Metal treatment


Water treatment

Phosphates and phosphoric in everyday

Products to meet everyday needs PRAYON, a long tradition in the

Prayon was founded in 1982, but its reach back more than 100 years to the Liège region of Belgium. It is the parent company of the Prayon Group, a world leader in producing chemicals (fertilisers, detergents, additives and technical applications) and developing inorganic chemical specialities.

The Group’s expertise in the wet process production of is acknowledged and utilised worldwide, including by its competitors. Currently, some 50% of phosphoric acid production sites use Prayon technology and 70% use Prayon equipment.

Jointly owned by Office Chérifien des (OCP) and Société Régionale d’Investissement de Wallonie (SRIW), the Group consists of over 20 companies located in more than 10 countries. It employs 1,450 people and generates a turnover of €500 million.

Prayon boasts worldwide coverage via its production sites in Europe (Belgium and France), the Americas (USA, ) and Africa (). The Group markets its products in more than 70 countries on five continents, an international presence that reinforces its position as a global player.

PRAYON AND TECHNICAL PHOSPHATES Prayon markets the following major groups of phosphate products used in technical applications:

• Purified phosphoric acid: produced using Prayon’s own solvent extraction process. Available in different grades and concentrations, this acid is used in a wide range of technical and food applications. Production sites:

• Engis and Puurs (Belgium): 250,000 tonnes of P2O5 per year • Jorf-Lasfar (Morocco), via Emaphos, a joint venture between Prayon (33%), OCP (33%)

and CFB (Chemische Fabrik Budenheim) (33%): 150,000 tonnes of P2O5 per year

• Phosphate salts: , , , ammonium and aluminium phosphates, and a wide variety of special blends based on these products. Phosphate salts are used in the aforementioned industries as well as in , flame retardants, porcelain, paper, , among other applications. Many of these products are marketed under the Europhos brand name. The Group produces over 300,000 tonnes of phosphate salts each year. Production sites: • Engis and Puurs (Belgium) • Les Roches de Condrieu (Lyon, France) • Augusta (, USA)

salts: various grades of sodium as well as sodium and potassium fluosilicates. Production site: • Puurs (Belgium)

3 PRAYON, a worldwide group

The perfect partner Technology and expertise capable of rising to all market challenges at the leading edge of innovation

The Prayon Group today consists of more than 20 indus- Prayon’s research programmes focus on two objectives: trial and commercial affiliated companies. • meeting the market’s needs and expectations; • improving manufacturing processes in order to maxi- Specialised industrial subsidiaries ensure that the entire mise product quality, control costs and reduce safety production chain revolves around the Group’s core busi- and environmental risks. nesses. Since 1992, Prayon has implemented a quality assurance Its sales network of subsidiaries and agencies is structu- system at all its production sites and in all its commercial in such a way that it can ensure an active presence subsidiaries. across all five continents and meet the specific require- ments of local markets and application sectors. At present, all Prayon’s industrial sites are ISO 9001:2000- certified for quality. The European sites are also OHSAS 18001-certified for safety and have been certified as environmentally friendly under ISO 14001.

The Group’s analytical control laboratories are equipped with state-of-the-art technology used to determine the physical and chemical parameters for production at all of the Group’s industrial plants.

Other, more specialised laboratories work on individual product applications to meet specific customer require- ments.

Preferred access to raw materials Prayon and its industrial subsidiaries are guaranteed preferred access – in terms of time, quantity and qua- lity – to the basic raw materials needed to produce its end products. This special status is the result of its close partnership and development programme with its share- holder, Office Chérifien des Phosphates, which controls the world’s largest reserve of phosphate ore.

Local representative offices Production sites Commercial subsidiaries

4 5 Fertilisers

Product applications In horticulture, gardening, viticulture and arboriculture, irrigation and spraying are used to bring the three main – N, P and K – to plants. The excellent of Prayon products is an asset in these appli- cations. Detergents

Purified phosphoric acid and phosphates are key ingredients in industrial detergents (I&I detergents). In household detergents, phos- treatment phate-based formulations also offer certain advantages over «alternative formulas». The use of purified phosphoric acid and/or phosphates prevents the formation of scale These «builders» serve as complexing (softe- deposits, controls red and black water phe- ning), dispersing, emulsifying and buffering nomena and reduces the risk of in agents; they also synergise with water mains. Some phosphates and purified and provide alkalinity. phosphoric acid are also used for biological treatment of industrial and wastewater.

