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Newly Opened Correspondence Illuminates Einstein's Personal Life

Newly Opened Correspondence Illuminates Einstein's Personal Life

CENTER FOR HISTORY OF NEWSLETTER Vol. XXXVIII, Number 2 Fall 2006 One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740-3843, Tel. 301-209-3165

Newly Opened Correspondence Illuminates Einstein’s Personal Life By David C. Cassidy, Hofstra University, with special thanks to Diana Kormos Buchwald,

he Archives at the Hebrew University of T recently opened a large collection of Einstein’s personal correspondence from the period 1912 until his death in 1955. The collection consists of nearly 1,400 items. Among them are about 300 letters and cards written by Einstein, pri- marily to his second wife , and some 130 letters Einstein received from his closest family members. The col- lection had been in the possession of Einstein’s step-daughter, Margot Einstein, who deposited it with the Hebrew University of Jerusalem with the stipulation that it remain closed for twen- ty years following her death, which occurred on July 8, 1986. The Archives released the materials to public viewing on July 10, 2006. On the same day Press released volume 10 of The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, con- taining 148 items from the collection through December 1920, along with other newly available correspondence. Later items will appear in volumes. “These letters”, write the Ein- stein editors, “provide the reader with substantial new source material for the study of Einstein’s personal life and the rela- tionships with his closest family members and friends.” H. Richard Gustafson playing with a guitar to pass the while monitoring the control room at a Fermilab experiment. Credit: AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Lawrence W. Jones Collection. Among Einstein’s main correspondents in the newly released collection are his first wife, Mileva Einstein-Marić, from whom Expansion of Alsos, Online Resource for Nuclear he was separated in 1914 and divorced in 1919; Einstein’s two sons with Einstein-Marić, Hans Albert and Eduard; Einstein’s History and Issues References second wife and first cousin, Elsa Einstein, whom he married by Frank Settle in 1919; Elsa’s two daughters from her previous marriage, Ilse and Margot; and Einstein’s sister, Maja, and her husband, Paul he Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues (http://alsos. Winteler. Ilse died in 1934, Elsa in 1936. Maja and Margot T wlu.edu) has a new Web face, improved features and an joined Einstein in Princeton during the . The collection expanded set of annotated references. Initiated in 2000 as a also includes a large number of poems and aphorisms written component of the National Foundation’s National Sci- by Eduard Einstein, correspondence among Einstein’s maternal ence Digital Library (http://nsdl.org), Alsos has expanded its grandparents, as well as items of administrative and financial initial focus on the history of the Project to cover correspondence from Einstein’s and Princeton years. Cold and post-Cold War topics including nuclear power, nuclear waste, proliferation of nuclear weapons, and nuclear The newly released letters provide little direct insight into Ein- terrorism. In doing so, it has grown to include over 2,000 ref- stein’s scientific work. However, he does write his thoughts on erences, covering a broad spectrum of topics and disciplines the course of his work and, while traveling, his impressions of associated with nuclear issues. people, audiences, and cultural situations in the places he visits. In one letter to Elsa in 1916, during a visit with Among the new features, Alsos now assists users in locating in , he wrote how pleased he was with the reception ac- materials with an improved presentation of popular topics. The corded relativity theory in the Netherlands. In another letter in results are sorted by relevance to facilitate selection of refer- 1920, he wrote of his mounting distress over the anti-relativity ences from long lists, and online references may be accessed movement in Berlin, and by 1921, after lecturing extensively more directly. Finally, users can instantly find books, articles to the general public, he admitted, “Soon I’ll be fed up with (continued on page 2) (continued on page 3) (Expansion of Alsos, continued on page 1) er variety of historical and current materials on nuclear themes and films in libraries near them via links using the “Find in a on the Nuclear Pathways project (http://nuclearpathways.org). Library” feature offered publicly by WorldCat. Alsos provides bibliographies for specific topics for those con- tent-rich partner web sites. As would be expected, users usually discover Alsos through search engines, which have extensively indexed its holdings. It The Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues continues to is reached by many additional users through links on appropri- expand its role as a source of references on both current and ate pages of Wikipedia. Hundreds of libraries, college depart- historical material. More specifically, the collection contains ments, secondary schools, research institutes, and many references addressing the evolution of worldwide provide links to Alsos for information about nuclear and its impact on world events. For further information con- issues deemed relevant to many disciplines. Recently, Alsos tact Frank Settle, Department of , Washington & Lee has partnered with three other web sites to integrate a still larg- University, Lexington, VA, 24450, e-mail: [email protected]

In Memoriam: Joan Warnow Blewett by Spencer Weart

first met Joan when I was a postdoctoral student, attend- I ing my first Society meeting. A young woman came up to me, found I was studying history of phys- ics, and started enthusiastically telling me about a place I had never heard of, called the Center for . Be- ing an arrogant academic, I supposed that since I hadn’t heard of it, I didn’t need to know anything about it. But this woman Joan Warnow Blewett and Martin Klein at their marriage thrust some brochures on me and insisted I keep in touch. It ceremony, 2005. turned out the place was worth learning about after all. while the archives of our own Library grew from roughly the size of a walk-in closet—and as messy, with a When I became Director of the Center several years later, it handwritten cardfile catalog—to a large modern metic- was a small place: basically me, the Director, and Joan, the ulously cataloged online. All this happened with Joan’s me- Directee. But she was the one who really knew what was to ticulous and ardent attention to doing everything right, up to be done. She had been running the place as Acting Director the highest standards; and where there weren’t any standards for a year after the departure of the former Director, Charles in the archival community, she created them. Even after she Weiner, and she had been getting out the Newsletter, starting retired, she continued to be a great help with her sound ad- up fundraising, and handling a big educational project along vice and her cheerful aid in fund-raising. with everything else. So she began to teach me about these things, and about libraries and archives in general. Most his- Joan’s most important monument is an invisible one: all over torians don’t know much more about libraries and archives the country, in all over the world, there are papers pre- than a motorist knows about what is behind the gas pump; served in archives that would otherwise have gone into a you just go in and fill up. It turned out there was a lot to dumpster, irretrievably lost. These rescued papers document learn. Joan herself had learned much of it on the job, since science in the past century. And that has been so important, a like many librarians in those days she had not had any formal part of the history of civilization, that I expect scholars will be training in archives. Such formal training would not have using these papers for as long as human civilization exists. Not been a big help for work at the Center anyway, where much many people leave such a useful and important legacy. had to be invented along the way. Joan’s human qualities were as outstanding as her profes- Joan did not just learn about science archiving but helped sional ones. She was interested in everything, and I remem- to transform the . She spent a long time working out ber countless lunches when we talked about politics, books, concepts of “documentation strategy.” The aim of this new and anything else in the world. Always upbeat and thought- program was not the traditional one of grabbing the best stuff ful of others, she was admired and warmly appreciated by you could find to hoard in your own archives, but to identify everyone in the Institute (she knew them all, at least in the the key historical documentation and work out ways to get old days when it was smaller), and broadly in the archival it preserved, no just where. This goal was implicit in and scientific communities. All who knew her were greatly the plans had laid for the Center at its origin, but saddened to learn of her untimely death. Joan figured out how to do it. She also raised many hundreds of thousands of dollars in grants to get the work done. Mean-

The mistakes made by leading often provide a better insight into the spirit and presuppositions of their than do their successes. –

 ● History Newsletter Spring 2006 (Einstein’s Personal Life, continued on page 1) the relativity. Even such a thing fades away when one is too involved with it ...” The new letters also show that, even during his most intense periods of work, he was often corresponding intensely with family members on personal .

The new correspondence reveals many aspects of Einstein’s private and public life: his complex relations with his first wife Mileva and his second wife Elsa, with other women in his life, and with his two sons, as well as his most personal thoughts on self-image and on his closest family members, friends, and col- leagues. They show his engagement and at times deep passion for various political and social causes, such as and Jewish , but also his financial concerns and protracted struggle with health issues and the illnesses, at times serious, of some of his closest family members. The correspondence follows Einstein from the earliest extant letters to Elsa in 1912, through the hard- ships he and his two families experienced during I, the turmoil of the post-war period in Berlin, the relative stability of the late , the rise of Nazism and Einstein’s departure from Europe in 1933. The later part of the correspondence deals mostly with providing for Einstein’s first wife and his younger son, who suffered from , in . Arthur Schawlow (left) adjusts a ruby optical during an experiment at , while C.G.B. Garrett prepares to Further information may be found at the web sites of the Albert photograph the maser flash. Credit: Lucent Technologies’ Bell Einstein Archives: www.albert-einstein.org, and the Einstein Laboratories, courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Hecht Papers Project: www.einstein.caltech.edu. Collection. the dumpster or disappear into the ether; make the materials as Preserving the History and Heritage of Agilent broadly accessible as company policy allows; and raise visibil- Technologies, Part I ity internally for why the materials deserve to be preserved.

The Meaning of “Priceless” at Agilent Lab Notebooks. For many years, Agilent and HP have had an by Cindy Alfieri, Agilent Library informal process for maintaining lab notebooks. We have used notebooks of various types, colors and sizes to record the pro- ou are probably familiar with the advertisement that item- cess of research and the interpretation of results. The notebooks Y izes the high cost of planning a major and ends with protect the company’s intellectual property, provide a tool for the word “priceless.” At Agilent Technologies, the term applies referring back to the processes that achieved certain results and equally well to laboratory notebooks, equipment manuals, ap- capture knowledge in a systematic fashion. Agilent’s process plication notes and technical reports. These are the main archi- is now more formal. The library purchases the notebooks for val documents that the library at Agilent hunts down, pulls from the company, disseminates them and obtains them back for dumpsters, blows the dust off, lovingly catalogs and ferociously preservation. Although we recently investigated the prospect protects so that future researchers will have access to this trove of moving from the traditional print format to electronic lab of information. Nowadays this level of commitment is required notebooks, the traditional approach continues as the format of in order to save materials before they are unthinkingly tossed out choice. Our bioinformatics group does maintain digital note- when people change jobs, office locations or employers. Part of books, however, because of the large body of digital data they the commitment involves educating people on the importance capture to document their experiments. of retention (“just because that product is obsolete or out of sup- port doesn’t mean you should toss the manual!”). As Hewlett- Equipment Manuals. One day an engineer phoned the library Packard Co-founder Dave Packard said in his book The HP Way, in a panic, relating that he had just started supporting an old people want to do the right thing. Just a simple statement on product that was still in support life and that he needed a copy the why and wherefore of the archival operation is all it usually of the manual—which, to his surprise, he couldn’t find on the takes to get people onboard. And that attitude is largely why our Web. The library had a copy and sent it to him. This fairly archives continue to grow. typical scenario is the result of an ongoing effort to search the world, literally, for manuals and bring them back to California In 1999, the Hewlett-Packard corporation spun off its test and for cataloging and retention. In 2005, for example, we received measurement organization as an independent entity called Agi- a half-ton of print manuals from Agilent-UK. The manuals lent Technologies. A library was created for the entire Agilent st typically come to us in binders and vary from 50 pages to 500 research community, to be both a 21 century reference library pages. Sometimes we see other formats: we recently received and a protector of the historical record. Our mission for preser- thousands of manuals from Agilent-Brasil on microfiche. Last vation is simple: track down the materials before they get into

History Newsletter Spring 2006 ●  Finding a Subject for a Biography Robert W. Smith, University of Alberta

biography is one of the most challenging jobs a historian A can undertake, committing the scholar to long years of work. So the choice of a subject is crucial. Consider, for ex- ample, George Biddell Airy, British Royal from 1835 to 1881, one of the towering figures of nineteenth century astronomy. Airy conducted a staggeringly voluminous corre- spondence, wrote a huge number of papers and reports, and was a central player in various scientific societies and institu- tions. He kept copies of practically everything he wrote. He has, however, never been the subject of a biography. Indeed, the astonishing extent of Airy’s records seems to have fright- ened off potential biographers. But far more common problems for would-be biographers are a paucity of worthwhile evidence The physics laboratory of Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen at the Uni- on which to base a study. Even if a good body of records ex- versity of Wurzburg, unchanged from the time when x-rays were ists, they can be practically unusable if they are not carefully discovered; From the book: X-rays: Past and by Victor cataloged, organized, and accessible. E. Pullin and W.J. Wiltshire. [London]: E. Benn, 1927. Credit: AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Brittle Books Collection. Sir William Hunter McCrea (1904-1999) was one of the lead- year, a researcher sent us a URL with dozens more links to old ing and cosmologists of the Twentieth century. equipment manuals. (The trouble with the links, however, is that His scientific researches and engagements in various scientific you never know when they’ll suffer from link rot.) We are al- debates were very important, and these activities continued far ways excited when folks start a conversation this way: “I’m not beyond his retirement in 1972. He had turned to sure you want these, but I thought I’d let you know I have some around 1930, a time when it was not really a respectable field old manuals here.” Our current collection of manuals includes of , and lived to see it become one of the most esteemed both obsolete products and currently supported products. and exciting areas of inquiry in the physical , with sev- eral of his students playing crucial roles in its development. We recently worked with one of our business units to locate pa- McCrea was centrally involved too with a range of British and per copies for dozens of obsolete HP manuals that were among international scientific institutions. Later in his life he wrote the 200 most-requested manuals from the business unit’s exter- some significant historical works, including a history of the nal web site. Those manuals were converted to PDF format and Royal Greenwich Observatory. McCrea was also a witness to are now freely available on Agilent’s external web site. Our vi- some of the critical moments in Twentieth century Astronomy sion is to one day provide that level of access to all equipment and Cosmology. For example, in the early 1930s Subrahman- manuals as PDF documents. yan Chandrasekhar, then a fellow at Cambridge, would lunch with McCrea at Imperial College, London, before they walked Application Notes. Application notes are short documents that to meetings of the Royal Astronomical Society. Thus it was that describe to the user the application(s) for a particular technol- in January 1935, McCrea had a ring-side view of A.S. Edding- ogy. Again, the library is a central point of contact for both ton’s now infamous attack on his friend Chandrasekhar’s ideas Agilent and HP application notes. We are in the process of digi- on relativistic degeneracy inside stars. tizing all the application notes for easier access. In 1978, I was fortunate enough to interview McCrea as part of Technical Reports. Agilent/HP technical reports describe a project run by the Center for History of Physics on the history scientific or technical research issues, progress or results–ef- of and Cosmology, a project that led to a remark- fectively, the R&D within the company. They are used to pro- ably extensive collection of oral history interviews. At that time mote the exchange of ideas internally and to serve as a catalyst I certainly did not imagine tackling a biography of McCrea. toward further research. Although the majority of our reports But by late 2004, the idea had begun to seem an attractive one are for internal use only, we consider broader (external) release as a way to explore not just McCrea’s life but how Astronomy where competitive intelligence is not at issue. and Cosmology changed during his lifetime. Before commit- ting myself, however, I needed, like any potential biographer As with most research-focused companies, Agilent uses many considering a possible subject, to find out, first, what kinds of other forms of data capture to assist in filling in the big picture correspondence and manuscripts were in the records left after of and discovery. While some of that documentation his death, and if these were rich enough to make a biography turns out to be quite ephemeral, much of it–such as the formal- feasible. Then, second, I needed to check if the collection was ized approaches noted above-does survive as historical record. in fact usable and in particular if it had been cataloged. And that survival is priceless. For further information, contact Cindy Alfieri, Global Manager, Library, Agilent Technologies, There is, it turns out, a substantial collection of McCrea pa- e-mail: [email protected] pers. It is housed at Royal Holloway College of the University  ● History Newsletter Spring 2006 Sites May Become Part of National Park System

