July 2006 Volume 15, No. 7 www.aps.org/apsnews Highlights APS NEWS APS Election Preview A Publication of the American Physical Society Page 7

APS Task Force Calls for Website on Ethics Education The Truth, The Whole Truth.... he APS should create and misconduct are easy to identify, there there has been the occasional work- maintain a web site to serve are plenty of murky gray areas where shop or introductory course on Tas a resource for ethics edu- the boundaries between acceptable scientific ethics, as well as an Online cation, according to a report of the and unacceptable behavior are not Ethics Center for Engineering and APS Task Force on Ethics Education, as clearly drawn. Many Science. Task force member presented to the APS Council at its may be confused or unaware of what Marshall Thomsen, a professor at April Meeting. Appointed last year, constitutes misconduct. Incoming Eastern Michigan University, also the task force was charged with graduate students in maintains an extensive online collec- examining how the Society might particular are in need of a little guid- tion of ethics resources, gleaned from encourage physics departments ance in this area, on their way to two NAS-funded workshops he around the country to do a better job becoming practicing scientists. organized in the late 1990s, plus of educating students, postdocs and "Ethics education is essential to materials from his own course on the faculty alike about scientific ethics. the intrinsic health of the enterprise, subject. A handful of cases of scientific as well as for the need to assure The APS task force reviewed all misconduct in various fields (includ- public trust," the task force said in these ongoing efforts and existing ing physics) over the past several the introduction to its report. "The resources. The report recommended years have cast a shadow on the community cannot take for granted that the Society regularly remind its Photo credit: US Department of Energy entire research enterprise. According that all of its members will behave members of the existence of its On May 26th, Raymond Orbach was confirmed by the US Senate to task force chair Allen Goldman ethically." “Guidelines for Professional as Undersecretary for Science in the Department of Energy. On June (University of Minnesota), there is There are some scattered Conduct” (http://www.aps.org/ 1, Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman (right) administered the oath a very real need to develop resources existing resources. For instance, statements/02_2.cfm). However, the of office to Orbach, as Orbach's wife Eva looked on. President Bush and materials to educate the commu- the APS has an official statement on task force members decided what nominated Orbach for the new position, created by the Energy nity about the various ethical the issue (http://www.aps.org/ was really needed was a central Web Policy Act of 2005, in December 2005. He will continue to serve as dilemmas they may encounter in statements/02_4.cfm), while the site devoted to ethics education, the Director of the DOE Office of Science, a position he has held the course of their careers. National Academy Press published featuring not just links to useful since March 2002. While certain cases of gross On Being a Scientist in 1995. And APS Task Force continued on page 3 Practice Makes Perfect Atomic Clocks, Fast Highlight DAMOP Meeting Sophie Cai, one The latest research in atomic spectroscopy for highly precise tim- than 200 mW of power to of the 24 members of clocks, attosecond experi- ing and sensing applications. Such operate–include GPS receivers, the 2006 US Physics ments, and ultracold neutral plasmas structures rely on miniature alkali wireless communication devices, Olympic Team, were among the featured topics at vapor cells–fabricated using remote monitoring, and explosives investigates the the 2006 annual meeting of the APS standard MEMS techniques–that detection. mysteries of Division of Atomic, Molecular and allow atoms to be confined along For all the advances in atomic at the training camp Optical Physics. The DAMOP with a buffer gas. The atoms in the clocks, most commercial atomic held at the University meeting took place May 16-20 in cell are excited using laser light, as frequency standards (AFS) still rely of Maryland in May. Knoxville, Tennessee. well as magnetic fields generated on conventional technology devel- Cai is a junior at In addition to the technical pro- by microfabricated current loops. oped in the 1950s. Symmetricom Ridgefield High gram, the meeting featured a Potential applications for such Technology Realization Center has School in Ridgefield, Wednesday evening public lecture units–which are about the size developed specialized laser sources Connecticut. For by the University of Nebraska’s of a grain of rice and require less DAMOP continued on page 6 more details about this year's Physics Timothy Gay, and banquet keynote Olympiad, see the address by Patricia Dehmer, asso- Women Who Choose Physics story on page 4. ciate director of the DOE’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences, on the- Photo credit: Ernie Tretkoff Love It, AIP Survey Discovers new “American Competitiveness Initiative.” Conference attendees Women in physics around the The study compared respons- Global Nuclear Plan Shares Key were also given the opportunity to world say they face negative atti- es from women in developed tour the Source tudes towards women in science, and developing countries. Elements with APS Report and Center for Nanophase materi- but they are also passionate and Unsurprisingly, women in devel- A key component of the Bush alternative to petroleum-based als at Oak Ridge National excited about physics, according oping countries were much more Administration Advanced Energy energy sources, particularly in light Laboratory. to a recent AIP Statistical Research likely to say they lacked adequate Initiative, announced during the 2006 of mounting concern about global Keeping Time with Atoms. Center report, titled Women funding and travel money. Sixty State of the Union Address, is the warming and US dependence on Kurt Gibble (Penn State University) Physicists Speak Again. percent of women in developing Global Nuclear Energy Partnership foreign sources of oil. Other countries reviewed some recent advances in More than 1350 women from countries said they did not have (GNEP), intended to enable the are also reconsidering the potential of the use of laser-cooled atoms in over 70 countries answered the adequate funding, compared with expansion worldwide of nuclear nuclear energy. atomic clocks that have resulted in survey, which was a follow-up to 33% of women in developed energy. The current GNEP proposal “The intent [of the POPA report] significant improvements in accu- a similar survey conducted in countries. 63% of women in before Congress shares key elements is to provide an informative, educa- racy. This requires finding creative 2002 in conjunction with the first developing countries lacked trav- with the recommendations of a tional document to help Congress by solutions to the frequency shifts that IUPAP International Conference el money, compared with 32% in May 2005 report issued by the APS clarifying the technical details sup- occur in cold collisions. Those solu- of Women in Physics. developed countries. Panel on Public Affairs (POPA). porting the issue, independent of any tions include using adiabatic fast While not a representative “I am not given a single cent Nuclear energy has long been political agendas,” said Hagengruber, passage to accurately evaluate the sample of women in physics, the for traveling. It’s very sad,” wrote viewed with suspicion by the gener- emphasizing that the report is "a con- cold collision frequency shift, as survey responses give a picture of one woman from Tanzania. al public because of various health and sensus document," although there well as “fountains” based on rubid- the challenges women face in “Right now I have a collaborator safety concerns, but over the last were some dissenting voices during ium atoms. physics and their attitudes about in the US but no funding to sup- decade, there has been a noticeable discussions. The report made sever- NIST scientists have built sim- their chosen field. port me. It is frustrating some- shift in public perception, according al recommendations. The issue that ilar fountain atomic clocks using The survey asked women how,” wrote a woman from to Roger Hagengruber (University provoked the most discussion, and cesium atoms, although the focus of about their education and careers, Nigeria. of New Mexico), who chaired the which is most relevant for the debate NIST’s John Kitching’s paper at and about issues that concern Worldwide, women reported POPAsubcommittee responsible for in Congress, had to do with reprocess- the DAMOP meeting was on recent women physicists, such as dis- both positive and negative effects drafting the APS report. Nuclear ing of nuclear fuel. In this area, the efforts to develop millimeter-sized crimination, marriage and child- of marriage on their career care, and funding. Women continued on page 3 energy is becoming an attractive GNEP continued on page 5 devices based on atomic 2 July 2006 APS NEWS

This Month in Physics History Members in the Media July, 1977: MRI Uses Fundamental Physics for Clinical Diagnosis