Fluorine products (NaF, SSF) are also used to improve the quality of public water in many countries. Metal treatment

Purified phosphoric acid and phosphates are used in the process of phosphating metallic surfaces. Phosphatation reduces the suscep- Other applications tibility of metals to corrosion and improves • Ceramics, enamels and refractories the adhesion of paint to the treated surface. • Porcelain These products are also used in cleaning • Paper metal surfaces and manufacturing electrical • Flame retardants sheets. Finally, purified phosphoric acid and • Paints fluorine derivatives are used in the alumi- • Glass fibre nium industry. • Glass • Antifreeze • Biofuels (biodiesel & bioethanol) • Yeast and • Textiles • Refining of sugar and vegetable oils • Other applications (pigments, pharmaceuticals applications, various food applications)

6 7 Phosphoric acid and phosphates in detergents Detergents

Purified phosphoric acid and phosphates combine many • Buffer agent able to regulate the acidity very useful properties which make them the material of of washing water choice in manufacturing most detergents, household and To make a detergent as effective as possible, it is industrial, also referred to as «I&I» (Industrial & Institu­ essential that the pH of the bath remains as stable tional). as possible throughout the washing process. However, Purified phosphoric acid is used in I&I for manufacturing some impurities are acidic. This can cause the bath pH «acidic» detergents, which are the most effective on scale, to fall considerably, especially in I&I cleaning. Due to soot, glue and dairy derivatives. Phosphates meanwhile their buffer (pH-controlling) capacity, phosphates neu- perform best against grease and oil. tralise this variation and maintain an optimum pH in the bath. In domestic cleaning, phosphates are sometimes replaced by other builders. However, products containing phospha­ • tes clean more effectively and require less use of other Alkalising capacity ingredients, especially surfactants. Phosphates are also of tripolyphosphates are alkaline with a pH of • Synergy with surfactants the only recyclable components present in detergents, approximately 10. Alkalinity helps the chemicals attack which is a distinct environmental advantage and helps to impurities by strengthening the action of the other The presence of phosphates makes surfactants more safeguard sustainable development. constituent ingredients of the detergent (e.g. sodium effective, resulting in a more powerful detergent. , ). Various types of phosphates are used in detergents, the main one being sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP).

We have developed over 20 grades of sodium tripoly­ phosphate that are specifically suited to different types of Product range and use cleaning products. Household Detergents I&I detergents

Tablets Powders Liquids or gels

STPP - Heavy granules • • • Phosphates and phosphoric acid are valued for their many properties STPP - Light granules •

• Softening and complexing agent • Dispersing agents STPP - Powder • •

The water used for washing contains calcium and Phosphates are excellent emulsifiers of oil and , STPP - (Hydrated) Type H • • • salts which are soluble in various quan- turning them into minute droplets dispersed in the STPP - Coloured heavy granules • • tities. This is known as water hardness. When subject detergent. They supplement the emulsifying effect of to the effects of temperature, some of these salts surfactants and/or sodium disilicate. Potassium solutions KTPP/TKPP • • become insoluble so that deposits build up on the item Due to their dispersing properties, phosphates prevent being washed, causing fabric fibres to stiffen, leaving the re-deposit of impurities. STPP is conside- Potassium phosphates KTPP/TKPP/SKTP • • • marks on glassware, and creating scale on appliances. red one of the best dispersing agents. Using a phosphate creates «complex» soluble products Phosphoric acid • with calcium and magnesium, and prevents them becoming deposited on the surface to be cleaned or in solutions are available in various grades and concentrations. the machine. potassium phosphates are available in powder or granulated form. We offer purified phosphoric acid in various grades and concentrations.

