The Hellenic Saga (Earth)

Uranus (Heaven)

Oceanus =

Iapetus (Titan) =

Atlas = Prometheus

• “Prometheus made humans out of earth and water, and he also gave them fire…” (Apollodorus Library 1.7.1) • … “and scatter-brained Epimetheus from the first was a mischief to men who eat bread; for it was he who first took of the woman, the maiden whom he had formed” ( ca. 509) Prometheus and Zeus

• Zeus concealed the secret of life • Trick of the meat and fat • Zeus concealed fire • Prometheus stole it and gave it to man • Freidrich H. Fuger, 1751 - 1818 • Zeus ordered the creation of Pandora • Zeus chained Prometheus to a mountain • The accounts here are many and confused Maxfield Parish Prometheus 1919 Prometheus Chained Dirck van Baburen 1594 - 1624 Prometheus Nicolas-Sébastien 1705 - 1778 : The Modern Prometheus

• Novel by Mary Shelly • First published in 1818. • The first true Science Fiction novel • Victor Frankenstein is Prometheus • As with the story of Prometheus, the novel asks about cause and effect, and about responsibility. • Is man accountable for his creations? • Is God? • Are there moral, ethical constraints on man’s creative urges? Mary Shelly

• “I saw the pale student of unhallowed arts kneeling beside the thing he had put together. I saw the hideous phantasm of a man stretched out, and then, on the working of some powerful engine, show signs of life, and stir with an uneasy, half vital motion. Frightful must it be; for supremely frightful would be the effect of any human endeavour to mock the stupendous mechanism of the Creator of the world” (Introduction to the 1831 edition) Did I request thee, from my clay To mould me man? Did I solicit thee From darkness to promote me? , 10. 743 – 45. Printed on the inside cover of the 1818 edition. Pandora William Waterhouse 1896 Pandora

• The name means “all gifts” • made Pandora from earth and water in the shape of the goddesses • gave her grace • gave her skill • gave her deceit and shamelessness. • Each god gave her an evil, all in one jar Pandora and Epimetheus

• Zeus gave Pandora to Epimetheus • Pandora opened her gift-jar and the evils that make human existence difficult were released on the world • Only remained in the jar. • Is it the point that Hope is one of the things that plague mankind, and Zeus withheld it!? • Pandora’s ‘Box’ is a mistranslation by Pandora

• Son of Prometheus • Married • Zeus decided to destroy humanity with a flood • Prometheus warned Deucalion, he and Pyrrha escaped in a wooden chest • Stones of Deucalion Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (1609 – 1664) Autochthony ‘Born of the Earth’ Deucalion = Pyrrha

Hellen = Zeus


• The descendants of are the Hellenes, the • His sons divided • Amphictyon became king of • We will return to him later… Aeolus



Greek Migrations

• Middle Helladic • 1900 to 1600 BC • First ‘Greek’ Speakers • Mycenaean (Late Helladic) • 1600 to 1200 BC • The Warrior Elite of our Cycles • Dorian • 1200 BC • The Heraclidae The sons of Aolus Hellen =

Dorus Aeolus = Xuthus

Athamas Deion Perieres

Canace Pisidice Perimede The Family of Athamas, son of Aeolus, son of Hellen Hellen = Orseis

Dorus Aeolus = Enarete Xuthus

Athamas Sisyphus Salmoneus Deion Cretheus Perieres Magnes

Canace Pisidice Alcyone Calyce Perimede = = Athamas =


• Athamas ruled • Married the Nephele • Married Ino second Boeotia Nephele

• A cloud nymph • Ino, jealous of her step-children • Tricked the women into spoiling the seed wheat • Tricked the , Athamas to his son, • Nephele • Was given a ram with by Hermes • The ram carried her children to • Helle fell of and drowned: Hellespont The Hellespont Phrixus trying to save Helle Roman wall mural from Ino ()

• Ino, Athamas and : • Hermes brought the baby Dionysus to Ino • found out… drove Ino and Athamas mad • When Dionysus grew up, Ino became a • Athamas tried to kill Ino, who leapt into the sea • Ino became a goddess on her death • Or • She was carried by a to The Family of Sisyphus Hellen = Orseis

Dorus Aeolus = Enarete Xuthus

Athamas Sisyphus Salmoneus Deion Cretheus Perieres Magnes

Canace Pisidice Alcyone Calyce Perimede Sisyphus = • Sisyphus • Founder of Corinth • Promoted navigation and trade • Various traditions, all negative • Attempts to cheat death? • Betrayed Zeus’ abduction of • Condemned to role a stone up a hill in The =

Alcyone Merope = Zeus Hermes

• The sisters committed mass suicide • For their sacrifice, they were placed amongst the stars • Visible in Greece from May to November • Signal the farming and sailing seasons The Pleiades Pleiades Glaucus = Eurymede

