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The ChronoZoom Atlas of and

by

Walter Álvarez • Roland Saekow • David H. Shimabukuro Mark A. Richards • Alexis Ajello

Department of Earth and Planetary , and University of Museum of University of California, Berkeley 2019

© Walter Álvarez, 2019 Introduction to The ChronoZoom Time Atlas of Earth History and Big History ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡʹͲͳͻ  Dz ‹•–‘”›dz‹• ‘‘Ž›–Š‘—‰Š–‘ˆƒ•–Š‡™”‹––‡ ˆ–‡”ƒ†‹• —••‹‘‘ˆ–Š‹•’”‘„Ž‡‹–Š‡‡”‡Ž‡› ‹•–Š‡‘•‘•’ƒ‡Žǡ„‡‰‹‹‰ƒ––Š‡‹‰ƒ‰ǡͳ͵Ǥͺ ”‡ ‘”†‘ˆŠ—ƒƒ –‹˜‹–‹‡•ǡ„—–‹–Š‡Žƒ•–ˆ‡™†‡ ƒ†‡•ǡ ‹‰ ‹•–‘”› Žƒ•• ‹ ʹͲͲͻǡ ‘Žƒ†ǡ –Š‡ ‘‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ „‹ŽŽ‹‘›‡ƒ”•ƒ‰‘Ǥ scientific Š‹•–‘”‹ƒ• Šƒ˜‡ †‹• ‘˜‡”‡† ƒ ‡‘”‘—• •–—†‡–•ǡ •—‰‰‡•–‡† ’‘”–”ƒ›‹‰ †‡‡’ –‹‡ —•‹‰ Š‡’Žƒˆ‘”–Š‡’ƒ‡Ž•‹••Š‘™‘–Š‡”‹‰Š–‘ˆ ƒ‘—– ‘ˆ ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ„‘—– –Š‡ ’ƒ•–ǡ „‡ˆ‘”‡ –Š‡ ‘’—–‡”Ǧœ‘‘ –‡ Š‘Ž‘‰›Ǥ  ‹• ‹‹–‹ƒŽ ’”‘‘ˆ ‘ˆ –Š‡‡š–’ƒ‰‡ǡƒ•ƒ‰”ƒ’Š‹ ƒŽ‹†‡šǤ –‹•†”ƒ™‘ƒ ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ ‡ ‘ˆ ™”‹–‹‰Ǥ  ‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–• ƒ† ‘ ‡’–ǡ’”‡•‡–‡†–‘–Š‡ Žƒ••ǡ™ƒ••‘•— ‡••ˆ—Ž–Šƒ– Ž‘‰ƒ”‹–Š‹  • ƒŽ‡ǡ ˆ‘” ‘Ž› ‹ –Šƒ– ™ƒ› ƒ ƒŽŽ –Š‡ ’ƒŽ‡‘–‘Ž‘‰‹•–• Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ ˜‡”› •— ‡••ˆ—Ž ‹ Š‡„‡‰ƒ™‘”‹‰™‹–ŠƒŽ–‡”ƒ†ƒ˜‹†ǡŽ‡ƒ†‹‰–Š‡ ’ƒ‡Ž•„‡•Š‘™Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡƒŽŽ„—–‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡’ƒ‡Ž• †‘ —‡–‹‰ ƒ”–Š ƒ† Ž‹ˆ‡ Š‹•–‘”› ‹ ‰”‡ƒ– †‡–ƒ‹Žǡ ‡ˆˆ‘”––‘†‡˜‡Ž‘’™Šƒ– ƒ‡–‘„‡ ƒŽŽ‡†Š”‘‘‘‘Ǥ ƒ”‡ ’”‡•‡–‡† ‘ Ž‹‡ƒ” –‹‡ • ƒŽ‡•ǡ ™Š‹ Š ‹• –Š‡ ƒ† — Š ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‹• ‘™ ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ ƒŽ•‘ ˆ”‘ ‹ ”‘•‘ˆ–‰‘–‹–‡”‡•–‡†‹–Š‡’”‘Œ‡ –ǡ•—’’‘”–‹‰–Š‡ ™Š‘Ž‡’‘‹–‘ˆŠ”‘‘‘‘Ȅ–‘‰‹˜‡ƒ—†‹•–‘”–‡† ƒ” Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰›ǡ ‘Ž‡ —Žƒ” „‹‘Ž‘‰›ǡ ƒ•–”‘‘›ǡ ƒ† ‡”‡Ž‡› †‡•‹‰ –‡ƒ ƒ† †‡˜‡Ž‘’‹‰ –Š‡ ‘†‡Ǥ   ‰”ƒ’Š‹ ƒŽ ”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’ƒ•–Ǥ  Š‡ ‘Ž› ‘•‘Ž‘‰›ǤDz‹‰ ‹•–‘”›dz‹•–Š‡ —””‡–Ž›ƒ –‹˜‡‡ˆˆ‘”– ˆ‹”•– ˜‡”•‹‘ǡ Š”‘‘‘‘Ǧͳǡ ™ƒ• †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡† „› ‡š ‡’–‹‘ –‘ –Š‡ Ž‹‡ƒ” ’ƒ‡Ž• ‹• ƒ‡Ž Ͳǡ ™Š‹ Š –‘„”‹‰–‘‰‡–Š‡”‹ƒ—‹ˆ‹‡†™ƒ›ƒŽŽ‘ˆ–Š‡ ‹ ”‘•‘ˆ– ‹˜‡ ƒ„•ǡ ƒ† ƒ •‡ ‘† ˜‡”•‹‘ǡ ’‘”–”ƒ›•–Š‡‹‰ƒ‰ǡƒ†‹ˆƒ –ǡƒŽŽ‘ˆ‹‰ ‹•–‘”›Ǥ ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ„‘—– –Š‡ ’ƒ•–ǡ „‘–Š Š—ƒ‹•–‹  ƒ† Š”‘‘‘‘Ǧʹǡ „› ‹ ”‘•‘ˆ– ‡•‡ƒ” Šǡ ™‹–Š ‘Žƒ† Š‡‹‰ƒ‰ ‘˜‡”•–‹‡„ƒ –‘ͳͲǦͶ͵•‡ ‘†•ƒˆ–‡” • ‹‡–‹ˆ‹ Ǥ Ž‡ƒ†‹‰ –Š‡ †‡•‹‰ ™‘”Ǥ  Š‹• –Š‹”† ˜‡”•‹‘ǡ Dz–Š‡ „‡‰‹‹‰ǡdz ƒ† –‘ •Š‘™ –Šƒ– ƒ› ‘”†‡”• ‘ˆ ‘—†‡†„›ƒ˜‹†Š”‹•–‹ƒͳƒ† ”‡†’‹‡”ǡʹ‹‰ Š”‘‘‘‘Ǧ͵ǡ —•‡• ’ƒ‡Ž• †”ƒ™ „› ƒŽ–‡”ǡ ƒ† ƒ‰‹–—†‡ ‘ Ž‹‡ƒ” ’ƒ‡Ž• ™‘—Ž† ”‡“—‹”‡ ƒ ˜‡”› ‹•–‘”› ƒ‹• –‘ „”‡ƒ ‘—– ‘ˆ –Š‡ •’‡ ‹ƒŽ‹œƒ–‹‘ ™ƒ•–‡•–‡†‹ƒ ‘—”•‡‹ ‹•–‘”›ƒ†˜‘Ž—–‹‘‘ˆ Žƒ”‰‡—„‡”‘ˆ‘•–Ž›Ǧ‡’–›†”ƒ™‹‰•ǢƒŽ‘‰’Ž‘–‹• Šƒ”ƒ –‡”‹•–‹  ‘ˆ ‘•– Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ ™”‹–‹‰ƒ† •‡‡–Š‡ Žƒ‡– ƒ”–Š ȋ ͳͲʹȌ –ƒ—‰Š– „› ƒ”ǡ ™‹–Š Ž‡š‹• –Š‡‘Ž›”‡ƒ•‘ƒ„Ž‡•‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ‘˜‡‹‡–Ž›ǡƒˆ–‡”–Š‡ ’ƒ•–ƒ•ƒ—‹ˆ‹‡†ˆ‹‡Ž†‘ˆ•–—†›Ǥ –‹•‘™–ƒ—‰Š–ƒ–ƒ ƒ† ‘Žƒ† ”‡•’‘•‹„Ž‡ ˆ‘” — Š ‘ˆ –Š‡ †‡•‹‰ ƒ† ‘•‘•’ƒ‡Žǡ–Š‡”‡ƒ”‡–Š”‡‡’ƒ‡Ž•–Šƒ–•Š‘™ƒ”–Š —„‡”‘ˆŠ‹‰Š• Š‘‘Ž•ǡ ‘ŽŽ‡‰‡•ƒ†—‹˜‡”•‹–‹‡•ǡƒ† ‘†‹‰Ǥ ƒ† Ž‹ˆ‡ Š‹•–‘”›ǡ –Š”‡‡ ‘”‡ ‘˜‡”‹‰ ’”‡ǦŽ‹–‡”ƒ–‡ Šƒ•ƒ‰”‘™‹‰Ž‹–‡”ƒ–—”‡ǡƒ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‹‰ ‹•–‘”› Š”‘‘‘‘Ǧͳǡ ’”‡’ƒ”‡† “—‹ Ž› ˆ‘” ƒ ’—„Ž‹  Š—ƒ Š‹•–‘”›ǡ ƒ† –Š‡ –Š”‡‡ ‘”‡ •‹ ‡ –Š‡ ••‘ ‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ ƒ† ƒ Journal of Big HistoryǤŠ‡‹‰ Ž‡ –—”‡ǡ͵ •‹’Ž› ‹ Ž—†‡† ‰”ƒ’Š‹  ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‹˜‡–‹‘ ‘ˆ ™”‹–‹‰Ǥ  ‘” –Š‡ Žƒ•– –Š”‡‡ ’ƒ‡Ž•ǡ ‹•–‘”› ”‘Œ‡ – ‘ˆ ƒ˜‹† Š”‹•–‹ƒ ƒ† ‹ŽŽ ƒ–‡• ‹• ”‡Ž‡˜ƒ– –‘ –Š‡ Ž‡ –—”‡Ǥ  Š‡ •‡ ‘† ˜‡”•‹‘ Šƒ† ƒ ‘˜‡”‹‰ Ž‹–‡”ƒ–‡ Š—ƒ Š‹•–‘”›ǡ ‘Ž› •‘‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‹‰ ‹‰ ‹•–‘”› ƒ• –Š‡ ‡–‡”’‹‡ ‡ ˆ‘” ͻ–ŠǦ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‰‘ƒŽȄ‹–™ƒ•‹–‡†‡†–‘„‡ ”‘™†•‘—” ‡† „ƒ ‰”‘—†‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ƒ„‘—–Š—ƒ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ ‰”ƒ†‡ ‡†— ƒ–‹‘ǡ –‘ –ƒ‡ ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹–‡•‡ Ž‹‡‹‹’‡†‹ƒǡ–‘ „‡ ’‘’—Žƒ–‡†™‹–Š‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘„› ƒ†ƒ–—”ƒŽ†‹•ƒ•–‡”•‹••Š‘™Ǥ —ƒŠ‹•–‘”›‹•–‘‘ ‡š ‹–‡‡– –Š‹• ƒ’’”‘ƒ Š –‘ Š‹•–‘”› „”‹‰• –‘ ƒ›‘‡ ™Š‘ ™ƒ–‡† –‘ ’ƒ”–‹ ‹’ƒ–‡ǡ ƒ† ‹• ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ ‘’Ž‹ ƒ–‡† ƒ† †‡–ƒ‹Ž‡† –‘ „‡ ’‘”–”ƒ›‡† Š‡”‡ǡ •‘ •–—†‡–•ǡ™Š‹ ŠƒŽŽ™Š‘Šƒ˜‡–ƒ—‰Š–‹–Šƒ˜‡‘„•‡”˜‡†Ǥ ‘ǦŽ‹‡ ˆ‘” ‹–‡”‡•–‡† —•‡”•ǤͶ  Š‡ —””‡– ˜‡”•‹‘ǡ —•‡”•ƒ›™‹•Š–‘’”‹–‘—––Š‡’ƒ‡Ž•ƒ††”ƒ™‹ ‘‰ –Š‡ ’”‡•‡– ƒ—–Š‘”•ǡ ƒŽ–‡” ƒ† ƒ˜‹† Š”‘‘‘‘Ǧ͵ǡ ‹• †‡•‹‰‡† –‘ „‡ ƒ –‡ƒ Š‹‰ ƒ† –Š‡Š‹•–‘”›–Šƒ–‹–‡”‡•–•–Š‡Ǥ †‡ˆ‹‹–‡Ž› ‘„•‡”˜‡† –Š‹• ‡š ‹–‡‡– ™Š‹Ž‡ –‡ƒ Š‹‰ ”‡ˆ‡”‡ ‡–‘‘Žǡ•‘–Š‡‰”ƒ’Š‹ ƒŽ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘Šƒ•„‡‡ ‹ƒŽŽ›ǡ –Š‡”‡ ‹• ƒ ‘†ƒ ‘ˆ –™‘ ‘”‡ ’ƒ‡Ž•ǡ ‘– ‹‰ ‹•–‘”›ƒ–‡”‡Ž‡›Ǥ •‡Ž‡ –‡†–‘ ‘˜‡›ƒ Ž‡ƒ”’‹ –—”‡‘ˆƒŒ‘”ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡•‘ˆ •Š‘™‹‰ — Š ‘ˆ Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ ‹–‡”‡•–ǡ „—– ‹ Ž—†‡† ‹ ‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’”‘„Ž‡• ˆ‘” ƒ›‘‡ –‡ƒ Š‹‰ ƒ”–Š ƒ”–ŠŠ‹•–‘”›ƒ†‹‰ ‹•–‘”›Ǥ ‘”†‡”–‘–ƒ‡–Š‡œ‘‘ƒŽŽ–Š‡™ƒ›†‘™–‘‘‡†ƒ›ǡ Š‹•–‘”› ‘” ‹‰ ‹•–‘”› ‹• Š‘™ –‘ ‰‡– –Š‡ •–—†‡–• –‘ Š‡ ˆ‹”•– –™‘ ˜‡”•‹‘• ‘ˆ Š”‘‘‘‘ ™‡”‡ ƒ‰ƒ‹ ˆ‘” ’‡”•‘ƒŽ —•‡Ǥ  ”‘ ‘‡ †ƒ› –‘ –Š‡ ‡–‹”‡ ‘’”‡Š‡†–Š‡–‹‡• ƒŽ‡•Ǥ–—†‡–••‘‘ ‘‡–‘ †‡•‹‰‡† ˆ‘” ‘–‹—‘—• œ‘‘‹‰Ǣ –Š‹• ‡™ ‘‡ ‹• †—”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‹˜‡”•‡‹•ƒœ‘‘ˆƒ –‘”‘ˆͷ–”‹ŽŽ‹‘Ǥ —†‡”•–ƒ† –Šƒ– ƒ”–Š Š‹•–‘”›ǡ „ƒ  –‘ ƒ„‘—– ͷǡͲͲͲ „ƒ•‡† ‘ ƒ„‘—– ƒ †‘œ‡ ‰”ƒ’Š‹ ƒŽ ƒ‡Ž•ǡ ‡ƒ Š ‘ˆ Š‡ Žƒ•– –™‘ –‡š– ’ƒ‰‡• ƒ”‡ †‡˜‘–‡† –‘ ƒ ‹† ‘ˆ ‹ŽŽ‹‘›‡ƒ”•ƒ‰‘ǡ‹•ƒ„‘—–ƒ‹ŽŽ‹‘–‹‡•Ž‘‰‡”–Šƒ ™Š‹ Š ƒ „‡ ‡šƒ‹‡† ‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽŽ›ǡ „—– ™Š‹ Š ƒ •—ƒ”›ǡˆ‹”•–†‹• —••‹‰–Š‡‘”‹‰‹‘ˆ–Š‡†ƒ–‹‰–Šƒ– ™”‹––‡ Š—ƒ Š‹•–‘”›ǡ ‰‘‹‰ „ƒ  –‘ ƒ„‘—– ͷǡͲͲͲ ƒŽ•‘ „‡ –Š‘—‰Š– ‘ˆƒ•ƒ œ‘‘ƒ„Ž‡ •‡“—‡ ‡Ǥ  ƒ˜‹‰ Ž‹‡• „‡Š‹† –Š‡ Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ •›–Š‡•‹• ’”‡•‡–‡† ‹ ›‡ƒ”•ƒ‰‘ǡ•‘–Šƒ––Š‡„ƒ•‹ –‹‡—‹–ˆ‘”‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–•‹• –Š‡ œ‘‘ •‡‰‡–‡† „› –Š‡ ’ƒ‡Ž• Š‡Ž’• –Š‡ —•‡” Š”‘‘‘‘ǡƒ†–Š‡ ‘•‹†‡”‹‰–Š‡ƒ–—”‡‘ˆŠ‹•Ǧ Dz‹ŽŽ‹‘Ǧ›‡ƒ”•Ǥdz—–‹–‹•— Š‘”‡†‹ˆˆ‹ —Ž–ˆ‘”–Š‡ ƒ˜‘‹†‰‡––‹‰Ž‘•–‹™Šƒ–•‡‡•ƒ™‹Ž†‡”‡••‘ˆ–‹‡Ǥ –‘”›ǡƒ†Š‘™‹–• Šƒ”ƒ –‡”‹‰Š–„‡—†‡”•–‘‘†Ǥ –‘™”ƒ’–Š‡‹”‹†•ƒ”‘—† –Š‡concept‘ˆƒ‹ŽŽ‹‘ Š‡’ƒ‡Ž• ‘˜‡”‹–‡”˜ƒŽ•‘ˆ–‹‡–Šƒ–†‹ˆˆ‡”„›ƒ„‘—– ƒ Š ’ƒ‡Ž ‹• ƒ ‘’ƒ‹‡† „› ƒ ’ƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ –‡š–ǡ ›‡ƒ”•ǡ ‘” ͷǡͲͲͲ ‹ŽŽ‹‘ ›‡ƒ”•Ǥ   ˆƒ –ǡ ‹– ‹• ’”‘„ƒ„Ž› ƒ ˆƒ –‘” ‘ˆ –‡ǡ „—– ”ƒ–Š‡” –Šƒ ”‹‰‹†ǡ ‘”†‡”Ǧ‘ˆǦ †‹• —••‹‰–Š‡Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽˆ‡ƒ–—”‡••Š‘™‹–Š‡’ƒ‡ŽǤ ‹’‘••‹„Ž‡ˆ‘”anyone–‘†‘–Š‹•Žǡ‰‹˜‡‘—”Ž‹ˆ‡–‹‡• ƒ‰‹–—†‡ •‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ ‡ƒ Š ’ƒ‡Ž „‡‰‹• ƒ– ƒ Š‡ Žƒ›‘—– ‘ˆ –Š‹• ˜‡”•‹‘ ‘ˆ Š”‘‘‘‘ ™ƒ• ‘ˆ‘– — Š‘”‡ –Šƒ ƒ ‡–—”›Ǥ  ‹ƒ‰”ƒ• †‘ ‘– •‹‰‹ˆ‹ ƒ– †ƒ–‡ ‹ Š‹•–‘”›Ǥ  ‹ ‡ ƒ› •‹‰‹ˆ‹ ƒ– ‹•’‹”‡† „› –Š‡ Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ ƒ–Žƒ•‡• ‘ˆ‘Ž‹  ˜‡†›ǡͷ Š‡Ž’— Šǡˆ‘”‘ƒŽ‹‡ƒ”†‹ƒ‰”ƒǡŠ—ƒŠ‹•–‘”›‹• †ƒ–‡• ‹ ‹‰ ‹•–‘”› „‡‰‹ ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‡Ž› ™‹–Š –Š‡ ƒ† ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ Š‹• †‡•‹‰ǡ ƒ› „‡ „‡•– ˜‹‡™‡† ‘ ƒ ‹˜‹•‹„Ž› „”‹‡ˆǡ ™Š‹Ž‡ ƒ Ž‘‰ƒ”‹–Š‹  • ƒŽ‡ǡ ƒŽ–Š‘—‰Š —„‡”Dzͷǡdz–Š‹•‹•–ƒ‡ƒ•”‘—‰ŠŽ›–Š‡„‡‰‹‹‰–Š‡ ‘’—–‡”ƒ† ‡š–‡”ƒŽ ‘‹–‘”ǡ ’Žƒ ‡† •‹†‡ „› •‹†‡Ǥ ‡š’ƒ†‹‰ Š—ƒ Š‹•–‘”›ǡ †‹•–‘”–• –Š‡ –‹‡ • ƒŽ‡ •‘ †ƒ–‡ˆ‘”–Š‡•–ƒ”–‘ˆ‡ƒ Š’ƒ‡ŽǤŠ‡ƒ‹‡š ‡’–‹‘ Š‡ˆ—ŽŽ ‘ˆ–Š‡Š”‘‘‘‘‹‡–Žƒ• ƒƒŽ•‘ — Šƒ•–‘ƒ‡‹– ‘’Ž‡–‡Ž›‹•Ž‡ƒ†‹‰Ǥ „‡’”‹–‡†‘—–‹„‘‘ˆ‘”Ǥ © 2019 Walter Álvarez