n 2004, an act of Congress directed the Secretary of the made the material for the Hiroshima bomb; in May in Day- I Interior to conduct a special resource study to determine ton, , where the “initiator” was developed; the national significance, suitability, and feasibility of des- and in June in Los Alamos, New Mexico, where the first ignating one or more historic sites of the Manhattan Project atomic bombs were designed and assembled. for potential inclusion in the National Park System. In March 2005, a meeting on Capitol Hill, hosted by the Atomic Heri- Also under study are the sites in Hanford, Washington, where tage Foundation, included representatives of the National reactors produced the plutonium for the test device Park Service, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and Nagasaki bomb. The public comment period for this ini- the Smithsonian Institution, the Department of , Con- tial stage is closed, and the study is now into Stage 2 (Devel- gressional staffers, and representatives of some of the com- op Preliminary Alternatives). This will last until Spring 2007 munities and local governments that might be involved. The and will “Identify a range of reasonable alternatives for NPS Park Service subsequently appropriated funds for the study, involvement, assess their effects, analyze public reactions, which got underway in 2006. and select a preferred alternative.” For further information see www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/history/NPSweb/index.htm . Public meetings were held this past April in Oak Ridge, Tenn., site of the enormous -enrichment plants that of London, where McCrea had been a of mathemat- ics from 1944 until 1966. Moreover, with the essential help of an Archival Processing Grant from the Center for History of Physics, the collection has been excellently cataloged by the National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists, housed at the University of Bath.

With anxieties dispelled about spending years hunting through a thin or disorganized collection of records, and the encourage- ment of the McCrea family, I am now at work on a McCrea biography.

Progress in the History of Physicists in Industry Project Joe Anderson interviewing Darlene Solomon, Vice President & byOrville R. Butler Director, Agilent Laboratories, July 2006. automation of encoding as well as far more detailed analysis. he AIP History Center’s grant-funded Project to Docu- We have had to modify our coding process in minor ways to T ment the History of Physicists in Industry, which extends work around current bugs in the program, but once coding is through December 2007, moved into the home stretch this past completed we should be able to undertake detailed analysis year. We successfully negotiated interviewing visits to several limited only by the number and scope of our interviews. companies in an area we had deferred to the end because of its special sensitivy to inspection: the Aerospace and Defense Preliminary Findings sector. Meanwhile we got well underway with coding and pre- liminary analysis of previous interviews. Project historian Or- In the process of editing and encoding the interviews we have ville R. Butler and Director Joe Anderson completed site visits noticed several trends that we expect will be evident in our at the corporate laboratories of Honeywell Aerospace, Lock- final analysis. Some of these trends have already been well heed Martin, General Atomics, and Agilent Technologies, add- documented but others do not yet appear in the research lit- ing nearly 40 interviews to the project. Another six extended erature. The literature has described a decline of “pure” re- life-history interviews were completed by AIP postdoctoral search in industrial settings, which our study confirms. Many historian Babak Ashrafi and others. Butler and Anderson will of our respondents argue that the distinction between pure soon visit Raytheon and are in the process of arranging the final and applied research in industry has always been something laboratory site visit of the project, and they are also visiting of a myth, and that instead of “pure” vs. “applied” research, public and private archives that may preserve the history of the distinction has in fact been “long term” vs. “near term.” If corporate R&D. we accept that definition, our study shows a continued trend toward “near term” research, and an increasing influence of As the laboratory site visits have wound down, our emphasis business divisions over the of industrial research. The has shifted to coding and analysis of the over one hundred inter- latter is most commonly done by giving control over the lab views collected so far. NVivo, the program we use for analysis, budget to the business divisions. These divisions’ influences released a major upgrade this summer that permits increased include a push towards research that can provide a quicker

History Newsletter Spring 2006 ●  return on investment. While modest exceptions to this trend The Niels Bohr Library holds one of the world’s premier can be found, they exist primarily where “research” is itself a collections in the History of Physics and its allied sciences product that is sold primarily to the government, often funded (Astronomy,Geophysics, etc.) for the 19th and 20th centuries. by ongoing contracts. While textbooks and monographs form the backbone of the collection, there are also many conference proceedings, biogra- The effects of the growing influence of electronic records phies, institutional histories, instrument catalogs, instructional and communications is less clear-cut. As in other fields, materials, popular-science books, and works on social aspects e-mail has increasingly replaced telephone conversation as of the scientific community. While we buy some books from a primary source of communication. Laboratory notebooks, used-book dealers, we rely chiefly on the generosity of donors on the other hand, have declined in use rather than migrating to fill in gaps. to an electronic format. This assertion will no doubt be fine- tuned by subsequent analysis. Some companies still main- The response to our advertisement has awarded us close tain extensive requirements for research documentation in to 300 books to add to the collection. Most significant was laboratory notebooks. More often, however, the use of lab a group of 232 books that we accessioned, donated by the notebooks has become largely voluntary and in some cases Goucher College library. They no longer taught history of sci- virtually non-existent. Some laboratories maintain a form of ence there and were weeding books to move to a new facility. electronic “room” where researchers on a project post and The collection, which started in the 1880’s, had a large num- discuss their findings. Others continue a strong oral tradi- ber of History of Physics and Astronomy books. Herbert and tion of “hallway” discussions. In periodic formal reports, Frances Bernstein donated books from the Univer- PowerPoint presentations have replaced view-graphs. Even sity Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences Library. Our where widely used, however, PowerPoint remains somewhat library accessioned 32 physics books, selecting from the long controversial. Some interviewees argue that PowerPoint list they sent us items that we wanted but did not have. Le- has changed the nature of presentations from data-based to high University also responded to our announcement with an picture- or concept-based. They suggest this has a potential excellent donation, sending us one hundred books from their to increase the role of managers outside the R&D labs who collection relating to Physics, Astronomy and Geophysics. don’t understand the science underlying the concepts. Oth- We accessioned 42 that we did not already have in our collec- ers argue that PowerPoint presentations have diminished the tion. Following our usual practice, when we are given books free-flowing discussion of concepts between scientists by that are duplicated in our collection, we retain the better copy imposing a narrow format on the previously open interac- and sell the other to a dealer; thus the duplicate has a chance tions during reporting sessions, and leads to a focus on re- of finding a home that wants it, and we get some income to sults over process. use for book purchases.

These and other findings remain tentative at this point, but they Book donations to our library have increased overall, and we give us an initial framework to understand and conceptualize gladly accept efforts to help us in our endeavor to preserve the interviews that we’ve completed. As we bring the inter- these resources. In many cases we have the only copy of a par- view portion of the History of Physicists in Industry Project to ticular edition of a book known to exist in this country, or even a close in the next few months, we will devote much of the re- the only copy of a text known to exist anywhere. While our maining year and a half to coding and analyzing our interviews oral history interviews and other archival sources remain the and preparing the final report. main reason scholars come to the Niels Bohr Library, we have increasingly had visitors who have been chiefly interested in New High in Book Donations to using the books. Niels Bohr Library

ive us your dirty old books! In the Winter/Spring of G 2004, the History Center distributed an announcement on the Physics Astronomy division of the Spe- cial Libraries Association listserv and pamphlets at the Special Libraries Association Conference of that year asking librar- ians for unwanted books. We hoped to generate interest and awareness among potential donors of books to the Niels Bohr Library. Although a number of historians and physicists make valuable donations to our library each year, we realized that many universities and special libraries weeding their collec- tions may not know about us, a library specializing in history of physics with a strong interest in the unused and outdated books Franco Rasetti at Lake Ross, British Columbia, from the book they routinely discard. This announcement proved to be very ‘Franco Rasetti, Physicien et Naturaliste’, by Danielle Ouellet with the collaboration of René Bureau and Marc-Aimé Guérin, fruitful; a surprising number of people responded with dona- Montreal, 2000. Credit: Photograph by Léo G. Morin, courtesy tions, sometimes large and always valuable. AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, René Bureau Collection. Donated by Hubert Lechevalier, 2006.

 ● History Newsletter Spring 2006 Niels Bohr Library Acquires Materials in New Formats

ach year we receive more donations in digital formats. The E variety of new formats, many of them proprietary and few of them likely to be in widespread use decades hence, is daunting for a repository that aims to preserve the information for as long as posterity may want them; “digital materials last five years or forever, whichever comes first.” That is, digitized informa- tion is almost indestructible in principle, but in practice depends on ephemeral physical media and software formats. We accept material in digital formats that are currently supported by AIP’s Department, and we think we can main- tain the information indefinitely provided we can continue to find funds to either store it on servers that are regularly backed up, or reformat it onto gold CD-R or DVD-R discs. When the current formats begin to obsolesce, and as more research becomes avail- able on the longevity of such discs, we will establish a schedule with students from Art Rich’s group during for migrating the information to new formats and media. This is a visit to the at Ann Arbor. Credit: AIP analogous to our current policy of regularly inspecting our ana- Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Lawrence Jones Collection. log recordings and reformatting them where needed. our archives with the addition of programs and abstracts from past years of the and Magnetic Materials Annual Another feature of the new digital age is that it is getting in- Conference and digests of the INTERnational MAGnetics creasingly problematic to make distinctions among “archival Conference (2.0 linear feet). records,” “audiovisual recordings,” “oral history interviews,” “published materials,” and so forth. A given DVD might con- The Member Societies of AIP have been exceptionally active tain materials that place it in all of these categories at once! this year in preserving their historical records. The Society of We are fortunate to have dedicated professional catalogers who Rheology increased its existing collections in our archives with rise to the challenge of making sure future scholars will find the addition of the Rheology Bulletin from 1977-2005 and the everything they need for their work. society’s annual meeting programs and abstracts from 1978- 2005 (0.75 linear feet), as well as a set of rosters from 1958- Manuscript Collections and Audiovisual Materials 1996 containing lists of the officers and committee members of various Society of Rheology committees. The Acoustical This year’s accessions include a DVD recording of a presenta- Society of America also increased its holdings with the addi- tion given by Benjamin Bederson titled “Los Alamos and Ti- tion of a publication commemorating the 75th Anniversary of nian: a personal memoir”; a DVD recording from the Musée ASA (1 folder), celebrated in 2004. The American Physical des Arts et Métiers of filmed talks and digitized reproductions Society donated the records of Val Fitch (2 linear feet), con- of photographs and French files from 1940-1947; a taining files produced during his term as President of APS. The set of two CDs of a sound recording made by the Argonne Na- American Astronomical Society donated the audio recordings tional Laboratory titled “To Fermi – with love” (an item that of the AAS Centennial Celebration, held in Chicago in 1999 already existed in our collection as a long-playing disc record- (13 audio cassettes). ing). We also received a short audio recording and transcript of Lord Kelvin speaking about radioactivity, dated 1905. This spring the American Institute of Physics celebrated 75 years of service with a meeting at the Cosmos Club in Washing- The Research Foundation made its annual addi- ton, DC (where the AIP Governing Board held its initial meet- tion of files pertaining to the 2006 Essay Contest (0.5 linear ing in 1931) and symposia held at AIP’s corporate headquarters feet). This year, for the first time, the donation included a DVD in College Park, MD and its publishing center in Melville, NY. (“Universal and : a working quan- We are saving many materials generated by this celebration, tum model for universal gravitation”). The Gravity Research including webcasts, taped sessions, promotional materials, and Foundation also digitized the files from their annual contest organizational records, as well as the interviews noted in the from 1949-2006 and submitted this CD copy to the archives oral history section of this report. for research use. As further evidence of the changing nature of records, we received a set of e-mail correspondence filesfrom The Niels Bohr Library received several additions to our Insti- Nancy Grace Roman. These records were submitted through tutional Histories collection, including a DVD commemorating electronic mail, printed onto archival paper and added to the the Acoustical Society of America’s 75th anniversary; a set of archives (3 folders). Robert Ubell added to our existing collec- three DVDs from the IBM Research Center, commemorating tion of files from his years as editor of the “Masters of Mod- its 60th anniversary; a pamphlet titled Official Guide: Carnegie ern Physics” series (0.5 linear feet). The Publishing Division Institute of Technology; an unpublished manuscript (101 pages) of the American Institute of Physics increased its holdings in documenting the history of the Lehigh University Department