Bellerophon Deliades

• Glaucus • Son of Sisyphus and Merope • Liked racing his chariot team • Angered Aphrodite • His team crashed and he was killed (tes)

• Accidentally killed his brother • Fled to , king of • Anteia () • Wife of Proetus • Bellerophon refused her advances so she accused him • Bellerophon sent to Lycia Bellerophon

• Iobates, king of Lycia sent Bellerophon on suicide missions: • Kill the Chimaera • Bellerophon rode over the beast and shot him with arrows • Kill the • Overcame an ambush • Iobates gave Bellerophon his daughter and his kingdom Chimaera

The Family of Salmoneus Hellen = Orseis

Dorus Aeolus = Enarete Xuthus

Athamas Sisyphus Salmoneus Deion Cretheus Perieres Magnes

Canace Pisidice Alcyone Calyce Perimede Salmoneus = Alcidice =


Admetus =

• Became king of after Cretheus • Neleus • Moved to Messenia and founded • His son, Nestor, fought at Iolchos

Pylos Cretheus = Tyro = Poseidon

Polymede = = Periclymene Pelias

Jason = Alcestis

• Admetus: • Went to and founded • A Calydonian hunter • An Argonaut • Married Alcestis Admetus and Alcestis

: • Killed the , dear to Zeus • Had to serve a mortal for a year as punishment • Helped Admetus win the hand of Alcestis Alcestis

Alcestis (438 BC) • Molliere The Misanthrope (1666) • is the main character • Theme: What will you sacrifice for your love? • Christoph Gluck, Alceste (, 1767) • A total of eight based on this story Fighting Death to Save Alcestis. Frederic Lord Leighton The Death of Alcestis Pierre Peyron (1744 – 1814) Cretheus = Tyro = Poseidon

Polymede = Aeson Pheres = Periclymene Pelias

Jason Lycurgus Admetus = Alcestis Deion Hellen = Orseis

Dorus Aeolus = Enarete Xuthus

Athamas Sisyphus Salmoneus Deion Cretheus Perieres Magnes

Canace Pisidice Alcyone Calyce Perimede Hellen = Orseis

Dorus Aeolus = Enarete Xuthus Deion =

Asteropeia Cephalus Aenetus = Aegina = Zeus Zeus = Aegina Endeis = =


• Zeus turned the ants to humans: • The • Aeacus became king of Aegina (the Island) • By Endeis he had and Telamon • By Psamathe he had Phocus

Aegina Temple of Aphaia Aegina East Pediment Example of a Painted Pediment

Zeus = Aegina Endeis = Aeacus

Thetis = Peleus Telamon =

Achilles Telamon

• Son of Aeacus, of Aegina • Moved to • One of the Calydonian Hunters • One of the • Fought the Amazons with • Fought at Troy with Heracles • Father of Ajax • The Athenian Philaidae family claimed descent from Telamon Peleus

• Son of Aeacus and Aegina • King of the Myrmidons • Moved to (Pthiotis) • Married • All the gods invited to the wedding… • except the goddess Discord.

Xuthus Hellen = Orseis

Dorus Aeolus Xuthus =

Achaeus • Gave his name to the Achaean people • Ion • Gave his name to the Ionian people • But this must be false, the are Pelasgian

Protogeneia Deucalion = Pyrrha

Hellen Amphictyon Protogeneia = Zeus

Dorus Xuthus Aeolus Protogeneia = Zeus

Calyce = Aethlius

Endymion =

• Aethlius • Led the from Thessaly • Founded Elis • , the moon, fell in love with him • Asked Zeus to “make him stay like this forever” • But he was sleeping in a cave at the time Endymion Francesco Trevisani (1656 – 1746) Endymion = Iphianassa

Aetolus =

Xanthipe = = Aeolia =

Porthaon Demonice =

Eurythemis = Eurythemis = Thestius

Eurypylus Evippus Tyndarius =

, king of • Zeus appeared to Leda as a • Two eggs: • • Castor and Polux • After her death, Leda became the goddess Giovanni Rapiti Eurythemis = Thestius

Eurypylus Iphiclus Plexippus Evippus

Leda Hypermnestra Althaea =

• Oeneus, son of , ruler of Calydonia • Received the vine from Dionysus • Failed to sacrifice to • Visited by the Calydonian Boar Calydonian Boar Calydonian Boar

• Oeneus assembled a team of heroes • Included , daughter of , son of Oeneus, killed the boar • And gave the skin to Atalanta • The sons of Thestius stole if from her • Meleager killed the sons of Thestius • And gave the skin back to Atalanta • War ensued, and Meleager was killed Periboea = Oeneus = Althaea

Deipyle =


• Adrastus who attempted to recover Thebes for • Tydeus, who died at Thebes • , who was one of the Epigonoi who sacked Thebes • The same Diomedes who is featured in the .