May-June 2011 · Volume 20, Number 3

Kathryn Sullivan to From the Executive Director Receive ’s McGovern Award Annual Report In my report last year I challenged the membership to consider ormer astronaut the characteristics of successful associations. I suggested that we Kathryn D. emulate what successful associations do that others do not. This FSullivan, the first year as I reflect back on the previous fiscal year, I suggest that we need to go even further. U.S. woman to walk We have intangible assets that could, if converted to tangible outcomes, add to the in space, will receive value of active membership in Sigma Xi. I believe that standing up for high ethical Sigma Xi’s 2011 John standards, encouraging the earlier career scientist and networking with colleagues of diverse disciplines is still very relevant to our professional lives. Membership in Sigma P. McGovern Xi still represents recognition for scientific achievements, but the value comes from and Society Award. sharing with companions in zealous research. Since 1984, a highlight of Sigma Xi’s Stronger retention of members through better local programs would benefit the annual meeting has been the McGovern Society in many ways. It appears that we have continued to initiate new members in Lecture, which is made by the recipient of numbers similar to past years but retention has declined significantly. In addition, the the McGovern Medal. Recent recipients source of the new members is moving more and more to the “At-large” category and less and less through the Research/Doctoral chapters. have included oceanographer Sylvia Earle and Nobel laureates , Mario While Sigma Xi calls itself a “chapter-based” Society, we have found that only about half of our “active” members are affiliated with chapters in “good standing.” As long Molina and . as chapters remain a focal point for programs, we must identify methods to revitalize Sullivan was awarded a bachelor in Earth and work together with the shared goals. from the University of , On the positive side, this past year has seen several new efforts and continuation of Santa Cruz in 1973, as well as a Ph.D. in other important programs at Sigma Xi. geology from Dalhousie University in 1978. • Public International and Sigma Xi continued our collaboration, made As a member of the NASA astronaut possible by a National Science Foundation grant. The program has been successful corps, she became the first U.S. woman in launching a weekly science podcast, associated website and interactive online to walk in space in 1984. Six years later, science discussions with expert hosts. • The Board of Directors initiated the launch of a new networking opportunity with Sullivan was part of the shuttle mission that a Sigma Xi community on the ResearchGATE platform. ResearchGATE is a rapidly deployed the Hubble Space Telescope. growing community of scientists and engineers in over 200 countries. The value of She served as an officer in the the network lies in the potential to encourage greater communication and research U.S. Naval Reserve with the rank of Captain collaboration among Sigma Xi members in North America and around the world. • The National Academy of Sciences has once again renewed its contract with Sigma Xi to and as chief scientist for the National Oceanic distribute a special pool of NAS funds through our Grants-in-Aid of Research program. and Atmospheric Administration. This marks the 26th year of this collaboration. Since 1922, the Society has awarded small After leaving NASA, Sullivan served as grants to more than 30,000 undergraduate and graduate student researchers. president and CEO of the COSI Columbus, • The Science in the News e-newsletter has proven to be a popular free subscription for members and non-members. Subscribers tell us that the daily newsletter is a an interactive science center in Columbus, valuable time-saver that helps them keep up with developments in science and Ohio. She currently serves as director for The technology reported in the mainstream media. Ohio State University’s Battelle Center for • A special group of advisors met last June to discuss ethical issues related to peer review Mathematics and Science Education Policy and authorship. Insights shared at the summit will help shape Sigma Xi’s proposed new and as a volunteer science advisor to COSI. ethics training initiatives. We are interested in developing a companion publication to our ethical guidebooks Honor in Science (1984) and The Responsible Researcher: Paths She was appointed to the National Science and Pitfalls (1999). In anticipation of celebrating our 125th anniversary at the 2011 Board by President Bush in 2004. annual conference, we have selected ethics as a theme for the year. In 2004, Sullivan was inducted into the Finally, Sigma Xi members are committed to improving the human condition Astronaut Hall of Fame. In 2009, Sullivan was through their positions as engineers and scientists. The value of membership should elected to a three-year term as the Chair of the never be equated with the “fast-food value”— where the value of a membership lasts Section on General Interest in Science and about as long as it takes to consume a hamburger or burrito. Let’s make what we have go further by fostering integrity in research, enhancing the health of the research Engineering for the American Association for enterprise and promoting the public’s understanding of science. Let’s move forward the Advancement of Science (AAAS). through the remainder of 2011 with vigor and enthusiasm for our Society. Sullivan is an adjunct professor of geology Jerome F. Baker (continued on page 272) www.sigmaxi.org 2011 May-June 269 Sigma Xi History 1936-1961