8 9 in metaltreatment acid, phosphatesandfluorinederivatives Phosphoric • in thefoll We produceuctsinhisfield in thistypeoftreatment. purity,chemical of level high a essential have is which products our processes, manufacturing our to Due the treatedsurface. to adhere to paint encourages and electrically, them insulates corroding, metals of risk the reduces ration ope- This surfaces. metal phosphating of process the in used are phosphates and acid phosphoric Purified paint. the and surface metallic the between coating phosphated a have all equipment enamelled or ted Cars, refrigerators, washing machines, and other pain- Meta l phosating owing areas:

10 , and ned with the cations (Ni cations the with ned combi­ produced, salts phosphate metal The ced. redu­ is interface the at level acidity The interface. metal- the at remain and dissolved are - elements certain solution), in phates phos­ and/or acid phosphoric (purified solution ting phospha­ a into plunged is metal ‘reactive’ a When Process: resistance tocorrosionwhenlive. greater offering surface insulating an into changed conductor,is natural a is which surface, metal the Moreover, when this process is carried out correctly, account oftheirbuffercapacity. on used often are orthophosphates potassium and sodium of solutions phosphating, alkaline of case the in addition, In easily. more lubricated be can that surface a tool the and metal the between cing easier to form the pieces of metal when cold by pla­ it makes coating resulting The metals. treated the of surface the on precipitate solution, the in sent , morespecificall 2+ , Zn , 2+ ,Mn y 2+ , such as as such - ) already pre­ already )

H 0 • • H 0 Acid 3 Acid of highqualitylow-energy-loss transformers. production the in used are themselves which sheets, are used in the manufacture of grain-oriented electrical phate) and/or purified phosphoric acid. These products phos- (monoaluminium MALP - phosphate of particular grade a uses also industry sheet electrical The electrical sheetsProducion • • of impurity. For example, A specific product is selected to remove a specific type to localisedcorrosion. since any such imperfections would make them subject no surfaces metal the covering films are the in imperfections there that ensures it because vital is stage This clean. absolutely be must treated be to surfaces the treatment, phosphating any out carrying Before Metal cleaning 3 PO PO and oilyresidues. removing scale, while alkalinecleanersperformbetterongrease acidic orneutralpreparationsaremoreeffectivein 4 4 PHOSPHA CLEANING VA MET H RIOUS 3 PO AL 4 TES PHOSPHA MSP MKP (MONO AL 4,5 CLEANING MALP 50%SOL. PHOSPHA ELECTRICAL VA MET SHEETS H H 3 RIOUS PO 3 UMINIUM PO 4 TE) TE) MET AL 4 TES pH Neutral AL TREA AND POLISHING OF AL , NaF sca TREAT 7 SS H UMINIUM 3 PO MENT , F MSP MKP PSF 4 (MONO AL l 4,5 TMENT e MALP 50%SOL.


• lishing). (electropo- polishing aluminium in used also is acid, Purified phosphoric acid, in combination with sulphuric cast coversforbaths. Fluorine derivatives are used in aluminium foundries as used inthealuminiumindustry. are derivatives and fluorine acid phosphoric Purified T of aluminiu r DSP DKP INSULA e ELECTRICAL 9 atm e TION nt


po ADHERANCE OR OTHER COA OF P lishi H 3 TINGS PO AINT TAT 4 n TSP TKP g (elec g 12 ION Alkaline ES CORROSION PROTECTION tropo AGAINST 14 lishi n g) g)

Metal treatment Water-soluble and liquid fertilisers

Fertigation Off-the-shelf fertilisers

In contrast to broadcast fertilisers that are often granula- «Off-the-shelf» fertilisers are so called because they are ted and spread directly on the ground, fertigation involves intended for use by the general public in NPK mixes, providing the plant with the nutrients it needs dissolved either solid or soluble. They come ready to use and are in ‘irrigation’ water in the broad sense of the term. The sold in small packs in garden centres and DIY stores. water can be applied in various ways: using a pipe with Here too manufacturers appreciate the high quality of holes, a spray or a drip irrigation system. Prayon products for their ease of use in industrial mixing This technique is increasingly popular among professio- operations and for their positive impact on the intrinsic nals, particularly in horticulture, gardening, viticulture, quality of the resulting NPK mixtures. arboriculture, open ground crops and soilless crops.

Due to their high purity and excellent solubility, products from the Prayon range are ideally suited to supplying plants with the three main nutrients they need - , phosphorous and potassium - in soluble form. They are available in both solid ammonium orthophosphate (MAP and DAP) and (MKP), and liquid ammonium and phosphoric acid form.