History Newsletter Spring 2006 ●  of Physics, and a presentation given by Cherry Murray at a 2005 library, adding 24 books to our collection. Elroy O. LaCasce meeting of APS, outlining the history, changes and development of Bowdoin College offered a number of books, of which we of Bell Labs and Lucent Technologies. For our biographical accessioned 8. We also received donations of valuable printed files we received a copy of a talk given byLawrence Cranberg materials from Alice Dodge Wallace, Shaun Hardy of the titled “Ethical Problems of Scientists.” Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institu- tion of Washington (including IUGG reports), David Park at To our growing Miscellaneous Physics Collection, we added the Williams College, and Milton Katz of the SUNY College of following items: “Remembering the Manhattan Project: Report Optometry (books on optometry and ophthalmic lenses). of the proceedings from the Atomic Heritage Foundation’s Sym- posium Report and Preservation Plan” (115 pages); a photocopy Visual Archives of a notebook from the files ofJules Guéron, from his uranium research (100 pages); notebooks and lecture notes from David We now have over 8,000 images available in a greatly improved Allen Park’s undergraduate years at Harvard (0.5 linear feet); a online interface. That is still only a third of the collection, and program from the Broadway show “Dr. Atomic” and notes from we are digitizing more photos on a regular . Many of the a pre-performance talk by Wolfgang Panofsky; a manuscript donations we received this year are now online, including im- by Arjun Saxena titled “Important and clarifications of ages we are grateful to have received from Donald Clayton, the invention and evolution of integrated circuits” (54 pages, 1 Ken Ford, Charles Hargrove (Bancroft Library), Jeff Hecht, CD); and a CD containing an audiovisual presentation inspired Zdenek Herman, Hubert Lechevalier, Norton Hintz, Law- by the audio recording of Benjamin Lee’s talk at the 1977 APS rence W. Jones, Randy J. Montoya (Sandia National Labs), meeting in Chicago, compiled by Joo Sang Kang, Professor of Peter Prokop (Bildarchiv ), Dale Syphers (Bowdoin Physics, Korea University. University), and Crystal Tinch (AAS). Nobel laureates Roy Glauber and Theodor W. Hänsch donated photographs of Books themselves at our request, and so did AIP Member Society Presidents Anthony A. Atchley, Robert Bau, John J. Hop- The Niels Bohr Library continues to receive many important field, Timothy Killeen, Andrew M. Kraynik, Christie R. K. donations of books and other printed materials, many of them Marrian, Neal D. Shinn and J. Craig Wheeler. difficult or impossible to find elsewhere. For example, Albert Parr from the National Institute of Standards and Technology Oral History Interviews donated George Shortley’s own copy of The Theory of Groups and , the classic text famous as “Condon Tape-recorded interviews are the materials most used by schol- and Shortley.” This unique copy has Shortley’s extensive mar- ars who visit the Library, and we have added an unusually large ginal notes, and will be locked in our rare books collection. volume since last Fall’s report. Many have come through the History of Physicists in Industry project conducted by Joe An- Several of our donations narrated the histories of physics at derson and Orville Butler. These are structured interviews of particular universities. Ryan E. Doezma donated Late Start, 1-2 hours, built around questions about the administrative or- Last Finish from the University of Oklahoma Physics Depart- ganization and record-keeping practices of industrial research ment. John David Jackson donated History of the Physics De- laboratories, but including a variety of interesting personal partment: , Berkeley 1950-1968, and and historical information. In the fall of 2005, Anderson and Cyrus C. Taylor donated Physics at a Research University: Butler visited two major industrial labs. At Honeywell, they Case Western Reserve 1830-1990. interviewed David Arch, Robert Carlson, Barry Cole, Allen Cox, Bob Horning, Burgess Johnson, Cathy Juneau, Jane As noted in the separate article on p.7, some large collections Kaufenburg, and Daniel Youngner. Interviewed at Lockheed came after we asked institutional librarians to consider sending Martin were David Chennette, Rick Kendricks, Walt Mar- us books that they were planning to discard. Meanwhile we got tin, Jeff Newmeyer, Rich Nightingale, Malcolm O’Neill, Pat enough other large donations to keep library staff busy check- Perkins, Jessica Perrine, James Ryder, and Mike Schultz. ing what we needed and cataloging the new accessions. Because our collection is already quite comprehensive, we actually need In 2006 at General Atomics in La Jolla, Anderson and Butler only a fraction of the useful books offered. For example, An- interviewed David Baldwin, Doug Fouguet, Chris Hamilton, gela Gooden at the Geology-Mathematics-Physics Library at Woodie Jarrett, Linda Lanstille, John Rawls, Constantine the University of Cincinnati offered to donate nine books, but Scheder, Arksl Shenoy, Rich Steven, and Tony Taylor. At we already had copies of most of them. We did gain the second Agilent Technologies in Santa Clara, they interviewed Cindy edition of the textbook Physics by Chris D. Zafiratos. Alfiese, Devon Dawson, Curt Flory, Jim Hollinshorst, Mel Kronick, Steve Newton, Darlene Solomon, Hoen Storrs, Besides rescuing what would have been library discards, we Bob Taber, and Greg VanWiggeren. As another part of the accessioned 27 books to our collection from a donation by project, the Center for History of Physics contracted with his- Louis Belliveau on his retirement from the Harry Diamond torian Sheldon Hochheiser to conduct two more extensive, au- Laboratory. Herbert and Frances Bernstein donated a num- tobiographical interview sessions with William Brinkman. ber of books from the New York University Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences Library, of which we accessioned 31. We received a large donation of video oral histories from the And AIP’s CEO Marc Brodsky offered books from his own American Association of Physicists in Medicine (81 DVDs),  ● History Newsletter Spring 2006 focusing on physicists in medicine. These interviews were con- ducted from 1995 to 2004, but were recently reformatted from Recent Publications of Interest VHS to DVD. Compiled by Babak Ashrafi

David DeVorkin sent us 10 interviews that he conducted in Cambridge, . in fall 2005. They were with Eugene Avrett, This is our usual compilation of some (by no means all) Robert Davis, Owen Gingerich, Kathy Haramundanis, Da- recently published articles on the history of modern phys- vid Latham, Thomas Marsden (two separate sessions), Rich- ics, astronomy, geophysics and allied fields. Note that these ard E. McCrosky, Leo McGrath and Charles Whitney. He bibliographies have been posted on our web site since 1994, also provided copies of interviews with other important figures and you can search the full text of all of them (along with in space astronomy: Thomas van Flandern, Steve Maran, our annual book bibliography, recent Catalog of Sources and Victor Sablinski. entries, exhibit materials, etc.) by using the “Search” box on our home page: www.aip.org/history/s-indx.htm. To The Center’s postdoctoral historian, Babak Ashrafi, inter- restrict your search to the bibliographies, use the advanced viewed Joel Birnbaum (two sessions), Len Cutler, Cherry search link. Ann Murray (two sessions), and Arno A. Penzias (two ses- sions). Stuart W. Leslie interviewed (Los Ala- mos), as well as Edward Chester Creutz, Arthur Kantrow- American Heritage of Invention and Technology Vol. 21, no. 4, itz of AVCO-Everett Research Lab, (General Spring 2006: “How to detect an atomic bomb,” by T. A. Heppen- Atomics) and Ronald Waltz (General Atomics). Working heimer. Vol. 22, no. 1, Summer 2006: “: The deadly busi- under a National Science Foundation grant administered by ness of inventing the modern explosives industry,” by Jack Kelly. the AIP Center, Patrick McCray interviewed Michael Flatte, Olle Heinonen, Daniel Loss, Stephan von Molnar and Stu- American Journal of Physics Vol. 74, no. 5, May 2006: “Do art Wolf. Other interviews that historians sent to us for ar- physicists need myths?,” by Harold I. Brown; Vol. 74, no. 6, chiving were Michael Gruntman by David Stern, Chester June 2006: “Einstein, Perrin, and the of : 1905 McKinney by David Blockstock, and the AVS award win- revisited,” by Ronald Newburgh, Joseph Peidle,and Wolfgang ners Dick Brundle, Jane Chang, and Stan Veprek by Paul Rueckner. Vol. 74, no. 7, July 2006: “A selected history of ex- Holloway. Joan Bromberg conducted an interview with Carol pectation bias in physics,” by Monwhea Jeng; “Radioactivity O’Alley. And Francis Slakey and Jennifer Ouellette inter- induced by : and a thermodynamic ap- viewed and for APS News; proach to radiative capture,” by Alberto De Gregorio; “The hid- here as in many of the other cases we transcribed the inter- den symmetry of the Coulomb problem in relativistic quantum view. Sean F. Johnston sent us an interview series relating to mechanics: From Pauli to Dirac,” by Tamari T. Khachidze and the history of holography. His interviews are with Steven A. Anzor A. Khelashvili. Vol. 74, no. 9, September 2006: “Dis- Benton, Tung Hon Jeong, Emmett N. Leith, Graham Sax- missing renewed attempts to deny Einstein the discovery of by, Larry D. Siebert, and a partial interview with H. John ,” by Roger Cerf. Caulfield. Finally, an interview with Herman Zimmerman was conducted by Maiken Lolck with support from an AIP Annals of Science Vol. 63, no. 2, April 2006: “Meteorology’s Center grant-in-aid. struggle for professional recognition in the USA (1900-1950),” by Kristine C. Harper. Vol. 63, no. 3, July 2006: “Nineteenth- The American Institute of Physics celebrated its 75th Anniver- century developments in coiled instruments and experiences sary in 2006, and hired Richard Kindig to produce interviews with electromagnetic induction,” by Elizabeth Cavicchi. with all available important figures from our past and present, discussing AIP’s history and the role of physics in general. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences Vol. 34, The results are archived on 22 DVDs, with notes but no tran- May 2006: “Reflections on the conception, birth, and- child scripts. The interviewees were John A. Armstrong, Richard hood of numerical weather ,” by Edward N. Lorenz; Baccante, Theresa C. Braun, Marc H. Brodsky, Mildred S. “History and Applications of mass-independent ef- Dresselhaus, Kenneth W. Ford, Hans Frauenfelder, Rod- fects,” by Mark H. Thiemens. erick M. Grant, William C. Kelly, H. William Koch, Glo- ria B. Lubkin, Robert H. Marks, Elaine Moran, Norman Astronomy & Geophysics Vol. 47, no.2, April 2006: “Comets F. Ramsey, John S. Rigden, Roland W. Schmitt, Frederick from antiquity to the present day,” by Iwan Williams and Ste- Seitz, Benjamin B. Snavely, Justin T. Stimatze, James H. phen Lowry. Stith, Darlene A. Walters and Lindsay Windsor. Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte Bd. 29, Heft 1, 2006: The only thing wrong with scientists is that they don’t “Das erste Jahrhundert deutschsprachiger meteorologischer understand science. They don’t know where their own in- Lehrbücher,” by Stefan Emeis. stitutions came from, what shaped them, and they are wedded to an anti-historical way of thinking which The British Journal for the History of Science Vol. 39, no. threatens to deter them from ever finding out 2, June 2006: “Gustave-Adolphe Hirn (1815-90): – Eric Larrabee in mid-nineteenth-century France,” by Faidra Papanelopoulou.

History Newsletter Spring 2006 ●  Centaurus Vol. 48, no. 2, July 2006: “Adding Velocities with- Journal for the History of Astronomy Vol. 37, part 2, no. out exceeding the velocity of : ’s algorithm 127, May 2006: “Stellar structure and evolution, 1924-1939,” (1904) and Albert Einstein’s light postulate (1905),” by Giora by Karl Hufbauer. Vol. 37, part 3, no. 128, August 2006: “Be- Hon and Bernard R. Goldstein. yond the big : The structure of the stellar system 1900- 1952,” by Robert W. Smith. Discover Vol. 27, no. 5, May 2006: “Drake’s Brave Guess,” By Seth Shostak. La Recherche May-July 2006: “L’atome piégé par le « plan Marshall »,” by John Krige. Historia ScientiarumVol. 15, no.3, March 2006: “Japanese wartime geology: a case study in northeast china,” by Michiko Perspectives on Science Vol. 14, no. 1, Spring 2006: “The Yahima. crafting of scientific meaning and identity: Exploring the per- formative of ’s texts,” by Ronald History of Science Vol. 44, part 1, no. 143, March 2006: “An Anderson; “From Phenomenology to field theory: Faraday’s Hiatus in history: The British claim for Neptune’s co-predic- visual reasoning,” by David C. Gooding; “Faraday and Piaget: tion, 1845-1846” (parts 1 and 2) by Nicholas Kollerstrom; Experimenting in relation with the world,” by Elizabeth Cavic- “The Archaeology of the inverse square law: (2) The Use and chi; “Discovering discovery: How Faraday found the first me- non-use of mathematics,” by Ofer Gal and Raz Chen-Morris. tallic colloid,” by Ryan D. Tweney.

Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences Physics in Perspective Vol. 8, no. 1, March 2006: “The Politics Vol. 36, no. 2, March 2006: “The rush to accelerate: Early stag- of memory: and the Third Reich,” by Ruth Lewin es of nuclear physics research in Australia,” by R.W. Home; Sime; “Early attempts to detect the neutrino at the Cavendish “ and two ,” by Dong-Won Kim; Laboratory,” by Jaume Navarro; “Berkeley and its physics her- “Accelerators and politics in postwar Japan,” by Morris F. itage,” by Per F. Dahl. Vol. 8, no. 2, May, 2006: “Otto Hahn: Low; “Particle accelerators in Mexico,” by María De La Paz Responsibility and repression,” by Mark Walker; “A Different Ramos Lara; “The quest for the Brazilian synchrocyclotron,” laboratory tale: Fifty years of Mössbauer ,” by by Ana M. Ribeiro De Andrade and R.P.A. Muniz; “Brazilian Catherine Westfall. synchrocyclotron light,” by Marcelo Baumann Burgos; “Politi- cal storms, financial uncertainties, and dreams of ‘big science:’ April 2006: “Erskine Williamson, extreme con- The construction of a heavy ion accelerator in Argentina,” by ditions, and the birth of mineral physics,” by Russell J. Hem- Diego Hurtado De Mendoza and Ana Maria Vara; “Chemical ley; “Albert Einstein in Leiden,” by Dirk van Delft. June 2006: free and the third law of thermodynamics,” by Patrick “The American Institute of Physics: 75 years of service,” guest Coffey. editors Marc H. Brodsky and Mildred S. Dresselhaus; “Trend- spotting: Physics in 1931 and today,” by Spencer Weart; “Look- History and Technology Vol. 22, no. 3, September 2006: ing back and ahead at ,” by Marvin “Interpreting the Moon landings: Project Apollo and the his- L. Cohen. July 2006: “Scientists, security, and lessons from torians,” by Roger D. Launius; “A Nordic satellite project un- the Cold War,” by Charles H. Holbrow. August 2006: “Stories derstood as a trans-national effort,” by Nina Wormbs; “The from the early days of ,” by Isidor Isaac Materiality of microelectronics,” by Christophe Lécuyer and Rabi (transcribed and edited by R. Fraser Code). David C. Brock. Physics UspekhiVol. 49, no. 3, 2006: “ The Joint Institute for Isis, 2006: Vol. 97, no. 2, 2006: “‘For slow neutrons, slow pay:’ Nuclear Research, the first half-century,” by V.G. Kadyshevsky Enrico fermi’s patent and the U.S. atomic energy program, and A.N. Sissakia. Vol. 49, no. 5, 2006: “One of Gibbs’s ideas 1938-1953,” by Simone Turchetti; “A Lead user of instruments that has gone unnoticed (comment on chapter IX of his classic in science: John D. Roberts and the adaptation of nuclear mag- book),” A.D. Sukhanov, Yu G. Rudoi. netic resonance to organic chemistry, 1955-1975,” by Carsten Reinhardt; “Device physics vis--vis fundamental physics in Science & Education Vol. 15, no. 5, February 2006: “Histori- Cold War America: The case of quantum ,” by Joan Lisa cal surprises,” by Roger H. Stuewer. Vol. 15, no. 6, August Bromberg. 2006: “Newton’s Path to Universal Gravitation: The Role of the ,” by Pierre J. Boulos. Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage Vol. 9, no.1, June 2006: “The Beginnings of in the Neth- Science in Context Vol. 19, no. 2, June 2006: “Remarks on a erlands,” by Hugo van Woerden and Richard Strom; “From new letter from Augustin Fresnel: Light Potts Hill (Australia) to Pune (India): The journey of a radio and theory,” by Gildo Magalhes. astronomer,” by ; “Bruce Slee and Ron Bur- man: The genesis of solar radio astronomy in Australia,” by Social Studies of Science Vol. 36, no. 3, 2006: “Celebrating Wayne Orchiston; “ and his relations with Einstein tomorrow today, the peaceful on display in the Soviet and the ,” by Hilmar W. Duerbeck and Peter Union,” by Sonja D. Schmid. Vol. 36, No. 4, 2006: “Whose Beer; “A Brief history of the Astrophysical Research Consor- mass is it anyway? Particle cosmology and the objects of theo- tium and the Apache Point Observatory,” by Jim Peterson and ry,” by David Kaiser. Glen Mackie.