This is the third in a series of articles about yet another committee to consider the Emphazing science in general, the Sigma Xi’s history as part of our 125th Quarterly’s future. Quarterly in 1942 became American anniversary celebration. Scientist, a name first suggested in the In 1939, the special committee urged late 1930s. he Society’s semicentennial celebration, a major redefinition of the Quarterly, held at in June 1936, recommending an increase from 200 or so Wartime support for science brought Tattracted the attention of the pages to “some 500 to 600 pages per year.” Sigma Xi to new heights. Firms that had Times, among other national press, through Further, while agreeing that “the Quarterly previously perceived research laboratories the awarding of research prizes in the physical should continue to report” Sigma Xi news, as luxuries now saw them as golden and biological sciences. Among the young the committee recommended an emphasis opportunities to attract federal dollars. members participating in the celebration were on articles presenting “recent advances in Instrument makers, chemical suppliers Isidor I. Rabi and Barbara McClintock, who the various fields of science.” and scientific publishers all advertised their both later received Nobel Prizes. products widely, and American Scientist’s To oversee the revised journal, it circulation rose to more than 35,000 in With the semicentennial’s success and recommended an editorial board and an 1947. Other aspects of Sigma Xi also improving economic conditions in the hope for independent (and salaried) editor in chief, flourished under the animated leadership the 1930s, Sigma Xi seemed ready for further authorized to commission (and pay for) of President Harlow Shapley, director of growth. In 1937 the Executive Committee “special summaries of research.” the Harvard Observatory since 1921. formed a Committee on Policy, whose report in 1938 suggested major changes for the Sigma Xi In 1941, Sigma Xi President and Yale Sigma Xi chartered its 100th chapter Quarterly, among other things. University biologist George Baitsell, was in 1948, and by 1950, it boasted about elected Society Secretary and editor in chief 42,000 active members. In 1947, a The Quarterly had grown beyond its of its journal. In assuming his new duties, group of Sigma Xi members formed the newsletter function and sometimes published Baitsell moved Sigma Xi’s offices to Yale and Scientific Research Society of America broadly interesting articles. But it had never focused his attention on the journal. From (RESA) to encourage research in govern­ had an official editor or editorial board. The 1941 on, he devoted more space than ever ment and industrial laboratories, in the Society Secretary simply assembled material before to articles of general scientific interest. same way that Sigma Xi encouraged submitted by members and chapters. In 1943, G. Evelyn Hutchinson, a fellow research in the academic community. Some members urged expansion of the Yale biologist, began contributing personal Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Sigma Quarterly into a journal “within the field musings on different scientific topics to a Xi’s growth continued until it had more of science more or less equivalent to the regular feature called “Marginalia,” and with than doubled in size. American Scholar [published by the United his fine prose style and eye for interesting Chapters of ] in the field subjects he attracted many readers. “The American Scientist, of arts and literature.” But others disagreed, Scientist’s Book Shelf,” a book review section September-October 1986 • and the Executive Committee formed also first appeared that year.

1936 1942 1945 1947

Sigma Xi Sigma Xi J. Robert Vannevar Scientific celebrates (SX 1939) Quarterly Oppenheimer Bush’s (SX 1934) Research Society (SX 1929), Walter 50 years assembled the becomes (SX 1928) scientific “Science—the of America Brattain (SX 1925) first artificial American director of the Endless Frontier” (RESA) founded and William (chapters later became Scientist “ Project” letter appears Sigma Xi chapters) Shockley (SX 1932) invent the 5O first