Prayon products can either be applied «as is» by the Fertilisers professional end user, who then mixes them with other nutritive substances at the time of application, or are premixed by manufacturers of NPK fertilisers who supply soluble solid products or actual ready-to-use solutions.

12 13 Phosphoric acid, phosphates and fluorine derivatives in water treatment

For a number of years, our R&D Department has been Properties • Source of nutrients developing various products for use in water treatment. The petrochemicals and agrifood industries, and in general, industries which discharge water with a high We are active in the treatment of domestic, industrial and • (Pb) precipitation agent BOD (biological demand), purify the water waste water. Some water mains and older buildings still use lead biologically to reduce the BOD. To be effective and piping. The presence of lead (Pb) in the water can be to develop, the used in these procedures Phosphates and purified phosphoric acid help to reduce harmful to human health. In order to avoid dangerously require the P (phosphorous), but they also the risk of pipework corrosion, control the lead content high lead content in water from the system, a small need optimum pH conditions. of water from the system, prevent the scale deposit, amount of purified phosphoric acid can be added to control the water pH and control red and black . encourage a ‘coating’ to form on the inner surface of If any of these elements is missing, then the following the lead pipes thereby preventing the lead from being products can be used as a source of phosphorous Fluorine derivatives such as NaF and SSF are used in released into the water. (either alone or in combination): purified phosphoric water fluoridation. acid, monoammonium phosphate (MAP), diammo- A (MSP) solution can also be nium phosphate (DAP) and monopotassium phos- used for this purpose. phate (MKP).

• Corrosion inhibition • Scale inhibition - softening agents Phosphates are used to reduce corrosion in water Hard water causes the formation of scale deposits mains. This may be either anodic corrosion or cathodic resulting in a lower flow rate through pipes. This in turn corrosion. means increased pumping and cleaning costs.

water treatment • Control of red and black waters can trap calcium and magnesium, When water is exposed to the oxidising action of air sources of scale formation, and can dissolve the com- and , colour changes can occur in the water. pounds formed, which prevents deposits from building up. CORROSION INHIBITION RED AND BLACK WATERS FLUORIDATION SCALE INHIBITION PH CONTROL If there is precipitation of iron compounds, water from (SOFTENING) the system may turn a reddish colour (red water). Depending on the water pH, preference will be given ANODIC CATHODIC RED WATERS BLACK WATERS FLUORINE DERIVATIVES MSP, DSP, TSP, CORROSION CORROSION H PO Similarly, if manganese precipitates, a blackish colour ALKALINE NEUTRAL OR 3 4 to either SHMP () or STPP INHIBITION INHIBITION TSPP OR STPP, SHMP, NaF, SSF WATERS ACIDIC WATERS may be observed (black water). Some phosphates can (sodium tripolyphosphate). SAPP, TKPP OR KTPP trap these metals, even in very weak concentrations, MSP, DSP, TSP, STPP STPP SHMP H PO OR SHMP 3 4 and control these phenomena. • pH control

WASTE WATER • water Fluoridation Another vital parameter in water treatment is control- ling the water pH. Due to their buffer (pH regulating) Water fluoridation has been commonplace for decades SEQUESTRATION PH CONTROL SOURCE OF NUTRIENTS capacity, orthophosphates and purified phosphoric AND PRECIPITATION in many countries including the , Austra- OF METAL TSP 12 MKP, MAP, DAP, acid can regulate the pH level of the water.

H3PO4 lia and the United Kingdom. MSP, DSP, TSP, STTP, SHMP, MKP, DKP, TKP, KTPP It is designed to improve the dental health of the popu- • Sequestration and precipitation of metal ions Water treatment Water lation by reducing the risk of tooth decay. Fluor deriva- Phosphates, and in particular SHMP (sodium hexa- tives (SSF, NaF) are commonly used for this purpose. metaphosphate) and STPP (sodium tripolyphosphate), INDUSTRIAL WATER can trap and precipitate ions in soluble compounds thus preventing deposits from forming. LEAD PH ANODIC CATHODIC SCALE INHIBITION PRECIPITATION CONTROL CORROSION CORROSION (SOFTENING) AGENT INHIBITION INHIBITION TSP 12


14 15 Phosphoric acid, phosphates and fluorine derivatives in various applications