All history on a linear scale ChronoZoom Graphical Index (logarithmic)

Cosmic history Panels

Earth history logarithmic scale 0 All - and Big History (Log plot) 13.8 Ga 1 (13.8 Ga to now)

Life history ( = 2000 A.D.) 4.567 Ga 2 Earth and (4.567 Ga to now) history (thickness greatly exaggerated) The Big Bang The “Now” “Now” 541 Ma 3 – Abundant (541 Ma to now) (beginning of time) Earth 4 of (66 Ma to now) 13.8 10 5 0 and 66 Ma billion ago (Ga) Life 5.33 Ma 5 Plio-Pleisto – Rise of humanity (5.33 Ma to now) On a linear scale, , whether written history or genus Homo, is reduced to invisibility, and most of the is taken up by 780 ka 6 Brunhes normal and (780 ka to now) pre-Earth Cosmic history, for which little information is availble. Pre-literate humanity 60 ka 7 Out of (60 ka to now)

All history on a logarithmic scale 3500 B.C. 8 and (3500 B.C. to now) Cosmos Literate 1400 A.D. 9 Global reconnection (1400 A.D. to now) humanity 1945 10 Post War II (1945 to now) Earth 1995 11 Sunset of the Millenium (1995 to now) Origin of the Origin (13.8 Ga) of the Formation Earth (4.567 Ga) Chicxulub impact and mass extinction (66 Ma) out of (~ 60 ka)Africa Global reconnection of Humanity (1492) II War World End of (1945 )

(= ”Now”) on a log scale log a on ”Now”) (= Humanity 1999.5 12 ’s end (1999.5 to now) no time zero no is there problem: A before this 10 1 100 10 1 100 10 1 100 10 1 10 1 100 10 1 100 10 1 100 10 1 billion million thousand A.D. = C.E. billion million thousand years ago years ago years ago years ago B.C. = B.C.E. years ago years ago years ago years ago (Ga) (Ma) (ka) (Ga) (Ma) (ka)

A logarithmic scale is badly distorted (it looks like all Cosmic history Neither a linear scale nor a logarithmic scale is satisfactory for portraying all of history. The before Earth formed was briefer than from Columbus to World War II), solution adopted in ChronoZoom is to use 12 linear time lines, each covering about 10% of the and there can be no zero on the horizontal scale. previous one, as shown in this index. A problem is that details are available only for recent . Panel 0: Big-Bang and Cosmos, on a logarithmic time scale (13.8 Ga to now) ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡʹͲͳͻ  Š‹• ’ƒ‡Ž •Š‘™• –Š‡ ˜‡”› ‡ƒ”Ž› Š‹•–‘”› ‘ˆ –Š‡ ȋʹȌ Š‡ ‘•‘• ‹• ’‡”˜ƒ†‡† „› –Š‡ ‘•‹  Šƒ˜‡ƒ‰‹ˆ‹‡†‹‹–‹ƒŽ“—ƒ–—ˆŽ— –—ƒ–‹‘•‹–‘–Š‡ ‹˜‡”•‡Ǥ  —– –‘ †‘ –Š‹•ǡ ‹– ‹• ‡ ‡••ƒ”› –‘ †‡’ƒ”– ‹ ”‘™ƒ˜‡ „ƒ ‰”‘—† ȋȌ ”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‘ (E)ǡ ƒ Ž—’‹‰™‡•‡‡–‘†ƒ›Ǥ ˆ”‘ –Š‡ „ƒ•‹  Š”‘‘‘‘ ƒ’’”‘ƒ Šǡ ™Š‹ Š ‹• –‘ ‹–‡•‡ ˆŽƒ•Š ‘ˆ Ž‹‰Š– –Šƒ– ™ƒ• ”‡Ž‡ƒ•‡† ™Š‡ • –Š‡ ‹‹–‹ƒŽŽ› –‹› ‹˜‡”•‡ ‘‘Ž‡†ǡ ‹– ™‡– •Š‘™’ƒ‡Ž•™‹–ŠŽ‹‡ƒ”–‹‡• ƒŽ‡•ǤŠ‡’”‘„Ž‡‹• ‡Ž‡ –”‘• ‘„‹‡† ™‹–Šƒ–‘‹  — Ž‡‹–‘ ˆ‘”–Š‡ ˆ”‘ ‘†‹–‹‘•–‘‘Š‘–ˆ‘”ƒ›ƒ––‡”–‘‡š‹•–ǡ‹–‘ –Šƒ––Š‡—ˆ‘Ž†‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡‹‰ƒ‰Šƒ•„‡‡ ˆ‹”•– ƒ–‘•ǡ ”‡†‡”‹‰ –Š‡ ‘•‘• –”ƒ•’ƒ”‡– ˆ‘” ‘‘Ž‡” ȋ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡Ž› •’‡ƒ‹‰ǨȌ ‘†‹–‹‘• ‹ ™Š‹ Š ƒŽ —Žƒ–‡†ƒŽŽ–Š‡™ƒ›„ƒ –‘–Š‡Žƒ –‹‡ǡͳͲǦͶ͵ –Š‡ ˆ‹”•––‹‡ǡ Œ—•–ƒ• –Š‡ ‹‰ ƒ‰ –Š‡‘”› ’”‡†‹ –•Ǥ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ‹†• ‘ˆ ƒ––‡” •— ‡••‹˜‡Ž› ƒ’’‡ƒ”‡†Ǥ •‡ ‘†•ƒˆ–‡”Dz–Š‡‡‰‹‹‰dz(A)Ǥ‘•Š‘™–Š‡‹‰ Š‡ǡ‘™•–”‡– Š‡†‹–‘”ƒ†‹‘™ƒ˜‡•„› ‘•‹  ‘•‘Ž‘‰‹•–•†‹˜‹†‡–Š‡•‡“—‡ ‡‘ˆ ‘†‹–‹‘•‹–‘ ƒ‰ ™‹–Š Ž‹‡ƒ” Š”‘‘‘‘ †”ƒ™‹‰• ™‘—Ž† ‡š’ƒ•‹‘ǡ ™ƒ• †‹• ‘˜‡”‡† ‹ ͳͻ͸Ͷǡ ƒ† Šƒ• •‹ ‡ •‹š Dz‡’‘ Š•dz Ȅ ƒ ƒ—•‹‰ ™‘”†ǡ •‹ ‡ –Š‡ ˆ‹”•– ”‡“—‹”‡ Ͷ͸ ’ƒ‡Ž• (B)ǡ ƒ† ͸Ͳ ’ƒ‡Ž• –‘ ‰‡– –‘ –Š‡ „‡‡ƒ’’‡†‹‹ ”‡ƒ•‹‰Ž›‡š“—‹•‹–‡†‡–ƒ‹Ž„›–Š‡ –Š”‡‡Žƒ•–‡†‘Ž›–‹›ˆ”ƒ –‹‘•‘ˆƒ•‡ ‘†Ǩ—”‹‰ ˆ‹”•–•–ƒ”•(C)Ǥ‘–Š‡‘Ž›’”ƒ –‹ ƒŽ™ƒ›–‘’‘”–”ƒ› ǡǡƒ†Žƒ •ƒ–‡ŽŽ‹–‡•Ǥ –Š‡ ˆ‹”•– –™‘‡’‘ Š•‡‡”‰› ‡š‹•–‡†ǡ „—– ‘ ƒ––‡”ǡ ‡ƒ”Ž›Ǧ‹˜‡”•‡Š‹•–‘”›‹•‘ƒŽ‘‰ƒ”‹–Š‹ –‹‡• ƒŽ‡Ǥ ȋ͵ȌŠ‡‘”›’”‡†‹ –•–Šƒ–•Š‘”–Ž›ƒˆ–‡”–Š‡‡†‘ˆ ƒ†–Š‡ˆ‘—”ˆ‘” ‡•ȋ‰”ƒ˜‹–›ǡ‡Ž‡ –”‘ƒ‰‡–‹•ǡƒ† —–•‹ ‡‹–‹•‘Ž›ƒ„‘—–ʹ‘”‡ˆƒ –‘”•‘ˆ–‡‹ –Š‡ ‹‰ ƒ‰ǡ ƒ––‡” ™‘—Ž† „‡ ‘•–Ž› Š›†”‘‰‡ǡ –Š‡ •–”‘‰ ƒ† ™‡ƒ — Ž‡ƒ” ˆ‘” ‡•Ȍ ™‡”‡ ‹ ’ƒ”– –‹‡ ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ˆ‹”•– •–ƒ”• –‘ –Š‡ ’”‡•‡– †ƒ›ǡ –Š‹• ™‹–Š ƒ„‘—– ͳͲΨ Š‡Ž‹—ǡ ƒ† –”ƒ ‡• ‘ˆ Ž‹–Š‹— ȋ–Š‡ ‘„‹‡†ǤŠ‡‹‹–‹ƒŽ ”ƒ†—‹ˆ‹ ƒ–‹‘‡’‘ Š(H) †”ƒ™‹‰ ƒ•Š‘™–Š‡‡–‹”‡Š‹•–‘”›‘ˆ–Š‡‹˜‡”•‡ǡ –Š”‡‡Ž‹‰Š–‡•–‡Ž‡‡–•Ȍǡˆ‘”‡†„›— Ž‡‘•›–Š‡•‹• •ƒ™ ‘Ž› ‰”ƒ˜‹–› †‹•–‹ – ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ‘–Š‡” –Š”‡‡ ˆ”‘–Š‡Dz‡‰‹‹‰dz–‘‘™ǤŠ‹•’”‘„Ž‡ƒ†‹–• (F) „‡ˆ‘”‡ ‡š’ƒ•‹‘ ƒ””‹‡† –Š‡ ’”‘–‘• –‘‘ ˆƒ” ‘„‹‡†ˆ‘” ‡•ǡƒ†‹–Š‡•—„•‡“—‡–Ž‡ –”‘™‡ƒ •‘Ž—–‹‘’‘‹–‘—–ƒˆ—†ƒ‡–ƒŽ’ƒ”ƒ†‘š‹‹‰ ƒ’ƒ”––‘ˆ—•‡–‘‰‡–Š‡”ǤŠƒ–‹•‹†‡‡†–Š‡‘„•‡”˜‡† ‡’‘ Š (I)ǡ –Š‡ •–”‘‰ — Ž‡ƒ” ˆ‘” ‡ ƒŽ•‘ •‡’ƒ”ƒ–‡† ‹•–‘”›ǣƒŽ‹‡ƒ”–‹‡• ƒŽ‡ǡ–Š‡‹‰ƒ‰ȋ–Š‡ ‘’‘•‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘•‘• ȋ‹‰‘”‹‰ ‡Ž‡‡–• ƒ†„‡ ƒ‡†‹•–‹ –Ǥ ˆŽƒ–‹‘‘ —””‡††—”‹‰–Š‹• ˆ‹”•–͵‹—–‡•Ȍ‹•ƒ–”‹˜‹ƒŽˆ”ƒ –‹‘‘ˆ‘•‹ Š‹•–‘”›ǡ ”‡ƒ–‡† Žƒ–‡” ™‹–Š‹ •–ƒ”• Ȅ see Dz‡–ƒŽŽ‹ ‹–›dz ‹ ‡’‘ ŠǤ „—– ‘ ƒ Ž‘‰ • ƒŽ‡ǡ –Š‡ ‹‰ ƒ‰ǡ ™‹–Š Ͷͷ ‘”†‡”• ‘ˆ ƒ‡ŽͳȌǤ Š‡‡”ƒ‘ˆƒ––‡”͸„‡‰ƒ™‹–Š–Š‡—ƒ”‡’‘ Š ƒ‰‹–—†‡ǡ‹•most‘ˆ‘•‹ Š‹•–‘”›Ǩ  ‘–”ƒ•––‘–Š‡–‡ƒ†›Ǧ–ƒ–‡˜‡”•‹‘ǡ–Š‡‘™Ǧ (J)ǡ™‹–Š“—ƒ”•„‡‹‰–Š‡’ƒ”–‹ Ž‡•–Šƒ– ‘„‹‡‹ –‹Ž –Š‡ ͳͻ͸Ͳ•ǡ –Š‡ ‹‰ ƒ‰ –Š‡‘”› ˆ‘” –Š‡ ƒ ‡’–‡†‹‰ƒ‰–Š‡‘”›•Š‘™•–Šƒ––Š‡‹˜‡”•‡‹• –Š”‡‡• –‘ ƒ‡ ’”‘–‘•ǡ ‡—–”‘•ǡ ƒ† –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‡† ‘”‹‰‹ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹˜‡”•‡ ™ƒ• ‘–”‘˜‡”•‹ƒŽǡ ƒ† ‹ ƒ Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ ‘„Œ‡ –ǡ ™‹–Š ƒ †‡ˆ‹‹–‡ „‡‰‹‹‰ ‘™ Š‡ƒ˜› ’ƒ”–‹ Ž‡•Ǥ  › ƒ ‹ ”‘•‡ ‘† ƒˆ–‡” –Š‡ ‘’‡–‹–‹‘ ™‹–Š –Š‡ –‡ƒ†›Ǧ–ƒ–‡ –Š‡‘”›Ǥ  ‘–Š †ƒ–‡†ƒ–ƒ„‘—–ͳ͵Ǥͺ„‹ŽŽ‹‘›‡ƒ”•ǤʹŠ‡—‹˜‡”•‡Šƒ• •‹‰—Žƒ”‹–›–Šƒ–‹‹–‹ƒ–‡†–Š‡‹‰ƒ‰ǡ–Š‡‹˜‡”•‡ ™‡”‡‡š’Žƒƒ–‹‘•ˆ‘”–Š‡‡š’ƒ•‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ””ƒ›‘ˆ Šƒ† ƒ ’ƒ”–‹ —Žƒ” Š‹•–‘”›ǡ ™Š‹ Š ƒ•–”‘‘‡”• ƒ† Šƒ† ‘‘Ž‡† –‘ –Š‡ ’‘‹– ™Š‡”‡ ˆ”‡‡ “—ƒ”• ‘—Ž† ‰ƒŽƒš‹‡• ‹ –Š‡ ‹˜‡”•‡ǡ †‹• ‘˜‡”‡† ‹ ͳͻʹͻ „› ‘•‘Ž‘‰‹•–•ƒ”‡‘™™‘”‹‰‘—–ǤŠ‡ Šƒ”ƒ –‡”‘ˆ ‘„‹‡ǡ•–ƒ”–‹‰–Š‡ ƒ†”‘‡’‘ Š(K)ǤŽ‡ –”‘• †™‹ —„„Ž‡ ƒ† ‹Ž–‘ —ƒ•‘Ǥͳ –Š‡‹‰ –Š‡—‹˜‡”•‡™ƒ••‡–—’†—”‹‰–Š‡͵Ǧ‹—–‡Š‹•–‘”› ƒ† ”‡Žƒ–‡† ’ƒ”–‹ Ž‡• ƒ’’‡ƒ”‡† ƒ– ‘‡ •‡ ‘† ’‘•–Ǧ ƒ‰–Š‡‘”›ǡ–Š‡‹˜‡”•‡„‡‰ƒ™‹–ŠƒDz•‹‰—Žƒ”‹–›ǡdz ‘ˆ–Š‡‹‰ƒ‰ǡ’‘”–”ƒ›‡†‹–Š‹•’ƒ‡Žǡƒ†–Š‡ •‹‰—Žƒ”‹–›ǡ –Š‡ •–ƒ”– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡’–‘‡’‘ Š (L)ǤŠ‡ ƒ‹ˆ‹‹–‡•‹ƒŽŽ›–‹›’‘‹–ǡƒ–ƒ’ƒ”–‹ —Žƒ”‹•–ƒ–‹ ™‘”‹‰ ‘—– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘•‡“—‡ ‡• ‘˜‡” ͳ͵Ǥͺ „‹ŽŽ‹‘ „‡‰‹‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡ Š‘–‘‡’‘ Š(M)ƒ–͵‹—–‡•‹• –Š‡’ƒ•–ǡ‹™Š‹ ŠƒŽŽ•’ƒ ‡ƒ†‡‡”‰›™‡”‡ ”‡ƒ–‡†ǡ ›‡ƒ”•‘ˆŠ‹•–‘”›‹••Š‘™‹ƒ‡ŽͳǤ ‘‘Ž›–ƒ‡ƒ•–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡‹‰ƒ‰’”‘’‡”Ǥ͹ ™‹–Š •’ƒ ‡ ‡š’ƒ†‹‰ ‡˜‡” •‹ ‡Ǥ   ‘–”ƒ•–ǡ –Š‡ Š‡ ‡š’ƒ•‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘•‘• Šƒ• ‘– „‡‡ Š‹• ™ƒ• ƒŽ•‘ –Š‡ –‹‡ ™Š‡ •‘‡ ’”‘–‘• –‡ƒ†›Ǧ–ƒ–‡ –Š‡‘”› •ƒ™ ƒ ‡š’ƒ†‹‰ ‹˜‡”•‡ǡ ”‡‰—Žƒ”Ǥ  ‘– ‘Ž› ‹• –Š‡ ”ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ ‡š’ƒ•‹‘ ‘™ ȋŠ›†”‘‰‡ — Ž‡‹Ȍ ‘„‹‡† –‘ ˆ‘” –Š‡ ͳͲΨ ’‡”Šƒ’•‘ˆ‹ˆ‹‹–‡ƒ‰‡ǡ–Šƒ–Šƒ•ƒŽ™ƒ›•Ž‘‘‡†ƒ„‘—– ƒ ‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‰(D)ǡ„—––Š‡‘•‘•‹•–Š‘—‰Š––‘Šƒ˜‡ Š‡Ž‹—™Š‹ Š’”‘˜‹†‡•‡˜‹†‡ ‡•—’’‘”–‹‰–Š‡‹‰ –Š‡•ƒ‡ǡ™‹–Š‡™ •–ƒ”•„‡‹‰ ‘–‹—ƒŽŽ› ”‡ƒ–‡† —†‡”‰‘‡ƒ‡’‹•‘†‡‘ˆ‡š–”‡‡Ž›”ƒ’‹†‡š’ƒ•‹‘ ƒ‰ –Š‡‘”›Ǥ  —”‹‰ –Š‡ Š‘–‘ ‡’‘ Šǡ ‡Ž‡ –”‘• –‘ˆ‹ŽŽ–Š‡•’ƒ ‡‰‡‡”ƒ–‡†„›‡š’ƒ•‹‘Ǥ‘†ƒ›–Š‡ ‡ƒ”Ž› ‹ –Š‡ ‹‰ ƒ‰ǡ ƒŽŽ‡† ‘•‹  ‹ˆŽƒ–‹‘ (G)Ǥ͵ ‘—Ž†‘–›‡–ƒ––ƒ Š–‘ƒ–‘‹ — Ž‡‹ȋ ƒ† ‡Ȍǡ•‘ Žƒ––‡” –Š‡‘”› ‹• ƒ Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ —”‹‘•‹–›ǡ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‹‰ Š‡ ‹ˆŽƒ–‹‘ƒ”› ‡’‹•‘†‡ ™ƒ•‡š–”‡‡Ž› „”‹‡ˆǡ ˆ”‘ –Š‡‹˜‡”•‡™ƒ•ˆ—ŽŽ‘ˆ’Žƒ•ƒȄ Šƒ”‰‡†’ƒ”–‹ Ž‡• ƒ‰ ƒŽ‘•– —‹˜‡”•ƒŽŽ› ƒ ‡’–‡† ƒ‘‰ ƒ„‘—–ͳͲǦ͵͸–‘ͳͲǦ͵͵•‡ ‘†•ƒˆ–‡”–Š‡„‡‰‹‹‰ǡ„—– –Šƒ–• ƒ––‡”’Š‘–‘•ǤŠ‡–Š‡‹˜‡”•‡ ‘‘Ž‡†–‘ ƒ•–”‘‘‡”• ƒ† ‘•‘Ž‘‰‹•–•Ǥ  Š‹• ƒ ‡’–ƒ ‡ ‹• ™‘—Ž†Šƒ˜‡‡š’ƒ†‡†–Š‡†‹‡•‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡‘•‘• –Š‡’‘‹–™Š‡”‡‡Ž‡ –”‘•ƒ†— Ž‡‹ ‘—Ž† ‘„‹‡ „ƒ•‡†‘–Š”‡‡‘˜‡”™Š‡Ž‹‰’‹‡ ‡•‘ˆ‡˜‹†‡ ‡ǣ „› ƒ›„‡ ͷͲ ‘”†‡”• ‘ˆ ƒ‰‹–—†‡ǤͶ”‘’‘•‡† ‹ ȋDzReǦ ‘„‹ƒ–‹‘dz ‹• ‘ˆ—•‹‰ Œƒ”‰‘Ȍǡ –Š‡ ȋͳȌŠ‡‹˜‡”•‡‹•‡š’ƒ†‹‰ǡ™‹–Š‰ƒŽƒš‹‡•‘” ͳͻͺͳ „› Žƒ —–Šǡͷ –Š‡ ƒ—•‡ ‘ˆ ‹ˆŽƒ–‹‘ ”‡ƒ‹• • ƒ––‡”‹‰ ‘ˆ Ž‹‰Š– •–‘’’‡†ǡ –Š‡ ‹˜‡”•‡ „‡ ƒ‡ ‰ƒŽƒš› Ž—•–‡”• ‘˜‹‰ ƒ’ƒ”– (D)ǡ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ”ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ ‘–”‘˜‡”•‹ƒŽǡ„—–‹–‡š’Žƒ‹•ƒ—„‡”‘ˆ –”ƒ•’ƒ”‡–ǡƒ†–Š‡™ƒ•”‡Ž‡ƒ•‡†Ȅ–Š‡‘–Š‡” •‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‰”‡ƒ–‡”ˆ‘”‘”‡†‹•–ƒ–‘„Œ‡ –•ǤŠ‹•‘ˆ —‡š’‡ –‡† ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘•‘•ǡ ‘–ƒ„Ž› –Š‡ ‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘–Šƒ–•—’’‘”–•–Š‡‹‰ƒ‰–Š‡‘”›ǤŠ‡ ‘—”•‡ ˆ‹–• „‘–Š –Š‡ ‹‰ ƒ‰ ƒ† –‡ƒ†›Ǧ–ƒ–‡ “—‡•–‹‘ ™Š› ƒ ‹‹–‹ƒŽŽ› Š‘‘‰‡‡‘—• ‹‰ ƒ‰ •—„•‡“—‡– ƒ” ‰‡ (N) ƒ† –‡ŽŽ‹ˆ‡”‘—• ȋ–ƒ””›Ȍ –Š‡‘”‹‡•ǡ ™Š‹ Š ™‡”‡ ‡ƒ Š †‡•‹‰‡† –‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‹–Ǥ ‘—Ž†’”‘†— ‡ƒ‹˜‡”•‡™‹–Šƒ––‡” Ž—’‡†‹–‘ ’‘ Š• (O) ƒ”‡ ‘•‹†‡”‡† ‹ –Š‡ ‘•‘• ’ƒ‡Ž ‘™‡˜‡” –Š‡ ‘–Š‡” –™‘ Ž‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡˜‹†‡ ‡ ‰ƒŽƒš‹‡• ƒ† Ž—•–‡”• ‘ˆ ‰ƒŽƒš‹‡•Ǣ  ‹ˆŽƒ–‹‘ ™‘—Ž† ȋƒ‡ŽͳȌǤ —ƒ„‹‰—‘—•Ž›•—’’‘”––Š‡‹‰ƒ‰–Š‡‘”›Ǥ PANEL 0: BIG BANG AND COSMOS, on a logarithmic time scale ~10 1 sec 3 min 10