270 New Sigma Xi Chapters •1936-1962 Carnegie-Mellon Univ. Amherst College Univ. of NH Southern Indiana Tech Univ. LCA Research n u George Washington Univ. Auburn Univ. Univ. of NM Univ. of Univ. of MA-Lowell Univ. Oregon State Univ. Brigham Young Univ. Univ. of TX Med. Branch Vassar College Boeing NA SUNY at Stony Brook Univ. of Utah Butler-Indianapolis n Atlanta Univ. Ctr. Ventura County n Eckerd College Univ. of LA at Monroe Univ.-TX Med. Ctr. CA State Univ.-Fresno CA Polytechnic State Wooster Ohio Ford Motor Company n Tidewater Virginia

Univ. of Florida CDC n Univ. Univ. of The South Univ. of MA China Lake n Florida State Univ. Claremont Colleges Ohio Univ. n Whitman College-Walla Wellesley College Montana State Univ. Hughes Labs. Hollins Univ. South Dakota State Univ. Walla Univ. Univ. of Alabama Naval Research Lab.- Louisville Jacksonville Univ. of New Orleans n s n n RESA Chapter West Virginia Univ. Edison Univ. of LA at Lafayette Marquette Univ. Univ. of PR at Mayaguez u Disbanded Univ. of Southern CA Univ. of Denver Univ. of North Texas NM Highlands Univ. Ball State Univ. s u Now part of Greater Virginia Tech Univ. Univ. of Tennessee College Olin n CA State Univ.-Hayward New Orleans n Bryn Mawr College Albany Humboldt State Univ. Portland State Univ. u Central Michigan l Now part of Univ. of WI n u Oberlin College G. E. Lab. Loyola Univ. San Fran. State Univ. Hartford n NY Univ. College of Texas Womans Univ. u Illinois Inst. of Tech. n IL State Univ./IL Dentistry Univ. of MN at Duluth Wesleyan Univ. Texas A & M Univ. Univ. of TN Memphis Louisiana State Univ. Alamo Alaska Utah State Univ. Alfred Univ. American Univ. of Beirut Sigma Xi Nobel Laureates n Polytechnic/SUNY Old Argonne National Lab. Army Research Lab. Westbury Boston Univ. (ARL) 1957 Chen Ning Yang Tufts Univ. Columbia-Willamette Chesapeake n 1946 John H. Northrop 1959 n 1946 James B. Sumner 1959 Emilio G. Segrè Depauw-Wabash DuPont Denison Univ. n u 1948 1960 Donald A. Glaser Emory Univ. Franklin Research Ctr. Howard Univ. 1949 William F. Giauque 1961 NC State Univ. Hanscom Natick n 1951 Edwin M. McMillan or Saint Louis Univ. City New State Univ. 1951 Glenn T. Seaborg n u n 1943 Vanderbilt Univ. Texaco Research Ctr. New Orleans 1954 1943 Edward A. Doisy Wayne State Univ. Triple Cities New York Ohio Wesleyan Univ. 1955 1944 Abbott Laboratories Univ. of Notre Dame Southern Univ. 1959 Jaroslav Heyrovsky n 1944 Herbert S. Gasser Catholic Univ. of Alcoa Univ. of AL-Birmingham 1960 Willard F. Libby 1946 Hermann J. Muller America Colorado State Univ. Univ. of South Dakota 1961 1947 Carl Cori Univ. of TX SW Med. Georgia Inst. of Tech. CA State Univ.-Chico Peace 1947 Ctr. n GTE Labs. Fordham Univ. 1962 Linus Pauling 1950 Philip S. Hench Univ. of Connecticut n s M.W. Kellogg Drake Univ. 1950 Edward C. Kendall Corning Inc. l Beloit College Gulf Coast 1937 1951 Max Theiler Univ. of Georgia n Rollins College Midland u 1938 Enrico Fermi 1952 Selman A. Waksman Vermont n San Jose State Univ. Monsanto Science u 1939 1953 Fritz Lipmann Lynchburg Tuskegee Univ. Naval Postgraduate 1943 1954 John F. Enders Socony Mobil u Univ. of AK-Fayetteville School 1944 1954 Frederick C. Robbins Rockford College Univ. of RI Rockefeller Univ. 1945 1954 Thomas H. Weller Univ. of CA-Davis u Brooklyn College Saint John’s Univ. 1946 Percy W. Bridgman 1956 Dickinson W. Richards Univ. of Hawaii 1958 Franklin & Marshall Tahoma 1952 San Diego College Univ. of SC 1952 E. M. Purcell 1958 TN A & I Fisk-Meharry Lamar Univ. Adelphi Univ. u 1955 1958 1959 Univ. of Maine Univ. of Redlands u Villanova Univ. 1955 Willis E. Lamb n 1956 John Bardeen 1961 Georg von Békésy Frederick Lever Research Ctr. u Andrews-Whirlpool 1956 Walter H. Brattain 1962 Oklahoma State Univ. MO Univ. of S&T Knox College n 1956 William B. Shockley 1962 Roche Research Oak Ridge n Nalco Chemical n Temple Univ. Stevens Inst. of Tech. Northern Westchester n