"As president, I'm responsible for golf balls fly farther. While our n July 3, 1977, the first of the right frequency. They them. Personally, I walked into a set research could be utilized by magnetic resonance would also emit this amount of of practices and lack of knowledge of industry, it can actually help us under- Oimaging (MRI) exam on energy in falling back to the lower the policies and as such, I feel that I stand any 'glassy' multi-particle a live human patient was per- energy orientation. Rabi would got some bad advice. And I will system, such as the early formed. MRI, which identifies be able to detect this transition fix it." universe–which cosmologists have atoms by how they behave in a from one state to the other. He –Robert Dynes, University of described as a glass." , has become an called his method California president, on executive –Sal Torquato, Princeton extremely useful non-invasive magnetic resonance. pay scandals at the University of University, on glasses, United Press method for imagining internal Rabi and his team modified California, Los Angeles Times, International, June 6, 2006 bodily structures and diagnosing the molecular beam apparatus so May 14, 2006 disease. The life-saving medical the beam was also exposed to a “Bringing DAMOP to Knoxville technique has its foundations in radio frequency signal as it trav- "This is a good example of some- and to UT is a significant event. It is the work of I. I. Rabi, eled through the magnetic field. thing which is very counterintuitive the top meeting in the field, and the who during the 1930s developed Tuning either the external mag- a method of measuring magnet- that the laws of nature permit." opportunities available to the I. I. Rabi netic field or the radio frequency –Robert Boyd, University of general public are outstanding." ic properties of atomic nuclei. can produce resonance. They Rochester, on a method of making –Joe Macek, University of was born on moment, much smaller than that of observed the first magnetic res- light travel backwards, The Tennessee, the Oak Ridger, May , 1898 in Rymanow, the , was difficult to deter- onance absorption in 1938, with Times, May 16, 2006 15, 2006 Austria. In 1899 his family mine precisely. Rabi and Gregory beam of chloride mole- moved to New York, where they Breit figured out how to modify cules. Rabi was enthralled by the "We were all scientists and there- "I resolved that if I ever came back lived in poverty in the Lower the classic Stern-Gerlach apparatus flopping of the , fore really understood and appreciat- to Boston, I'd study its acoustics.” East Side before moving to to find the nuclear spin of . and the group held a party to cel- ed the value this would bring to our –William Hartmann, Michigan Brooklyn in 1907. Rabi’s par- Rabi, who was often viewed as ebrate the achievement. colleagues in Iraq," State University, on his visit to the ents were Orthodox Jews, and lazy, was always impatient with Each atom or molecule has a –Barrett Ripin, on the Iraqi Virtual Mapparium, a whispering gallery in though Rabi never practiced reli- routine experimental techniques characteristic pattern of resonance Science Library, Washington Times, Boston, Christian Science Monitor, gion as an adult, he was always and data analysis. He liked to say frequencies. Rabi detected a series May 22, 2006 June 5, 2006 influenced by his religious he wanted an answer at the end of of resonances in different mole- upbringing. He felt that doing the day, and was driven to design cules that could be used to iden- "No matter how zoomed in or out “Alot of times this stuff is present- good physics was “walking the clever, clean experimental meth- tify the type of atom or molecule you are, you still see the same pattern." ed as beautiful and all path of God.” ods, methods that brought him and give more detail into molec- –Peter Pfeifer, University of that. It can seem disconnected from Rabi graduated from Cornell “nearer to God.” ular structure. Missouri, on fractals, St. Louis Post reality. I wanted to make it clear that University in 1919 with a degree Throughout the 1930s, Rabi After World War II broke out, Dispatch, May 23, 2006 the speculation is drawn from in . But he wasn’t real- improved the molecular beam Rabi left his molecular beam lab- experimental evidence, from ly captivated by chemistry, and method and used it to gather oratory and went on to become "The cage structures were not observations. I want people to under- spent three years not doing much increasingly accurate values for the Associate Director of the MIT expected, because metal clusters tend stand where these ideas come from, of anything before deciding to nuclear spin of atoms, including Radiation Laboratory. He was to be more compact." in a way that's entertaining and read- go to graduate school in physics and . The work awarded the in 1944, –Lai-Sheng Wang, Washington able. I think many people enjoy the at Cornell. After finishing his culminated in the magnetic reso- “for his resonance method for State University, on a new cagelike notion that there's more out there ... PhD in 1927, Rabi went to nance method which is the basis recording the magnetic proper- configuration of 16 gold atoms, The that we are still learning new things.” Europe, where he spent time for magnetic resonance imaging. ties of atomic nuclei.” New York Times, May 23, 2006 –Lisa Randall, Harvard working with the giants of quan- Magnetic moments tend to align In 1946 Edward Purcell and University, on why she wrote a pop- tum , including either parallel or antiparallel to an independently found “The things I made, like nitroglyc- ular book, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Sommerfeld, Bohr, Pauli, Stern, external magnetic field, and tend to a way to study the magnetic res- erin, took a fair amount of lab tech- May 29, 2006 and Heisenberg. behave somewhat like tops, pre- onance properties of atoms and nique. I specialized in explosives Rabi was fascinated by quan- cessing about the direction of the molecules in solids and liquids, because they were fun, and I liked "If their proposed test yields a tum ideas, especially the magnetic field, with a frequency instead of individual atoms or doing things that got results in a hurry” positive result (finding small black Stern–Gerlach experiment. Otto that depends on the magnetic field molecules as in Rabi’s molecular –Gordon Moore, on his childhood holes), that would be fantastic. If it Stern and Walther Gerlach had strength and the atom’s nuclear beam method. Later, nuclear mag- science experiments, Wired, finds something, a new world sent a thin beam of silver atoms magnetic moment. In 1937 Rabi netic resonance was further devel- June 2006 opens up." through a non-uniform strong predicted that the magnetic oped into the imaging technique –Raman Sundrum, Johns Hopkins magnetic field, and observed that moments of nuclei in these exper- that is now commonly used for “There’s no question that stinks University, on a proposal by Charles the beam separated into two dis- iments could be induced to flip their medical diagnosis. The first and bangs and crystals and colors are Keeton and Arlie Petters for detect- tinct sub-beams, the atoms in the orientation if they absorbed ener- images were produced in the early what drew kids – particularly boys – ing very small black holes, the San beam having been deflected gy from an electromagnetic wave 1970s, and the first live human to science.” Francisco Chronicle, June 9, 2006 slightly according to the direction subject was imaged in 1977. MRI –Roald Hoffmann, Cornell of their magnetic moments. machines became commercially University, Wired, June 2006 "Is it science fiction? Well, it's When Rabi returned to the available in the 1980s, and are theory and that already is not science United States in 1929, he took a now commonly used for imaging "It's a quarry worth hunting." fiction. It's theoretically possible to teaching position at Columbia internal body structures, espe- –Daniel Akerib, Case Western do all these Harry Potter things, but University. After spending two cially soft tissues like the brain. Reserve University, on dark matter, what's standing in the way is our years searching for a problem Shortly before he died in Knight Ridder Newspapers, engineering capabilities." that interested him, in 1931 Rabi January of 1988, Rabi was June 5, 2006 –John Pendry, Imperial College set up his molecular beam lab imaged in an MRI machine. “It London, on a theoretically possible and took up the problem of deter- was eerie. I saw myself in that "Golf club heads made of metal- invisibility cloak, Associated Press, mining the nuclear spin and asso- machine,” he said. “I never lic glasses, for example, can make May 26, 2006 ciated magnetic moment of sodi- thought my work would come um. The nuclear magnetic MRI Image to this.”

Series II, Vol. 15, No.7 Department, American Physical Society, One Physics Ellipse, Treasurer Physics and Society), J. H. Eberly (Laser Science), Leonard Feldman (Materials), Akif Balantekin (Nuclear), July 2006 College Park, MD 20740-3844, [email protected] Thomas McIlrath*, University of Maryland (emeritus) Editor-in-Chief John Jaros* (Particles & Fields), Ronald Ruth (Physics APS NEWS ©2006 The American Physical Society For Nonmembers–Circulation and Fulfillment Division, Martin Blume*, Brookhaven National Laboratory of Beams), James Drake* (Plasma), Timothy Lodge American Institute of Physics, Suite 1NO1, 2 Huntington (emeritus) (Polymer Physics), Gianfranco Vidali, (New York Section), Coden: ANWSEN ISSN: 1058-8132 Quadrangle, Melville, NY 11747-4502. Allow at least 6 Past-President Paul Wolf (Ohio Section) Editor ...... Alan Chodos weeks advance notice. For address changes, please send both Marvin L. Cohen*, , Berkeley Associate Editor ...... Jennifer Ouellette the old and new addresses, and, if possible, include a mail- General Councillors ADVISORS Staff Writer ...... Ernie Tretkoff ing label from a recent issue. Requests from subscribers for Christina Back, Janet Conrad, Wendell Hill, Evelyn Hu*, Representatives from Other Societies Special Publications Manager ...... Kerry G. Johnson missing issues will be honored without charge only if received Ann Orel, Arthur Ramirez, Richart Slusher, Laura Smoliar* Kenneth Heller, AAPT; Marc Brodsky, AIP Design and Production ...... Amera Jones within 6 months of the issue’s actual date of publication. International Councillor International Advisors Forefronts Editor ...... Craig Davis Periodical Postage Paid at College Park, MD and at addition- Albrecht Wagner María Esther Ortiz, Mexican Physical Society Proofreader ...... Edward Lee al mailing offices. Postmaster: Send address changes to APS Chair, Nominating Committee Walter Davidson, Canadian Association of Physicists APS News (ISSN: 1058-8132) is published 11X the right to select and to edit for length or clarity. All corre- News, Membership Department, American Physical Society, Thomas Rosenbaum yearly, monthly, except the August/September issue, by spondence regarding APS News should be directed to: Editor, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740-3844. Chair, Panel on Public Affairs Staff Representatives the American Physical Society, One Physics Ellipse, APS News, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740- Ernest Moniz Alan Chodos, Associate Executive Officer; Amy Flatten College Park, MD 20740-3844, (301) 209-3200. It 3844, E-mail: [email protected] APS COUNCIL 2006 Division, Forum and Section Councillors Director of International Affairs; Ted Hodapp, Director contains news of the Society and of its Divisions, President Charles Dermer (), Kate Kirby* (Atomic, of Education and Outreach; Michael Lubell, Director, Topical Groups, Sections and Forums; advance Subscriptions:APS News is an on-membership publication John J. Hopfield*, Molecular & Optical Physics) Robert Eisenberg (Biological), Public Affairs; Stanley Brown, Editorial Director; Charles information on meetings of the Society; and reports to delivered by Periodical Mail. Members residing abroad may President-Elect Charles S. Parmenter (Chemical), Moses H. Chan Muller, Director, Journal Operations; Michael Stephens, the Society by its committees and task forces, as well receive airfreight delivery for a fee of $15. Nonmembers: Leo P. Kadanoff*, University of Chicago (Condensed Matter Physics), Richard M. Martin Controller and Assistant Treasurer as opinions. Subscription rates are available at http://librarians.aps.org/ Vice-President (Computational), Harry Swinney* (Fluid Dynamics), Peter institutional.html. *, Zimmerman (Forum on Education), Roger Stuewer (Forum Administrator for Governance Committees Letters to the editor are welcomed from the member- Executive Officer on History of Physics), Patricia Mooney* (Forum on Ken Cole ship. Letters must be signed and should include an Subscription orders, renewals and address changes should Judy R. Franz*, University of Alabama, Huntsville Industrial and Applied Physics), David Ernst (Forum on * Members of the APS Executive Board address and daytime telephone number. The APS reserves be addressed as follows: For APS Members–Membership (on leave) International Physics), Philip “Bo” Hammer* (Forum on APS NEWS July 2006 3