10 O Starry (Stelliferous)Starry

J -6 -12 AK -36

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H sec Electroweak epoch Quark Hadron Grand epoch The weak nuclear force epoch B N unification and the electro- magnetic First matter Protons, D epoch force are unified; the formed neutrons, and strong nuclear force and Dark age related particles 1020 Strong and gravity are separate. formed weak nuclear forces and the L M electromagnet- Lepton epoch ic force are uni- Photon fied; gravitional Cosmic expansion force is sepa- epoch emitslight Nothing inUniverse rate. Plasma: H and He 100 Universe (m) oftheobserved Radius nuclei in a sea of The convex-upward curvature at the right end unattached electrons of this plot of Cosmic expansion at first sug- gests that expansion accelerated during the by HandHenucleito form neutralatoms “Re”-combination: electrons are captured galaxiesform andevolve Starscontinually forming, Photon epoch of the Big Bang and during the (continuing to ):

Dark Age, but this is an produced by formed particles Electrons andrelated the log scale of time. After inflation, expansion -20

F radiation) Background (Cosmic Microwave Emission ofCMB 10

decelerated, due to the pull of gravity, until ac- Nucleosynthesis (Heliumnucleiformed) celeration due to dark energy began to take G effect much later, as shown in the Cosmic-his- 10-43 sec: tory panel (B-1). Planck time (beginning of the smooth 10-40 time we are familiar with) Inflation E