10 ● History Newsletter Spring 2006 National Library of Australia. Manuscripts Section, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia. John Gatenby Bolton papers. 1940-1993. 0.56 linear meters (4 boxes).

Academia Brasileira de Ciências. Biblioteca. Rua Araújo Porto Alegre, 64, 5o andar. Castilo, Rio De Janeiro RJ CEP 20030-010, Brazil. Academia Brasileira de Ciências member files, Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 1916-[ongoing]. Restrictions: Access restricted to dossiers of living members; open access to dossiers of deceased members.

University of Alberta. University Archives, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E2, Canada. Edward Hunter Gowan scrapbook. 1935-1948. 0.03 meters. Ernest Sydney Keeping papers. 1917-1977. 0.42 meters. Donald Burton Scott papers. 1938-1975. 0.42 meters. Restrictions: Access to some series resticted. University of Alberta Nuclear Research Centre records. 1973-1991. 0.30 meters. University of Alberta Institute of Earth and Planetary Physics L-R: Donald Herriott, Ali Javan and William Bennett with records. 1973-1990. 0.10 meters. the first helium-neon . Credit: AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Hecht Collection. Royal Society. Library. 6 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5AG, England, UK. Studies In History and of Science, Part B: Stud- Papers of . 1944-2004. 28 boxes. Restrictions: This col- ies In History and Philosophy of Vol. 37, no. lection is open for access, some correspondence has been restricted 2, June 2006: “Schrödinger’s interpretation of quantum mechanics until January 1, 2030. and the relevance of Bohr’s experimental critique,” by Slobodan Perovic; “Heisenberg and the wave-particle duality,” by Kristian St. John’s College. The Library, Cambridge CB2 1TP, England, UK. Papers and correspondence of Sir Harold Jeffreys. 1886-1999. 68 boxes. Camilleri; “A far-reaching project behind the discovery of - induced radioactivity,” by Alberto De Gregorio. University of Bath. Library, University Archives. Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, England, UK. Technology and Culture Vol. 47, no. 1, January 2006: “Cor- Papers and correspondence of Albert Freedman. circa 1929-2004. porations, universities, and instrumental communities: Com- 37 boxes. Restrictions: collection open by appointment with the mercializing probe microscopy, 1981-1996,” by Cyrus Mody. Archivist.

University of Bristol. Arts and Social Sciences Library, Special Col- lections. Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 ITJ, England, UK. Documentation Preserved, Fall 2006 Papers and correspondence of Andrew Keller. 1944-2001. 125 boxes. Compiled by Jennifer S. Sullivan Papers and correspondence of Sir Alec (Alexander Walter) Merrison. 1931-2001. 39 boxes and oversize items (circa 910 items).

As you can see, an unusually large number of collections are in- Université Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg. Mission culture scientifique cluded in this Newsletter’s Documentation Preserved column. et technique. 7, rue de l’Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France. In the past we’ve depended entirely on voluntary descriptions Records of the Université Louis Pasteur service. sent to us by the archives holding the collection—prompted 1964-2002. 6.14 linear meters (42 cartons). Restrictions: Open subject usually by our semiannual survey of repositories. This issue’s to authorization. bumper crop of collection descriptions is the result of two new Records of the Institut de physique de Strasbourg, Université Web-based ways that we gather information on collections. A Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg. Institut de physique. 1867-1992. 3.2 growing number of archives are creating online catalogs of linear meters (49 cartons). their archival collections, and this year we began systemati- Restrictions: Records relating to personnel (1 IPS 13-15) closed. cally checking for and, if available, searching the online cata- American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1200 New logs for each of the 50 or so archives that we survey every six York Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005, USA. months, taken from the 200 archives we survey over a two-year Records of the Executive Office of the American Association for cycle. Second, we searched the Research Library Group’s the Advancement of Science. 1907-1989. 70.55 linear feet. new ArchiveGrid, introduced this spring, which contains near- Records of Science and policy programs of the American Associa- ly a million collection descriptions from thousands of libraries, tion for the Advancement of Science. 1954-1994. 158.75 linear feet. archives and museums. Thanks to the three sources—voluntary Restrictions: Cases containing sensitive and graphic information may reports (which are still vitally important) and the two Web ven- be restricted. Researchers must obtain access permission from pro- ues—we’re pleased to be able to provide you with an unusu- gram staff. Membership and meetings records, American Ass ciation for the Ad- ally large number of new collections. As always, more com- vancement of Science. 1848-[ongoing]. Records of Education and plete descriptions may be found in our International Catalog human resources programs of the American Association for the of Sources for Physics and Allied Sciences (ICOS), online at Advancement of Science. 1953-1995. 90+ linear feet. www.aip.org/history/icos

History Newsletter Spring 2006 ● 11 American Philosophical Society. Library. 105 South Fifth Street, . Carl A. Kroch Library, Division of Rare and Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA. Manuscript Collections. 2B Carl A Kroch Library, Ithaca, NY Leonard Carmichael papers. circa 1917-1973. 183 linear feet (circa 14853, USA. 180,000 items). Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory reports by Thomas H. Court collection on microscopes and other optical instru- Marshall H. Cohen. 1950-1960. 1 cubic foot. ments. 1588-1935. 5 linear feet. Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory Electrical Engineering reports, by George Howard Darwin letters. 1834-1881. 5 items. Donald F. Holcomb. 1952-2004. 7 cubic feet. John Dovaston astronomical notebook. 1764-1799. 1 volume (131 Cornell on Mars press kit. 2004. 1 folder. pages). Cornell University Department of Astronomy Records. 1903-2004. Benjamin Vaughan papers. 1746-1900. 13.25 linear feet. 1 volume and 0.1 cubic foot. Kenneth I. Greisen lecture notes. 1940. 1 volume. . The , University Archives. Paul Hartman papers. 1944-1993. 2 cubic feet. Providence, RI 02912, USA. P. Gerald Kruger letters. 1926-1931, 2002. 0.3 cubic feet. Ladd Observatory papers. circa 1875-1971. circa 27 linear feet. Re- strictions: The bulk of this material is stored off site and cannot be Dartmouth College. Library. Special Collections Dept. Hanover, seen at the Library without making an appointment. NH 03755, USA. Ladd Observatory scrapbook of clippings relating to astronomy. Dartmouth College Observatory record of astronomical observa- 1917-1939. 1 volume (253 pages). tions. 1850-1851. 1 volume (117 pages). Albert Michelson manuscripts of Experimental determination of the Robert L. Long, Jr. papers. 1956-1958. 40.75 linear feet (2 boxes). velocity of light. circa 1882. 1 volume (114 pages). Dudley Observatory. Archives. 107 Nott Terrace, Schenectady, California Institute of Technology. Institute Archives. 1201 East NY 12308, USA. California Blvd. (Mail Code 015A-74), Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. Papers of James H. Armsby. 1851-1864. 2 boxes. Oral history interview with Noel R. Corngold. October 11 - October Dudley Observatory observational journals. 1859-1883. 19 volumes. 16, 2002. Transcript: [ii], 73 leaves (2 sessions). Interviews were con- ducted by Sarah Lippincott. Restrictions: Permission to quote or cite Duke University Medical Center. Archives and Memorabilia. required from CalTech. DUMC 3702, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Arthur L. Klein papers. 1928-1974. 1.5 linear feet. Papers of David E. Yount. 1949-2000. 21 linear feet (14 boxes). Bruce H. Morgan lecture notes. 1953-1954. 0.25 linear feet. Oral history interview with John Robinson Pierce. 1979 April 16 - Fisk University. Library. Special Collections. Nashville, TN 37208- April 27, 1979. Transcript: vi, 47 pages. (3 sessions). Interviews were 3051, USA. conducted by Harriett Lyle. Restrictions: Permission to quote or cite Augustus Shaw records. 1925-1926. 0.5 linear feet. required from CalTech. Russell W. Porter drawings. 1928-1945. 1.5 linear feet. Georgetown University. Library. Special Collections Division. 37th and O Streets, N. W., Washington, D. C. 20057, USA. Case Western Reserve University. Kelvin Smith Library. Special Reverend James Curley papers. 1832-1889. 2 boxes. Collections. 11055 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44106-7151, USA. Friar A. W. Forstall papers. 1880-1910. 0.5 box. William D. Buckingham collection. 1925-1968. 3 boxes. on War, Revolution and Peace. Archives. Stan- Central State University. Hallie Q. Brown Memorial Library. ford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. University Archives. Box 1006, Wilberforce, OH 45384, USA. Scientists for Sakharov, Orlov and Shcharansky records. 1975- Herman R. Branson papers. 1952-1970. circa 8 linear feet. 1998. 33 manuscript boxes.

Chemical Heritage Foundation. Roy Eddleman Institute for In- Huntington Library. 1151 Road, San Marino, CA 91108, terpretation and Outreach. 315 Chestnut Street Philadelphia, PA USA. 19106, USA. Paul W. Merrill papers. 1922-1961. 15 boxes. Papers of Robert G. Parr. 1941-2003. 69 linear feet. Restrictions: A lim- ited number of files are restricted due to their confidential academic nature Library of Congress. Manuscript Division. James Madison Me- —these files are notated as such in the finding aid. morial Building, First Street and Independence Avenue, S. E., Washington, DC 20540, USA . Chicago Historical Society. Prints and Photographs. Clark Street Federal science & technology policy, by D. Allan Bromley. 1 video- and North Avenue, Chicago, IL 60614, USA. cassette Photographs of Argonne National Laboratory. 1949-1952. 23 pho- Dana family papers. 1805-1961. 9 microfilm reels. tographic prints. Papers of Glenn Theodore Seaborg. 1866-1999. 407.4 linear feet. Restrictions: Classified, in part. City College of the City. University of New York, Archives and Special Collections, North Academic Center, New York, NY 10031, USA. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Institute Archives and Alfred G. Compton papers. 1853-1965. 1.2 cubic feet. Special Collections. M.I.T. Libraries, Rm. 14N-118, Cambridge, MA. 02139, USA. . Oral History Research Office. Box 20, Room Department of Nuclear Engineering curriculum materials. 1952- 801 Butler Library, New York, NY 10027, USA. 1990. 104 cubic feet (104 records cartons). Reminiscences of Athelstan Spilhaus. 1980. 461 pages. Interviewed by Frederick Peterson Jessup. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Ames Research Center. Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library. New Ames Research Center archives reference collection. 1939-1998. 19 York, NY 10027, USA. linear feet. Ian Vlodarskii papers. 1960-1969. circa 125 items (1 box).

12 ● History Newsletter Spring 2006 Northeastern University Libraries. Archives and Special Collections. Boston, MA 02115, USA. Albert James Augustine papers. 1927-1935. 0.15 cubic feet (1 box). Beverly C. Dunn, Jr. papers. 1927-1935. 0.5 cubic feet (1 box). Restrictions: Student records (box 1, folder 1) are restricted until 2045.

Ohio State University. University Archives. 2700 Kenny Road, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Antarctic deep freeze oral history collection. circa 1950-1959. 81 audio cassettes. 2 VHS video cassettes. Alfred D. Cole papers. 1861-1928. 17 items. David O. Edwards papers. 1961-1993. 9.5 cubic feet. Oral history interview with John Kraus. 2002. 1 sound cassette (90 minutes). Interview conducted by Robert Wagner.

Oregon State University Libraries. University Archives. Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. Gordon Gould (left) with Ben Senitsky at TRG with millimeter wave amplifier. : The Making of a Science video. Credit: AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Hecht Collection;. 110 VHS videocassettes (60 minutes each), 1 file folder of additional material. National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST Research Oregon State University Atmospheric Sciences Library and NIST Archives, Information Services Division. 100 Department records. 1968-1991. .25 cubic feet. Bureau Drive, MS 2500, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA. Oregon State University. Dept. of Physics records. 1909-1974. 2 Oral history interviews conducted by Karma Beal and others cubic feet. with: Ernest Ambler, 1988. 103 pages total. Peter L. Bend- Radiation Center records. 1969-2000. 1 cubic foot. er, 1987. 8 pages total. Bascomb Birmingham, 1987. 10 pag- Willibald Weniger papers. 1908-1955. 0.1 cubic feet. es total. Lewis Branscomb, 1988. Richard K. Cook, 1988. 31 Willibald Weniger photograph collection. circa 1905-1930. 0.25 cu- pages. Marilyn E. Jacox, 1998. 36 pages. Johanna (Anneke) bic feet (circa 600 prints and 40 negatives). M.H. Levelt Sengers, 1996 and 1997. 76 pages. Elio Passaglia, 1981, 1988. 16 pages. John A. Simpson, 1993 May 20. 18 pages. Pikes Peak Library District. Special Collections. Colorado Oral history interview conducted by Dr. Karl Kessler and Walter Springs, CO 80901, USA. Weinstein with: Charlotte Moore Sitterly, 1981. 34 pages. International Tesla Society records. 1984-1990. 0.4 cubic feet (1 box). Remembering oral history interview. 1986. 69 Tesla Book Company collection. 1886-1985 4.4 cubic feet (12 boxes). pages. Princeton University. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collec- Naval Historical Center. Operational Archives Branch. Washing- tions, One Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. ton Navy Yard, DC 20374-5060, USA. Stephen Alexander collection. 1827-1882. 0.4 cubic feet (1 box). Applied Physics Laboratory records. Albert Einstein collection. 1913-1975. .67 linear feet (1 records box, 1942-1956. 2 cubic feet. 1 oversize print box). papers. 1875-1945. .20 linear feet. New York Public Library. Rare Books and Manuscripts Division. Hyatt and Mayer collection. 1804-1921. 5.1 linear feet (9 boxes and Fifth Avenue and 42nd Street, New York, NY 10018, USA. 8 volumes). Gherardi Davis papers. 1828-1940. 3 linear feet (8 boxes). Project Matterhorn publications and reports. 1951-1958. 3 linear feet (3 boxes). New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Howard C. Rice collection on the Rittenhouse Orrery. 1943-1954. Black Culture. New York, NY 10037, USA. 2.5 cubic feet. H. Mack Thaxton papers. 1961-1963. 25 items (1 folder). Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Schlesinger Library. North Carolina State University. Special Collections Research Cen- Cambridge MA 02138, USA. ter, NCSU Libraries. Box 7111, Raleigh, NC 27695-7111, USA. Helen Meriwether Lewis Thomas papers. 1890-1997. 0.4 linear feet. John Bewley Derieux papers. 1902-1961. 2 linear feet. Alfred Alexander Dixon papers. 1909-1939. 0.25 linear feet. Rice University. Fondren Library. Woodson Research Center. P. North Carolina State University. Dept. of Physics records. 1959- O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77001, USA. 1983. 0.5 linear feet. William E. Gordon papers. 1947-1994. 12 boxes (12 cubic feet). Dale Sayers papers. circa 1975-2005. 60 linear feet. Restrictions: Richard E. Smalley papers. 1990-1998. 3 cubic feet. Access is restricted until collection is processed. Please contact the repository for details. Rutgers University Libraries Special Collections and Archives. Superconducting super collider publications collection. 1989-2003. 3.5 New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA. linear feet. Restrictions: Access is restricted until collection is processed. John Maurer papers. 1928-1987. 27 cubic feet (8 cartons, 2 manu- Please contact the repository for details. script boxes, and 26 oversize boxes).