Washington Dispatch A bimonthly update from the APS Office of Public Affairs What's New ISSUE: SCIENCE RESEARCH BUDGETS July 2006 The House of Representatives voted to provide full funding for the President’s ACI (American Competitiveness Initiative) request for the 1. END OF AN ERA: PARK STEPS DOWN AS DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC INFORMATION. Department of Energy’s Office of Science, the largest federal support- Bob Park, long-time faculty member at the University of Maryland and former physics er of physics research. The Energy and Water Appropriations department chair, is stepping down as Director of Public Information of the American Subcommittee, led by Chairman David Hobson (R-Ohio) and Ranking Physical Society. Park established the APS Washington Office in 1983 and has been Member Peter Visclosky (D-IN), funded the Office of Science at a DC fixture since, holding politicians, policy makers, administrators, quacks, buf- $4.132 billion, which includes the 14.1% increase requested by the foons and miscreants accountable for their deeds and misdeeds. Shy, timid and retir- President and an additional $30 million for Congressionally directed ing only in his dreams, Park has been a candid, caustic critic in real life. Over two projects. Senate action on the spending bill is not expected before July decades he helped convert the Washington Office from a one-man show into a strong, but early indications suggest that the Senate will follow the House lead. six-person professional advocacy operation. Although he will end his role as an APS spokesperson, Park will continue in his role as a part-time APS consultant. “I’m not House action on the funding bills that include NSF, NIST, NASA and really going anywhere,” Park advises friend and foe alike, “I just won’t have the title DOD are expected in June. For details of the FY07 budget process, Robert Park anymore.” go to http://www.aaas.org/spp/rd/fy07.htm To express your views to Congress on the President’s ACI requests, 2. VOODOO VAMPIRES BEWARE !! PARK BOOK RELEASED IN ROMANIAN. go to http://www.congressweb.com/cweb4/index.cfm? Park will continue to write his weekly “What’s New” column, begun in 1987 and now available in unexpur- orgcode=apspa&hotissue=61. gated form at http://www.bobpark.org . And his 2000 book, “Voodoo Science,” has just been released in *** Romanian, having been translated into nine other languages since its publication. ISSUE: INTERIM NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE STUDY At its May 12th meeting, the Panel on Public Affairs (POPA) 3. MORE TREES TO FALL: PARK INKS BOOK DEAL. Park recently signed a contract for two new books. But that’s not all. He will still keep busy with his op-ed authorized the formation of a study committee to look at technical issues pieces and his occasional TV and radio appearances, debunking pseudo-science, expressing his strong views associated with the centralized interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. on manned space exploration and keeping Puff Panegyric and General Persiflage of the Missile Defense The committee is a continuation of the previously formed Nuclear Agency shuddering in their silos. Energy Study Group (NESG) and is co-chaired by Roger Hagengruber of the University of New Mexico and John Ahearne of Sigma Xi. The 4. PRAISE FROM ON HIGH: APS LEADERS OFFER PLAUDITS. membership of the study group will be similar to the NESG with new WN hasn’t yet heard from Pat Robertson and probably won’t, but in the meantime APS President members added, who will expand the expertise of the group in the areas told us that “Bob Park’s years of service to APS have been invaluable both in dealing with the media and of safety, cost, security and transportation associated with consolidat- in keeping the APS membership informed about Washington affairs.” If that’s not enough to bring tears to ed interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. the eyes of WN readers, APS Executive Officer Judy Franz added, “We owe Bob tremendous thanks for The study is intended to educate congressional staff and clarify the initiating and helping to maintain an APS presence in Washington.” technical issues associated with interim storage to help Congress These opinions may not be shared by Park, but they should be. decide how to treat and dispose of the nation’s nuclear waste. *** ISSUE: POPA ELECTRICAL ENERGY STORAGE STUDY APS TASK FORCE CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1 At its May 12th meeting, the Panel on Public Affairs (POPA) materials and other resources, but is directly based on the student’s The next step is to implement the authorized the formation of a study committee to draft a report that also a series of case studies, which work, and includes a new experi- task force’s recommendations. will look at technical issues associated with electricity storage. The the task force developed, illustrat- mental plot created by said student, Goldman has developed a mock-up report will identify the relevant parameters of the electricity storage ing some of the more likely ethical in addition to the theoretical calcu- design for a web site, and hopes to problem, as well as areas where research might have a high payoff in scenarios encountered by lations. work with APS staff over the next improving technology, paying specific attention to DOE’s current scientists. In this instance, the APS guide- several months to get such a site up interest in developing an R&D program that will lead to economical Some of the hypothetical case lines are clear: “All those who have and running. large-scale centralized or distributed storage. The study group will be studies stem from real incidents made significant contributions Goldman acknowledges that the co-chaired by Ruth Howes of Marquette University and Sekazi (with names and details altered to should be offered the opportunity planned web site probably won't Mtingwa of Harvard. protect identities), while others are to be listed as authors.” The case stop extreme cases of outright data *** entirely fictional. The topics run the study template also allows for dis- falsification and fraud. But it may ISSUE: EDUCATION LEGISLATION UPDATE gamut from publication practices, cussion and advice as to how one heighten awareness of ethical On May 11th, the House Science Committee introduced three bills conflict of interest, data acquisition, might handle this type of situation. dilemmas, and help physicists at to strengthen and enhance federal support of science, technology, mentoring, issues of bias, and health The web site model that the APS every stage of their careers navigate engineering and math (STEM) education and research. The Science and safety, among others. task force proposes is intended to the murky gray areas. “Lying, and Mathematics Education for Competitiveness Act (H.R. 5358), spon- For example, publication prac- be dynamic, even interactive: users cheating and stealing are obvious sored by Rep. John Schwarz (R-MI), primarily focuses on the expan- tices relating to authorship can be would be able to contribute their violations of behavior, although sion of preexisting NSF programs to improve math and science edu- an especially knotty problem. A own case studies, and provide com- some people do it anyway,” he said. cation and to attract more undergraduates to STEM careers and K-12 hypothetical case study provided ments and suggestions, although “But there are many cases where teaching. The other two bills, the Early Career Research Act (H.R. 5356) in the report describes a graduate these would be vetted by an over- people are simply not aware that and the Research for Competitiveness Act (H.R. 5357), both sponsored student who has worked closely sight committee, which would also what they’re doing may not be eth- by Rep. Michael McCaul (R-TX), would authorize or increase grant with a professor and a postdoc on be responsible for planning ethics- ical. Maybe we can help raise their programs at NSF and DOE to assist early-career researchers. Because a project studying experimental related sessions and activities at consciousness a little.” the bills are in line with APS statements on science education, APS techniques in microfluidics. APS meetings. The other members of the task President John Hopfield sent a letter of endorsement to House Science The adviser then writes a subse- "The case studies have been force were Beverly Karplus Committee Chairman Sherwood Boehlert (R-NY). quent paper with another colleague, selected to illustrate various ethical Hartline (Delaware State *** developing a theory that accounts issues that are not necessarily University); Jean P. Krisch for the graduate student's results. easily resolved," explains Goldman. (University of Michigan); Brian Log on to the APS Public Affairs web site Yet the advisor fails to list the grad- "But these aren't all-inclusive, Utter (James Madison University); (http://www.aps.org/public_affairs) for more information. uate student as one of the authors hence the need to open the site to and Simon Woodruff (University of on the paper, even though the paper external contributions." Washington). WOMEN CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1 progress. Some said their husbands attitudes towards women in science or excellent relationship with their In some countries women instance, in France, which awards had been very supportive, while were a much bigger problem. Eighty graduate advisors. receive a greater percentage of 24% of physics PhDs to women, others said that family and house- percent of women agreed that atti- Many women (60%) had chosen physics bachelor’s and PhD degrees childcare is available and afford- hold duties were not shared even- tudes about women in physics need physics as a career while they were than others. Turkey is at the top of able, whereas in Germany, which ly, or that their husband’s careers improvement, while 55% said day- in high school. While most (85%) the list, with 39% of bachelor’s gives only 10% of its physics PhDs had taken precedence over their care cost needs improvement. cited their interest in the subject as degrees and 28% of PhDs going to to women, childcare is much less own. Women in developed countries the reason for their career choice, women. Many factors contribute to easily available. In the 2002 survey, many women were more likely than women in many (50%) also said that a teacher the representation of women in Despite the difficulties for mentioned a lack of affordable developing countries to say that had influenced their decision. Ivie physics in a given country, women in physics, women who childcare as a factor that influenced childcare was a problem. One said that other studies have found explained Ivie. In some countries, answered the survey were enthusi- their careers. The recent survey Brazilian woman wrote “I think that that men in physics also report inter- especially in the developing world, astic about their careers, and 86% therefore included a number of in my country, the main problem for est in the subject as the main rea- education is a class issue, so upper said they would choose physics questions about childcare in order women in science is not the fami- son for their career choice, but they class women are often given a good again. Many women expressed their to further probe the issue, said ly. We have maids.” are less likely than women to say education and encouraged to study love of the subject. Rachel Ivie, one of the study’s During their education and early they had been influenced by a subjects like physics. However, “I feel that physics chose me, authors. However, many women careers, most women reported that teacher. those women are often expected to not the other way around. I was responding to the 2005 survey they had some support from at least Though generally happy with give up their career when they get born a physicist,” wrote a woman pointed out that childcare is an issue one other person, though they also their chosen careers, 71% of women married. In developed countries, from the Netherlands. Another for all working women, not just said they relied on their own hard in physics said they were some- factors such as childcare may make woman, from Egypt, expressed a physicists, and furthermore, while work, perseverance, and determina- times discouraged, especially by the difference in whether women similar sentiment: “Physics is in childcare is a problem, negative tion. Most women reported a good discrimination and lack of funding. can pursue a career in physics. For my mind and blood. 4 July 2006 APS NEWS Letters Scientists Need More Insight Into the Religious Community As a member of both the sci- can imagine is a commonly used entific and Christian communi- polemic technique, but it is ter- Iran’s Quest for Nuclear Science and Technology ties, I am frequently exasperat- ribly unfair and ultimately inef- ed at the manner in which per- fective. This polarizing tactic By Hamid Javadi Protocol and international custom- , silicon microma- sons who purport to speak for just ratchets up the emotions on he quest of the Iranian govern- ary law. chining, nanotechnology, nano-biol- one community portray the other. both sides. ment to acquire nuclear sci- What Iran learned in the halls of ogy, genetic engineering, hydrogen The latest example is The Back For personal reasons I was Tence and technology is head- the United Nations was her most fuel, plasma reactor) can’t transfer Page article by Lawrence Krauss particularly offended by his mis- ing toward an international crisis, valuable lesson of survival. It is based the poor countries of the North-South in the April APS News. characterization of James albeit a manufactured one. The sub- on this psyche that Iran is maneuver- divide out of their cycle of poverty. I am not a fan of Intelligent Dobson as a "televangelist." I ject has many . Iran has ing the negotiations around the new The extreme plight of the human Design and agree with Krauss' attended the same church as been a party to the Treaty on the nuclear dispute [3]. Alas Iran’s poor race will remain unmanageable unless discussion of the operation of Dobson in the 1970s and admire Nuclear Non-Proliferation since 1970 and lower class paid the price of the more international institutions of the good science. However, his por- his character, convictions, and and had a safeguards agreement with war and will pay for any future polit- caliber of the trayal of the motives of ID pro- efforts for the well-being of chil- the UN nuclear watchdog, the ical blunder of their government under International Center for Theoretical ponents and religious persons is dren and families. He is not an International Atomic Energy Agency foreign imposed rules and constraints. Physics in Italy (founded in 1964 by distorted. He greatly exagger- ordained minister (his degree is (IAEA), since 1974. In this article, I inadvertently Abdus Salam; the ICTP operates ates the threat they pose to sci- in psychology), does not pastor The roots of Iran’s drive to become crossed the line into politics in which under a tripartite agreement among ence. a church, and has no television a nuclear player go back to events fol- I am neither a student nor a player. The the Italian Government, UNESCO, Krauss describes the Taliban's ministry. It would have taken lowing the 1978-1979 Iranian reader is encouraged to consult mul- and IAEA), and Jordan’s SESAME destruction of Buddhist statues. very little research to discover Revolution when a young Republic tiple sources to obtain an accurate (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Connecting one's opponent to the Dobson's true background, trying to stand on her own feet had understanding of the situation. My Science and Applications in the most extreme example one Religious continued on page 6 to go through a 8 year-long bloody most genuine reaction as a physicist Middle East; SESAME is an interna- conflict with Iraq. The state and the is to share with you (as it seems to me) tional center for research and Rutherford's Whereabouts Clarified Iranian people found themselves the forthcoming and courageous advanced technology) will operate Because of his immense contri- that there are present at least two alone in the fight against Iraq’s expressions of sound scientific under direct supervision of the scien- bution to the study of radioactivi- distinct types of radiation-one that invasion, which was backed by minds by the Physics Society of Iran tists who live and work in the poor ty and the understanding of the is very readily absorbed, which will numerous world powers, including under the prospect of most and third-world countries. atomic structure, Ernest Rutherford be termed for convenience the alpha the US [1]. uncertain consequences. To be frank, what is in the best is well deserving of the excellent radiation, and the other of a more Even the most adamant critic of On October 2003, the Physics interest of the Islamic Republic of article that appeared in “This Month penetrative character, which will the Iranian government gives it cred- Society of Iran issued a declaration Iran is to wake up from the stupor of in Physics History” [APS News, be termed the beta radiation”, it for fending off aggression that could regarding the internal political drive religious self-righteousness to join May 2006]. I would like, howev- names still in use today. This arti- have split and destroyed the country. toward the nuclear science and the rest of the world in the technolog- er, to correct a small error in the arti- cle entitled “ Radiation This difficult task was accomplished technology, which was issued about ical race for the well-being of its cle about the discovery of the het- and the Electrical Conduction in part by intricate use of the nation- a year prior to when it aquired citizens. erogeneous nature of the uranium Produced by It” communicated by alistic and religious drive and fervor international dimensions. Hamid Javadi is in the radiation first observed by Henri J.J. Thomson to the Philosophical of the Iranian people. Iranians are The declaration called for “mod- Submillimeter Wave Advanced Becquerel in 1896. This discovery Magazine is dated September 1st very proud people (mainly because ern rationality” in the procedures gov- Technology Group of the Jet was not done at McGill but rather 1998, a week before Rutherford of a glorious past and vibrant culture, erning scientific decision making, as Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena. when Rutherford was still at the boarded the Canada-bound ship even in the face of recent centuries well as “serious scrutiny” of claims References: Cavendish Laboratory. In the only that brought him to Montreal and of neglect and stagnation). concerning Iran’s achievement of 1.“Iran’s Nuclear Posture and the paper on radioactivity that McGill University, where he per- Irrespective of their cultural, reli- nuclear technology and its potential Scars of War,” Joost R. Hiltermann, Rutherford wrote before joining formed most of the work that led gious, or ethnic backgrounds, Iranians consequences–specifically the possi- Middle East Report Online Jan. 18th McGill one finds the sentence, to his 1908 Nobel Prize. hold their country very dear to their bility of international sanctions. “Our 2005. http://www.merip.org/ “These experiments show that the Jean Barrette heart. concern is the possible future block- mero/mero011805.html uranium radiation is complex, and Montréal, Québec Among the worst experiences of age of all international roads to our 2.“Preventing the further prolifer- the war was Iraq’s use of chemical scientific development,” the decla- ation of weapons of mass destruc- French Ship First to Deploy weapons against Iranian troops and ration stated. “National security relies tion. The importance of on-site inspec- civilians, and later, against Kurdish on scientific development and on tion in Iraq,” Lecture by Dr. Hans Having read about the work of night or in foggy weather. However, Iraqi civilians [2]. By the end of the maintenance of international inter- Blix, Executive Chairman of Robert Watson-Watt in "This Month it had no echo chamber and one could war, it had become the norm for Iraqis actions.” (Editor’s Note: The UNMOVIC at the Third Training in Physics History" in the April issue not know if the absence of a signal to start an offensive against Iran by complete text of this declaration Course of UNMOVIC. Vienna, 19 of APS News, we would like to point indicated that there were no icebergs first gassing the front line in order to can be found at http://www.aps.org/ February 2001. http://www.un.org/ out that the first commercial ship or that the system was not working, demoralize the defending forces. The apsnews/0706/070619.cfm) Depts/unmovic/ExecChair/Blix equipped with a radar system was so the commander of the ship did not bitter challenge of the Iranian govern- It is the desire of all concerned Vienna.htm. the French transatlantic liner dare to use it. ment was to convince the world that physicists that technologies (in 3.“Iran’s Nuclear File: The Normandie; this radar had been built Michel Soutif and Pierre Iraq was guilty of starting the inva- general) be used for the well-being Uncertain Engame,” Farideh Farhi, by the French company CSF, and its Averbuch sion, engaging in terror attacks on of humans all around the world. Middle East Report Online Oct. 24th purpose was to detect icebergs by Grenoble, France civilian population centers, and its It is heartbreaking to see that 2005. http://www.merip.org/ flagrant violation of the 1925 Geneva new technologies (for example mero/mero102405.html Odom Wins DAMOP Thesis Award Students Train Hard for Physics Olympiad The APS Division of accuracy required in measur- Atomic, Molecular and Optical ing the electron’s magnetic Twenty four high school the country. information quickly.” Physics (DAMOP) awarded its moment. students spent nine long, intense Robert Shurtz, the Physics Team Many of the team members were 2006 Thesis Award to Brian So Odom redesigned the days at the end of May doing head coach, is a teacher at Hawken interested in math and science at a Odom, for his thesis entitled experiment, building a com- physics, including classes every School, a small private school in young age, and had already taken “Measurement of the Electron pletely new apparatus (featuring day, seven exams, two practice labs Gates Mills, Ohio. He said that the advanced science and math classes. g-Factor in a Sub-Kelvin silver electrodes and a titani- and four mystery labs. And they US Physics Team members have Many have also participated in Cylindrical Cavity.” The selec- um vacuum enclosure), which had fun doing it. usually already taken an AP physics numerous science and math compe- tion was made during the reduced the effect of nuclear Members of the United States course at their high schools. Classes titions. Some are on the US Physics DAMOP annual meeting, held magnetism by a factor of 20. Physics team, they attended during the training camp focus on team for the second year. Though May 16-20 in Knoxville, He achieved a much improved training camp May 19-29 at the topics not typically covered in high clearly excelling in math and sci- Tennessee. (See story, page 1.) measurement of the electron University of Maryland. Five mem- school classes, including relativi- ence, they do have hobbies other Odom earned his B.S. in magnetic moment, and the best bers of the team will travel to ty, thermodynamics, waves, and than studying–several are also physics from Stanford determination of the fine struc- Singapore in July to compete in the some , said accomplished musicians, athletes, University in 1995, and did his ture constant to date. Gabrielse, International Physics Olympiad. Shurtz. These topics do show up and computer experts. graduate work at Harvard for one, believes that in the The US Physics Team training on the International Olympiad Henry Tung, a quiet teenager University under Gerald long-term, Odom’s work will camp is organized by the American exams. from San Diego who enjoys pro- Gabrielse. He had made a pre- lead to an improved measure- Association of Physics Teachers. These students are already very gramming and assembling comput- vious measurement of the elec- ment of the -to-electron The team is sponsored by all ten good at solving problems, said ers and playing the saxophone, said tron’s magnetic moment, but mass ratio as well. member societies of the American Shurtz. The training camp especial- he was having fun at the training then discovered a serious flaw Following the awarding of Institute of Physics, including the ly emphasizes lab skills, which camp, and learning a lot. “I’m learn- in the design of the apparatus his PhD in 2004, Odom accept- APS. some students don’t have the oppor- ing about all the physics I want to used to perform the experiment. ed a postdoctoral fellowship at The 24 team members were tunity to learn in school. It’s a lot know, and didn’t want to know,” As a result, the effects of the Kavli Institute for selected through two rounds of material for the students to learn he said laughingly. The best part of nuclear magnetism turned out Cosmological Physics at the of qualifying tests that were in a week, he said. “The students the camp, he said, was getting to to be too strong for the level of University of Chicago. taken by students from all around are bright, and they tend to absorb Olympiad continued on page 6 APS NEWS July 2006 5