240,000 yr 380,000 yr C ~100 20 min Today 10-60 4.36 x10 10-40 10-35 10-30 10-25 10-20 10-15 10-10 10-5 110105 10 1015 A after “the Beginning” 17 sec=13.8Gyr 3 kyr = thousand (10 ) years 1 yr 1 kyr 1 Myr 1 Gyr Years after “the Beginning” Myr = million (106) years Gyr = billion (109) years A fundamental • On a linear time scale, the Big Bang, to the end of the Lepton epoch (3 ), is a trivial fraction of Cosmic history. paradox: • On a log time scale like this, the Big Bang, with 45 orders of magnitude, is most of Cosmic history! © Walter Álvarez, 2019 Panel 1: Cosmos (13.8 Ga to now)          ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡʹͲͳͻ  Š‹• ’ƒ‡Ž ’‘”–”ƒ›• –Š‡ ‡–‹”‡ Š‹•–‘”› ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡†‹ƒ–‡Ž› ƒˆ–‡” –Š‡ ‹‰ ƒ‰ǡ –Š‡ ‘”ƒŽ ‘ˆ ‡ƒ”Ž› ‰ƒŽƒš‹‡• ƒ”‡ •‡‡ ‹ –Š‡ —„„Ž‡ ‡‡’ ‹‡Ž† ‹˜‡”•‡ǡ•’”‡ƒ†‘—–‘ƒŽ‹‡ƒ”’Ž‘–Ǥ•–”‘‘‡”• ƒ––‡” ‹–Š‡ ‹˜‡”•‡ ȋ‡š Ž—†‹‰ †ƒ” ƒ––‡”Ȍ ™ƒ• ȋ  Ȍǡ —„„Ž‡Ž–”ƒǦ‡‡’ ‹‡Ž†ȋ  Ȍǡƒ† —„„Ž‡ ƒ† ‘•‘Ž‘‰‹•–• Šƒ˜‡ ‘‡ –‘ ƒ ‹–‡”‡•– ‹ –Š‡ ‡••‡–‹ƒŽŽ›ƒŽŽŠ›†”‘‰‡ƒ†Š‡Ž‹—ǤŠ‡Š‡ƒ˜‹‡” š–”‡‡ ‡‡’ ‹‡Ž† ȋ Ȍ ‹ƒ‰‡•ǡ͹ƒ† ƒ„‡ Š‹•–‘”› ‘ˆ –Š‡‹” •—„Œ‡ – ‘”‡ ”‡ ‡–Ž› –Šƒ ‘–Š‡” ‡Ž‡‡–• ȋ™Š‹ Š ƒ•–”‘‘‡”• ƒŽŽ Dz‡–ƒŽ•dzȌ ™‡”‡ –”‡ƒ–‡† •–ƒ–‹•–‹ ƒŽŽ›Ǥ  • ‘ˆ ʹͲͳ͸ǡ –Š‡ ‘Ž†‡•– ‘™ Š‹•–‘”‹ƒ• ƒ† Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ • ‹‡–‹•–•ǡͳ ƒ† –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‡†‹•–ƒ”•„›— Ž‡ƒ”ˆ—•‹‘ƒ†•’”‡ƒ† ‰ƒŽƒš› ȋ‹Ǥ‡Ǥǡ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‰”‡ƒ–‡•– ”‡† •Š‹ˆ–Ȍ ‹• Ǧœͳͳǡ ”‡Ž‡˜ƒ– Ž‹–‡”ƒ–—”‡ ”‡ˆŽ‡ –• –Š‹• ’”‡Ž‹‹ƒ”› –Š”‘—‰Š‘—– –Š‡ ‰ƒŽƒš‹‡• „› •—’‡”‘˜ƒ• Ȅ „› –Š‡ †ƒ–‹‰ ˆ”‘ ͳ͵ǤͶ ƒǡ ‘” Œ—•– ͶͲͲ ›” ƒˆ–‡” –Š‡ ‹‰ Šƒ”ƒ –‡”Ǥ  Ž‹‡ ‘–Š‡” ‹‰ ‹•–‘”‹ƒ•ǡ ‡š’Ž‘•‹‘• ‘ˆ •–ƒ”• –Šƒ– Šƒ˜‡ —•‡† —’ ‘•– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ‰Ǥ ƒ•–”‘‘‡”• ƒƒ –—ƒŽŽ›see–Š‡’ƒ•–ǡ„›Ž‘‘‹‰ƒ– Š›†”‘‰‡ ˆ—‡Ž –Šƒ– ’‘™‡”• –Š‡ ƒ• ‹– ˆ—•‡• –‘ ˆ‘”  –Š‡•‡ †‡‡’ ‹ƒ‰‡•ǡ –Š‡”‡ ƒ”‡ ‰ƒŽƒš‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒ ‰ƒŽƒš‹‡• •‘ ˆƒ” ƒ™ƒ› –Šƒ– –Š‡ Ž‹‰Š– –Š‡› •‡‡ Šƒ• Š‡Ž‹—Ǥ•ƒ”‡•—Ž–ǡ–Š‡‡–ƒŽŽ‹ ‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡—‹˜‡”•‡Ȅ ™Š‘Ž‡”ƒ‰‡‘ˆƒ‰‡•ȋƒ••—‰‰‡•–‡†„›–Š‡‹”•‹œ‡ƒ† –ƒ‡ „‹ŽŽ‹‘ ‘ˆ›‡ƒ”•–‘ ‰‡––‘ —•Ǥ  ˆ ‘—”•‡ ˜‡”› –Š‡ ‘–‡– ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡‡–• Š‡ƒ˜‹‡”–Šƒ Š‡Ž‹— Ȅ Šƒ• „”‹‰Š–‡••ǡƒ†‡ƒ•—”‡†„›–Š‡‹””‡†•Š‹ˆ–Ȍǡ•‘‹–‹• †‹•–ƒ–‰ƒŽƒš‹‡•Ž‘‘–‹›ǡƒ† ƒ‘–„‡‹ƒ‰‡†‹ ‰”ƒ†—ƒŽŽ›‹ ”‡ƒ•‡†–Š”‘—‰Š–‹‡(D)ǤͶȋŠ‡‰”ƒ’Š• ’‘••‹„Ž‡ –‘ ”‡ ‘‰‹œ‡ƒ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ’ƒ––‡” ‘ˆ ‰ƒŽƒ –‹  †‡–ƒ‹ŽǤŠ‡–”ƒ†‹–‹‘•‘ˆƒ•–”‘‘›ƒ”‡‘–‰‡ƒ”‡† —•‡†Š‡”‡ƒ”‡‘–”‡ ‡–ǡ„—–ƒ”‡——•—ƒŽ‡šƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ˜‡–•–Šƒ–ƒ›‘ —”‹–Š‡Š‹•–‘”›‘ˆƒ –‘Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ—†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰ǣ –Š‡ˆ‹”•–’Žƒ ‡ǡƒ‰‡• ‘•‹ ǦŠ‹•–‘”› ’Ž‘–• ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ƒ•–”‘‘‹ ƒŽ ‰ƒŽƒš›‹ Ž—†‡–Š‡ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ ‡–”ƒŽ„Žƒ Š‘Ž‡ǡ ‘ˆ†‹•–ƒ–‘„Œ‡ –•ƒ”‡‘–—•—ƒŽŽ›‰‹˜‡‹›‡ƒ”•ǡ„—– Ž‹–‡”ƒ–—”‡ǤȌ ‘”‘ˆ–Š‡‹†‘ˆ•—’‡”ƒ••‹˜‡„Žƒ Š‘Ž‡•–Šƒ– ƒ• ”‡† •Š‹ˆ– Ȅ Š‘™ — Š –Š‡ Ž‹‰Š– ™ƒ˜‡• Šƒ˜‡ Š‡ ‡–ƒŽŽ‹ ‹–› ‘ˆ ƒ •–ƒ”ǡ †‡–‡ –‡† „› ‹–• ’‘™‡” –Š‡ ‡‘”‘—•Ž› ‡‡”‰‡–‹  “—ƒ•ƒ”•ǡ ™Š‘•‡ •–”‡– Š‡†ǡ †—‡ –‘ ‘•‹  ‡š’ƒ•‹‘ Ȅ –Š‹• ‹• •’‡ –”‘• ‘’‹ ƒ„•‘”’–‹‘Ž‹‡•ǡ‹•‰‹˜‡„›–Š‡”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ ”ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ’‡ƒ‡† ƒ„‘—– ͳͳǦͳ͵ ƒǢͺ —†‡”•–ƒ†ƒ„Ž‡ǡ„‡ ƒ—•‡”‡†•Š‹ˆ– ƒ„‡‡ƒ•—”‡† –Š‡—„‡”‘ˆ‹”‘ƒ–‘•–‘Š›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‘•ǡ†‹˜‹†‡† ‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘• „‡–™‡‡ ‰ƒŽƒš‹‡•ǡ ‹ ™Š‹ Š ‰”ƒ˜‹–ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ †‹”‡ –Ž›ǡ „—– ƒ‰‡ —•– „‡ ƒŽ —Žƒ–‡† „ƒ•‡† ‘ „› –Š‡ •ƒ‡ ”ƒ–‹‘ ‹ –Š‡ —ǡ ™Š‘•‡ ‡Ȁ  ”ƒ–‹‘ ‹• †‹•”—’–‹‘ ƒ• ‘‡ ‰ƒŽƒš› ’ƒ••‡• –Š”‘—‰Š ƒ‘–Š‡” ‹’‡”ˆ‡ –Ž› ‘™ ’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”• (A)Ǥ  ‡ ‘†ǡ †‡ˆ‹‡†ƒ•ͳǢ‡–ƒŽŽ‹ ‹–›‹••Š‘™Š‡”‡‘ƒŽ‘‰’Ž‘–Ǥ –—”• –Š‡ •’‹”ƒŽ• ‹–‘ ƒ •–”— –—”‡Ž‡•• ‡ŽŽ‹’–‹ ƒŽ †‹•–ƒ ‡• ƒ”‡ ‘‘Ž› ‰‹˜‡ ‹ ’ƒ”•‡ •ǡ ™Š‹ Š Š‡ Š‹•–‘”› ‘ˆ ‡–ƒŽŽ‹ ‹–› ‹• ‘– ‡ƒ•› –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ǡ ‰ƒŽƒš›Ǣͻƒ†–Š‡’”‘‰”‡••‹˜‡ ‘˜‡”•‹‘‘ˆ•’‹”ƒŽ ƒ›„‡ ‘˜‡”–‡†–‘Ž‹‰Š–›‡ƒ”•ǡ™Š‹ Šƒ”‡‘ˆ‘”‡ ƒ† ‹• ’”‘„ƒ„Ž› †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ‹ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ’ƒ”–• ‘ˆ ‰ƒŽƒš‹‡•Ž‹‡‘—”‡‹‰Š„‘”†”‘‡†ƒǡ‹–‘„ƒ””‡† ‹–‡”‡•––‘‹‰ ‹•–‘”‹ƒ•ȋͳ’ α͵Ǥʹ͸ŽǤ›ǤȌǤ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‰ƒŽƒš‹‡•Ǣ–Š‡•‡’”‘„Ž‡•ƒ”‡”‡ˆŽ‡ –‡†‹–Š‡ •’‹”ƒŽ•Ž‹‡–Š‡‹Ž›ƒ›ǤͳͲ‡ ƒ‡š’‡ –ƒ‰”‡ƒ– ‡”Šƒ’• –Š‡ ‘•– ˆ—†ƒ‡–ƒŽǡ ‡••‡–‹ƒŽ ™‹†‡ ”ƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ — ‡”–ƒ‹–› ‹ –Š‹• ’Ž‘–Ǥ  ‹–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡”‹ Š‹‰‘ˆ–Š‹•’‹ –—”‡‘ˆ‘•‹ Š‹•–‘”›‘˜‡”–Š‡ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡ ‘ˆ ƒŽŽ ‘ˆ ‹‰ ‹•–‘”› ‹• –Šƒ– –Š‡ ‹˜‡”•‡ǡ Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ –Šƒ– ’”‘„ƒ„Ž› —†‡”Ž‹‡• ‡ƒ Š ‡š–ˆ‡™†‡ ƒ†‡•Ǥ ‘Ž‘••ƒŽ –‘ ƒ †‡‰”‡‡ –Šƒ– —––‡”Ž› †‡ˆ‹‡• ‰ƒŽƒš›ƒ”‡•‡‡‹–Š‡ˆƒ ––Šƒ–•–ƒ”•‹–Š‡†ƒ”‡” ‡–—”‹‰–‘Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ‡˜‡–•ƒ„‘—–™Š‹ Š™‡ ‘’”‡Š‡•‹‘ǡ Šƒ• „‡‡ ‡š’ƒ†‹‰ •‹ ‡ –Š‡ ŠƒŽ‘‘ˆ–Š‡‹Ž›ƒ›ƒ”‡‘Ž†‡”ȋ‘ˆŽ‘™‡”‡–ƒŽŽ‹ ‹–›Ȍ ‘™ƒ‰”‡ƒ–†‡ƒŽǡ–Š‡‘”‹‰‹‘ˆ–Š‡—ǡ–Š‡ƒ”–Šǡ „‡‰‹‹‰‘ˆ–‹‡ǡ™‹–Š–Š‡•’ƒ ‡„‡–™‡‡‰ƒŽƒš‹‡• –Šƒ –Š‘•‡ǡ Ž‹‡ –Š‡ —ǡ –Šƒ– Ž‹‡ ‹ –Š‡ –Š‹ „”‹‰Š– ƒ† –Š‡ ‘Žƒ” ›•–‡ ‘ —””‡† ƒ„‘—– ͳȀ͵ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘” „‡–™‡‡ ‰ƒŽƒš› Ž—•–‡”• ‰”ƒ†—ƒŽŽ› •–”‡– Š‹‰Ǥ †‹•ǤͷŠ‡”‡ƒ”‡ƒŽ•‘Š‹–•–Šƒ––Š‡”‡ƒ›Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ƒ ™ƒ›„ƒ –Š”‘—‰Š‘•‹ Š‹•–‘”›(F)Ǥȋ ˆƒ ––Š‡ ”ƒ ‹‰ –Šƒ– ‡š’ƒ•‹‘ „ƒ ™ƒ”† „”‹‰• —•–‘–Š‡ ‰ƒ’ ‹ –‹‡ „‡–™‡‡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡•‡ –™‘ •–‡ŽŽƒ” ‡ƒ•‹Ž›Ǧ”‡‡„‡”‡† ƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ”–Šǡ ͶǤͷ͸͹ ƒ ‹• ‹‰ƒ‰Ȅ–Š‡•—††‡ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ ‡‘ˆ‡˜‡”›–Š‹‰ǡ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ͸ exactlyͳȀ͵‘ˆͳ͵Ǥ͹ ƒǡ™Š‹ Š™ƒ•–Š‡„‡•–ƒ‰‡˜ƒŽ—‡ ͳ͵Ǥͺ „‹ŽŽ‹‘ ›‡ƒ”• ƒ‰‘ Ȅ ™Š‹ Š ‹• –”‡ƒ–‡† ‹ •–”‘‘‡”• Šƒ˜‡ –™‘ ™ƒ›• ‘ˆ Ž‡ƒ”‹‰ ƒ„‘—– ˆ‘”–Š‡‘•‘•—–‹Ž–Š‡”‡ ‡–ƒ†Œ—•–‡––‘ͳ͵Ǥͺ Ž‘‰ƒ”‹–Š‹ ƒ‡ŽͲ(B)Ǥ‘•‹ ‡š’ƒ•‹‘Šƒ•‘– –Š‡ ’ƒ•– Ȅ –Š‡› ƒ Ž‘‘ ƒ– ˜‡”› †‹•–ƒ– ‰ƒŽƒš‹‡•ǡ ƒǤȋ‘‘„ƒ†ǨȌ›–Š‡–‹‡ƒ”–Šˆ‘”‡†ǡ–Š‡”‡Šƒ† „‡‡•–‡ƒ†›Ȅ‹–•—”‰‡††—”‹‰–Š‡’‡”‹‘†‘ˆ •‡‡‹‰–Š‡ƒ•–Š‡›™‡”‡™Š‡–Š‡Ž‹‰Š–™ƒ•‡‹––‡†ǡ „‡‡‡‘—‰Š–‹‡ˆ‘”Dz‡–ƒŽ•dz–‘„‡ ‘‡ƒ„—†ƒ– ‹ˆŽƒ–‹‘ǡ ‡ƒ”Ž› ‹ –Š‡ —ˆ‘Ž†‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹‰ ƒ‰Ǥʹ „‹ŽŽ‹‘• ‘ˆ ›‡ƒ”• ƒ‰‘ǡ ‘” –Š‡› ƒ Ž‘‘ ˆ‘” ˜‡”› ‘Ž† –Š”‘—‰Š •–‡ŽŽƒ” — Ž‡‘•›–Š‡•‹•ǡ ƒ† ‡‘—‰Š ‘”‡ ”‡ ‡–Ž›ǡ ”ƒ–Š‡” –Šƒ •Ž‘™‹‰ „‡ ƒ—•‡ ‘ˆ •–ƒ”•‹–Š‡‹Ž›ƒ›ƒ†‡ƒ”„›‰ƒŽƒš‹‡•ǤŠ‡ˆ‹”•– •—’‡”‘˜ƒ• –‘ •’”‡ƒ† –Š‡ ƒ”‘—†ǡ •‘ –Šƒ– ‘—” ‰”ƒ˜‹–ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ––”ƒ –‹‘ǡ ƒ• ‘•‘Ž‘‰‹•–• Šƒ† ‡–Š‘† ›‹‡Ž†• †‹• ‘˜‡”‹‡• ƒ„‘—– ‘•‹  ‡˜‡–• (E) ’Žƒ‡– ‘—Ž† ‘–ƒ‹ƒŽŽ–Š‡ Š‡‹ ƒŽ‡Ž‡‡–•–Šƒ– ‡š’‡ –‡†ǡ ‡š’ƒ•‹‘ ‹• acceleratingǡ †—‡ –‘ –Š‡ „ƒ  –‘ ‡ƒ”Ž› –Š‡ „‡‰‹‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‡ŽŽ‹ˆ‡”‘—• ƒ‡‹–‹–‡”‡•–‹‰ƒ†•—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ˆ‘”Ž‹ˆ‡Ǥ— Š‘Ž†‡” ›•–‡”‹‘—• ’Š‡‘‡‘ ‘ˆ †ƒ” ‡‡”‰›Ǥ  Š‡ ȋ–ƒ””›Ȍ‡’‘ ŠǤ––Š‡†‹•–ƒ ‡•ˆ‘”™Š‹ Š‘„Œ‡ –•ƒ”‡ •–ƒ”• ‘—Ž†‘–Šƒ˜‡”‘ ›’Žƒ‡–•Ž‹‡ƒ”–ŠǤŠ‡ ‡˜‹†‡ ‡ ˆ‘” ƒ ‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‰ ‡š’ƒ•‹‘ ƒ† †ƒ” ˆƒ” ‡‘—‰Š ƒ™ƒ› –‘ „‡ •‡‡ ƒ• –Š‡› ™‡”‡ ‡ƒ”Ž› ‹ ‡š– ’ƒ‡Ž •Š‘™• –Š‡ Š‹•–‘”› ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ”–Šǡ (G) ‡‡”‰›‹•’Ž‘––‡†Š‡”‡(C)Ǥ͵ ‘•‹  Š‹•–‘”›ǡ ‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ •–ƒ”• ƒ‘– „‡ ”‡•‘Ž˜‡†ǡ ƒ„‘—–™Š‹ Šƒ˜‡”›‰”‡ƒ–†‡ƒŽ‘”‡‹•‘™Ǥ ƒ† ‰ƒŽƒš‹‡•ƒ”‡–Š‡ ‘„Œ‡ –• ‘ˆ•–—†›Ǥ ƒ•– —„‡”•  PANEL 1: COSMOS (13.8 Ga to now)

Metallicity (Fe/H) of the D The Sun 100 Metallicity uncertainty M.W. Disk -1 Metallicity 10% of the Sun 10 M.W. Halo Possible gap in M.W. () formation Metallicity is defined as the ratio of the number of atoms of Fe to stars atoms of H in a star (determined spectroscopically) divided by the 10-2 Metallicity 1% of the Sun same ratio in the Sun (defined as 1). Metallicity is shown here on Metallicity a log plot. -3 Metallicity 0.1% of the Sun 10

0.0 0 C Dark energy and the accelerating expansion of the Universe

After inflation, the expansion 0.01 0.1 0.5 of the Universe either...... first decelerated, then accelerated... 1.0 Redshift 1.5 2.0 ... or has always decelerated. 3.0~0.0001 Relative brightness of supernovae B 0.001

12 Ga11 Ga 10 Ga 9 Ga 8 Ga 7 Ga 6 Ga 5 Ga G Panel 0 Panel 2 6

4 The redshift of light ... but the age of distant objects coming from distant must be calculated from 2 objects can be measured ... their redshift A Age vs. redshift

E Cosmic events Sun, Earth, and Possible reorganization of solar Milky Way F Solar system orbits, producing LHB Oldest known object (as of 2016): form 4.567 Ga (Late Heavy Bombardment) Galaxy GN-z11, 13.4 Ga The Big Bang – nothing “before” this (13.8 Ga) “before” Bang – nothing Big The Formation maximum of quasars Galactic collisions Galactic collisions Galactic collisions (supermassive black holes) Fraction of spiral galaxies with central bars (like the Milky Way, unlike Andromeda) increases over the last 7 Gyr “Dark Age” — no stars