History Newsletter Spring 2006 ● 13 Smithsonian Institution. National Museum of American History University of Alaska. Elmer E. Rasmuson Library. Alaska & Polar Archives Center. MRC 601, 12th Street and Constitution Avenue, Regions Department. Oral History Unit. Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA. N. W., Washington, D. C. 20560, USA. Oral history interview with Syun-Ichi Akasofu. 1985. 48 transcripts. Institute for Advanced Study Electronic Project draw- 1 session. Interview conducted by Dan O’Neil. ings. 1949-1961. 2 cubic feet: 1 folder, 3 boxes. Science and scientists, some recollections by Sydney Chapman. Re- Orlan W. Boston papers. 1926-1947. 0.3 cubic feet: 1 box. corded in Fairbanks, Alaska on October 8, 1965 and December 16, Nobel Voices Video History Project collection. 2000-2001. 3 cubic 1966. 3 sound tape reels. feet (20 boxes). Oral history interview with T. Neil Davis. 1968. 1 session. Innovative Lives program collection. 1995-2005. 13.15+ cubic feet Talk by Robert Hunsucker at a geophysical retirement seminar . (20 boxes). 1987 December 17. 1 session. manuscript. 1951. 0.05 cubic feet: 1 folder. Oral history interview with Keith Mather. 1992. 1 session, 1.5 Emilio Segrè collection. 1942-1997. 0.25 cubic feet. hours. Geophysical Institute 50th anniversary celebration recordings. Smithsonian Institution. National Air and Space Museum. Ar- 1998-2001. 10 sessions (8 interviews and 2 panel sessions). Inter- chives. Washington, D.C., 20560, USA. views conducted by Bill Schneider. Farouk El-Baz collection on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Earth Ob- servation and Photography Experiment. 1975. 3.6 cubic feet (7 legal University of California, San Diego. Mandeville Special Collections document boxes). Library. 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Hildegard Korf Kallmann-Bijl collection. 1947-1968. 6 boxes and Keith A. Brueckner administrative records. 1959-1970. 7.2 linear 1 oversize. feet (18 archives boxes). Werner Neupert collection on the Orbiting Solar Observatory Pro- interview. 1982. 1 sound cassette. gram. 2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes). Richard Lingenfelter papers. 1980-1999. 17.53 linear feet (44 ar- John A. O’Keefe collection. undated. 31.61 cubic feet (29 record cen- chives boxes and 1 oversize folder). ter boxes). Stanford S. Penner papers. 1938-1998. 3.5 linear feet (7 archives S. Fred Singer papers. 1953-1989. 54.5 cubic feet (50 records center boxes, 4 oversize folders, and 4 art bin items). boxes). Laurence Peterson papers. 1954-1995. 8 linear feet (81 archives boxes and 10 records cartons). Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Dibner Library of the History Reuven Ramaty papers. 1963-1999. 17.80 linear feet (44 archives of Science and Technology. National Museum of American His- boxes and 8 oversize folders). tory, Washington, DC 20560, USA. University of California, San Diego Center for Astrophysics and Arno Brasch scrapbook. circa 1927-1939. 1 volume. Space Sciences records. 1979-1995. 4 linear feet (4 record cartons). Memorandum on a 250 foot aperture steerable radio , by White Mountain Research Station administrative files. 1949-1996. 9.7 . circa 1951. 1 volume. linear feet (21 archives boxes, 1 card file box, and 6 oversize folders). Walther Müller physics laboratory notebooks. circa 1926-1929. 5 volumes. University of California, Santa Barbara. Library. Dept. of Special Project Matterhorn Stellarator Division log book. 1952 July 8- Collections. Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. 1953 June 11. 1 volume. Jean Storke Menzies collection. 1951-1993. 25 linear feet (32 boxes). Norman Ramsey collection on the Manhattan Project. 1945-1946. 24 items (4 folders). . The Joseph Regenstein Library. Depart- ment of Special Collections. 1100 East 57th Street, Chicago, Il . Department of Special Collections. Stanford, 60637, USA. CA 94305, USA. Albert Einstein correspondence with Charles Wegener. 1954 August Ames Research Center publications. 1958-2000. 4 linear feet. - September. 1 folder. Walter E. Meyerhof papers. 1948-1994. 25.5 linear feet. papers. circa 1889-1950. 0.5 linear feet (1 box). Ervin J. Nalos papers. 1939-1950. 3 linear feet. University of Chicago Innominates/X-Club records. 1917-1982. Frank K. Pomeroy notebook. 1909. 0.25 linear feet. 2.75 linear feet (6 boxes). M. M. Schiffer papers. 1953-1979. 2.4 linear feet. Thomas Jefferson Jackson See papers. 1891-1970. 1.5 linear feet. University of Connecticut Libraries. Archives and Special Collec- W. W. Hansen Laboratories of Physics records. 1947-1964. 15 lin- tions. Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. ear feet. Robert M. Thorson papers, 1851-2005. 0.5 linear feet.

State University of New York at Stony Brook. Frank Melville Jr. University of Idaho. Library. Special Collections and Archives. Memorial Library. Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. Moscow, ID 83853, USA. Clarence Weston Hansell papers. 1928-1967. 11.2 cubic feet (15 boxes). Samuel S. M. Chan papers, 1962-1988. 1 cubic foot. Guide to the Vance Lewis Sailor collection. 1970-1995. 9 cubic feet. University of Idaho Research Office Records, 1945-1982. 7.5 cubic feet. Swarthmore College. Friends Historical Library. 500 College Av- enue Swarthmore, PA, 19081, USA. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. University Archives. Swarthmore College Astronomy department records. 1899-1986. 16 Room 19, Library, 1408 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. linear feet. Restrictions: Access restricted. Consult repository for details. Don C. DeVault papers, 1956-1990. 8.0 cubic feet. Sidney B. Gaythorpe papers, 1903-1961. 0.6 cubic feet. Naval Observatory. Library. 3450 Massachusetts George W. Myers papers, 1887-1925. 0.1 cubic feet. Ave., N. W., Washington, D. C. 20392-5420, USA. Joel Stebbins papers, 1907-1957. 0.1 cubic feet. United States Observatory Oral History Project interviews. 1983- John A. Thornton papers, 1943-1991. 3.0 cubic feet. Restriction: Box 5 2005. 48 transcripts. has access restrictrions; contact repository for details. Astronomical Society records, 1980-1989. 0.1 cubic feet.

14 ● History Newsletter Spring 2006 University of Iowa Libraries. Main Library. Archives. Iowa City, Washington State University Libraries. Manuscripts, Archives, and IA 52242-1420, USA. Special Collections. Pullman, WA, 99164-5610, USA. Vivian E. Hickman collection, 1991-1996. 1 item. William Band papers, 1857-1989. 4.0 linear feet. Harry F. Olson papers, 1938-1966. 0.25 linear feet. C.C. (Charles Clayton) Wylie papers, 1910-1960. 0.5 linear feet. Western Kentucky University. Kentucky Library, Manuscripts Section. Bowling Green, KY 42101, USA. University of Maryland. Hornbake Library. Archives and Manu- George Vernon Page papers, 1942-1951. 0.2 cubic feet. scripts Department. College Park, MD 20742, USA. Frank J. Kerr papers, 1945-2000. 39.5 linear feet. Library. Manuscripts and Archives. Box 1603A John S. Toll papers, 1943-1991. 27.0 linear feet. Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Gibbs Symposium records [videorecording], 1964-1989. 15 videotapes. . Charles Babbage Institute. Center for Arthur Williams Wright papers, 1755-1876. 0.75 linear feet. the History of Computing. University of Minnesota Libraries, Department of Physics records, circa 1910-1975. 0.5 linear feet. Re- Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. striction: Access is partially restricted. Details available at repository. Calvin N. Mooers papers, 1930-1990. 28.0 cubic feet.

University of Pennsylvania. Archives. North Arcade, Franklin Field, Philadelphia PA 19104-6320, USA. Oral history interview with Herman P. Schwan [video- recording]. 3 videotapes. Flower and Cook Observatory records, 1875-1987. 5.0 cubic feet. Oral history interview with Walter D. Wales [video- recording]. 1987. 3 videotapes.

University of Pennsylvania. Van Pelt-Dietrich Li- brary Center. Annenberg Rare Book & Manuscript Library. 3420 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104- 6206, USA. John Ewing notebooks on astronomy and physics, 1959. 1 item. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Depart- ment of Physics letter to Lewis Mumford, 1851-2005. 0.5 linear feet.

University of Rochester. Rush Rhees Library, Dept. of Rare Books, Manuscripts and Archives, Rochester, New York 14627, USA. Papers of the Department of Physics, 1929-1946. 3 boxes. Institute of Applied Optics records, 1917-1936. 2 boxes. Niels Bohr and engaged in a long and intimate collaboration University of Texas at Austin. Center for American through the 1930s, creating the quantum physics that has radically transformed History. University Archives. Faculty Papers Collec- philosophy and daily life. Michael Frayn’s recent play is bringing tion. Austin, TX 78713, USA. this extraordinary chapter in the history of physics to a wide audience, portray- Papers of Bryce S. DeWitt, 1950-2005. 6.3 linear feet. ing the collaboration’s deep friendship, intellectual rivalry, and final collapse. Restriction: Restricted access to glass plates. All other As a side-effect of the play’s popularity, the Center for History of Physics has materials unrestricted. Access to glass plates arranged by received dozens of requests for copies of the photograph shown here. The image appointment only. Contact archivist for details. illuminates, in a compact and moving fashion, the collaboration of the two great W. F. Eberlein papers, 1936-1986. 16.0 linear feet. physicists at its peak. Walter E. Millett papers, 1923-2003. 10.0 linear feet. Franklin E. Roach papers, 1955-1972. 1.0 linear foot. This is one of two photographs taken in 1934 by a teenage boy, Paul Ehrenfest, Jr., son of the noted Ehrenfest senior. Copies wound up in the hands of University of Utah. Marriott Library. Special Collec- , another of the many outstanding scientists who passed through tions. Manuscript Division. Salt Lake City, UT 84112, Bohr’s institute in Copenhagen. Weisskopf eventually donated his photograph USA. collection to the Center. Ehrenfest’s snapshots are now included in the selection of James Gilbert Black papers, 1921-1983. 0.9 cubic feet. images (about one-third of AIP’s holdings) available online in the Center’s Emilio Segrè Visual Archives at http://photos.aip.org University of Washington Libraries. University Ar- chives. Mailstop #0-10. Seattle, WA 98195, USA. We stand as silent visitors in the lunchroom of Bohr’s institute. Note the Carlsberg David Bodansky Papers, 1955-2001. 4.45 cubic feet. beer bottles: Bohr and his group were partly supported by a bequest from the Restriction: 1 file is restricted. Contact repository for founder of the brewery. The world-famous teacher and his greatest student are details. eating, drinking, laughing and — as usual — vigorously arguing.

Utah State University. Merrill-Cazier Library. Spe- Somebody, presumably Weisskopf or Ehrenfest junior, wrote on the back of this cial Collections & Archives. Logan, UT 84322-3000, photo that shows Bohr speaking: “Ja, ja, Heisenberg, aber– ” (“Yes, yes, Heisen- USA. berg, but– ”). Wilford R. Gardner papers, 1904-2002. 68 boxes.

History Newsletter Spring 2006 ● 15 Recent Publications on the History of Physics A supplement to the Newsletter of The Center for History of Physics/Niels Bohr Library and The Forum for History of Physics, American Physical Society Compiled by Per and Eleanor Dahl

BOOKS

This list is the thirteenth of an annual series. It includes books on the history of modern physics and related topics (including astronomy, geophysics, and physics in medicine) published in 2004 or later. (See earlier lists for details on how the list is prepared.) Articles in journals are listed elsewhere in the Newsletter.

For more comprehensive coverage of publications on the history of science, consult the annual Current Bibliography in Isis (published by the University of Chicago Press for the History of Science Society). Publications on the history of astronomy are listed in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage.

We suggest that you use this list to recommend books for your institution’s library; ISBN numbers are given, when available, for this purpose. Prices (which are for hardcover editions unless otherwise indicated) are subject to change by the publisher.