Ceramics, enamels and refractories Porcelain

When preparing solutions used in the ceramics and In manufacturing refractories, some phosphates such as Calcium phosphates (DCP and TCP) are used in the glazes industry, it may be necessary to include addi­ TSPP (tetrasodium ) also act as disper- manufacture of high-quality porcelain ( ). They tives in order to obtain a fluid paste or a well-dispersed sing agents, but also facilitate the elimination of iron by increase the translucent effects of this type of porcelain. solution. So phosphates such as STPP (sodium tripoly­ simple cleaning. In addition, MALP (monoaluminium Sodium fluosilicate (SSF) is used as an opacifying agent phosphate) and SHMP (sodium hexametaphosphate) phosphate), MAP (monoammonium phosphate), and for some types of porcelain. are used as dispersing agents. purified phosphoric acid may be used as binding agents directly in the cohesion of the end product. Fluorine derivatives (NaF, SSF, PSF) act as fluxing agents, i.e. they lower the fusion temperature of some mixtures which in turn to a reduction in energy costs. Some fluorine derivatives (SSF, PSF) are also used as secondary opa- cifying agents. Flame retardants

Monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and (DAP) are often used as flame retardants to fireproof a variety of materials (particle boards, matches, textiles, etc.) and in the manufacture of fire extinguisher powder. DAP and ammonia polyphosphates are found in products used to fight forest fires. Paper

Many products are used in the paper pulp industry but In addition, certain phosphates can be added to paper few possess such a diverse range of uses as phos- to slow down its rate of decomposition. phates. The main phosphates used are sodium tripolyphos- The dispersing properties of phosphates make them phate (STPP), sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) extremely useful for limiting the caking of mineral fillers, and (DSP). pigments, resins (and other powdered ) when in suspension. Accordingly, they play an important role in the preparation of coating compositions. Paints Other properties are involved in the production of paper pulp generated by chemical, mechanical or de-inking Polyphosphates and, in particular, sodium hexameta­ processes. For virgin stock, made out of woods with a phosphate (SHMP), are dispersing agents and can high resin content, a sort of ‘gum’ sometimes appears change the distribution of the ionic charges (positive - around the fibres which can cause indentations on the negative) in soluble compounds, thereby improving their sheet of paper. These are known as pitch spots. Adding fluidity. This property is very useful in the paint industry. selected phosphates can prevent this from occurring. Due to their sequestering properties, phosphates are also The same applies during de-inking with stickies. used in corrosion inhibition through the sequestration of iron ions.

16 17 Other applications Phosphoric acid, phosphates and fluorine derivatives in various applications

Glass fibre Yeast and fermentation The great purity of the Prayon Group’s phosphates Monoaluminium phosphate (MALP) is used in the pro- (mainly MAP, DAP and MKP) and purified phosphoric acid duction of glass-fibre-based materials. It serves as a bin- means that they are used extensively as nutrients in the ding agent, replacing traditional organic compounds. The yeast industry as well as in a whole range of bio-industrial advantage of MALP is that it does not form harmful and processes based on fermentation (e.g. manufacture of volatile organic compounds at high temperatures. alcohol and pharmaceutical products). It is also stable over time and therefore imparts excellent insulating properties, thus facilitating recycling.


Aluminium metaphosphate (ALMP) is used as an additive in the manufacture of special types of glass and optical fibres. This phosphate can also be used as an opacifier in glass. Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) is used as an opacifier in crystal making. Sodium fluosilicate (SSF) is an opacifying agent used in the glass industry. Other applications Purified phosphoric acid is the basic raw material in the manufacture of phosphates. It is also used in many other applications including vegetable oils purification, activa-

ted carbon purification and TiO2 and H2O2 production.

Antifreeze Phosphates are also used in a number of other applica- (DKP) and purified phosphoric tions such as textiles, cement, plaster, photography, the acid are used in the manufacture of antifreeze, acting as treatment of drilling muds, the manufacture of titanium

an anti-corrosion agent in car radiators and other equi- dioxide (TiO2) and the stabilisation of H2O2 solution among pment. DKP helps to keep the pH stable at around 9, others. Fluorine derivatives (NaF, SSF and PSF) are used as thereby reducing the risk of corrosion. insecticides for wood (in the United States only). NaF is also one of the raw materials in the manufacture of MFP ().