1212 GaGa 10 10 GaGa 88 GaGa 66 Ga Ga 44 Ga Ga 22 Ga Ga now now Ga = ago © Walter Álvarez, 2019 Panel 2: Earth and Life (4,567 Ma to now)    ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡʹͲͳͻ  Š‡ „”‘ƒ†‡•–ǡ ‘•– • Š‡ƒ–‹  ˜‹‡™ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ͶǤͷǦ •Ž‘™Ž›Ǧ‰”‘™‹‰ǡ •‘Ž‹†Ǧ‹”‘ ‘”‡Ǥ  ‰ǡ ‹ǡ ǡ ƒ† Ž‡ˆ–Ǧ ˜‡”› ƒ ‹‡– ”ƒ–‡”• ‘–Š‡— Š•ƒŽŽ‡”ƒ† „‹ŽŽ‹‘Ǧ›‡ƒ”Š‹•–‘”›‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ”–Š(A)™‘—Ž†”‡ ‘‰‹œ‡ ‘˜‡” ‡™‡–‹–‘ˆ‘”‹‰–Š‡•‹Ž‹ ƒ–‡‹‡”ƒŽ•‘ˆ–Š‡ –Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽŽ›Ǧ†‡ƒ† ‘‘Ǥͳͳ‘–Š‡” ƒ ‹‹–‹ƒŽ „‹ŽŽ‹‘ ›‡ƒ”• ‹ ™Š‹ Š ƒ”–Š ™ƒ• ’Š›•‹ ƒŽŽ› ƒ–Ž‡ǡˆ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡‘Ž‹˜‹‡ȋ‰ʹ‹ͶȌǤ ƒ•–‘‹•Š‹‰ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡ ‘ˆ ‘—” ’Žƒ‡–ǯ• ’ƒ•– ‹• –Šƒ––Š‡”‡ ƒ† Š‡‹ ƒŽŽ› ˜‡”› ƒ –‹˜‡ „‡ ƒ—•‡ ‘ˆ Š‡ƒ– ˆ”‘ Š‡ ƒ–Ž‡ Ž‘•‡• Š‡ƒ– „› •Ž‘™Ž› ‘˜‡ –‹‰ǡ Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ ƒ ˆ‡™ –‹‡• ™Š‡ ƒ”–Š ™ƒ• ‡ƒ”Ž› ‘” ‹’ƒ –• ƒ† ”ƒ†‹‘ƒ –‹˜‹–›Ǣ –Š‡ ƒ Ž‘‰ǡ “—‹‡– ‹††Ž‡ †”‹˜‹‰ ’Žƒ–‡Ǧ–‡ –‘‹  ‘–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”—•–Ǥ  Žƒ–‡•ǡ ‡–‹”‡Ž› ‘˜‡”‡† „› ‹ ‡Ȅˆ”‘ ’‘Ž‡ –‘ ‡“—ƒ–‘” ƒ† ƒ‰‡Ǣƒ† ˆ‹ƒŽŽ›ƒ –‹‡ ‘ˆ ‰”‡ƒ– „‹‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ ‘’Ž‡š‹–› „‡––‡” –Š‘—‰Š– ‘ˆ ƒ• ƒ’• ‘ –Š‡ •’Š‡”‹ ƒŽ ƒ”–Šǡ †‘ ˆ”‘ ‘—–ƒ‹ –‘’ –‘ •‡ƒ •—”ˆƒ ‡ (F)Ǥͳʹ –‹•ƒ–ˆ‹”•– †—”‹‰–Š‡‘•–”‡ ‡–„‹ŽŽ‹‘›‡ƒ”•ǤŠ‡‘•‘ˆ–Š‡ ‘– †‡ˆ‘” ‹–‡”ƒŽŽ› ˜‡”› — Šǡ „—– ‘˜‡ ƒ”‘—† Šƒ”† –‘ •‡‡ Š‘™ •— Š ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ ‹ ‡ ‘—Ž† ‡˜‡” Šƒ˜‡ ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ–‹‡• ƒŽ‡ͳ(B)”‘—‰ŠŽ› ‘””‡•’‘†–‘–Š‡•‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡ –‘ ‘–Š‡” ’Žƒ–‡• ƒŽ‘‰ –Š”‡‡ ‹†• ‘ˆ ’Žƒ–‡ ‡Ž–‡†ǡ ™Š‡ ‹– ™‘—Ž† ”‡ˆŽ‡ – ƒ™ƒ› ‘•– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹–‡”˜ƒŽ•Ǥ”‹‘”–‘–Š‡ʹͲ–Š ‡–—”›ǡ™Š‡”ƒ†‹‘‡–”‹  „‘—†ƒ”‹‡•ǡ™Š‡”‡ƒŒ‘”†‡ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‹• ‘ ‡–”ƒ–‡†Ǥ •—Ž‹‰Š–ǡ„—–’”‘„ƒ„Ž›ʹˆ”‘˜‘Ž ƒ‘‡•™‘—Ž†Šƒ˜‡ †ƒ–‹‰ ‰ƒ˜‡ —• ƒ„—†ƒ– ƒ‰‡• ‹ ›‡ƒ”•ǡ ”‘ • ‘—Ž† –•’”‡ƒ†‹‰„‘—†ƒ”‹‡•ǡ‡™‘ ‡ƒ‹  ”—•–‹•ˆ‘”‡†ǡ ƒ ——Žƒ–‡† ‹ –Š‡ ƒ–‘•’Š‡”‡ǡ ’”‘†— ‹‰ ‘Ž›„‡’Žƒ ‡†‹ Š”‘‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ•‡“—‡ ‡‘–Š‡„ƒ•‹• ƒ• ’Žƒ–‡• ‘˜‡ ƒ’ƒ”–Ǣ  ƒ– ‘•—‹‰ ƒ”‰‹•ǡ ‘Ž† ‰”‡‡Š‘—•‡ ™ƒ”‹‰ –Šƒ– ‡˜‡–—ƒŽŽ› ‡†‡† –Š‡•‡ ‘ˆˆ‘••‹Ž•ǡƒ†ƒŽŽ”‘ •‘Ž†‡”–Šƒ–Š‡ƒ„”‹ƒȄ–Š‡ ‘ ‡ƒ‹  ”—•– ‹• •—„†— –‡†ǡ •‹‹‰ †‘™ ‹–‘ –Š‡ ‘™„ƒŽŽǦƒ”–Š‡’‹•‘†‡•Ǥ ˆ‹”•– ’‡”‹‘† ‘ˆ –Š‡Šƒ‡”‘œ‘‹  ȋ™Š‹ Š Šƒ• ƒ„—†ƒ– ƒ–Ž‡Ǣƒ––”ƒ•ˆ‘”„‘—†ƒ”‹‡•Ž‹‡ƒŽ‹ˆ‘”‹ƒǯ•ƒ —” ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Š‹•–‘”› ‘ˆ Ž‹ˆ‡ ‘ ƒ”–Š ‹• ˆ‘••‹Ž•Ǣ–Š‡ƒ‡‡ƒ•Dz˜‹•‹„Ž‡Ž‹ˆ‡dzȌȄ ‘—Ž†‘Ž›„‡ †”‡ƒ•ˆƒ—Ž–ǡ–™‘’Žƒ–‡••Ž‹†‡’ƒ•–‡ƒ Š‘–Š‡”Ǥ „ƒ•‡† ‘ ’”‘š‹‡• Ž‹‡ –Š‡ ‘š›‰‡ ‘–‡– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒŽŽ‡†Dz”‡ ƒ„”‹ƒǤdzŠ‡ˆƒ ––Šƒ––Šƒ–‘„•‘Ž‡–‡ Š‡”‡ ‹• —””‡–Ž› ‘ ƒ‰”‡‡‡– ™Š‡ ’Žƒ–‡ ƒ–‘•’Š‡”‡ǡ‘ˆ‘••‹Ž•ǡƒ†‘•–—†‹‡•‘ˆ‹Ž‹˜‹‰ ƒ‡ Šƒ• „‡‡ ”‡’Žƒ ‡† „› ƒ†‡ƒǡ ” Š‡ƒǡ ƒ† –‡ –‘‹ •„‡‰ƒǤ͸‘–‹‡–ƒŽ ”—•–ǡƒ„‘—–͵ͷ–Š‹ ǡ ‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥš›‰‡ͳ͵(G)™ƒ•‡ˆˆ‡ –‹˜‡Ž›ƒ„•‡–‹–Š‡ ”‘–‡”‘œ‘‹  ”‡ˆŽ‡ –• ƒ ‰”‡ƒ– ʹͲ–Š ‡–—”› ƒ†˜ƒ ‡ ‹ ˆŽ‘ƒ–• ‘ –Š‡ –‘’ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ–Ž‡ǡ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‘–‹‡–• ‡ƒ”Ž›ƒ–‘•’Š‡”‡ǡƒ•‹–•–‹ŽŽ‹•‘‘–Š‡”’Žƒ‡–•‘ˆ‘—” †ƒ–‹‰ƒ†—†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰ƒ”–Š ‹•–‘”›Ǥʹ Šƒ‰‹‰ ‘ˆ‹‰—”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ• –Š‡› ”‹†‡ ƒ”‘—† ‘ ‘Žƒ” ›•–‡Ǥ  š›‰‡ „‡‰ƒ –‘ „‡ ‰‹˜‡ ‘ˆˆ ƒ• ƒ ‡”Šƒ’• –Š‡ ‡–”ƒŽ “—‡•–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ”–Š Š‹•–‘”› ‹• –‡ –‘‹  ’Žƒ–‡•ǡ •‡’ƒ”ƒ–‡† „› –Š‡ ‰”‘™‹‰ ƒ† „›’”‘†— – ™Š‡ ’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡•‹• ƒ’’‡ƒ”‡† ‹ •‹‰Ž‡Ǧ –Š‹•ǣDzŠ‡„‹”–Š‘ˆƒ”–Š™ƒ•˜‹‘Ž‡–ƒ†Š‘–Ǥ ‘™†‹† •Š”‹‹‰‘ ‡ƒ•–Šƒ–ƒ”‡ˆŽ‘‘”‡†„›‘ ‡ƒ‹  ”—•–Ǥ– ‡ŽŽ‡† ‘”‰ƒ‹••ǡ „—– †‹† ‘– ”‹•‡ ƒ„‘˜‡ –”ƒ ‡ Ž‡˜‡Ž• •— Š ƒ ƒ‰”› ›‘—‰ ’Žƒ‡– ‰”‘™ ƒ† †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡ –‹‡•ǡ ‘•– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘–‹‡–ƒŽ ”—•– Šƒ• „‡‡ —–‹Žƒˆ–‡”Š—‰‡ƒ‘—–•‘ˆˆ‡””‘—•‹”‘™‡”‡‘š‹†‹œ‡† ‹–‘ –Š‡ •‡‡‹‰Ž› ™‡ŽŽǦƒ†Œ—•–‡†ǡ ƒ–—”‡ ’Žƒ‡– ™‡ ƒ••‡„Ž‡† ‹–‘ ƒ •—’‡” ‘–‹‡–Ǣ͹ƒ–‘–Š‡”–‹‡• –‘ˆ‡””‹ ‹”‘ƒ††‡’‘•‹–‡† ƒ• •‡†‹‡–ƒ”› ‹”‘ ‘™ –‘†ƒ›ǫdz͵   ”‡ƒ”ƒ„Ž‡ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‰”‘™–Š –Š‡”‡Šƒ˜‡„‡‡•‡˜‡”ƒŽ•ƒŽŽ‡” ‘–‹‡–ƒŽˆ”ƒ‰‡–•ǡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘•ǤͳͶ ƒ† †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ”–Š (C) ‹• Š‘™ ”ƒ’‹†Ž› ‹– ƒ•–Š‡”‡ƒ”‡–‘†ƒ›(D)Ǥ  ƒ†‹‘‡–”‹  ƒ‰‡• ‘ –Š‡ ‘••‹Ž•(H)ƒ”‡ƒ„•‡–‹ ƒ†‡ƒ”‘ •ǤŠ‡›ƒ”‡ ™ƒ• ƒ••‡„Ž‡†ǡ „› ‹—‡”ƒ„Ž‡ •ƒŽŽǡ ‹’ƒ –‹‰ —”ƒ‹—Ǧ„‡ƒ”‹‰ ‹‡”ƒŽ œ‹” ‘ǡ ‘”‹‰‹ƒ–‹‰ ‹ –Š‡ –‹›ǡ ”ƒ”‡ǡ ƒ† †‹ˆˆ‹ —Ž– –‘ ˆ‹† ‹ –Š‡ ” Š‡ƒ ƒ† ‘„Œ‡ –• –Šƒ– ™‡ ƒŽŽ ’Žƒ‡–‡•‹ƒŽ•Ǥ  —– ‘‡ ‘ˆ –Š‘•‡ ‰”ƒ‹–‹  ”‘ • ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘–‹‡–•ǡͺ •—‰‰‡•– –Šƒ– –Š‡”‡ ”‘–‡”‘œ‘‹ ǡ ‡š ‡’– ˆ‘” •–”‘ƒ–‘Ž‹–‡•ȄŽƒ›‡”‡† ‘„Œ‡ –• ™ƒ• Š—‰‡ǡ ƒ„‘—– –Š‡ •‹œ‡ ‘ˆ ƒ”•ǡ ƒ† ‹–• Šƒ˜‡„‡‡’—Ž•‡•‹–Š‡‰”‘™–Š‘ˆ ‘–‹‡–ƒŽ ”—•–Ǥͻ •–”— –—”‡• ˆ‘”‡† ™Š‡”‡ •‡†‹‡– •–—  –‘ ƒŽ‰ƒŽ ‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘‘ ‡†‘ˆˆƒ•—„•–ƒ–‹ƒŽˆ”ƒ –‹‘‘ˆƒ”–Šǡ ’ƒ –•ǡ ˆ”‡“—‡– ‹ –Š‡ ˆ‹”•– Š—†”‡† ‹ŽŽ‹‘ ƒ–•Ȅƒ†ˆ‘”‹’”‡••‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡•‘ˆ–Ǧ„‘†‹‡† •‘‡‘ˆ™Š‹ Š’—ŽŽ‡†–‘‰‡–Š‡”–‘ˆ‘”–Š‡‘‘ǤͶŠ‡ ›‡ƒ”•ǡ –ƒ’‡”‡† ‘ˆˆ ˆ‘” ‘•– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ†‡ƒǡ –Š‡ †‹ƒ ƒ”ƒ ƒ‹ƒŽ• ‹ –Š‡ Žƒ–‡ ”‘–‡”‘œ‘‹ ǤͳͷŠ‡ ‘‘Šƒ•„‡‡‰”ƒ†—ƒŽŽ›”‡ ‡†‹‰‡˜‡”•‹ ‡ǡ„‡ ƒ—•‡ ƒ’’ƒ”‡–Ž› ”‡•—‡† †—”‹‰ –Š‡ ƒ–‡ ‡ƒ˜› ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ ‡ ‘ˆ ƒ„—†ƒ– ˆ‘••‹Ž•ǡ ƒ”‹‰ –Š‡ •–ƒ”– ‘ˆ ‘ˆ–‹†ƒŽˆ”‹ –‹‘ǡƒ†‹–ƒ –•ƒ•ƒ•–ƒ„‹Ž‹œ‡”ˆ‘”ƒ”–Šǯ• ‘„ƒ”†‡– ƒ– ƒ„‘—– –Š‡ ƒ†‡ƒǦ” Š‡ƒ –Š‡ Šƒ‡”‘œ‘‹ ǡ ƒ› ”‡ˆŽ‡ – ƒ ƒ”• ”ƒ ‡ǡ ‹ ™Š‹ Š ”‘–ƒ–‹‘ǡ ’”‡˜‡–‹‰ ™‹Ž† ˆŽ— –—ƒ–‹‘• ‹ •‡ƒ•‘ƒŽ‹–› „‘—†ƒ”› (E)Ǥ  Š‡   ƒ› Šƒ˜‡ ”‡•—Ž–‡† ˆ”‘ ƒ ƒ‹ƒŽ• ‡‡†‡† Šƒ”† •Š‡ŽŽ• ƒ• ƒ †‡ˆ‡•‡ ƒ‰ƒ‹•– ƒ†ƒ‹‰–Š‹•ƒ˜‡”›Š‘•’‹–ƒ„Ž‡’Žƒ ‡ˆ‘”Ž‹ˆ‡Ǥ ƒŒ‘” ”‡‘”‰ƒ‹œƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘Žƒ” ›•–‡ǡ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ’”‡†ƒ–‘”•Ǥ   ”‡ ‡– †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‹• –Š‡ ƒ„‹Ž‹–› –‘ Š‡ „‹‰Ǧˆ‘—” ‡Ž‡‡–• †‡Ž‹˜‡”‡† –‘ ƒ”–Š „› ˆ‘—”‰‹ƒ–’Žƒ‡–•–”ƒ†‹‰’Žƒ ‡•ƒ††‡ˆŽ‡ –‹‰ƒ› †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡ ‰‡‡–‹  ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’• „‡–™‡‡ Ž‹˜‹‰ ‹’ƒ –‹‰ ’Žƒ‡–‡•‹ƒŽ• ™‡”‡ ƒ‰‡•‹—ǡ •‹Ž‹ ‘ǡ •ƒŽŽ‡”‘„Œ‡ –•‹–‘‘”„‹–• ”‘••‹‰–Šƒ–‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ”–ŠȄ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ˆ”‘ –Š‡‹”  (I)Ǥͳ͸Š‡ ˆƒ‹Ž› –”‡‡ ‹”‘ǡ ƒ† ‘š›‰‡ ȋ‰ǡ ‹ǡ ‡ǡ ȌǤ  Š‡ Žƒ”‰‡ ‡š ‡•• ‘ˆ ƒƒ•–‘‹•Š‹‰„—–’‘••‹„Ž‡‡˜‡–ǤͳͲŠ‡ ’”‘„ƒ„Ž› †‡–‡”‹‡†‹–Š‹•™ƒ›‹•„‡––‡”–Šƒ ƒ –”‡‡ ‹ˆ‡””‡† ‹”‘ ƒ ——Žƒ–‡†ǡ ƒŽ‘‰ ™‹–Š ‘•‹†‡”ƒ„Ž‡ ‹ ‡Žǡ –‘ ƒ ‘—–•ˆ‘”–Š‡Š—‰‡ǡŽƒ˜ƒǦˆ‹ŽŽ‡† ”ƒ–‡”•‘–Š‡‘‘ ˆ”‘ˆ‘••‹Ž•ǡ„—––Š‡†ƒ–‡•‘ˆ–Š‡„”ƒ Š‹‰‘†‡•ƒ”‡ ƒ‡ –Š‡ ƒ”–Šǯ• Ž‹“—‹†Ǧ‡–ƒŽ ‘”‡Ǥ  Š‹• Šƒ’’‡‡† –Šƒ– ƒ„‡•‡‡™‹–Š–Š‡ƒ‡†‡›‡Ǥ—”’Žƒ‡–‹••‘ ˜‡”›— ‡”–ƒ‹ǡƒ†„‡––‡”Ž‡ƒ”‡†ˆ”‘”ƒ†‹‘‡–”‹  ”ƒ’‹†Ž› ™Š‡ ƒ”–Š ™ƒ• •–‹ŽŽ ‘Ž–‡ǡ „‡ ƒ—•‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‡ –‘‹ ƒŽŽ›ƒ –‹˜‡–Šƒ–‘Ž›ƒ ‘—’Ž‡Š—†”‡†‹’ƒ – †ƒ–‹‰‘ˆ”‘ •–Šƒ– ‘–ƒ‹ˆ‘••‹Ž•Ǥ Š‹‰Š†‡•‹–›‘ˆ‹”‘Ǥ‡‰‹‹‰ƒ–ƒ— ‡”–ƒ‹–‹‡ͷ ”ƒ–‡”•Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ˆ‘—†ǡ‘‡‘”‡–ŠƒŠƒŽˆ–Š‡ƒ‰‡  –Š‡ ‘”‡Šƒ•„‡‡‰”ƒ†—ƒŽŽ›ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰ǡˆ‘”‹‰ƒ ‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ”–Šǡ‹ ‘–”ƒ•–™‹–Š–Š‡‡ƒ”Ž›— ‘—–ƒ„Ž‡ǡ