Permission is hereby granted to copy freely all or part of this list for any educational purpose. More extensive versions of this and the previous lists are available on the Center’s web site at:

www.aip.org/history/web-news.htm#bibl

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COLLECTED WORKS (including unpublished papers)...... 141 HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY, ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY & SPACE SCIENCES...... 141 HISTORY OF PHYSICS...... 141 HISTORY OF SCIENCE...... 142 INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE...... 142 ...... 143 SCIENCE AND SOCIETY...... 143 SCIENCE AND ART, ARCHITECTURE, AND ...... 144 SCIENCE AND GOVERNMENT; PUBLIC POLICY...... 144 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY – ENERGY, EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENT...... 144 SCIENCE AND THE MILITARY; ATOMIC WEAPONS...... 144 COLLECTED BIOGRAPHIES (3 or more Scientists)...... 145 HISTORY OF EARTH SCIENCES...... 145 HISTORY OF INSTRUMENTS...... 146 ...... 146 HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY...... 147 INDIVIDUAL BIOGRAPHIES & AUTOBIOGRAPHIES; ANALYSES OF A SCIENTISTS WORK...... 147 REFERENCE WORKS: ENCYCLOPEDIAS, HANDBOOKS, etc...... 149 TEXTS, LECTURES, AND POPULAR WRITINGS BY SCIENTISTS...... 149

INDEX...... please search our web site at www.aip.org/history/s-indx.htm COLLECTED WORKS OF SCIENTISTS (including unpublished papers)

[Descartes, René] Aczel, Amir D. Descartes’ Secret Notebook: A True Tale of Mathematics, Mysticism, and the Quest to Understand the . xiv + 273 pp., illus., bibl., index. New York: Broadway Books, 2005. ISBN 0-7679-2033-3 (hc) $24.05.

[Einstein, Albert] Brockman, John (ed.) My Einstein Essays by Twenty-Four of the World’s Leading Thinkers on the Man, his Work, and his Legacy. xvi + 259 pp. New York: Pantheon Books, 2006. ISBN 0-375-42345-1 (hc) $25.00.

[Yang, Chen Ning] Yang, Chen Ning. Selected Papers (1945-1980) of Chen Ning Yang. 624 pp. Singapore: World Scientific Publish- ing Co., 2005. ISBN 981-256-367-9 $48.00.

HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY, ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY & SPACE SCIENCES

Basdevant, Jean-Louis; Rich, James; Spiro, Michel. Fundamentals in Nuclear Physics: From to Cosmology. 515 pp. New York: Springer, 2005. ISBN 0-387-01672-4 (hc) $79.95.

Chien, P. Columbia—Final Voyage: The Last Flight of NASA’s First Space Shuttle. 454 pp. New York: Copernicus Books/Springer, 2006. ISBN 0-387-27148-1 $27.50.

Farrell, John. The Day Without Yesterday. Lemaìtre, Einstein, and the Birth of Modern Cosmology. viii + 261 pp., illus., bibl., index. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2005. ISBN 1-56025-660-5 (hc) $24.95.

Halpern, Paul; Wesson, Paul. Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos. viii + 264 pp., illus., notes, index. Wahington, D.C.: Press, 2006. ISBN 0-309-10137-9 (hc) $27.95.

Johnson, George. Miss Leavitt’s Stars: The Untold Story of the Woman Who Discovered How to Measure the Universe. xiv + 162 pp., illus., bibl., index. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2005. ISBN 0-393-05128-5.

Kanipe, Jeff. Chasing Hubble’s Shadows: The Search for at the Edge of Time. ix + 205 pp., illus., bibl., index. New York: Hill and Wang, 2006. ISBN 0-8090-3406-9 (hc) $24.00.

King, D. A. (ed.) In Synchrony with the Heavens: Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civi- lization. xxvi + 1066 pp., figs., apps., index. Leiden/Boston: BrillAcademic Publishers, 2005. ISBN 900414188X.

Mackowski, M. P. Testing the Limits: Aviation Medicine and the Origins of Manned Space Flight. 289 pp. College Station, Texas: Texas A & M University Press, 2006. ISBN 1-58544-439-1 (hc) $49.95.

Pyle, R. Destination Moon: The Apollo Missions in the Astronaut’s Own Words. 192 pp. New York: HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 0-06-087349-3 $24.95.

Sobel, Dava. The Planets. iv + 270 pp., bibl., index. New York: Viking Press, 2005. ISBN 0-670-03446-0 (hc) $24.95.

Vilenkin, . Many Worlds in One: The Search for Other . viii + 235 pp., illus., notes, index. New York: Hill and Wang, 2006. ISBN-13: 978-8090-9523-0 (hc) $24.00.

HISTORY OF PHYSICS

Baker, Gregory L.; Blackburn, James A. The Pendulum: A Case Study in Physics. xii + 300 pp., figs., bibl., index. United Kingdom: , 2005. ISBN 0198567545 (hc) $89.50.

Cashmore, Roger; Maiani, Luciano; Revol, Jean-Pierre (eds.) Prestigious Discoveries at CERN: 1973 Neutral Currents, 1983 W & Z . Springer. ISBN 3540207503 (hc) $59.95.

Dardo, Mauro. Nobel Laureates and Twentieth-Century Physics. xi + 533 pp., illus., bibl., index. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0521832470 (hc) $110.00.

Darrigol, Oliver. Worlds of Flow: A History of Hydrodynamics from the Bernoullis to Prandtl. xiv + 300 pp., figs., apps., bibl., index. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0198568436 (hc) $64.50. History Newsletter Supplement Spring 2006 ● 141 Kaiser, David. Drawing Theories Apart: The Dispersion of Feynman Diagrams in Postwar Physics. xix + 469 pp., illus., apps., bibl., index. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2005. ISBN 0226422674 (pb) $30.00.

Massimi, Michela. Pauli’s Exclusion Principle: The Origin and Validation of a Scientific Principle. xiv + 211 pp., figs., tables, bibl., index. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0521839114 (hc) $75.00.

Morus, Iwan Rhys. When Physics Became King. xii + 303 pp. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2005. ISBN 0226542025 (pb) $25.00.

Steinberger, Jack. Learning About Particles—50 Privileged Years. x + 181 pp., figs., bibl. New York/Berlin: Springer, 2005. ISBN 3540213295 (hc) $49.95.

Steinle, Friedrich. Explorative Experimente: Ampere, Faraday und die Ursprünge der Elektrodynamik. Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Boethius Band 50. 450 pp., apps., tables, bibl., index. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2005. ISBN 3515081852 (hc) Eu80.00.

Watson, Andrew. The Quantum Quark. x + 464 pp., table, apps., bibl., index. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0521829070 (hc) $30.00.

HISTORY OF SCIENCE

Calaprice, Alice. The Einstein Almanac. xvii + 174 pp., illus., bibl., index. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. ISBN 0801880211 (hc) $24.95.

Darling, David. Gravity’s Arc: The Story of Gravity, from to Einstein and Beyond. ix + 278 pp., refs., bibl., index. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2006. ISBN 0-471-71989-7 (hc) $24.95.

Finocchiaro, Maurice A. Retrying Galileo, 1633-1992. xii + 485 pp. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. ISBN 0520242610 $50.00.

Lightman, Alan; Jesse Cohen (eds.) The Best American Science Writing, 2005. xiii + 303 pp. New York: Harper Perennial, 2005. ISBN 0-06-072642-3 (pb) $13.95.

McMullin, Ernan (ed.) The Church and Galileo. Studies in Science and the from the Reilly Center for Science, Technology, and Values. xiii + 319 pp., bibl., index. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2005. ISBN 0268034842 (hc) $60.00.

Miller, David Philip. Discovering Water: James Watt, Henry Cavendish and the Nineteenth-Century ‘Water Controversy’. 330 pp., illus. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2004. ISBN 0-7546-3177-X (hc) $109.95.

Preston, Diana. Before the Fallout: From to Hiroshima. xiv + 400 pp., notes, bibl., index. New York: Berkley Books, 2005. ISBN 0-425-20789-7 (pb) $15.00.

Raymo, Chet. Walking Zero: Discovering Cosmic Space and Time Along the Prime Meridian. xiii + 194 pp., illus., index. New York: Walker & Company, 2006. ISBN-13 978-08027-1494-7 (hc) $27.95.

Seife, Charles. Decoding the Universe. How the New Science of Information is Explaining Everything in the Cosmos, From Our Brains to Black Holes. v + 296 pp., illus., bibl., index. New York: Viking, 2006. ISBN 0-670-03441-X (hc) $24.95.

Watson, Peter. Ideas: A History of Thought and Invention, from Fire to Freud. xix + 822 pp., notes, index. New York: HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 0-06-621064-X (hc) $29.95.

INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE

Brown, Louis. The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. (Centennial History of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Volume II.) xviii + 295 pp., figs., apps., index. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0521830796 (hc) $107.95.

Clark, William. Academic Charisma and the Origins of the Research University. 662 pp., figs., apps., bibl., index. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. ISBN 0226109216 (hc) $45.00.

142 ● History Newsletter Supplement Spring 2006 Cullen, Vicky. Down to the Sea for Science: 75 Years of Ocean Research Education, and Exploration at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. ix + 174 pp., figs., apps., bibl., index. Woods Hole, MA: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2005. ISBN 1880224097 (pb) $20.00.

Fox, Robert; Gooday, Graeme (eds.) Physics in Oxford, 1839-1939: Laboratories, Learning, and College Life. xix + 363 pp., frontis., figs., apps., bibl., index. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0198567928 (hc) $134.50.

Gorn, M. NASA: The Complete Illustrated History. 304 pp. New York: Merrell, 2005. ISBN 1-85894-254-3 (hc) $39.95.

Lord, M. G. Astro Turf: The Private Life of Rocket Science. 259 pp. New York: Walker, 2005. ISBN 0-8027-1427-7 $24.00.

Low, Morris (ed.) Building a Modern Japan: Science, Technology, and Medicine in the Meiji Era and Beyond. xiv + 242 pp., illus., index. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. ISBN 1403968322 (hc) $65.00.

Norberg, Arthur L. and Commerce. A Study of Technology and Management at Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company, En- gineering Research Associates, and Remington Rand, 1946-1957. x + 347 pp., figs., index. Cambridge/London: The MIT Press, 2005. ISBN 026214090X (hc) $40.00.

Pirtle III, C. Engineering the World: Stories from the First 75 Years of . 266 pp. , TX: Southern Methodist University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-87074-502-6 $27.95.

Sandage, Allan. The Mount Wilson Observatory. (Centennial History of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Volume I.) xiii + 647 pp., figs., apps., bibl., index. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0521830788 (hc) $107.95.

Yoder, Hatten S., Jr. The Geophysical Laboratory. (Centennial History of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Volume III.) xiv + 270 pp., figs., tables, apps., index. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 052183080X (hc) $107.95.

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

Brown, Harvey R. Physical Relativity. Space-time Structure from a Dynamical Perspective. 340 pp. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-19-927583-1 (hc) $55.00.

Dowe, Phil. Galileo, Darwin, and Hawking: The Interplay of Science, Reason, and . viii + 205 pp. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2005. ISBN 0802826962 $24.00.

Finkbeiner, Ann. The Jasons. The of Science’s Postwar Elite. xxx + 304 pp., notes, index. New York: Viking, 2006. ISBN 0-670-03489-4 (hc) $27.95.

Reisch, George. How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science. xiv + 418 pp., illus., figs., index. New York: Cambridge Uni- versity Press, 2005. ISBN 0521546893 (pb) $26.99.

Ryckman, Thomas. The Reign of Relativity: Philosophy in Physics 1915-1925. ix + 317 pp., apps., index. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-517717-7 (hc) $79.95.

SCIENCE AND SOCIETY

Ball. P. The Devil’s Doctor: Paracelsus and the World of Renaissance Magic and Science. 436 pp. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006. ISBN 0-374-22979-1 (hc) $27.00.

Basalla, George. Civilized Life in the Universe: Scientists on Intelligent Extraterrestrials. 247 pp. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-517181-0 (hc) $29.95.

Grant, Edward. Science and Religion, 400 B.C. to A.D. 1550: From Aristotle to Copernicus. 328 pp., index. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. ISBN 0801884012 (pb) $22.00.

Knight, David M.; Eddy, Matthew D. (eds.) Science and Beliefs: From Natural Philosophy to , 1700-1900. 286 pp., illus., index. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-7546-3996-7 (hc) $94.95.

History Newsletter Supplement Spring 2006 ● 143 Olson, Richard G. Science and Religion, 1450-1900: From Copernicus to Darwin. 312 pp. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Uni- versity Press, 2006. ISBN 0801884004 (pb) $19.95.

Silver, Lee M. Challenging Nature: The Clash of Science and Spirituality at the New Frontiers of Life. xvi + 444 pp., notes, bibl., index. New York: Harper Collins Publisher, 2006. ISBN-13 978-0-06-058267-8 (hc) $26.95.

Ward, Keith. Pascal’s Fire: Scientific Faith and Religious Understanding. xiv + 270 pp., bibl., index. Oxford: Publications, 2006. ISBN-13 978-1-85168-446-5 (pb) $14.95.

SCIENCE AND ART, ARCHITECTURE, AND MUSIC

Atalay, B. Math and the Mona Lisa: The Art and Science of Leonardo da Vinci. xix + 314 pp., illus., bibl., notes, index. New York: Smithsonian Books/Harper Collins, 2006. ISBN 0-06-085119-8 (pb) $12.95.

Evens, Aden. Sound Ideas: Music, Machines, and Experience. 224 pp. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005. ISBN 081664537X (pb) $23.50. ISBN 0816645361 (hc) $70.00.

Shepherd-Barr, Kirsten. Science on Stage: From Doctor Faustus to Copenhagen. 264 pp., illus. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-691-12150-8 (hc) $29.95.

SCIENCE AND GOVERNMENT; PUBLIC POLICY

Conway, Erik M. High- Dreams: NASA and the Technopolitics of Supersonic Transportation, 1945-1999. xvii + 369 pp., index. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 080188067X (hc) $49.95.

Kessler, Andy. How We Got Here: A Slightly Irreverent History of Technology and Markets. 262 pp. New York: Collins/Harper Collins, 2005. ISBN 0-06-084097-8 $14.95.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY – ENERGY, EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENT

Flannery, Tim. The Weather Makers: How Man is Changing the Climate and What it Means for Life on Earth. 381 pp. New York: At- lantic Monthly Press, 2006. ISBN 0-87113-935-9 $24.00.

Gore, Al. An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It. 325 pp., illus. Emmans, PA: Rodale, 2006. ISBN 1-59486-567-1 (pb) $21.95.

Linden, Eugene. The Winds of Change. Climate, Weather, and the Destruction of Civilization. x + 302 pp., index. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006. ISBN 0-684-86352-9 (hc) $26.00.

SCIENCE AND THE MILITARY; ATOMIC WEAPONS

Beason, Doug. The E-Bomb: How America’s New Directed Energy Weapons Will Change the Way Future Will Be Fought. xiii + 256 pp., figs., apps., bibl., index. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2005. ISBN 0306814021 (hc) $26.00.