GNEP CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1 subcommittee focused on three main energy in exchange for an agreement particularly in light of delays and Hey! Where Did My Office Go? points. to forego enrichment and reprocess- mounting costs of the planned high- First, the POPAstudy asserted that ing activities on their own. level nuclear waste facility at Yucca there is still adequate time to When GNEPwas first announced, Mountain. The Hobson committee properly evaluate promising tech- Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman objected to the decision to place nologies to enable Congress to declared that the program “brings GNEP before Yucca Mountain in make the most prudent decision the promise of virtually limitless ener- priority, particularly since there is a with regard to reprocessing. gy to emerging economies around pressing need to begin licensing new Second, the APS report empha- the globe, in an environmentally reactors in the coming decade, before sized that making a policy decision friendly manner while reducing the GNEPis ready for commercial-scale about reprocessing should not threat of nuclear proliferation. If we implementation. outpace the science, urging the can make GNEP a reality, we can Nonproliferation and national Department of Energy to take make the world a better, cleaner, security issues round out the Hobson sufficient time to identify the most safer place to live.” committee's list of objections, par- cost-effective technology that But GNEP's progress through ticularly with regard to the need to would also be the most resistant to Congress thus far has been less than integrate spent fuel recycling, “keep- threats of proliferation. smooth. Many members support ing sensitive materials and facilities “It is in the best interests of the nuclear energy, but there are within a secure perimeter and mini- US to maintain a reprocessing concerns that GNEP “as presently mizing offsite transportation of spe- research program and seek a formulated” might not be the best cial nuclear materials.” GNEPmakes proliferation-resistant and cost-effec- approach. Chief among the naysay- no mention of this requirement, or tive reprocessing technology,” ers is David Hobson (R-OH), chair of of the need for interim storage. Photo credit: Robert A. Kelly Hagengruber emphasized in his the House Energy and Water In his Congressional testimony, It may appear from the photo that APS Editor in Chief Martin Blume testimony before Congress in June Development Appropriations Hagengruber acknowledged the valid- arrived at work to find an empty space where his office used to be. 2005. "We do not oppose eventual Subcommittee. That body's FY2007 ity of proliferation concerns, but But, actually, no. The space shown in the picture is not his office; it reprocessing, but believe an early report contained language sharply stressed, “The ultimate assessment had held the hard copy files of manuscripts submitted to the Physical decision could threaten future growth critical of GNEP, and Hobson has should not be based on whether it is Review. The new electronic editorial process has made the paper in the use of nuclear energy." publicly expressed “serious policy, theoretically possible to make a files obsolete, so the banks of rolling shelves were dismantled and Third, the members of the POPA technical and financial reservations” weapon from the waste,” but on eval- removed in May, freeing up the 25 x 25 foot space. Staff at the Editorial study group urged Congress to "do no about the project. uating the numerous practical factors Office had a number of creative suggestions: A café? A boxing ring? harm" and refrain from forcing a The Hobson committee “strong- associated with producing weapons A dance floor? But in the end the space was swiftly converted into decision on reprocessing before the ly endorses the concept of recycling for a national stockpile, many of offices to accommodate four employees. issues of safety, proliferation and spent nuclear fuel,” but finds GNEP which can be difficult to evaluate. cost are fully understood. Doing so lacking in its strategic plan for “In the end, technology alone can't could backfire, diminishing the grow- achieving this. For instance, GNEP stop the risk of an increase in prolif- ing momentum for nuclear power favors an alternate recycling process eration, in such an international MEETING BRIEFS among the general public. using fast burner reactors, which climate, so some sort of long-term GNEP's primary focus is on the might be technologically desirable, but institutional changes will be need- • The APS Texas Section APS Ohio Section held its development and deployment of new which Hobson and his cohorts feel ed,” said Hagengruber. “That was held its annual spring meeting annual meeting at Wayne technologies to recycle nuclear fuel, “adds significant cost, time and risk part of the rationale for GNEP. March 23-25 at Angelo State State University in Detroit, minimize waste, and improve our to the recycling effort.” Nuclear energy will go forward University in San Angelo, Michigan. The theme of the ability to keep nuclear technologies Other concerns center on the lack whether the US pursues it or not. Texas. Among the highlights meeting was the physics of and materials out of terrorist hands. of a requirement for interim storage Perhaps if we take a leadership role, was a lecture during Saturday the early universe, featuring In addition to building a new gener- for hosting GNEP facilities, we can shape that agenda.” morning’s plenary session by such topics as cosmology, ation of nuclear power plants in the David Bixler (ASU), on stel- Big Bang physics, general ON THE WEB US, the US will work with other part- lar archaeology–specifically, relativity, back- • GNEP http://www.gnep.energy.gov what white dwarf stars can ground radiation and quasars, ner nations to achieve these lofty • POPA Report http://www.aps.org/public_affairs/proliferation-resistance tell scientists about the age along with selected topics in goals, in the process providing nuclear • Hagengruber Congressional testimony http://www.house.gov/science/hearings/ fuel to developing nations so they, energy05/june15/Hagengruber.pdf and history of star formation particle and , too, can reap the benefits of nuclear • House Report 109-474 http://thomas.loc.gov in our galaxy. Other speak- including “B” quark physics, ers covered such topics as symmetry breaking, and Congress Still Questions Scientific Information Policies baryon spectroscopy, super- the search for the Higgs symmetry, new measurements boson. The invited speakers Members of Congress continue "no consistent Federal policy regard- Early this year, controversy of the proton’s spin, spectral included Fred C. Adams to express concern about the ing the dissemination of research erupted over attempts to restrict shapes in helium gas, optical (University of Michigan), Administration's policies regarding results by Federal employees,” and NASA researcher James Hansen properties of bovine ocular who explored how the early the dissemination of scientific find- called for the development of “an from discussing climate change. tissues, and a scientific expla- universe may have impacted ings involving research in areas such overarching set of principles for the House Science Committee Chairman nation for a legendary local the formation and long-term as climate change. In May, the communication of scientific informa- Sherwood Boehlert (R-NY), optical phenomenon: the evolution of galaxies, and National Science Board (NSB) pro- tion by Government scientists, pol- Senator Susan Collins (R-ME), and “Marfa lights.” Paul Stankus (Oak Ridge vided its views on the dissemina- icy makers, and managers.” Senator Joseph Lieberman (D-CT) • The New England Section National Lab), on the quark- tion of research findings in response Washington believes that “a need wrote letters expressing their held its annual spring meeting gluon plasma and the early to a February 8 letter from Senator exists for all Federal agencies that concern to NASA Administrator March 31 through April 1 universe. John McCain (R-AZ). conduct research to establish policies Michael Griffin. Griffin quickly at Boston University in • From May 19-20, the In his letter, McCain asked the and procedures to encourage open issued an eight-page information Massachusetts, on the theme APS Northwest Section held NSB to examine existing policies exchange of data and results of dissemination policy, winning “Physics and Cosmology at its annual spring meeting of Federal science agencies concern- research conducted by agency scien- praise from Boehlert and Science the Interface.” Several promi- in Tacoma, Washington. ing the suppression and distortion of tists, while preventing the intention- Committee Ranking Member Bart nent scientists discussed their Program highlights included research findings and the impact al or unintentional suppression or Gordon (D-TN). research on the cosmological plenary talks on probing the these actions could have on the qual- distortion of research findings and Less than a month after constant, the accelerating uni- existence of extra dimensions ity and credibility of future accommodating appropriate agency the resolution of this matter, verse, different means of with gravitational-wave Government-sponsored scientific review.” Boehlert wrote to Vice Admiral probing dark matter, measur- observations; building robust research results. Furthermore, “Aclear distinction Conrad Lautenbacher, Administrator ing and predicting cosmolog- qubits for quantum comput- A May 12 NSB memorandum should be made between communi- of the National Oceanic and ical parameters, and cold dark ing; the search for missing contains as an attachment a five- cating professional research results Atmospheric Administration matter halos. Friday evening’s baryons at Jefferson Lab; the page letter to Senator McCain signed and data versus the interpretation (NOAA). In this April 7 letter, banquet featured bestselling latest results from Fermilab’s by then NSB Chairman Warren of data and results in a context that Boehlert wrote that he appreciated author Lawrence Krauss (The Tevatron; relativistic binary Washington. The Washington letter seeks to influence, through the Lautenbacher's expressed support Physics of Star Trek, Hiding pulsar systems; testing sym- comments favorably on NASA's injection of personal viewpoints, for "open and unfettered scientific in the Mirror) as the after- metry by trapping antihydro- newly instituted employee policy, public opinion or the formulation of communication." However, Boehlert dinner speaker. The program gen atoms; and transverse citing it as "one way to effectively public policy. Delay in taking these went on to express concern that " also featured a showcase of coherence at short wave- articulate an agency's goals of scien- actions may contribute to a potential at least some scientists at NOAA physics demonstrations, as lengths. Friday evening’s tific openness." The letter contin- loss of confidence by the American continue to feel that the agency is well as an education work- banquet featured an after- ues, "The survey of the agencies' IG public and broader research com- not encouraging open communica- shop designed to help new dinner lecture by Mott [in-house Inspectors General] indi- munity regarding the quality and tion. " He recommended NOAA physics teachers integrate Greene (University of Puget cated that no reports were issued to credibility of Government sponsored take corrective steps similar to effective methods and new Sound) on atmospheric indicate scientific information was scientific research results." those instituted by NASA. technologies to better meet physics and continental drift: suppressed or distorted at the agen- The full text of Washington’s Courtesy of FYI, the American the challenge of reaching “The True Story of How cies involved with the Board's NSB letter may be read at Institute of Physics Bulletin students. Alfred Wegener Made His reviews." http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/meetings/ of Science Policy News • That same weekend, the Discovery.” In his letter, Washington found 2006/0509/major_actions.pdf (http://aip.org/fyi). 6 July 2006 APS NEWS