Oxygen % of atmosphere of % (km) diameter Crater Myr Ages/30 (km) radius Earth

2,000 0 0 0 4,000 0 30 20 10 6,000 200 100 800 400 Pangea Homo sapiens To 5 Panel 3 Panel L arge L arge fossils inner core

Solid Fe-Ni Acraman Laurussia * Pannotia? Walter Álvarez, 2019 Álvarez, Walter

( with backbones or spinal columns) * © COMPLEX LIFE

(, hemichordates) 774 Ma 774 Cephalochordates, Urochordates Cephalochordates, 10 (, molluscs, and relatives)

Ambulacria 842 Ma 842 9

The latest billion years`: 910 Ma 910 Protostomata 8 Deuterostomata (animals with a notochord, the embryological (animals with a notochord, of the vertebral column) precursor (, jellyfish) (three germ layers, germ layers, (three symmetry) bilateral

(vertebrates, echinoderms, echinoderms, (vertebrates, and relatives) 1036 Ma 1036 Radiata 7 Bilateria Marinoan (0.635 Ga) Sturtian (0.710 Ga) ()

(animals with tissues germ layers) into organized 1237 Ma 1237 Porifera Eumetazoa

Eubacteria

6 1368 Ma 1368 Fungi 5 (animals + fungi) Eumetazoa + Eumetazoa Choanoflagellates* Stage 3 4 Stage * There is an inconsistency in Timetree of Life, p. 117 vs. 224: 117 vs. p. of Life, is an inconsistency in Timetree * There -Choanoflagellate page 117 shows split at 1020 Ma; split as 1237 Ma. the (subsequent) Porifera-Eumetazoa page 224 shows

Nuna 1594 Ma 1594 Opistokonts 4 Impacts on Earth

Eukaryotes

uncertainty mitochondria) Sudbury organelles such as organelles (cells with nucleus and (cells

Liquid -nickel outer core Liquid iron-nickel

3 Vredefort 2 Ga 1 Ga now to mitochondria to endosymbiosis leading Makganyene (~2.25 Ga) Makganyene * EARTH Fossils small and rare, except for for except small and rare, Fossils Kenorland? A F Rocky silicate (4.567 Ga now) to

[[??]] Replace bars with those from Evans et al., 2016, Fig. 1 Fig. 2016, al., et Evans from those with bars supercontinent Replace 3 Ga The very long ...... quiet times Stage 1 2 Stage (source craters not known) craters (source impact-spheruleArchean layers Archean Phanerozoic Deposition of sedimentary (Bekker 2010) formations et al., iron G : (Evans et al., 2016, GSL Sp. Pub. 424) Pub. 2016, GSL Sp. et al., (Evans Chemical fossils only Chemical fossils Liquid iron-nickel core Liquid iron-nickel

Oxygen ( Holland 2006) 2

ment (?) ment

Bombard- Late Heavy Late 4 Ga 3 Ga 2 Ga 1 Ga Snowball-Earth episodes (global glaciations) 4 Ga ages in orogenic granitoids and detrital granitoids ages in orogenic Zircon E 1 VERY HOT EARTH VERY -forming impact D Accretion Continental crust LIFE on EARTH LUCA No fossils Evolutionary relationships based on DNA, Evolutionary relationships of Life 2009, The Timetree Hedges and Kumar, from The earliest billion years: C (Last Universal 0 Whole-Earth I Common Ancestor) Common Moon-forming impact

B H

Origin of Earth and Solar at 4,567 Ma System Accretion

of Earth Sun, Earth, formed formed System Solar Earth, Sun, (4.567 Ga) (4.567 Eons PANEL 2: EARTH and LIFE PANEL Ga = billion years ago Ga = billion years Panel 3: Phanerozoic (541 Ma to now) ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡʹͲͳͻ  Š‹• ’ƒ‡Ž „‡‰‹• ͷͶͳ ‹ŽŽ‹‘ ›‡ƒ”• ƒ‰‘ǡ ‡š–‹ –‹‘‡˜‡–•‘ —””‡†ƒ––Š‡”†‘˜‹ ‹ƒǦ‹Ž—”‹ƒǡ ”‡ ‡– ‡š–‹ –‹‘•ǡ ƒ† ’‘••‹„Ž› –Š‡  ƒ• ™‡ŽŽǡ —””‡–Ž› –Š‡ „‡•– ƒ‰‡ ˆ‘” –Š‡ „‡‰‹‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”ƒ•‹ƒǦ ƒ‡‹ƒ ȋ ǡ Žƒ–‡ ‡˜‘‹ƒȌǡ ‡”‹ƒǦ ‘ —””‡† †—”‹‰ –‹‡• ™Š‡ ƒ••‹˜‡ ‘—–’‘—”‹‰• ‘ˆ Šƒ‡”‘œ‘‹ ȋ˜‹•‹„Ž‡Ž‹ˆ‡Ȍ‘ǡ–Š‡ƒŽ‡‘œ‘‹ ”ƒǡƒ† ”‹ƒ••‹ ǡ ”‹ƒ••‹ Ǧ —”ƒ••‹  ƒ† ”‡–ƒ ‡‘—•ǦƒŽ‡‘‰‡‡ „ƒ•ƒŽ–‹ Žƒ˜ƒ™‡”‡–ƒ‹‰’Žƒ ‡ Ȅ–Š‡ •ǡ‘”ƒ”‰‡ –Š‡ƒ„”‹ƒ‡”‹‘†Ǥ ––Šƒ–’‘‹–‹ƒ”–ŠŠ‹•–‘”› ȋ‰ǡ ˆ‘”‡”Ž› ƒŽŽ‡† ”‡–ƒ ‡‘—•Ǧ‡”–‹ƒ”› α Ȍ ‰‡‘—•”‘˜‹ ‡• (F)Ǥ͹Š‡‡ˆˆ‡ –•‘ˆ–Š‡Š‹ š—Ž—„ –Š‡”‡ ™ƒ• ƒ •—††‡ ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ ‡ ‘ˆƒ„—†ƒ– ˆ‘••‹Ž•Ǥ „‘—†ƒ”‹‡•Ǥ‹ ‡–Š‡ǡ–Š‡‡˜‡–ǡ–Š‡‰”‡ƒ–‡•–‘ˆ ‹’ƒ – ™‡”‡ ‡”–ƒ‹Ž› ƒ’ƒ„Ž‡ ‘ˆ ’”‘†— ‹‰ ƒ ƒ••  ‡–Š‘—‰Š––‘ƒ”–Š‡ •—††‡‘”‹‰‹‘ˆŽ‹ˆ‡ǡ‹–‹• –Š‡ƒ••‡š–‹ –‹‘•ǡŠƒ•„‡‡”‡ ‘‰‹œ‡†ƒ•ƒ†‘—„Ž‡ ‡š–‹ –‹‘ǡ „—– –Š‡”‡ ‹• ‘ ‘„˜‹‘—• ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ ‹ŽŽ‹‰ ‘™”‡ƒŽ‹œ‡†–Šƒ–Ž‹ˆ‡‹•˜‡”›— Š‘Ž†‡”ǡƒ†–Š‹•™ƒ• ‡š–‹ –‹‘ǡ ™‹–Š –Š‡  ‡š–‹ –‹‘ ’”‡ ‡†‡†ǡ Œ—•– ͹Ǥ͸ ‡ Šƒ‹• –Šƒ– ™‘—Ž† ”‡•—Ž– ˆ”‘ ƒ  Ǥ  ‡”Šƒ’• ‹•–‡ƒ†–Š‡”ƒ’‹†ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ ‡‘ˆŠƒ”†’ƒ”–•ǡŽ‹‡•Š‡ŽŽ•ǡ ›” ‡ƒ”Ž‹‡”ǡ „› –Š‡ ƒ’‹–ƒ‹ƒǦ— Š‹ƒ’‹‰‹ƒ –Š‡”‡ ‹• •‘‡ ‘„‹ƒ–‹‘ –Šƒ– ™‘—Ž† ‡š’Žƒ‹ ™Š› –Šƒ– ƒ „‡ ’”‡•‡”˜‡† ƒ• ˆ‘••‹Ž•Ǥ  Š‡ŽŽ• ƒ› Šƒ˜‡ ‡š–‹ –‹‘ ȋȌǤ  Š‡ ‘””‡•’‘†‡ ‡ „‡–™‡‡ ˆ‘—” –Š‡‰‡š–‹ –‹‘ ‘‹ ‹†‡†™‹–Š„‘–Šƒ‹’ƒ –ƒ† ƒ”‹•‡ ƒ• ’”‘–‡ –‹‘ ƒ‰ƒ‹•– ‹ ”‡ƒ•‹‰Ž› ‡ˆˆ‡ –‹˜‡ ƒ•• ‡š–‹ –‹‘• ƒ† ’‡”‹‘† „‘—†ƒ”‹‡• ‹• ‘– ƒ ƒ Ǥͺ ’”‡†ƒ–‹‘Ǥ  Š‡ ʹͲͳʹ ‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ ‹‡  ƒŽ‡ (A) ‘‹ ‹†‡ ‡ǡˆ‘”–Š‡‡ƒ”Ž›‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–•’Žƒ ‡†–Š‡’‡”‹‘† Š‡”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ–Š‡ ‘š›‰‡ ‹•‘–‘’‡•ǡ ͳ͸ ƒ† ͳͺǡ ‹ †‹˜‹†‡•–Š‡Šƒ‡”‘œ‘‹ ‹–‘–Š‡ƒŽ‡‘œ‘‹ ȋ‘Ž†Ž‹ˆ‡Ȍǡ „‘—†ƒ”‹‡• ƒ– •—††‡ Šƒ‰‡• ‹ –Š‡ ˆ‘••‹Ž ˆƒ—ƒǤ ƒ”‹‡ ˆ‘••‹Ž• ”‡ˆŽ‡ –•–Š‡–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘ ‡ƒ ‡•‘œ‘‹  ȋ‹††Ž‡ Ž‹ˆ‡Ȍǡ ƒ† ‡‘œ‘‹  ȋ”‡ ‡– Ž‹ˆ‡Ȍ ȋŠ‡ ’Žƒ ‡‡– ‘ˆ ƒ•• ‡š–‹ –‹‘• ‘ ‡’‘•‹ǯ• ™ƒ–‡”ǡ‰‹˜‹‰ƒ”‘—‰Š”‡ ‘”†‘ˆ–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡–Š”‘—‰Š ”ƒ•ǡ™Š‹ Š‹–—”ƒ”‡†‹˜‹†‡†‹–‘ͳͳ’‡”‹‘†•Ǥͳ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ ƒ› ‘– ‡šƒ –Ž› ƒ– Š –Š‡ ’‡”‹‘† –Š‡ Šƒ‡”‘œ‘‹  (G)Ǥ  Ž–Š‘—‰Š ‘– ƒŽ‹„”ƒ–‡† ‹ ‘”Ž‹ˆ‡Š‹•–‘”›ǡ™‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™–Š‡„”ƒ Š‡•‘ˆ–Š‡ „‘—†ƒ”‹‡•ǡ „‡ ƒ—•‡ ‘ˆ •Ž‹‰Š– ƒ†Œ—•–‡–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ †‡‰”‡‡•ǡ–Š‹••Š‘™•ƒ‹””‡‰—Žƒ”ˆŽ— –—ƒ–‹‘„‡–™‡‡ –”‡‡‘ˆŽ‹ˆ‡(B)–Šƒ–Ž‡ƒ†–‘Š—ƒ•ǡ”‡‡„‡”‹‰–Šƒ– „‘—†ƒ”›ƒ‰‡•‹–Š‡‡ƒ–‹‡ǤȌ‡’‘•‹ǯ•’Ž‘–ƒŽ•‘ Š‘– ƒ† ‘Ž† Ž‹ƒ–‡•ǡ –Š‡ Žƒ––‡” ‹ ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‡ ‡˜‡”› ‘–Š‡” ‘†‡” ‘”‰ƒ‹• Šƒ• ƒ •‹‹Žƒ”Ž› •Š‘™•–Š‡”‡ƒ”ƒ„Ž‡‹ ”‡ƒ•‡‹‰‡‡”ƒ‘™ ƒŽŽ‡† ƒ‰”‡‡‡–™‹–Š–‹‡•‘ˆ‘™‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽ‡’‹•‘†‡•Ǥͻ ‘’Ž‹ ƒ–‡†‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ƒ”› Š‹•–‘”›Ǥ   –Š‹• ƒ–Š”‘’‘Ǧ –Š‡ ”‡ƒ–”†‘˜‹ ‹ƒ‹‘†‹˜‡”•‹ˆ‹ ƒ–‹‘˜‡–ǤͶ Š‡˜ƒ”‹‘—•‡˜‡–•‘ˆ–Š‡Šƒ‡”‘œ‘‹ –‘‘’Žƒ ‡ ‡–”‹ ˜‹‡™ǡ–Š‡–”‡‡‘ˆŽ‹ˆ‡„ƒ•‡†‘ˆ”‘Ž‹˜‹‰  ƒ††‹–‹‘ –‘ –Š‡ •‹š ƒ•• ‡š–‹ –‹‘• ƒ† –Š‡ ‘ƒ‡˜‘Ž˜‹‰‰Ž‘„ƒŽ•–ƒ‰‡–Šƒ–•ƒ™–Š‡ƒ••‡„Ž›‘ˆ ‘”‰ƒ‹••ˆ‹”•–ˆ‘ —•‡•‘ˆ‹•Šƒ†–Š‡Žƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ ”‡ƒ– ”†‘˜‹ ‹ƒ ‹‘†‹˜‡”•‹ˆ‹ ƒ–‹‘ ˜‡–ǡ ”‹–‹ ƒŽ ƒ ‹‡– ‘–‹‡–• ȋ‹ Ž—†‹‰ –Š‡ Ž‘‰ǦŽƒ•–‹‰ —ƒ•ƒ†‘—” Ž‘•‡”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡•ƒ”‡ ‘ˆ‹‡†–‘‡ƒ” ‹‰Ǧ ‹•–‘”›„‹‘Ǧ‡˜‡–•(D)‹ Ž—†‡–Š‡’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ •‘—–Š‡” •—’‡” ‘–‹‡– ‘ˆ ‘†™ƒƒȌ –‘ ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹˜‹•‹„‹Ž‹–›ƒ––Š‡”‡ ‡–‡†‘ˆ–Š‡Šƒ‡”‘œ‘‹ ǤŠ‹• –Š‡Žƒ†•—”ˆƒ ‡ǤŠ‹•’”‘„ƒ„Ž›„‡‰ƒ™‹–Š•‹‰Ž‡Ǧ ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ •—’‡” ‘–‹‡– ‘ˆ ƒ‰‡ƒǡ –Š‡ ’‡”•‹•–‡ ‡ ‘ˆ Ǧ„ƒ•‡† –‹‡Ǧ–”‡‡ ‘ˆ Ž‹ˆ‡ǡ ˆ”‘ ‡†‰‡• ƒ† ‡ŽŽ‡†‘”‰ƒ‹••™‡ŽŽ„‡ˆ‘”‡–Š‡Šƒ‡”‘œ‘‹ ǡƒŽǦ ƒ‰‡ƒ ˆ‘” ƒ„‘—– ͳͲͲ ›”ǡ ƒ† ‹–• ’”‘‰”‡••‹˜‡ —ƒ”ǡʹ ‹• —•‡† „‡ ƒ—•‡ ‹– ‹• –Š‡ ‘•– †‡–ƒ‹Ž‡†ƒ† –Š‘—‰Š ‘ ˆ‘••‹Ž ”‡ ‘”† Šƒ• „‡‡ ˆ‘—†Ǥ  Š‡ ‘Ž†‡•– „”‡ƒ—’ǡ„‡‰‹‹‰‹–Š‡ —”ƒ••‹ ƒ†•–‹ŽŽ ‘–‹—‹‰ ‘’”‡Š‡•‹˜‡•–—†›ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ǡ„—–‹–‹•‹’‘”–ƒ––‘ ˆ‘••‹Ž•‘ˆŽƒ†’Žƒ–• ‘ —” ‹–Š‡‹Ž—”‹ƒǤ Š‡”‡‹• (H)Ǥšƒ‹‹‰‘ƒŽ†Žƒ‡›ǯ•ƒ’”‡ ‘•–”— –‹‘•ǡ ”‡‡„‡”–Šƒ––Š‡†ƒ–‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‘†‡•™Š‡”‡Ž‹‡ƒ‰‡• ‘™ ƒ†‡–ƒ‹Ž‡†ˆ‘••‹Ž”‡ ‘”†‘ˆ–Š‡‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ †—”‹‰ „‡‰‹‹‰ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‡ƒ”Ž‹‡•– ȋͷͶͲ ƒȌǡ ™‡ ˆ‹”•– •‡‡ •’Ž‹– ƒ”‡ „ƒ•‡† ‘ –Š‡ †—„‹‘—• ƒ••—’–‹‘ –Šƒ– –Š‡ Žƒ–‡ ‡˜‘‹ƒǡ ˆ”‘ Ž‘„‡Ǧˆ‹‡† ˆ‹•Š‡• –‘ —ˆƒ‹Ž‹ƒ” ‘–‹‡–• Ȅ ƒ—”‡–‹ƒǡ ‹„‡”‹ƒǡ ƒŽ–‹ ƒǡ ‰‡‡–‹  Šƒ‰‡ ƒ ——Žƒ–‡• ƒ– ƒ ‘•–ƒ– ”ƒ–‡Ǥ   –‡–”ƒ’‘†• Ȃ Žƒ† ƒ‹ƒŽ• ™‹–Š Ž‡‰•Ǥͷ›–Š‡ ƒ† ƒ••‹˜‡ ‘†™ƒƒ Ȅ ‹ ƒ ’ƒ––‡” –Šƒ– †‹† ‘– ˆ—”–Š‡” ’”‘„Ž‡ ‹• –Šƒ–  ƒ‘– „‡ ”‡ ‘˜‡”‡† ƒ”„‘‹ˆ‡”‘—• ‡”‹‘† –Š‡”‡ ™‡”‡ ‰”‡ƒ– •™ƒ’› Šƒ‰‡ — Š —–‹Ž ͵ͲͲ ƒǡ ™Š‡ –Š‡ ‘”–Š‡” ˆ”‘ ‡š–‹ – Ž‹‡ƒ‰‡• ȋ‡š ‡’– ˆ‘” ‡š–”‡‡Ž› ”‡ ‡– ˆ‘”‡•–• ™Š‹ Š Šƒ˜‡ –—”‡† ‹–‘ ‘ƒŽ Ȅ Š‡ ‡ –Š‡ ‘–‹‡–• ‘ŽŽ‹†‡† ™‹–Š ‘†™ƒƒ –‘ ’”‘†— ‡ –Š‡ Ž‹‡• Ž‹‡ –Š‡ ‡ƒ†‡”–ŠƒŽ•ȌǤ  Š‡ Ǧ„ƒ•‡† ƒ‡‘ˆ–Š‡’‡”‹‘†ǤŠ‡”‹ƒ••‹ ™ƒ•Žƒ”‰‡Ž›ƒ–‹‡‘ˆ ‡‘”‘—• ’’ƒŽƒ Š‹ƒ ‘—–ƒ‹ Šƒ‹ǡ ™Š‹ Š ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ƒ”› ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’• •Š‘™ǡ Š‘™‡˜‡”ǡ ƒ”‡ ”‡ ‘˜‡”›ˆ”‘–Š‡†‘—„Ž‡™Šƒ›‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ† ‘”‹‰‹ƒŽŽ› ‘–‹—‡† ‹–‘ ‘†‡” —”‘’‡ ƒ• –Š‡ ƒ’’ƒ”‡–Ž› ‘”‡ ”‡Ž‹ƒ„Ž‡ –Šƒ –Š‘•‡ ‹ˆ‡””‡† ˆ”‘ ‡š–‹ –‹‘•Ǥ  Š‡ —”ƒ••‹  ƒ† ”‡–ƒ ‡‘—• ™‡”‡ –Š‡ ƒ”‹• ƒ ‘—–ƒ‹•Ǥ  Š‡ ”‡•—Ž–‹‰ •—’‡” ‘–‹‡–ǡ ˆ‘••‹Ž•Ǥ –‹‡ ‘ˆ †‹‘•ƒ—”•ǡ ‡†‹‰ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‰ ƒ•• ƒ‰‡ƒǡ‡†—”‡†—–‹Žƒ„‘—–ʹͲͲƒǡ•—””‘—†‡†„›  –Š‡ ͳͻͻͲ• ƒ  ‡’‘•‹ ‘’‹Ž‡† •–”ƒ–‹Ǧ ‡š–‹ –‹‘ǡ•— ‡‡†‡†„›–Š‡‡‘œ‘‹ „Ž‘••‘‹‰‘ˆ –Š‡‡˜‡ǦŽƒ”‰‡”‰Ž‘„ƒŽ‘ ‡ƒ‘ˆƒ–ŠƒŽƒ••ƒǡƒŽ–Š‘—‰Š ‰”ƒ’Š‹  ”ƒ‰‡• ˆ”‘ –Š‡ Ž‹–‡”ƒ–—”‡ ˆ‘” Š—†”‡†• ‘ˆ ƒƒŽ•Ǥ –Š‡”‡ ™‡”‡ ‘’Ž‹ ƒ–‡† ‘–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‘–‹‡–ƒŽ ˆƒ‹Ž‹‡•ƒ†–Š‘—•ƒ†•‘ˆ‰‡‡”ƒ(C)‘ˆˆ‘••‹Žƒ”‹‡ Š‡ ƒ—•‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‰”‡ƒ– ‡š–‹ –‹‘• ”‡ƒ‹• ƒ ˆ”ƒ‰‡–• ™‹–Š‹ –Š‡ ™‡†‰‡Ǧ•Šƒ’‡† ‡–Š›ƒ  ‡ƒ ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ͵  ‹• ’Ž‘–• ’”‘˜‹†‡† –Š‡ ˆ‹”•– “—ƒ–‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‹‰’”‘„Ž‡ǤŠ‡‘•–”‡ ‡–‡š–‹ –‹‘ –Šƒ– ‹†‡–‡† ƒ‰‡ƒ ‘ –Š‡‡ƒ•–Ǥ  ƒ‰‡ƒ „‡‰ƒ –‘ ’‘”–”ƒ›ƒŽ ‘ˆ ˆ‘••‹Ž „‹‘†‹˜‡”•‹–› –Š”‘—‰Š –Š‡ ȋȌ ‘‹ ‹†‡† ’”‡ ‹•‡Ž› ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‡š–”ƒ–‡””‡•–”‹ƒŽ „”‡ƒ —’ ƒ– ƒ„‘—– ʹͲͲ ƒǡ ƒ† ‹ Žƒ–‡” ƒ’• –Š‡ Šƒ‡”‘œ‘‹  ƒ† •Š‘™‡† ˆ‹˜‡ •—††‡ †”‘’• ‹ ‹’ƒ – –Šƒ– ’”‘†— ‡† –Š‡ Š—‰‡ Š‹ š—Ž—„ ”ƒ–‡”ǡ ‘ ‘–‹‡–• ‘ˆ –‘†ƒ› ƒ”‡ ”‡ ‘‰‹œƒ„Ž‡ǡ ™‹–Š –Š‡‹” „‹‘†‹˜‡”•‹–› ™Š‹ Š Š‡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹‡† ƒ• ƒ•• ‡š–‹ –‹‘• ‡š‹ ‘ǯ• — ƒ–ž ‡‹•—Žƒ͸ (E)ǡ „—– –Š‡”‡ ‹• ‘ Œ‘•–Ž‹‰•ƒ† ‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘•’”‘†— ‹‰–Š‡‡†‹–‡””ƒ‡ƒ ȋ–Š‡ †”‘’• ƒ”‡ — Š ‘”‡ †”ƒƒ–‹  ‹ –Š‡ ‘”‹‰‹ƒŽ ‡˜‹†‡ ‡ˆ‘”Žƒ”‰‡Ǧ„‘†›‹’ƒ –ƒ––Š‡–‹‡•‘ˆƒ›‘ˆ ‡ƒƒ†‘—–ƒ‹ Šƒ‹•‘ˆ–Š‡ ‹ƒŽƒ›ƒ•ǡ–Š‡ƒ‰”‘•ǡ ’Ž‘–•ǡ ™‹–Š ƒ ‡š’ƒ†‡† ˜‡”–‹ ƒŽ ƒš‹•ȌǤ  Š‡•‡ –Š‡ ‘–Š‡” ˆ‹˜‡ ‡š–‹ –‹‘•Ǥ  ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ –Š‡ ˆ‘—” ‘•– ƒ†–Š‡Ž’•Ǥ  Humans and PANEL 3: PHANEROZOIC – Abundant fossils (541 Ma to now) extinct relatives