Dorries, Matthias (ed.) Michael Frayn’s Copenhagen in Debate: Historical Essays and Documents on the 1941 Meeting Between Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. (Berkeley Papers in History of Science, Vol. 20.) viii + 195 pp., illus., bibl., index. Berkeley: Of- fice for History of Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, 2005. ISBN 0967261724 (pb) $12.00.

Edwards, John. The Geeks of War: The Secretive Labs and Brilliant Minds behind Tomorrow’s Warfare Technologies. xvii + 221 pp., index. New York: American Management Association, 2005. ISBN 0814408524 (hc) $24.00.

Ghamari-Tabrizi, Sharon. The World of Herman Kahn: The Intuitive Science of Thermonuclear War. 387 pp., illus., table, index. Cambridge, Mass.: Press, 2005. (hc) $26.00.

Gibson, T. M. Los Alamos: 1944-1947. 128 pp. Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2005. ISBN 0-7385-2973-7 (pb) $19.99.

144 ● History Newsletter Supplement Spring 2006 Grunden, Walter E. Secret Weapons and World War II: Japan in of Big Science. xi + 335 pp., bibl., index. Kansas: Univer- sity Press of Kansas, 2005. ISBN 0700613838 (hc) $39.95.

Karlsch, R. Hitler’s Bombe: Die geheime Geschichte der deutschen Kernwaffenversuche. 415 pp. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, , Germany: Deutsche, 2005. ISBN 3-421-05809-1 Eu24.90.

Kirsch, Scott. Proving Grounds: Project Plowshare and the Unrealized Dream of Nuclear Earthmoving. 272 pp. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8135-3666-9 (hc) $39.95.

Preston, Diana. Before the Fallout: From Marie Curie to Hiroshima. xiv + 400 pp., ill., bibl., index. New York: Walker & Company, 2005. ISBN 0-8027-1445-5 (hc) $27.00.

Walton, Steven A. (ed.) Instrumental in War: Science, Research, and Instruments Between Knowledge and the War. (History of Warfare Vol. 28, Kelly Devries, ed.) xxiv + 414 pp., illus., index. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2005. ISBN 9004142819 (hc) $174.00.

COLLECTED BIOGRAPHIES (3 or more Scientists)

Byers, Nina; Williams, Gary. Out of the Shadows: Contributions of Twentieth-Century Women to Physics. 520 pp. New York: Cam- bridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 0521821975 (hc) $50.00.

Glass, I. S. Revolutionaries of the Cosmos. The Astro-Physicists. xiii + 317 pp., figs., bibls., index. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 0198570996 (hc) $74.50.

Kevles, Bettyann Holtzmann. Almost Heaven: The Story of Women in Space. xiii + 274 pp., bibl., table, index. New York: , 2004. ISBN 0262612135 (pb) $16.95.

Kojevnikov, Alexei B. Stalin’s Great Science: and Adventures of Soviet Physicists. History of Modern Physical Sciences, Vol. 2. xxii + 360 pp., illus., bibl., indexes. London: Imperial College Press, 2004. ISBN 1860944205 (pb) $32.00.

Visser, Rob; Touret, Jacques (eds.) Dutch Pioneers of the Earth Sciences. (History of Science and Scholarship in the Netherlands, Vol. 5). xii + 200 pp., illus., figs., index. Amsterdam: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Science, 2004. ISBN 9069843897 (hc) $40.00.

Webb, Richard C. Tele-visionaries: The People Behind the Invention of Television. xv + 170 pp., figs., app., index. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2005. ISBN 047171156X (hc) $49.95.

HISTORY OF EARTH SCIENCES

Clark, J.O.E. (ed.) 100 Maps: The Science, Art, and Politics of Cartography Throughout History. 256 pp. New York: Sterling, 2005. ISBN 1-4027-2885-9 $24.95.

Fisher, Irene K. Geodesy? What’s That? My Personal Involvement in the Age-Old Quest for the Size and Shape of the Earth, with a Running Commentary on Life in a Government Research Office. xx + 376 pp., figs., apps., index. New York: University Inc., 2005. ISBN 0-595-36399-7 (pb) $25.95.

Flannery, Tim. The Weather Makers. xv + 357 pp., illus., notes, index. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2005. ISBN-10: 0-87113- 935-9 (hc) $24.00.

Hamblin, Jacob Darwin. Oceanographers and the Cold War: Disciples of Marine Science. xxix + 346 pp., ill., bibl., index. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2005. ISBN 0295984821 $50.00.

Hoare, Michael Rand. The Quest for the True Figure of the Earth: Ideas and Expeditions in Four Centuries of Geodesy. xii + 275 pp., illus., apps., index. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-7546-5020-0 (hc) $84.95.

History Newsletter Supplement Spring 2006 ● 145 Kirsch, Scott. Proving Grounds: Project Plowshare and the Unrealized Dream of Nuclear Earthmoving. 272 pp. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8135-3666-9 (hc) $39.95.

Kozak, Jan T.; Moreira, Victor S.; Oldroyd, David R. Iconography of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake. 82 pp., illus., app., bibl., index. : Geophysical Institute of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 2005. ISBN 8023943901 (hc) Eu25.

Linden, Eugene. The Winds of Change: Climate, Weather, and the Destruction of Civilizations. 314 pp. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006. ISBN 0-684-86352-9 (hc) $26.00.

Livingstone, David N.; Withers, Charles W. J. (eds.) Geography and Revolution. viii + 433 pp., figs., app., bibl., index. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2005. ISBN 0226487334 (hc) $45.00.

Rudwick, Martin J. S. The New Science of Geology. Studies in the Earth Sciences in the Age of Revolution. 336 pp., illus. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2004. ISBN 0-86078-958-6 (hc) $114.95.

Sawyer, Kathy. The Rock from Mars. A Detective Story on Two Planets. xii + 394 pp., illus., notes, bibl., index. New York: Random House, 2006. ISBN 1-4000-6010-9 (hc) $25.95.

Winchester, Simon. A Crack in the Edge of the World: America and the Great California Earthquake of 1906. xiv + 462 pp., illus., apps., index. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers, 2005. ISBN-13 978-0-06-057199-3 (hc) $27.95.

HISTORY OF INSTRUMENTS

Biagioli, Mario. Galileo’s Instruments of Credit: , Images, Secrecy. xi + 302 pp., figs., apps., index. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. ISBN 0-226-04561-7 (hc) $35.00.

Marché II, Jordan D. Theaters of Time and Space: American Planetaria, 1930-1970. 266 pp. New Brunswick, MA: Rutgers University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8135-3576-X (hc) $49.95.

HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS

Bardi, Jason Socrates. The Wars: Newton, Leibniz, and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. viii + 277 pp., illus., bibl., index. New York, NY: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2006. ISBN 1-56025-706-7 (hc) $25.00.

Berlinski, D. Infinite Ascent: A Short History of Mathematics. 197 pp. New York, NY: Modern Library, 2005. ISBN 0-679-64234-X $21.95.

Delone, B.N. The St. Petersburg School of Number Theory. Translated by Robert Burns. History of Mathematics. Volume 26. xv + 278 pp., illus., figs., bibl., index. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, 2005. ISBN 0821834576 (hc) $59.00.

Derbyshire, John. Unknown Quantity. A Real and Imaginary History of Algebra. viii + 374 pp., illus., index. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press, 2005. ISBN 0-309-09657-X $27.95.

Grattan-Guinness, Ivor. Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics 1640-1940. xvii + 1022 pp., figs., bibl., index. Amsterdam: Else- vier Science, 2005. ISBN 0444508716 (hc) $252.00.

Hawking, S. (ed.) Created the Integers: The Mathematical Breakthroughs That Changed History. 1160 pp. Philadelphia, PA: Run- ning Press, 2005. ISBN 0-7624-1922-9 $29.95.

Kaplan, Michael; Kaplan, Ellen. Chances Are: Adventures in . 319 pp., illus., index. New York, NY: Viking Press, 2006. ISBN 0-670-03487-8 (hc) $26.95.

Plotkin, J.M. (ed.) Hausdorff on Ordered Sets. History of Mathematics: Sources. Vol. 25. xviii + 322 pp., app., bibl. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society; London: London Mathematical Society, 2005. ISBN 0821837885 (pb) $69.00.

Shell-Gellasch, Amy; Jardine, Dick (eds.) From Calculus to Computers: Using the Last 200 Years of Mathematics History in the Class- room. xii + 255 pp., figs. Washington, D.C.: The Mathematical Association of America, 2005. ISBN 0883851784 (pb) $39.50.

146 ● History Newsletter Supplement Spring 2006 HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY

Auyang, Sunny Y. Engineering—an Endless Frontier. 344 pp., apps., index. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN 674019784 (pb) $18.95.

Brown, G. I. The Big Bang: A History of Explosives. 256 pp., illus., apps., bibl., index. Phoenix Mill: Sutton Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-7509-3792-0 (pb) $19.95.

Buchanan, Brenda J. (ed.) Gunpowder, Explosives and the State. 450 pp., illus., figs., index. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2006. ISBN 0-7546-5259-9 (hc) $99.95.

Carlson, W. Bernard (ed.) Technology in World History. Foreword by Thomas P. Hughes. 7 volumes. 700 pp., illus., gloss., index. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195218205.

Copeland, B. Jack (ed.) ’s Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker’s Struggle to Build the Modern Com- puter. 584 pp., illus., index. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-856593-3 (hc) $129.95.

Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D. (eds.) Realizing the Dream of Flight: Biographical Essays in Honor of the Centennial of Flight, 1903-2003. xv + 310 pp., figs., apps., index. DVD Washington, DC: NASA, 2005. (hc)

Edwards, Steven A. The Nanotech Pioneers: Where Are They Taking Us? xiii + 244 pp., illus., index. Weinheim: Wiley John & Sons Inc., 2006. ISBN 3-527-31290-0 $27.95.

Elder, Donald C.; James, George S. (eds.) History of Rocketry and Astronautics. AAS History Series, Vol. 26. (Based on papers pre- sented at the Thirty-First History Symposium of the International Academy of Astronautics, Turin, Italy, 1997). xviii + 412 pp., illus., index. San Diego, CA: American Astronautical Society, 2005. ISBN 0877035180.

Evans, Chris; Ryden, Göran (eds.) The Industrial Revolution in Iron: The Impact of British Coal Technology in Nineteenth-Century Europe. ix + 200 pp., figs., tables, bibl., index. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2005. ISBN 075463390X (hc) $94.95.

Hecht, Jeff. Beam: The Race to Make the Laser. x + 284 pp., apps., bibl., index. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0195142101 (hc) $29.99.

Lécuyer, C. Making Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930-1970. x +393pp., apps., bibl., index. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2006. ISBN 0-262-12281-2 (hc) $40.00.

Pursell, Carroll (ed.) A Hammer in Their Hands. A Documentary History of Technology and the African-American Experience. xviii + 397 pp., illus., figs., table, index. Cambridge/London: The MIT Press, 2005. ISBN-13 9780262162258 (hc) $40.00.

Sargent, Ted. The Dance of Molecules: How Nanotechnology is Changing Our Lives. xvii + 234 pp., illus., refs., index. New York, NY: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2006. ISBN 1-56025-809-8 (hc) $25.00.

Sarkar, Tapan K.; Mailloux, Robert; Oliner, Arthur A.; Salazar-Palma, Magdalena; Sengupta, Dipak I. History of Wireless. (Wiley Series in and Optical Engineering.) xix + 655 pp., index. Hoboken NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2005. ISBN 041718149 (hc) $77.99.

Smil, Vaclav. Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867-1914 and their Lasting Impact. ix + 350 pp., figs., apps., bibl., index. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0195168747 (hc) $35.00.

Tucker, J. Nature Exposed: Photography as Eyewitness in Victorian Science. 294 pp., illus. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8018-7991-4 (hc) $55.00.

INDIVIDUAL BIOGRAPHIES & AUTOBIOGRAPHIES; ANALYSES OF A SCIENTISTS WORK

[Armstrong, Neil A.] Hansen, James R. First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong. The Authorized Biography. xi + 769 pp., illus., bibl., index. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2005. ISBN 0743259637 (hc) $30.00.

[Bacon, Roger] Goldstone, Lawrence; Goldstone, Nancy. The Friar and the Cipher. and the Unsolved Mystery of the

History Newsletter Supplement Spring 2006 ● 147 Most Unusual Manuscript in the World. xi + 320 pp., illus., bibl., index. New York, NY: Broadway Books, 2005. ISBN 0-7679-1472-4 (pb) $14.95.

[Bell, Alexander Graham] Gray, Charlotte. Reluctant : Alexander Graham Bell and the Passion for Inventing. 467 pp., apps., index. New York, NY: Arcade Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-55970-809-3 (hc) $29.95.

[Bernal, John Desmond] Brown, Andrew. J. D. Bernal: The Sage of Science. xiv + 562 pp., illus., index. Oxford: Oxford Univer- sity Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-851544-8 (hc) $29.95.

[Bethe, Hans] Brown, Gerald E.; Lee, Chang-Hwan (eds.) and His Physics. 400 pp. Singapore: World Scientific Pub- lishing Co., 2006. ISBN 981-256-609-0 (hc) $84.00.

[Birkeland, Kristian] Egeland, Alv; Burke, William J. Kristian Birkeland: The First Space . 221 pp. New York, NY: Springer Verlag, 2005. ISBN 1-4020-3293-5 (hc) $109.00.

[Boltzmann, Ludwig] Cercignani, C. : The Man Who Trusted Atoms. 329 pp. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-857064-3 (pb) $44.50.

[Curie, Marie] Poirier, Jean-Pierre. Marie Curie: et les Conquérants de l’Atome, 1896-2006. 366 pp., illus., table, bibl. Paris, France: Pygmalion, 2006. ISBN 2756400521 (pb) Euro21.50.

[Darwin, Charles] Herbert, Sandra. Charles Darwin, Geologist. xx + 485 pp., illus., figs., apps., bibl., index. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8014-4348-2 (hc) $35.95.

[Descartes, René] Aczel, Amir D. Descartes’ Secret Notebook: A true Tale of Mathematics, Mysticism, and the Quest to Understand the Universe. xiv + 273 pp., illus., notes, bibl., index. New York, NY: Broadway Books, 2005. ISBN 0-7679-2033-3 (hc) $24.95.

[Doppler, Christian] Schuster, P. M. (Translated from German by L. Wilmes.) Moving the Stars: Christian Doppler, His Life, His Works and Principle, and the World After. 232 pp. Pöllauberg, Austria: Living Edition, 2005. ISBN 3-901585-05-2 $39.00.