for commercial applications. For example, the Chip-Scale is smaller and uses less power than other commercial AFS devices, enabling atomic timing accuracy in portable battery-powered applica- tions. The optically pumped cesium beam frequency standard is being developed for deployment onboard the GPS-III satellite constellation. Combing Optical Frequencies. Femtosecond laser frequency combs (FLFCs) have found widespread use in optical atomic clocks, as well as in optical frequency metrology. Now, these broadband, evenly- spaced arrays of optical frequen- cies–produced by femtosecond Photo credit: NIST Public Affairs mode-locked lasers–are beginning NIST's chip-scale atomic clock includes (from the bottom) a laser, a lens, to play a vital role in other precision an optical attenuator to reduce the laser power, a waveplate that changes measurements, according to NIST’s the polarization of the light, a cell containing a vapor of cesium atoms, and (on top) a photodiode to detect the laser light transmitted through the Scott Didams. These include using cell. The tiny gold wires provide electrical connections to the electronics optical frequency combs for direct for the clock. atomic spectroscopy and in more transportable instruments. There are attosecond version of the famous Strongly Coupled Plasmas. also new possibilities in arbitrary double-slit experiment first con- Ultracold neutral plasmas are waveform generation, spectroscop- ducted by Thomas Young in the produced by photoionization of To see more comics by Richard Krzemien, ic sensing, and secure optical 19th century. In this instance, the laser-cooled neutral atoms. please visit his website at www.TheWriterAtWork.com communications, thanks to the double slit is realized in the time- Physicists find them of interest for development of highly dispersive energy domain (rather than posi- many reasons, most notably the elements that permit the spatial tion-momentum), and the “slits” prospect of creating–in a tabletop ANNOUNCEMENTS separation of the frequency comb can be opened or closed by chang- experiment–a strongly coupled two- elements while maintaining high ing the temporal evolution of the component plasma, in which the Now Appearing in RMP: resolution. field of a few-cycle laser pulse. electrostatic potential energy great- Estate Planning Recently Posted Reviews Just an Attosecond. Attosecond Interstellar Bio-Building ly exceeds the thermal kinetic ener- Handouts Now Available Blocks. Currently, more than 125 gy of the particles that comprise and Colloquia pulses of light can be generated via In addition to the many different chemical compounds have the plasma. You will find the following the nonlinear interactions between research talks at the 2006 an intense, ultrashort laser pulse been detected in the interstellar Thomas Pattard of the Max in the online edition of March Meeting in Baltimore, Reviews of Modern Physics at medium, many of which are unusu- Planck Institute for the Physics of and a gas of atoms, via the process an estate planning session was http://rmp.aps.org al, such as metal cyanide species, Complex Systems in Dresden, of high harmonic generation. once again offered for atten- or organic molecules like acetone Germany, reported on recent work According to Joachim Burgdorfer dees and local members. Led String Gas Cosmology or the simple sugar, glycolalde- showing that the addition of of Vienna University of Technology by Jerry McCoy, an attorney Thorsten Battefeld and hyde. The common appearance of Rydberg atoms to a plasma allows in Austria, the process has suffi- from the DC area well-known Scott Watson organic molecules and simple one to significantly control the ciently advanced to the point where for expertise in estate tax law, In recent years the study of species with a metal center sug- electronic temperature in order to scientists can now generate attosec- the session provided APS string-theory-based approach- gests that the building blocks of achieve both cooling and heating of ond electromagnetic pulses of suf- members with tips and tax sav- es to cosmology has become a life may have originated in the plasma . Numerous ficiently short duration to approach ings ideas for use in planning very active field. This paper interstellar space, according to experiments have also demonstrat- the orbital period of a classical for the long term distribution reviews one of these approach- Lucy Ziurys of the University of ed a “dipole blockade” effect, in atomic electron. This means we of their property to family, es, called string gas cosmolo- Arizona. She and her colleagues which the disorder-induced heat- may be able to map out the electron- friends and charitable inter- gy. It concerns the role of a gas have developed an effective com- ing of the ions is suppressed. Not ic dynamics inside atoms in real ests. Handouts from the ses- of extended strings in the very bination of techniques for studying only is this effect important to the time. sion, including informational early Universe. These strings such elements in the laboratory, creation of strongly coupled At the same session, Gerhard brochures on a broad range of can wrap compact dimensions with an eye towards evaluating the plasmas, it also plays a vital role in Paulus (Texas A&M University) estate planning topics, are and influence their expansion. limits of chemical synthesis in certain proposed schemes for reported on a novel application of available to all interested mem- Attention is also turned to interstellar gas. quantum information processing. intense few-cycle laser pulses: an bers from Darlene Logan at late time cosmology and it is [email protected] found that string gases even OLYMPIAD CONTINUED FROM PAGE 4 provide a framework to explore dark matter. know the other students. Vernon Ehlers and Rush Holt. Science and Technology, Ariella Kirsh, a senior at Ehlers inserted a statement in the Alexandria, VA. Last year Lee Hawken School in Ohio, also said congressional record honoring the brought home a gold medal from 48th Annual American Physical Society she liked meeting the other team team. the competition, held that year in Division of Plasma Physics (APS/DPP) Job Fair members. “It’s a really neat atmos- At the end of the training camp, Salamanca, Spain. phere. There are a lot of really high- five students and one alternate were William Throwe, a senior at Philadelphia Marriott to all job seekers. There is a powered people here,” she said. selected to the traveling team, Shoreham-Wading River High Downtown Hotel October 30 nominal fee for employers. The It is a busy week for the team which will travel to Singapore to School, Shoreham, NY. Last year through November 1, 2006 pre-registration deadline for members, though the students do compete in the International Throwe served as an alternate to the Whether you are looking for both employers and job seekers have a little free time for playing Physics Olympiad July 8-17. The team. a job or recruiting, the American is October 16, 2006. Register card games and Frisbee, and just students were selected based on Sherry Gong, a junior at Phillips Physical Society Division of today at http://www.physics hanging out. their scores on the exams and labs Exeter Academy in Exeter, NH. Plasma Physics (APS/DPP) Job today.org/jobs/jobfairs.html. During the nine day camp, the during the training camp, which Henry Tung, a junior at Torrey Fair is the place to be! The Job For additional information, team took one day off from train- are similar to what they will Pines High School in San Diego. Fair will provide job seekers and please contact Alix Brice at: ing to visit nearby Washington, DC, encounter in the international con- Otis Chodosh, a senior at the hiring managers with unsur- American Physical Society where they met with their Senators test. Oklahoma School of Science and passed recruitment and network- Career Network Division and Representatives, toured the The students selected for the Mathematics in Oklahoma City. ing opportunities. Last year, One Physics Ellipse National Air and Space museum, traveling team are: The alternate to this year's team more than 50 companies met College Park, MD 20740 and attended a special reception Men Young Lee, a senior at is Ingmar Saberi, a junior at Pullman with hundreds of job seekers. Phone: 301-209-3187 with the two physicists in Congress, Thomas Jefferson High School for High School in Pullman, WA. The Job Fair is free of charge E-mail: [email protected]