Humans and extinct relatives

(gorillas, chimps, Hominini (chimps, humans) humans)

Homininae 31 6 Ma

(greater 8 Ma Chimps Hominidae and humans) 30 Gorillas Hominoidea (apes) 29 14 Ma (Old -World monkeys Orangutans Catarrhini and apes) 28 18.8 Ma (lesser apes, (New-World monkeys; Hylobatidae or gibbons) Platyrrhini; Catarrhini Old-World monkeys and apes) 27 29.6 Ma (Old-World Cercopithecidae monkeys) (, extinct (dry-nosed 26 44.2 Ma Haplorrhini primates) Plesiodapiformes, (colugos) (New-World Platyrrhini monkeys) tree , colugos) 71.1 Ma (Supraprimates = Primates 25 primates + rodents Primates; 77.5 Ma Tarsiers + rabbits) Dermoptera 24 (wet-nosed

86.2 Ma Strepsirrhini primates) Laurasiatheria + Euarchonta 23 Euarchontoglires (colugos, or Euarchontoglires 22 89.1 Ma Dermoptera flying lemurs) Scadentia (tree shrews) Evolutionary relationships based on DNA Boreoeutheria 21 91.0 Ma (placental (rodents, rabbits, LIFE mammals) 20 97.4 Ma Glires hares) (bats, hoofed mammals,

(mammals giving birth to young 19 104.7 Ma Laurasiatheria carnivores, whales) Theria with no shelled egg; external ears) (mammals that originated and B from Hedges and Kumar, ( vertebrates with Atlantogenata radiated in and Africa) Mammals sweat glands, hair, milk) 18 176.1 Ma ( with terrestrially- ( and adapted eggs) Metatheria extinct relatives) 2009, The Timetree of Life 17 220.2 Ma (541 Ma) Amniotes (egg-laying mammals, including (four-legged Prototheria platypus and extinct relatives) Genetic relationships derived from DNA (lobe-finned Tetrapods vertebrates) 16 324.5 Ma fishes) studies, like those shown here, are more 15 361 Ma , , reliable than can be inferred from fossils. (bony (Frogs, toads, 430 Ma Amphibia salamanders, etc.) However the ages of the splits are poorly fishes) 14 constrained, and DNA is not available for (Coelacanths and 13 455 Ma Actinista; Dipnoi relatives; lungfish) extinct species, for which fossils provide (ray-finned fishes) the only information (see “Biodiversity”).

527 Ma Actinopterygii 12 (cartilaginous fishes, e.g., , rays) Biodiversity **OS FF Mass extinctions CW** PT *TJ Sepkoski (1997) * 2000 KPg 1000 C Number of genera of marine animals GOBE = Great Biodiversification 0 Genera Bioevents GOBE First First Greatest extinction Dinosaurs dominate the land fauna Mammals dominate land land F F forests T J until the KPg extinction D OS plants animals CW+ PT KT = K-Pg 500 Ma 400 Ma 300 Ma 200 Ma 100 Ma *Popigai 35.7±0.2 Ma, 90 km EARTH E Main Impact Events PopigaiPanel 4 OrdovicianOrdovician impact impact storm Main impact events Manicouagan Morokweng Chicxulub Popigai 35.7±0.2 Ma stormca. 462 ca. Ma 462 Ma 214±1 Ma, 85 km 145±0.8 Ma, 70 km 66 Ma, 150 km Popigai*90 km F Viluy Traps Siberian Traps Central = CAMP Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs)? () (China) (Russia) (U.S., S. America, Africa) (S. America, Africa) (India) G Modified after a chart of Phanerozoic Change by Robert Rohde Hot -2 0 Temperature Glacial times Cold 2 O (per mil) These realistic-looking paleocontinental reconstruction maps are by Ronald C. Blakey, labels added to the Blakey maps: 18 University of Northern Arizona, (http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/mollglobe.html) af=Africa; sa=South America; na=; eu=; as= ; ch=China; in=India; au=; an= and Mountains δ

540 Ma 500 Ma 470 Ma 450 Ma 430 Ma 400 Ma 370 Ma 340 Ma 300 Ma 280 Ma 260 Ma 240 Ma 220 Ma 200 Ma 170 Ma 150 Ma 120 Ma105 Ma 90120120 MaMa Ma 65 Ma 50 Ma 35 Ma 20 Ma

as as as as Panthalassa Panthalassa Ocean Panthalassa Ocean Panthalassa Ocean as as as as as as as Panthalassa Ocean as as as Panthalassa Ocean na na na Siberia as na na na na Panthalassa Ocean Siberia Panthalassa Pangea Pangea Pangea eu na eu na eu na eu eu Siberia Pangea na eu ch eu eu eu eu ch Siberia Panthalassa Ocean Ocean na na eu eu eu ch ch ch ch ch ch Siberia Prototethys Ocean na ch ch ch Panthalassa Ocean Panthalassa Ocean na eu Panthalassa Panthalassa Ocean Paleotethys Panthalassa Siberia eu Panthalassa Ocean Panthalassa Ocean Panthalassa af in Laurussia ians Ocean ians Paleotethys Ocean in lach h Ocean ians Panthalassa Ocean Panthalassa af in s na ppa ppalac ach af Pangea Neotethys sa Laurentia Laurussia eu lachians A Paleotethys A ppal af Appalachians Neotethys Panthalassa sa Ocean sa af Neotethys Neotethys af Siberia Gondwana Laurentia Baltica Old Red Rheic Appa Paleotethys A sa Panthalassa Ocean Neotethys Neotethys sa af sa sa af sa af Laurentia n af af Ocean Neotethys Neotethys sa sa Laurentia n Continent = sa sa sa Pangea af sa Indian a a Ocean Paleotethys af Pangea Neotethys in Siberia n e e sa in af a c c Baltica Gondwana Laurussia Paleotethy af af Gondwana e O O Rheic Ocean sa Indian Laurentia c us Gondwana tus Gondwana Pangea Neotethys in in Ocean au O Iapet Baltica Rheic Iape Rheic Rheic Ocean au Pangea au in Ocean au Gondwana tus Avalonia Gondwana Pangea au in in Iape Baltica Ocean Ocean Gondwana au au an an an Indian Baltica Gondwana Gondwana Gondwana au au au au au au Ocean au au Gondwana Gondwana an an an au an an H an an an an an an an an

Two small northern continents – Baltica, and Laurentia (North America + Greenland) collided about 420 Ma to form the A complex collision Pangea lasted about 100 million years, with complex motions Progressive fragmentation of Pangea, the most recent supercontinent, has continued since 180 Ma, between Gondwana, Caledonide Mountains and the amalgamated continent of Laurussia, staying separate from Gondwana until about 320 Ma. Laurussia, & Siberia, in the Tethys oceanic embayment of the eastern side of the producing the familiar continents of today, generating and Indian , eliminating the about 320-290 Ma, supercontinent. The first cracks in Pangea appeared between Tethys, and reducing the great Panthalassa Ocean that surrounded Pangea to the present Pacific Ocean. produced Pangea & Africa and North America about 200 Ma, and fragmentation Collisions of Africa and India with Asia have built the mountains of the Mediterranean region, including Gondwana, the the great great southern southern continent, continent, was was already already in existence in existence when whenthe Phanerozoic the Phanerozoic began, having began, formed having by formed by the Appalachian- Appearance of hard shells starts the rich fossil record starts shells of hard record Appearance fossil the rich collision of of smaller smaller continents continents during during the thePan-African Pan-African event, , about 700-550 about Ma.700-550 Gondwana Ma. Gondwana lasted until lastedabout 320until Ma. about 320 Ma. Variscan Mountains. of Pangea was well under way by 180 Ma. the , as well as the great chain of the .

