we must turity and hear only the long winds through bequeath planets to the sun. According to this make our future. the cornlands and gentle earth-sounds, which point of view then, the planets would be the Cornwallis surrendered much more to us at never would be heard at all, did not the ocean nephews and nieces of the sun, rather than its Yorktown than was spoken. Perhaps only sleep. offspring; but even so, closer scrutiny reveals faintly did the mind's ear catch the unvoiced phrases by which we were made trustees, of that the results of the union between an in­ our own destiny. We had rebelled, as the Child Care truder and the sun's former mate, made or­ young do, against parental domination ; against phans by the quick get-away of these two, the will or wish of the majority, rebellion had could not possibly be picked up by the sun. become successful revolution; we were aban­ "One of the best services we can do a child It, too, would merely beat a hasty retreat. doned to make our own way in the world of is to help him understand that he cannot live And thus we have come to the end of our tether. Many theories have been proposed; but nations. Our equipment for the struggle? A to himself alone." This opinion is expressed no sooner can they be formulated with a pre­ great, unexplored continent at our back; the by Marion L. Faegre and John E. Anderson, cision capable of being subjected to rigorous by-lanes of the sea at our front-door; hard of the University of Minnesota's Institute of mathematical analysis than they are found necessity to make inventors of us all; a shin­ Child Welfare, in the revised fourth edition of wanting. The ships of cosmogony are but frail "Child Care and Training," just published by ing vision of a better land-to-be. barques which founder and are dashed to pieces the University Press. The text speaks briefly of the new trade with on the barrier-reef of mathematics. the Far East and Russia. It is almost a pity "The warmth of human companionship is as It leaves us in the unsatisfactory position of to mention it at all, unless one tells something necessary to a child's development as is the having not a single theory. All we possess at of it. Perhaps this new, far eastern, trade bet­ fulfillment of his physical needs," state the present are some vague clues. Some day these ter illustrates early American character than authors in their book's new chapter on "Social may become another theory; but will it stand anything else in our history. We had been Development." the acid test? That is the question. indignant over British regulation of the West Child Care and Training has been the Press's Indian trade. We learned that prohibition was best seller since it was first published in 1928. Life may change, but it may fly not; worse than regulation. The magnificent chances In the new edition it is expanded, brought up Hope may vanish, but can die not · for profit which the War had provided were to date, and illustrated with new photographs. Truth be veiled, but still it burnet!: ; gone; our ships were idle ; our seamen without There is much new material on the older child. -Shelley 4 The Interpreter for June, 1937

The Tuberculosis Fight different from that we have advocated for I have no remembrance of how long this more than a decade, but the outstanding accom­ ambition lasted, but I do know that for a long (Co11tinued from page two) plishment in Detroit is the bringing together time I have been content to be little, and to bear of so many agents fighting a common enemy. the everyday name of Emily, and that one does versity and some of whom would have dis­ Any community or any group of persons can not have to be tall and stately to be kind, that seminated tubercle bacilli to other students and rid itself of tuberculosis in a short time by simple clothes are better to work in than long, would have lost their own best chances of administering the tuberculin test to all, regard­ traily, velvet gowns. , recovery. less of age. Everyone reacting positively to I suppose I outgrew my childish ambition In some schools, particularly those of nurs­ the test should have complete examination, in­ without realizing I had done so, and I smile ing and medicine, periodic examinations are cluding x-ray film of the chest to detect areas as I look back. But childhood ambitions should made annually during the students' resiclence, of disease which already are or soon may be never be discouraged, for often they fill a gap and in the College of Education all students eliminating tubercle bacilli to the outside world, in the life of a lonely child, and perhaps un­ are very carefully examined in their senior year whence they may be taken into the bodies of consciously they may influence a child to live for tuberculosis and other communicable dis­ previously uninfected persons and there set up up to the qualities attributed to the hero. A eases which might jeopardize their future and foci of disease. When areas of tuberculosis child will usually outgrow the impractical am­ which might be transmitted to fellow teachers, are found in this manner, many may be treated bitions such as wearing velvet dresses to visit the children whom they teach, and other asso­ successfully in a short period of time and the ciates. Through this modern method of detect­ the sick, but the more practical