RELIGIOUS CONTINUED FROM PAGE 4 education, and organization. way to reverse the numbers that will be accomplished by the The American Scientific Visit Many religious persons do Krauss deplores is for the scien- scientific community loudly Affiliation (http://www. APS not accept the scientific descrip- tific community to gain the trust disassociating itself from the asa3.org/) is a good resource to tion of origins, because they per- of the public. This will not be philosophical (as opposed to provide some insight for News ceive the scientific establish- accomplished by scientists loud- methodological) naturalism of scientists into the religious Online ment to be hostile to religion, ly attacking "scientific creation- Richard Dawkins and his ilk. I community. and therefore biased and not to ism" as nonsense, even though am not optimistic that this will Ronald Hodges www.aps. org/apsnews/ be trusted in this area. The only such attacks are correct. It happen. Palo Alto, CA APS NEWS July 2006 7 2006 GENERAL ELECTION PREVIEW It’s that time of year again, when APS members have the opportunity to elect next year’s leadership from a slate of candidates selected by the APS Nominating Committee. Brief biographical descriptions for each candidate can be found below. Those elected will begin their terms on 1 January 2007. Members will elect a Vice President, Chair-Elect of the Nominating Committee, and two General Councillors. All votes must be entered by Noon, Central Daylight Time, September 1, 2006. Full biographical information and candidates’ statements can be found at www.aps.org/exec/election2006.