1948 1952 1953

100th Sigma Xi Grace Hopper Jonas Salk Francis Crick (SX chapter was (SX1934) (SX 1945) 1954) and James chartered developed the developed Watson (SX 1959) first compiler polio vaccine discovered the for a structure of DNA language

The National Amundsen- The first Science Scott South communications Foundation Pole Station satellite, Echo 1, is created established is launched

1950 1957 1960 www.sigmaxi.org 2011 May-June 271 McGovern Award U.S. Rep. David Price Named (continued on page 296) Honorary Sigma Xi Member at The Ohio State University and a Fellow Congressman David He is a recipient of the of the AAAS and the American Institute of U.S.Price (D-North American Political Science Astronautics and Aeronautics. A Sigma Xi Carolina) will be inducted as an Association’s Hubert H. member since 1989, she is also a member honorary member of Sigma Xi Humphrey Public Service of the Woods Hole Oceanographic at the Society’s annual meeting Award and also has been Institution, the Explorers Club, the Society next November in Raleigh, recognized by Voices for of Woman Geographers and Association North Carolina. AmeriCorps, the NC of Space Explorers. Low-Income Housing Beginning in 1983, Coalition, the NC Public She has been awarded honorary degrees distinguished individuals not Transportation Association, by five universities. Her honors include otherwise eligible for membership in the Association of Community the Aviation Week & Space Technology Sigma Xi, who have served science, or College Trustees, the National Aerospace Legend Award; Astronaut Hall the Society, in a manner or to a degree Association of Land-Grant Colleges of Fame; and the Public Service Award that merits such recognition, have been and State Universities, and other from the National Science Board, in elected honorary life members by the organizations for his work in housing, Board of Directors. recognition of lifelong commitment to education, and transportation policy. science education. Price was named a “Champion of Science” Before going to Congress in 1987, She has also received the Juliette Award by the Science Coalition, a non-profit, Price was a professor of political for National Women of Distinction, nonpartisan organization of 50 of the leading science and public policy at Duke Girl Scouts USA; the Lone Sailor Award, public and private research universities in University. He is the author of four U.S. Navy Memorial Foundation; NASA the U.S. The North Carolina chapter of the books on Congress and the American Medal for Outstanding Leadership; AIAA Club has also recognized him as their political system. Haley Space Flight Award; AAS Space “Legislator of the Year.” Flight Achievement Award; and the Born in 1940, Price grew up in Among other accomplishments, Price National Air and Space Museum Trophy, the small town of Erwin in eastern authored a bill to establish the National Tennessee. His father was a high Smithsonian Institution. Science Foundation’s Advanced Techno­ school principal, and his mother was In January 2011, Sullivan was nomi­ logical Education program, which helps an English teacher. nated by President to be community colleges upgrade their an assistant secretary of commerce. • training programs for jobs in high-tech Price was a Morehead Scholar at fields. From his position on the Appropri­- the University of North Carolina at ations Committee, he supported the Chapel Hill. He earned his B.A. in effort to double funding for the National 1961 and continued his education Institutes of Health over five years and at , where he received has pressed for a similar boost to the a Bachelor of Divinity degree and a National Science Foundation. Ph.D. in political science. •

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