qualities can condition terminated as far as spread of the be developed into something useful and stimu­ ing and controlling tuberculosis. the discovery disease to others is concerned. Some will be lating in the life of the growing child. of the student with advanced disease after he found to have the disease in such a stage that has already entered the University has become it cannot be treated successfully; such persons a rarity. must be isolated or taught how to prevent the Action bv the medical facultv in the fall of spread of their tubercle bacilli to others. Thus, Why People Take 1935, which became effective january 1, 1936, the whole solution of the problem lies in finding Extension Work is one of the most far-reaching steps that has through examination of both the ill and the ever been taken to control tuberculosis in healthy appearing persons in every community America. Briefly, it consists of adequate ex­ those with definite areas of disease, as well as Recently Miss Maren Elwood, University of amination of all employees of the hospital to the potential cases, saving as many as possible, California Extension instructor, submitted to detect tuberculosis which may exist among and throwing up an adequate barrier in order her students a questionnaire to determine their them in communicable form, in order that stu­ that their germs will not spread to the unin­ reasons for taking Extension work. Some dents of nursing and medicine and all others fected. This will prevent the disease from typical answers were : working or visiting in the hospital, as well as perpetuating itself. Any community which I needed a change in mental work. patients being treated there, may be protected serioush· undertakes this program and carries I wanted something different; some creative against this disease. through to the logical conclusion will in a short work. In addition, every patient admitted to the time cause tuberculosis to become as rare as I wanted to put down in black and white hospital for any cause whatsoever must have smallpox, diphtheria, and typhoid fever. some of my experiences, and get "steam" off the tuberculin test administered and all who my system. react positively have x-ray films made of the Get myself to study, do research and build chest. Those whose films show shadows are new interests. then examined clinically to determine whether Ambitions I Have Use my spare time advantageously. these shadows are due to tuberculosis and ii Meet a different class of people. so, whether it is in communicable form. Pa­ Outgrown Get out of my rut and environment. tients found to have tuberculosis in communi­ Work and wake up my numb mind. cable form are not excluded but are admitted By Emily C. Tricker Reach out for a new goal. on a service where strict isolation technic is Perhaps capitalize my new hobby. practiced, and every possible attempt is made to (Written in Composition 5) To see ideas, hunches, dreams, and aspirations prevent their tubercle bacilli from reaching the My great ambition was to be tall and stately, take form and become brain children would be bodies of those who care for them or visit to have dark, beautifully waved hair, and to be exciting. them. called Lady Gwendolen. I have no idea where The tuberculosis program has developed this ambition came from, for as a child I had rapidly on the campus of the University of few books, and I remember that I had this long­ Minnesota, and under the present direction oi ing to be a lovely lady long before I could have Ente1·ed as seco>~d·class matter October 2, 19~6. Dr. Boynton the ultimate goal is to have the been old enough to have read romances. at the post office in Minneapolis, Minn .. under campus so free from communicable cases of Because I was a delicate child, I was unable the Act ot August 24, 1912. tuberculosis that students can enter and pass to romp and play with my brothers and sisters, through the University with no danger what­ but I could watch the baby and small children soever of contracting this disease on the while my mother was busy, and it was while campus. doing this that I wove fancies of what I would The method of attack on tuberculosis on the do were I to become the beautiful Lady Gwen­ campus of the University of Minnesota is now dolen. I spent hours imagining what I would being employed on the campuses of many do if I could become a tall, wavy haired, beauti­ American colleges and universities and in fully dressed Lady Gwendolen. I imagined my­ some places is being extended to the high self going through the little village where I schools. It is al~o in effect in certain indus­ lived, taking soup and jelly to the sick, giving tries and probably the time is not far distant shoes and clothing to the children, so that they when it will be applied generally to whole might attend school, reading to the old people, commumtles. Indeed, the citv of Detroit and helping tired mothers with their babies. through such co-operation as that of great news­ On these visits my dress was to be black velvet, papers and magazines, a radio station, and the with lace collar and cuffs. I don't believe I services of more than a thousand physicians had to wear a hat or coat while making my has organized to control tuberculosis on a calls, but the long velvet dress was very im­ municipal basis. The program there is not portant.