Haxton received his PhD from Stanford in 1976. After a year as a researcher in Germany, he joined the Theory Division in Los Alamos in 1977. In 1984 he joined the University of Washington, where he is Professor of Physics and Adjunct Professor of Astronomy. In 1990, with Ernest Henley, he helped found the Institute for Nuclear Theory, a Department of Energy visitor center. He has been the Institute’s director since 1991. Haxton chaired the APS Division of Astrophysics in 1997 and the Division of Nuclear Physics in 1993, served as Councillor-at-large during the years 1991-95, and chaired the Nominations Committee in 1997-98. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1999. He was awarded the APS Prize in 2004 for contributions to neutrino astrophysics. He currently serves on the National Academy’s Board on Physics and Astronomy. Haxton’s research focuses on theoretical aspects of neutrino and , low-energy tests of symmetries and conservation laws, and many-body techniques. His work includes the description of nuclear reactions in the high-temperature plasmas found in stellar cores and supernovae; the detection of astrophysical neutrinos and their impor- tance as a probe of neutrino mass and mixing; tests of CP violation and hadronic parity violation through atomic electric dipole and anapole moment measurements; modeling the core-collapse super- nova mechanism; and the adaptation of effective field theory methods for the solution of nonrelativistic many-body problems. He has dabbled, somewhat unsuccessfully, in the area of deep underground science facilities, discovering in the process that experimental physics is more complicated than theory.

CHERRY A. MURRAY Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Murray has been Deputy Director for Science and Technology at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory since December, 2004, leading the Laboratory’s science and tech- nology activities. She received her PhD in physics in 1978 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Formerly Senior Vice President for Physical Sciences and Wireless Research at , Lucent Technologies, she first joined Bell Labs in 1978 as a member of the technical staff. She held a number of management positions over the years, includ- ing department head for low temperature physics, department head for condensed matter physics, department head for semiconductor physics and director of Bell Lab’s physical research lab. In 2000, Murray became vice president for physical sciences and then senior vice president in 2001. Murray is an experimental condensed matter physicist who has worked in surface and low temperature physics, light scattering and phase transitions in complex fluids. Discover Magazine named her one of the “50 Most Important Women in Science” in 2002. She served on the APS Executive Board and Council from 2001-2004, and has been an active member of many APS taskforces, divisions and forums. In 1989, she won the APS Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award, and in 2005, the APS George E. Pake Prize. She was a member of the 2005 National Academies Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century, which was responsible for the NRC report “Rising Above the Gathering Storm–Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future.”

FOR CHAIR-ELECT, NOMINATING COMMITTEE CHARLES CLARK National Institute of Standards and Technology

Clark is Chief of the Electron and Optical Physics Division, Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in Gaithersburg, MD. He serves as act- ing Program Manager for Atomic and Molecular Physics, U.S. Office of Naval Research, and is active as an Adjunct Professor in the Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland at College Park. His previous service to APS includes: Chair, Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (DAMOP); member, Fellowship Committee, Physics Policy Committee, and Davisson-Germer Prize Committee. Clark received a PhD in physics from the University of Chicago. He spent two years as a postdoc at Daresbury Laboratory in the U.K., then joined the National Bureau of Standards (now NIST), where he is now a member of the U.S. Senior Executive Service. He is an advisor to the produc- tion team of the forthcoming movie, Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold.

PHILIP W. PHILLIPS University of Illinois

Phillips is a professor of Physics and a Bliss Faculty Scholar in the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. A theoretical condensed matter physicist, Phillips studies quantum phase transitions and strongly correlated electrons. In particular, he focuses on novel metallic phases in two dimensions and high-temperature superconductivity. Phillips is a recipient of the Society’s Edward A. Bouchet Award (2000). He was an APS general councilor (2000–2002) and executive coun- cilor (2002–2004). He also served on the APS Committee on Committees for the APS (2002–2004). Phillips received his PhD from the University of Washington in 1982. After a Miller Fellowship at Berkeley, he joined the faculty at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1984-1993). He came to the University of Illinois in 1993.


Austin received his PhD in physics from the University of Illinois Champaign-Urbana in 1976. He did a post-doc at the Institute for Biophysical Chemistry from 1976-1979 and has been at Princeton University since 1979, achieving the rank of Professor of Physics in 1989. He has chaired the APS Division of Biological Physics, and has served as the biological physics editor for Letters. He won the 2005 APS Edgar Lilienfeld Prize. He has a wide-ranging set of interests in the field of biological physics. He remains interested in the subject of the conformational dynamics of proteins, particularly in the mid and far infrared range, and has carried out an extensive set of exper- iments probing picosecond protein dynamics at free electron lasers around the world. He also is interested in time-resolved conformational dynamics of proteins using ultra-fast mixing techniques and has carried out ultra-fast mixing experiments at accelerator light sources, using a technology based upon a microfabricated diffusional mixer he invented.

ELIZABETH J. BEISE University of Maryland

Beise is a professor of physics at the University of Maryland. She received her PhD in physics from MIT in 1988. She worked as a research fellow in the Kellogg Laboratory at Caltech from 1988-1992 prior to coming to the University of Maryland. Her research is on the use of electron scattering to study aspects of nucleon structure and light nuclear systems, particularly in kinematic regions where the strong interaction cannot be described using perturbative methods. In 1998 she received the APS Maria Goeppert-Mayer award for her research in this area. She is presently on partial leave from the University of Maryland while completing a two-year appointment as a Program Director for Nuclear Physics at the National Science Foundation. Beise has served on the APS Division of Nuclear Physics executive, program, and nominating committees, and on the APS Committee on the Status of Women in Physics. She also currently serves on the editorial board for Physical Review C, and as an associate editor for Nuclear Physics A.

DEBORAH S. JIN JILA, University of Colorado

Jin is a NIST Fellow working at JILA in Boulder, Colorado. In addition to her position in the Quantum Physics Division of NIST, she serves as an adjoint associate professor of physics at the University of Colorado. She received her PhD in Physics in 1995 at the University of Chicago. Jin is an experimental atomic, molecular, and optical physicist whose research has focused on ultracold Fermi gases of atoms. She received the Maria-Goeppert Mayer Award in 2002 and the I.I. Rabi Prize in 2005. Jin is a member of the exec- utive committee of the APS Division of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics.