Sodium fluosilicate (SSF) is used in producing latex foam for mattresses where it serves as an acidifying agent in gelling latex before it is vulcanised. biofuels

Purified phosphoric acid is commonly found in biodie- sel manufacturing (transesterification). It is used for vegetable oil pre-treatment and glycerine separation. In bioethanol production, it is used during the fermentation process.

18 19 Other applications PRAYON around the world


• Belgium • SOUTH AMERICA • PRAYON BENELUX n.v. Site of Engis (Liège) Alejandro Gual Gansbroekstraat, 31 a 144, rue Joseph Wauters 25 de Mayo 2870 RUISBROEK - BELGIUM BE-4480 Engis, Belgium 1061/(1646) San Fernando - Tel: +32 3 860 18 28 Tel: +32 (0)4 273 92 11 Buenos Aires - ARGENTINA Fax: +32 3 860 18 29 Fax: +32 (0)4 273 96 35 Tel: +54 11 47 44 40 65 E-mail: [email protected] E-mail: [email protected] Fax: +54 11 47 44 40 65 Web: http://www.prayon.com E-mail: [email protected] • PRAYON DEUTSCHLAND GmbH Im Defdahl 10 Site of Puurs (Antwerp) • ASIA 44141 Dortmund - GERMANY 31, Gansbroekstraat John Batty Tel: +49 231 55 79 90 0 BE-2870 Ruisbroek, Belgium Prayon SA - Asia Pacific Fax: +49 231 55 79 90 99 Tel: +32 (0)3 860 92 00 2nd Floor Shui On Centre E-mail: [email protected] Fax: +32 (0)3 886 30 38 6-8 Harbour Road E-mail: [email protected] Wanchai - Hong Kong • PRAYON IBERICA s.a. Tel: +852 2824 8940 • FRANCE C/Capitán Haya, 35-2° A Fax: +852 2824 8000 28020 MADRID - SPAIN Site of Roches of Condrieu (Lyon) E-mail: [email protected] Tel: +34 915 553 002 Avenue Berthelot Fax: +34 915 553 109 38370 Saint Clair du Rhône • CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE E-mail: [email protected] FRANCE Radomira Dudlova Tel: + 33 437 04 84 00 Office Czech Republic • Fax: + 33 437 04 84 10 PRAYON Inc. Nam. Fr. Krizika 2840 E-mail: [email protected] 1610 Marvin Griffin Road 39001 Tabor, AUGUSTA - GEORGIA 30903 - U.S.A • USA Czech Republic Tel: +1 706 771 93 20 Tel: +420 720 411 930 Fax: +1 706 771 93 90 PRAYON Inc. E-mail: [email protected] 1610 Marvin Griffin Road E-mail: [email protected] US-Augusta, Georgia 30906, United States • Tel: +1 706 798 43 46 • PRAYON ITALIA srl Fax: +1 706 771 93 90 Akash Barthakur Via Salutati 7 E-mail: [email protected] Prayon SA - Inde 20144 MILAN - ITALIA Room No. 5, Business Center Tel: +39 02 43 81 11 80 Habitat World Fax: +39 02 43 81 11 21 India Habitat Center E-mail: [email protected] Lodhi Road New Dehli 110 003 - INDIA • PRAYON UK plc Tel: +415 280 66 77 ext 215 Mobile: 9811152310 Rivers Lodge - West Common E-mail: [email protected] HARPENDEN HERTFORDSHIRE AL5 2JD - U.K. Tel: +44 1582 76 99 99 Fax: +44 1582 76 99 89 E-mail: [email protected]

20 21 Leader in our core business

Prayon’s core business consists of transforming rock phosphate into phosphoric acid which is then purified and either marketed or transformed into phosphate salts through reactions with alkali.

Prayon produces a full range of technical and food phos- phates at its plants in Europe and the United States.






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22 PRAYON: MEETING YOUR NEEDS • full product range • global presence • applications laboratory


Rue Joseph Wauters, 144 • B-4480 ENGIS - BELGIUM Tel: +32 4 273 92 11 • Fax: +32 4 273 96 35 e-mail: [email protected] Website: www.prayon.com