[Einstein, Albert] Elzinga, Aant. Einstein’s : A Glimpse Behind Closed Doors. The Archival Evidence. xii + 228 pp., illus., apps., bibl., index. Sagamore Beach: Science History Publications/USA, 2006. ISBN 881352837 (hc) $39.95.

[Einstein, Albert] Bernstein, J. Secrets of the Old One: Einstein, 1905. 200 pp. New York, NY: Copernicus Books/Springer Verlag, 2006. ISBN 0-387-26005-6 (hc) $25.00.

[Einstein, Albert] Hentschel, Ann M.; Grasshoff, Gerd. Albert Einstein: “Those Happy Bernese Years.” 180 pp., figs., app. : Staempfli Publishers Ltd, 2005. ISBN 3727211776 (pb).

[Einstein, Albert] Renn, Jürgen (ed.) Albert Einstein, Chief Engineer of the Universe. Einstein’s Life and Work in Context and Documents of a Life’s Pathway. 255 pp. + 560 pp., illus., apps., bibls., indexes. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2005. ISBN 3527405712 (hc) $100.00.

[Feynman, Richard Phillips] Feynman, R. P.; Leighton, R. (eds.) Classic Feynman: All the Adventures of a Curious Character. x + 506 pp., illus., apps. New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 2006. ISBN 0-393-06132-9 $29.95.

[Franklin, Benjamin] McCormick, B. Ben Franklin: America’s Original Entrepreneur. xvii +266 pp., index. Irvine, CA: Entrepre- neur Press, 2005. ISBN 1-932531-68-8 (hc) $26.95.

[Galilei, Galileo] Biagioli, Mario. Galileo’s Instruments of Credit: Telescopes, Images, Secrecy. 312 pp. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2006. ISBN 0-226-04561-7 (hc) $35.00.

[Ginzburg, Vitalii L.] V. L. Ginzburg, (translated from Russian by M. V. Tsaplina et al.) About Science, Myself and Others. 549 pp. Philadelphia, PA: Institute of Physics Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-7503-0992-X (hc) $85.00.

[Haber, Fritz] Charles, D. Master Mind: The Rise and Fall of , the Nobel Laureate Who Launched the Age of Chemical Warfare. 313 pp. New York, NY: Ecco/Harper Collins, 2005. ISBN 0-06-056272-2 $24.95.

[Herschel, John] John Herschel’s Cape Voyage: Private Science, Public , and the Ambitions of . xxix + 229 pp., figs., apps., bibl., index. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2004. (hc) $79.95.

148 ● History Newsletter Supplement Spring 2006 [Hooke, Robert] Cooper, Michael; Hunter, Michale (eds.) Robert Hooke: Tercentennial Studies. xxi + 335 pp., figs., tables, bibl., index. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 2006. ISBN 075465365Y (hc) $99.95.

[Huygens, Christiaan] Andriesse, C. D.; Miedema, Sally. Huygens: The Man Behind the Principle. xi + 480 pp., illus., bibl., index. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0521850908 (hc) $95.00.

[Kellermann, E. Walter] Kellermann, E. Walter. A Physicist’s Labour in War and Peace: Memoirs 1933-1999. 350 pp. Stamford: Stamford House Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1904985092 (pb).

[Laplace, Pierre Simon] Hahn, Roger. Pierre Simon Laplace, 1749-1827: A Determined Scientist. x + 310 pp., apps., index. Cam- bridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-67401892-3 (hc) $35.00.

[Mach, Ernst] Blackmore, John T.; Itagaki, Ryoichi; Tanaka, Setsuko (eds.) ’s Science: Its Character and Influence on Einstein and Others. 304 pp., index. Kanagawa: Tokai University Press, 2006. ISBN 4486031881 (hc) .

[Newcomb, Simon] Carter, B.; Carter, M.S. Simon Newcomb: America’s Unofficial Astronomer Royal. 213 pp. St. Augustine, FL: Mantanzas, 2006. ISBN 1-59113-803-5 $26.96.

[Oppenheimer, J. Robert] Carson, Cathryn; Hollinger, David A. (Eds) Reappraising Oppenheimer: Centennial Studies and Re- flections. (Berkeley Papers in History of Science,Vol. 21.). xii + 413 pp., figs., apps., index. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2005. ISBN 0967261732 (pb) $14.00.

[Oppenheimer, J. Robert] McMillan, P.J. The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer: and the Birth of the Modern Arms Race. viii + 373 pp., illus., notes, bibl., index. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 2005. ISBN 0-14-20.0115-5 (pb) $16.00.

[Sakharov, Andrei] Gorelik, Gennady. The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist’s Path to Freedom. With Antonia W. Bouis. xviii + 406 pp., illus., figs., app., index. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 019515620X (hc) $47.50.

[von Braun, Wernher] Ward, B. Dr. Space: The Life of . 282 pp. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2005. ISBN 1-59114-926-6 $23.96.

[Young, Thomas]. Andrew Robinson. The Last Man Who Knew Everything. , the Anonymous Polymath Who Proved Newton Wrong, Explained How We See, Cured the Sick, and Deciphered the Rosetta Stone, Among Other Feats of Genius. x + 288 pp., bibl., index. New York: Pi Press, 2006. ISBN 0-13-134304-1 (hc) $24.95.

REFERENCE WORKS: ENCYCLOPEDIAS, HANDBOOKS, etc.

Godin, Benoît. Measurement and Statistics on Science and Technology: 1920 to the Present. Studies in the History of Sci- ence, Technology and Medicine Series. xx + 360 pp., apps., index. Routledge, 2004. ISBN 0415341043.

Hockey, Thomas (ed.) The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. 2000 pp. New York, NY: Springer, 2006. ISBN 0-387-31022-3 (hc) $499.00.

Illiffe, Rob; Keynes, Milo; Higgitt, Rebekah (eds.) The Early Biographies of , 1660-1885. 2 Vols. ixix + 337 pp., apps. London: Pickering & Chatto Publishers, 2005. ISBN 1851967788 (hc) $295.00.

TEXTS, LECTURES, AND POPULAR WRITINGS BY SCIENTISTS

Lightman, Alan. The Best American Science Writing, 2005. xiii + 300 pp. New York, NY: Harper Perennial, 2005. ISBN 978-0-06- 072642-3 (pb) $13.95.

Weiner, Jonathan (ed.) The Best American Science and Nature Writing. xxii + 304 pp., notes. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2005. ISBN-13 978-0-618-27343-0 (pb) $14.00.

History Newsletter Supplement Spring 2006 ● 149 Friends of the Center for History of Physics

Prize and Award Monies Donated to the Center Giving Back to the Physics Community Recipient Name of Prize “Prizewinners of the AIP member societies Charles B. Duke 2006 American Physical have benefited mani- Society Pake Prize festly from their asso- ciation with physics, Mildred S. Dresselhaus 2005 Heinz Award, Technology, and should be grateful the Economy and Employment for the opportunity to give something back,” Allan R. Sandage 2000 Peter Gruber Foundation declared Charlie Duke, Prize for Cosmology winner of the American Physical Society’s Pake Robert L. Gluckstern 1998 U.S. Prize in 2006. Charlie School Prize for Research donated his prize money to the Center for History of Physics to “put my 75 Years of Information that Matters money where my mouth is.”

Charlie received this prize “For groundbreaking theoretical contributions to the understanding of tunneling in solids, and inelastic scattering of low-energy in solids, and for his outstanding contributions to Xerox Corporate Research both as an intellectual and research manager.” The Center and the American Institute of Physics (AIP) extend hearty congratulations and a very big thank you to Charlie for his generosity and foresight in helping preserve the history of physics. Photo of John Marburger and John Armstrong.

Early this year Charlie retired from the position of Vice n May 3, 2006 at the Cosmos Club in Washington, DC, President and Senior Research Fellow in the Xerox Inno- O physicists and policy-makers gathered to commemo- vation Group. Prior to holding this position, he was Dep- rate the first meeting of the AIP Governing Board, held 75 uty Director and Chief Scientist of the Pacific Northwest years ago to the day in the Cosmos Club. A wide-ranging Division of the Battelle Memorial Institute and Affiliate symposium, “Diverse Frontiers of Science,” featured talks Professor of Physics at the University of Washington. He from many noted scientists in a variety of fields. Later, a has recently been named a Research Professor in the De- reception and dinner was held in honor of the anniversary. partment of Physics at the . During It was noted that several talks included a quote from Yogi his illustrious career, Charlie has been active in leadership Berra. The consensus of the speakers on the “end of phys- roles with several different science and technical societies, ics” issue was, “It ain’t over ’til it’s over.” including the AVS, American Physical Society, Materials Research Society, and AIP itself.

Charlie, a recent member of the Friends of the Center for History of Physics Development Committee, urges all who have an interest in the preservation and dissemination of science history to give generously to the Center. He notes that “Physics is fun, a great career option, and has contrib- uted mightily to the economic and defense strength of the US. The Center has the vital mission of collecting and pre- serving archival records of the men and women who made these contributions, and of disseminating this information Photo of Robert and , and Gloria Lubkin. as an inspiration to the next generation of scientists.” Please visit the AIP web site at www.aip.org/anniversary/ Charlie joins a small but illustrious group of prominent sci- event_overview.html to see the program and speakers, entists who have given part or all of their prize money from including a historical overview by Center for History of major awards in recent years. Physics Director Spencer Weart.

26 ● History Newsletter Spring 2006 Friends of the Center for History of Physics

Past and Present Chairs and Executive Directors of AIP at the 75th Anniversary (L to R): Roland Schmitt, Marc Brodsky, , William Koch, Hans Frauenfelder, Norman Ramsey, John Armstrong, Kenneth Ford.

Pension Protection Act of 2006 Offers Tax Benefits in Using your IRA for Charitable Contributions

he new Pension Protection Act of 2006 may help reduced paper work for those donors who no longer need T your charitable gift-giving practices in 2006 and to itemize their deductions. 2007 if you are 75 ½ years old and withdrawing from an Individual Retirement Account (IRA). Strategy for Donors: Retirees face significant penalties unless they meet required minimum IRA withdrawals. IRA and Charitable Gifts: Taxpayers are encouraged to Charitable contributions made through their IRA in 2006 save for retirement through IRAs where their money grows and 2007 can be used to satisfy these minimum require- un-taxed until withdrawn in retirement. Withdrawals are ments. Donors may consider using permissible IRA with- considered taxable income at a presumed lower tax rate in drawals for charitable purposes first before making dona- retirement than during the taxpayer’s prime earning years tions with other taxable income. thus benefiting the taxpayer. However, significant compli- cations limited the use of IRA withdrawals for charitable Financial institutions administering the IRA will be able to gifts. Under the older regulations, donations made through process the donation and resulting paperwork so the dona- IRA withdrawals required the donor to take an IRA dis- tion process should be easy. If you have questions about tribution, pay tax on the proceeds, write a check to the the IRA charitable giving, please e-mail or call the Center at charity of choice and then, and only if they itemize theirBohrs Ad 1\[email protected] Pg Horiz_F 3/8/06 or 2:18301-209-3006. PM Page 1The AIP Center for deductions, take an income tax deduction on their tax re- History of Physics is a 501(c) (3) charitable organization. turn. Another discouraging complication included the annual cap of 50% of the adjusted gross income (AGI) on tax-free charitable gifts. Save Our Physics Heritage “Individuals can achieve great things, and the teacher of history New Act: The new amendment permits tax-free with- ought to make this clear to his pupils. For without hope drawals for charitable contributions directly from IRA of importance is accomplished.” — funds not to exceeding a total of $100,000 annually per Remember the Center in your estate plans—your bequest helps individual or $200,000 per couple if both hold sepa- keep the past alive. For more information, please contact: rate IRA accounts. The rationale behind this new act AIP Center for History of Physics One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740 is to encourage greater charitable giving by removing Call 301.209.3006 or e-mail: [email protected] the tax on donated IRA withdrawals. Donors who have benefited from the un-taxed growth of their IRA now YES, Please send me information on the Center for History and its Legacy Circle. will benefit when making charitable contributions with those funds. Because the donor will not have to rec- Name ognize income from the withdrawals, their AGI will Address be lower, so self-employment and social security taxes City/State/Zip will be lower. Other benefits may include elimination Phone Email of the 3% phase-out of charitable deductions, possible Visit our Legacy Circle at www.aip.org/historymatters avoidance of the alternative minimum tax (AMT), and AIP is a 501(c)(3) organization. Niels Bohr and grandson Christian Bohr

History Newsletter Spring 2006 ● 27 This Newsletter is a biannual publication of the Center for Center for History of Physics Newsletter History of Physics, American Institute of Physics, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740; phone 301-209-3165; fax Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2 Fall 2006 301-209-0882; e-mail [email protected] or [email protected] Editor: Spencer R. Weart. The Newsletter reports activities of the Cen- TABLE OF CONTENTS ter and Niels Bohr Library, and other information on work in Newly Opened Correspondence Illuminates the history of physics and allied fields. Any opinions expressed Einstein’s Personal Life...... 1 herein do not necessarily represent the views of the American Institute of Physics or its Member Societies. This Newsletter is Expansion of Alsos, Online Resource for Nuclear available on request without charge, but we welcome donations History and Issues References...... 1 (tax-deductible) to the Friends of the AIP Center for History of In Memoriam: Joan Warnow Blewett...... 2 Physics (www.aip.org/history/friends.htm). The Newsletter is posted on the Web at www.aip.org/history/web-news.htm. The Meaning of “Priceless” at Agilent...... 3 Finding a Subject for a Biography...... 4 Center for History of Phsyics Progress in the History of Physicists in Spencer R. Weart, Director; Richard Harrigan, Web/Publications Specialist; Babak Ashrafi, Historian; Stephanie Jankowski, Administrative Secretary. Industry Project...... 5 Niels Bohr Library & Archives New High in Book Donations to Niels Bohr Library...... 6 R. Joseph Anderson, Director, Julie Gass, Assistant Librarian; Jennifer S. Sullivan, Assistant Archivist; Melanie Brown, Assistant Archivist; Mark A. Niels Bohr Library Acquires Materials in New Formats...... 7 Matienzo, Assistant Archivist; Orville R. Butler, Historian; Barbara Allen, Recent Publications on the History of Physics...... 9 Senior Library Preservation Assistant; Nancy Honeyford, Documentation Preserved, Fall 2006...... 11 Senior Library Assistant; Heather Lindsay, Photo Librarian; Mary Romanel- li, Photo Archives Assistant; Marla Rosenthal, Transcription Editor. Friends of the Center for History of Physics...... 26

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28 ● History Newsletter Spring 2006