TREVOR A. TYSON New Jersey Institute of Technology

Tyson received his PhD from Stanford University in 1991. He worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the INFN national research laboratory, in Frascati, Italy, and then as a post- doctoral fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In 1996, he became an assistant professor at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT). He currently serves as a profes- sor of physics and as the director of the Materials Science and Engineering Program. His basic research focuses on understanding materials in which the spin, charge and atomic parameters are strongly coupled. In addition, he is involved in the development of novel spectrometers and detector systems. He is committed to the application of methods devel- oped for basic science to the solution of real-world applied problems. This includes, for example, the application of spectroscopic techniques to complex metal hydrides for hydro- gen storage and to understanding corrosion and developing protective coatings to inhibit it. 8 July 2006 APS NEWS The Back Page Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics By Harold T. Shapiro

ver the past 18 months I iments at SLAC and Fermilab are degree, its future for a generation. physics to which they can make the tee’s strategy aims for a pivotal role have been engaged in a reaching the end of their useful sci- These decisions will require the greatest scientific contribution. This in the ILC but is not without risks. Overy stimulating—and entific lives without a clear follow- support of physics in general, if not type of transformation cannot be Nature might not reveal its secrets rewarding—intellectual adventure. on strategy in place. As a result, the all of the physical sciences togeth- accomplished by a single country or so easily at the LHC, the necessary I chaired the National Academies’ intellectual center of gravity is mov- er. Perhaps this is one of the reasons region: it requires the mutual col- level of international cooperation Committee on Elementary Particle ing abroad just when the scientific the National Academies saw fit to laboration of all major partners. and agreement might not coalesce, Physics in the 21st Century that was agenda is especially promising. In include such a diverse set of indi- Such transformations would or fiscal and technical realities convened in response to an infor- these circumstances it was the com- viduals on the committee. The com- strengthen the knowledge base of might make a linear collider unten- mal request from DOE and NSF. mittee’s view that a failure to adopt mittee recommended, unanimous- the entire US scientific enterprise. able. The committee advocated for The committee was charged to iden- a refreshed and compelling strate- ly, that the United States should not If we are to take the current dis- a firm step forward, however, in tify the compelling science ques- gic vision and associated set of pri- abandon its leadership role in par- cussions about globalization, “the the face of these longer-term uncer- tions that currently define the ele- orities would imply a decision to ticle physics, especially at a time flat world,” and the growing inter- tainties. The committee recom- mentary particle physics scientific forgo leadership and commit our- when the scientific agenda is rich- dependence of national efforts mended that the program invest agenda and to recommend a 15- selves to a much smaller effort in er than it has been for a generation. around the world, what does scien- some risk capital that would enable year implementation plan with real- this critical scientific arena. Let me say something further tific leadership mean for the United the United States to become the istic, ordered priorities to address An outsider to particle physics about leadership and the interna- States? After some thought, the leading center for R&D relating to them. The committee that was (or even to the physical sciences in tional arena. As the field of parti- answer becomes relatively clear for the ILC and prepare to mount a assembled included quite a few indi- general) might naturally question a field like particle physics. compelling bid to host the ILC if viduals from outside the field of the consequences of forgoing Leadership does not mean domi- that still seems desirable down the particle physics; in fact, half the America’s tradition of leadership nance, but rather taking initiative at road. While this path contains obvi- committee members were not in particle physics. In my view, and the frontiers, accepting appropri- ous risks the committee felt that experts in particle physics, and yet one echoed by the committee ate risks, and catalyzing partner- the prospective benefits more than each one had an important perspec- throughout its report, there is a ships both at home and abroad. That justified such actions. Indeed we tive to contribute. As an economist strong relationship between the is, in articulating a strategy for the could not identify an alternative with a long-time interest in science health of US particle physics and the United States, we must find a path program that could sustain our lead- policy and as a former university vitality of the nation’s overall sci- that leverages US strengths for the ership position with a better risk- president, I undertook this chal- ence and technology portfolio. benefit of the not only the domes- adjusted rate of return: the riskiest lenge seriously but with a commit- Consider these two observations. tic program but also the global path is to simply maintain our cur- ment to ensure that our recommen- First, scientific discovery is an enterprise. We must move from a rent course. dations would represent responsi- unpredictable process whose paradigm of “We’re going to build The task of crafting a meaning- ble stewardship of public resources. impacts are only fully recognized this, will you help us?” to one of ful program that moves forward is The final report of the commit- ten or twenty, sometimes even thir- “What can we build together that a challenge that requires coura- tee, Revealing the Hidden Nature of ty, years down the road. In such an Photo credit: Jane Scherr will benefit us all?” US leadership, geous decisions, but such courage Space and Time, was publicly environment, the best investment Harold T. Shapiro together with that of our colleagues and determination are some of the released on April 26, 2006. The strategies rely on a mixed or diver- abroad, is important because it is unavoidable prerequisites for lead- committee strongly recommended sified portfolio. Indeed it was the cle physics took shape in the mid- critical to reaping the scientific, ership. In its strategic principles, an aggressive, direct exploration of committee’s view that a strong par- dle of the century, America’s scien- technological, economic, and cul- the committee offers some gener- the physics of the Terascale, where ticle physics program not only tists focused on experiments tural dividends that come from al guidance to the US particle “tera” refers to the trillions of elec- would enable us to explore some of designed to measure and explain advancing the scientific frontier. physics program and its sponsors. tron-volts that the world’s most the most exciting issues on the sci- the properties and forces governing With these considerations in A key element of these principles powerful accelerators can impart entific frontier, but was essential to the ultimate constituents of matter. mind, the committee saw a critical is the discussion of the role that a to fundamental particles. The strong the long-term vitality of the physi- Since then, even as the field became role for the United States in foster- so-called national program com- attraction of Terascale physics is cal sciences. Historically certain increasingly internationalized with ing this new era of international mittee might play in helping to underscored by the convergence of important scientific and technolog- very distinguished centers abroad, partnership and coordination. Even frame a national program that not interests from distinct scientific ical advances arose because of a the United States has been home to as the Europeans have been finish- only addresses the most compelling areas. From cosmology, there is synergy among particle physics and some of the world’s most accom- ing the Large Hadron Collider science but also best deploys US growing interest in dark matter and other developments in science and plished theorists, the most diverse (LHC), particle physicists world- resources and talents. Implicit in dark energy. From particle physics, technology, but the committee does array of experiments, and some of wide have been designing the next this principle is the committee’s there is great interest in supersym- not claim that particle physics is the largest particle accelerators. generation of particle accelerators. judgment that structuring the near- metry, in the origins of mass, and the best or only path to drive such Moreover the United States has wel- Known as the International Linear and mid-term program, within the in Einstein’s dream that all the innovations. Rather, the commit- comed and greatly benefited from Collider (ILC), this new tool would recommended framework, is work forces can be unified. This conver- tee argued that a strong program in the intellectual and financial input consist of two accelerators that fire best left to the physicists and their gence is what makes the Terascale particle physics is an essential ele- of scientists from around the world. electrons and positrons at each other immediate sponsors. so persuasive. The intersection of ment of an overall strategy to fos- US leadership in particle physics head-on, re-creating conditions that Today, our nation faces some scientific interests is often a signal ter such breakthroughs. both anchored and symbolized the existed just a fraction of a second decisions about its future role in that major new discoveries are on Second, it seems to me that par- growing distinction and reach of after the universe’s birth. The ILC particle physics. The United States the horizon, and thus, the commit- ticle physics has several key attrib- the overall American scientific would be of such a scale and com- can choose to sacrifice its histori- tee felt that explorations of the utes that give it a distinctive role in enterprise. plexity, similar to the LHC, that cal leadership in particle physics. Or Terascale have enormous scientif- the physical sciences. For exam- The committee felt strongly that only a global, cooperative effort we can make a strong commitment ic potential. ple, particle physics incorporates because of the increasing cost and could make it possible. It was the to current and future global efforts. Let me assume for the moment both imagination and technological complexity of particle physics committee’s judgment (echoing The United States has an unprece- some general familiarity with the and computing prowess at an unusu- experiments, and the need to deploy many others) that the ILC was a dented opportunity, as a leader of report (please see the excellent dis- al scale in order to address several public funds in the most effective necessary tool to fully exploit the nations, to undertake this profound cussion in last month’s APS News of the most exciting questions of our and responsible manner, it is more scientific opportunities of the scientific challenge. for details), and use this space to time: What is the nature of space important than ever for all the major Terascale. The committee believed Finally, I must express my briefly expand on three themes: (1) and time? What are the origins of programs in particle physics to that the potential role of the United thanks and gratitude to the members the role of particle physics in the mass? How did the universe begin? leverage their resources by working States in building, supporting, and of the committee and indeed to physical sciences (as seen by an How will it evolve in the future? together internationally. The com- perhaps hosting the ILC was key to everyone who contributed to the outsider), (2) leadership in an inter- The quests and the techniques of munity of particle physicists has a the continued distinction of the US work of this committee. I am national arena, and (3) the medium- particle physics, therefore, attract strong tradition in this area, but that program. In order to participate in pleased with our final report and I term challenge facing US particle some of the best and brightest minds tradition needs to be enhanced. such a global effort, the United hope that it continues to be of value physics. to futures in science, technology, Moreover, the key sponsors of States must surrender some degree to this important field of science In the committee’s judgment, engineering, or mathematics. national and multinational programs of control—but this shift is precise- for years to come. the US program in particle physics, Thus, I would posit that the need to allow for the serious con- ly the form of leadership that I Harold Shapiro is president emer- despite a long tradition of distinc- future of the US program in parti- sideration of new and imaginative believe will be essential to shep- itus and professor of economic and tion, is now at a decisive cross- cle physics has consequences that arrangements. Such arrangements herding in a new era of global sci- public affairs at Princeton University. roads. Not only has this program extend far beyond the field itself. would not only serve the cause of entific cooperation. His broad interests and experience (like many others in the physical sci- Particle physics is not elite, nor spe- scientific progress; they also may be The committee’s report identifies range from chairing the board of ences) experienced a decade of stag- cial, nor exclusive in this regard. the only way to provide scientists a set of priorities that we believe will trustees of the Alfred P. Sloan nating support when programs else- However, the US program current- and their students in each region of propel the United States to leader- Foundation and the National Bioethics where in the world were expanding, ly faces a set of strategic decisions the world with the opportunity to ship in a way that adds value to the Advisory Committee to membership but also the most important exper- that will determine, to a large address those areas of particle international effort. The commit- on the U.S. Olympic Committee.

APS News welcomes and encourages letters and submissions from its members responding to these and other issues. Responses may be sent to: [email protected]