Periods Ordovician Neo- A gene Cenozoic 500 Ma 400 Ma 300 Ma 200 Ma 100 Ma now Ma = million years ago © Walter Álvarez, 2019 Panel 4: Cenozoic (66 Ma to now) ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡʹͲͳͻ  ‡‰‹‹‰ ™‹–Š –Š‡ Š‹ š—Ž—„ ‹’ƒ – ƒ† ƒ•• ‡˜ƒ’‘”ƒ–‡† ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ‘ ‡ƒ •—”ˆƒ ‡ ƒ† •–‘”‡† ‹ ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ǡ ‹ ‘—” ‹‰Ǧ ‹•–‘”› ™ƒ›ǡ –Š‡ „”ƒ Š‡• ‡š–‹ –‹‘͸͸‹ŽŽ‹‘›‡ƒ”•ƒ‰‘ǡ–Š‹•’ƒ‡Ž•Š‘™•–Š‡ ‰Žƒ ‹‡”•ǡ‡”‹ Š‹‰–Š‡‘ ‡ƒ‹ ͳͺǤŠ‡”‡ƒ”‡ƒ› ‘ˆ–Š‡–”‡‡‘ˆŽ‹ˆ‡Ž‡ƒ†‹‰–‘Š—ƒ‹–›(E)ǡ™‡•‡‡–Š‡ ‡–‹”‡ ‡‘œ‘‹  ”ƒǡ †—”‹‰ ™Š‹ Š ƒƒŽ• †ƒ–ƒ •‡–• ‘ˆ ‘š›‰‡ ‹•‘–‘’‡• ‹ ƒ”‹‡ ˆ‘••‹Ž• ‘ˆ Š‹•–‘”› ‘ˆ ’”‹ƒ–‡• Ž‡ƒ†‹‰ –‘ Homo sapiensǤ   –Š‹• †‘‹ƒ–‡†–Š‡Žƒ†ˆƒ—ƒǤŠ‡ ‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ‹‡ ƒŽ‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ƒ‰‡•ǡ ˆ”‘ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ‹†• ‘ˆ ˆ‘••‹Ž• ƒ† Ǧ„ƒ•‡† ”‡ ‘•–”— –‹‘ǡ –Š‡ „”ƒ Š‹‰ ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ʹͲͳʹ (A) •Š‘™• –Š‡ †‹˜‹•‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡‘œ‘‹  ‹–‘ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‰‡‘‰”ƒ’Š‹ ƒ††‡’–Š•‡––‹‰•Ǥ‡•— Š•‡–ǡ ƒ ‡•–”ƒŽ ƒƒŽ• –‘ –Š‡ ƒ› ‘†‡” ‘”†‡”•ǡ ’‡”‹‘†•ǡ‡’‘ Š•ǡƒ†•–ƒ‰‡•ǡ„ƒ•‡†‘ˆ‘••‹Ž•ƒ†‘™ ‘’‹Ž‡† „› ǤǤ ”‘••ƒ ƒ† —•‡† Š‡”‡ǡ͵ Ž‡ƒ”Ž› ‹ Ž—†‹‰ ’”‹ƒ–‡•ǡ –‘‘ ’Žƒ ‡ ‹ –Š‡ ‹††Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ †ƒ–‡†”ƒ†‹‘‡–”‹ ƒŽŽ›Ǥͳ  Š‡•‡ •—„†‹˜‹•‹‘• ‘–‹—‡ •Š‘™•–Š‡‡‘œ‘‹ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡†‡ Ž‹‡Ǥ ”‡–ƒ ‡‘—• ȋƒ‡Ž ͵Ȍǡ ‡ƒ”Ž‹‡” –Šƒ –Š‡ –‹‡ ‘˜‡”‡† „ƒ  –Š”‘—‰Š –Š‡ ‡–‹”‡ Šƒ‡”‘œ‘‹ ǡ ƒŽ–Š‘—‰Š –Š‡ ‡‘œ‘‹  ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ ‡˜‡–• (D) ™‡”‡ †‘‹ƒ–‡† „› –Š‹• ’ƒ‡Žǡ ™Š‹ Š –Š—• „‡‰‹• ™‡ŽŽ ƒŽ‘‰ ‹ –Š‡ •–ƒ‰‡•ƒ†‡˜‡–Š‡‡’‘ Š•ƒ”‡–‘‘„”‹‡ˆ–‘•Š‘™‘ „›‘‰‘‹‰†‹•’‡”•ƒŽ‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ”ƒ‰‡–•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‰‡ƒ ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ƒ”› •‡“—‡ ‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’”‹ƒ–‡•Ǥ  ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ –Š‡’”‡ ‡†‹‰’ƒ‡Ž•ǤŠ‡†‹˜‹•‹‘•‹–Š‡ ǦʹͲͳʹ •—’‡” ‘–‹‡–ǡ™Š‹ Š„‡‰ƒ‹–Š‡ —”ƒ••‹ ȋ•‡‡–Š‡ Ǧ„ƒ•‡†–”‡‡•ƒ”‡‘”‡”‡Ž‹ƒ„Ž‡ˆ‘”–Š‡’ƒ––‡”‘ˆ ƒ– ˆ‹”•– Ž‘‘ Ž‹‡ –Š‡ †‹˜‹•‹‘• Š‹•–‘”‹ƒ• ƒ’’Ž› –‘ œ‘‘ƒ„Ž‡ ƒ’• ‹ ƒ‡Ž ͵ȌǤ  ‡ ƒ—•‡ ‘–‹‡–• ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’• –Šƒ ˆ‘” –Š‡ †ƒ–‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ „”ƒ Š‹‰ —ƒ Š‹•–‘”› Ȅ ‡ƒ‹••ƒ ‡ǡ Ž‹‰Š–‡‡–ǡ ‡– Ǥǡ ƒ‘– †‹•’‡”•‡ ‹†‡ˆ‹‹–‡Ž› ‘ ƒ •’Š‡”‹ ƒŽ ’Žƒ‡–ǡ ‘†‡•ǡ ™Š‹ Š ”‡Ž› ‘ –Š‡ “—‡•–‹‘ƒ„Ž‡ ƒ••—’–‹‘ „—– ƒ”‡ ‹ ˆƒ – ˜‡”› †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–Ǥ  Š‡ Š—ƒ‹•–‹  ‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘•—•––ƒ‡’Žƒ ‡Ǥ‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘„‡–™‡‡ˆ”‹ ƒǦ –Šƒ––Š‡”ƒ–‡‘ˆ—–ƒ–‹‘•‹• ‘•–ƒ–Ǥ †‹˜‹•‹‘•ƒ”‡•—„Œ‡ –‹˜‡ǡƒ† ƒ„‡—•‡†‹†‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ”ƒ„‹ƒ ƒ† —”ƒ•‹ƒ Ž‘•‡† ‘ˆˆ –Š‡ ™‡•–‡” ‡–Š›•ǡ ƒ•‡†‘”‡Ž‹ƒ„Ž›Ǧ†ƒ–‡†ˆ‘••‹Ž•ǡ–Š‡”‡‹•ƒ•–”‹‹‰ ™ƒ›• „› †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ƒ—–Š‘”•Ǣ  –Š‡”‡ ‹• ‘ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‰–Š‡Ž’•ƒ†–Š‡ƒ‰”‘•‘—–ƒ‹•‘ˆ ”ƒǡ ‡‘œ‘‹ ‹ ”‡ƒ•‡‘ˆ–Š‡ƒš‹—•‹œ‡‘ˆƒƒŽ• ƒ‰”‡‡‡– ƒ„‘—– –Š‡ ‡šƒ – ‡ƒ‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡•‡ –‡”•Ǥ ƒ†–Š‡Œ‘•–Ž‹‰‘ˆ‹ ”‘’Žƒ–‡•ƒ†•ƒŽŽ ‘–‹‡–ƒŽ (F)ǡ ”‹•‹‰ ˆ”‘ ƒ”‘—† ͷͲ ‰ ‹ –Š‡ ƒŽ‡‘ ‡‡ –‘ › ‘–”ƒ•–ǡ‡ƒ Šˆ‘”ƒŽ•—„†‹˜‹•‹‘ ‘ˆ–Š‡ ‡‘Ž‘‰‹  ˆ”ƒ‰‡–•ǡŽ‹‡‘”•‹ ƒƒ†ƒ”†‹‹ƒǡ‹–Š‡ ‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘ ͳͷǡͲͲͲ‘”‘”‡‰‹–Š‡•‡ ‘†ŠƒŽˆ‘ˆ–Š‡‡‘œ‘‹ Ǥ ‹‡  ƒŽ‡ Šƒ• „‡‡ ˆ‹š‡† „› –Š‡ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ œ‘‡ Šƒ• ’”‘†— ‡† –Š‡ ‘’Ž‡š •ƒŽŽ •‡ƒ• ƒ† Š‹• ‹• ‰‡‡”ƒŽŽ› ƒ––”‹„—–‡† –‘ –Š‡ Ǧ‰ ƒ•• ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹  ‘—‹–› ƒˆ–‡” Ž‘‰ǡ ”‹‰‘”‘—• †‹• —••‹‘ǡ ‘—–ƒ‹ „‡Ž–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡†‹–‡””ƒ‡ƒǤ  Š‡ ‰”‡ƒ–‡•– ‡š–‹ –‹‘ ƒ– ͸͸ ƒ Šƒ˜‹‰ ”‡‘˜‡† –Š‡ †‹‘•ƒ—”•ǡ ƒ† ‹–• „ƒ•‡ ‹• †‡ˆ‹‡† „› ƒ ’Š›•‹ ƒŽ ƒ”‡” ‹ –Š‡ ‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘™ƒ•„‡–™‡‡–Š‡”ƒ’‹†Ž›‘”–Š™ƒ”†Ǧ‘˜‹‰ –Š—•ˆ”‡‡‹‰–Š‡ƒƒŽ•–‘‘ —’›–Š‡Žƒ”‰‡Ǧƒ‹ƒŽ „‡•–ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡•‡†‹‡–ƒ”›”‘ •‘ˆ–Šƒ–ƒ‰‡Ǥ †‹ƒ ‘–‹‡–ƒ†–Š‡•‘—–Šƒ”‰‹‘ˆ•‹ƒǤŠ‹• ‹ Š‡•Ǥ Š‡ ’‘Žƒ”‹–› ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ”–Šǯ• ƒ‰‡–‹  ˆ‹‡Ž† (B)ǡ ‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘ǡ †ƒ–‡† ‹ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ’Žƒ ‡• ƒ† „› †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–  ‘–”ƒ•– –‘ –Š‡ Ǧ„ƒ•‡† ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ƒ”› –”‡‡ǡ ‡‹–Š‡”‘”ƒŽȂ’‘‹–‹‰‡ƒ”–Š‡‘”–Š”‘–ƒ–‹‘’‘Ž‡ ‡–Š‘†•ƒ•͸ͲǦͷͲƒǡͶŠƒ•‰‡‡”ƒ–‡†–Š‡‡‘”‘—• –Š‡‡˜‹†‡ ‡ˆ”‘™‡ŽŽǦ†ƒ–‡†ˆ‘••‹ŽƒƒŽ•’Žƒ ‡• ƒ•ƒ–’”‡•‡–ǡ‘””‡˜‡”•‡†Ȃ’‘‹–‹‰‡ƒ”–Š‡•‘—–Š ‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‡† œ‘‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹ƒŽƒ›ƒ• ƒ† ‹„‡–ǡ ™Š‹ Š –Š‡ƒ‹†‹˜‡”‰‡ ‡ǡƒ†–Š‡‘”‹‰‹‘ˆƒƒŽ‹ƒ ’‘Ž‡ǡŠƒ•’”‘˜‹†‡†ƒƒ††‹–‹‘ƒŽ™ƒ›–‘ ƒŽ‹„”ƒ–‡–Š‡ ‘–‹—‡ –‘ †‡ˆ‘” –‘†ƒ›ǡ „‡ ƒ—•‡ ‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘ •Ž‘™‡† ‘”†‡”•Ž‹‡–Š‡’”‹ƒ–‡•ǡ‹–Š‡ƒŽ‡‘ ‡‡ƒ†‘ ‡‡ ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹  –‹‡ • ƒŽ‡ǡ ƒ† ‹• ƒŽ•‘ ˆ‘”ƒŽŽ› •’‡ ‹ˆ‹‡† ‹ „—–†‹†‘–•–‘’–Š‡ †‹ƒǦ•‹ƒ ‘˜‡”‰‡ ‡Ǥͷ (G)Ǥ  Š‡ †‡–ƒ‹Ž• ƒ”‡ ‘–”‘˜‡”•‹ƒŽǡ „‡ ƒ—•‡ –Š‡ –Š‡ Ǥ Š‡ •‡“—‡ ‡ ‘ˆ ’‘Žƒ”‹–› Š”‘• ‹• ™‡ŽŽ • ‡š’Žƒ‹‡† ‹ –Š‡ †”ƒ™‹‰ǡ –Š‡ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ‡ƒ”Ž‹‡•–‡‘œ‘‹ ƒƒŽ•™‡”‡–‹›ƒ†–Š‡‹”ˆ‘••‹Ž•ǡ ‘™ –Š”‘—‰Š –Š‡ ‡‘œ‘‹ ǡ ƒ† ™‹–Š Ž‡••‡” †‡ Ž‹‡†—”‹‰–Š‡‡‘œ‘‹ ƒ› Šƒ˜‡ ”‡•—Ž–‡† ˆ”‘ ‡•’‡ ‹ƒŽŽ› –‡‡–Šǡ —•– „‡ ‘ŽŽ‡ –‡† ‘ ˆ‹‡Ǧ‡•Š ”‡•‘Ž—–‹‘„ƒ –Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡Šƒ‡”‘œ‘‹ ǡ‹–‡””—’–‡† ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ‡˜‡–•ǡŽ‹‡—’Ž‹ˆ–‘ˆ’Žƒ–‡ƒ—•ƒ† Šƒ‰‡•‹ • ”‡‡•ǡ ƒ† „‡ ƒ—•‡ •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ ˆ‘••‹ŽǦ„‡ƒ”‹‰ „› ƒ– Ž‡ƒ•– ‘‡ Ž‘‰ ‘”ƒŽ ƒ† ‘‡ Ž‘‰ ”‡˜‡”•‡† ‘ ‡ƒ ‹” —Žƒ–‹‘ǡ„—––Š‡•‡Šƒ˜‡’”‘˜‡˜‡”›Šƒ”†–‘ •‡†‹‡–•ƒ”‡Žƒ”‰‡Ž›Ž‹‹–‡†–‘‡ƒ•–‡”‘–ƒƒǤ – Š”‘ǡ‘”ƒŽ‹–Š‡”‡–ƒ ‡‘—•ƒ†”‡˜‡”•‡†‹–Š‡ †ƒ–‡Ǥ ‹• •–”‹‹‰ –Šƒ– –Š‡ ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ƒ”› „—”•– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡ƒ”Ž› ƒ”„‘‹ˆ‡”‘—•Ǧ‡”‹ƒǤʹ —”‹‰–Š‡Žƒ–‡‹‘ ‡‡‡••‹‹ƒ•–ƒ‰‡ǡ–‡ –‘‹  ‡‘œ‘‹  ƒƒŽ• ‹‡†‹ƒ–‡Ž› ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‡† –Š‡ ”‘„ƒ„Ž›–Š‡‘•–‹’‘”–ƒ–‹‰Ǧ ‹•–‘”›–”‡†• —’Ž‹ˆ– Ž‘•‡† –Š‡ ‹„”ƒŽ–ƒ” ‹Ž‡– ƒ† ”‡•—Ž–‡† ‹ ‡š–‹ –‹‘‘ˆ†‹‘•ƒ—”•ƒ–͸͸ƒǤ‘–Š‡”‡š–”‡‡Ž› ‘ˆ–Š‡‡‘œ‘‹ ™‡”‡–Š‡”‹•‡‘ˆ’”‹ƒ–‡•ǡŽ‡ƒ†‹‰–‘ ‡˜ƒ’‘”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‡†‹–‡””ƒ‡ƒ‡ƒ†‘™–‘ƒ†‡‡’ •‹‰‹ˆ‹ ƒ– „‹‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ ‡˜‡– ‘ —””‡† ‹ –Š‡ Žƒ–‡ Š—ƒ‹–›ǡƒ†–Š‡‰”ƒ†—ƒŽ ‘‘Ž‹‰(C)ˆ”‘–Š‡˜‡”› †‡•‡”–ǡ ƒ• †‹• —••‡† ‹ ƒ‡Ž ͷǤ͸  Š‡ –Š‡ –Žƒ–‹  Ž‹‰‘ ‡‡ ƒ† ‡ƒ”Ž› ‹‘ ‡‡ǡ ™‹–Š –Š‡ •’”‡ƒ† ‘ˆ ™ƒ”‘ ‡‡–‘–Š‡ —””‡–‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽƒ‰‡ǤŠ‡”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ  ‡ƒ„”‘‡–Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡ ‹„”ƒŽ–ƒ”„ƒ””‹‡”ǡ–Š‡†‡‡’ ‰”ƒ••Žƒ†•ǡ ™Š‹ Š ‘™ ‘˜‡” ƒ„‘—– ͶͲΨ ‘ˆ–Š‡ Žƒ† –Š‡ –™‘ ‘š›‰‡ ‹•‘–‘’‡•ǡ ͳͺ ƒ† ͳ͸ǡ ‹ ƒ”‹‡ ‡†‹–‡””ƒ‡ƒ †‡•‡”– •—††‡Ž› ”‡ˆ‹ŽŽ‡†ǡ ƒ– ͷǤ͵͵ ƒǢ •—”ˆƒ ‡Ǥ͹ ”ƒ•• Šƒ• „‡‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ– ‹ ˆ‡‡†‹‰ Žƒ”‰‡ ˆ‘••‹Ž• ”‡ˆŽ‡ –• –Š‡ ‘ ‡ƒ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ǡ „‡ ƒ—•‡ –Š‡ –Š‹• ‡˜‡– ‹• –ƒ‡ ƒ• ƒ”‹‰ –Š‡ •–ƒ”– ‘ˆ –Š‡ —„‡”• ‘ˆ Š‡”„‹˜‘”‘—• „”‘™•‹‰ ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ  Š‡ ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ ͳͺ –‘ ͳ͸ ‹ ‘”’‘”ƒ–‡† ‹ •Š‡ŽŽ• ˜ƒ”‹‡• ™‹–Š Ž‹‘ ‡‡ƒ†–Š‡‡š–’ƒ‡ŽǤ ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ ‡‘ˆ ‡—•Homo–‘‘’Žƒ ‡ƒ„‘—–ʹǤͷƒ ™ƒ–‡”–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ǡƒ†„‡ ƒ—•‡ ͳ͸‹•’”‡ˆ‡”‡–‹ƒŽŽ› ƒ†‹••Š‘™‹†‡–ƒ‹Ž‹ƒ‡ŽͷǤ  PANEL 4: CENOZOIC – Age of Mammals (66 Ma to now)

Hedges and Kumar, 2009, The Timetree of Life (greater apes Humans and LIFE (gorillas, chimps, humans) (chimps, humans) and humans) Hominini extinct relatives Evolutionary relationships based on DNA 6 Ma 31 E Hominidae 8 Ma (apes) 30 Chimps Hominoidea 29 14 Ma Gorillas

(Old -World monkeys and apes) 18.8 Ma Orangutans (66 Ma) Catarrhini 28 (New-World monkeys; Hylobatidae (lesser apes, Platyrrhini; Catarrhini Old-World monkeys and apes) 27 29.6 Ma or gibbons) Cercopithecidae (Old-World monkeys) 26 44.2 Ma Platyrrhini (New-World monkeys) In this DNA-based time tree, the original splits within the mammals take place in Primates the middle Cretaceous; fossil evidence places most of these splits in the 20,000 F Land- maximum weight 10,000 Data from Smith et al., 2010, Science, v. 330, p. 1216 0 kg G Bioevents Appearance of open, grass- S. America dominated habitats In contrast to the DNA-based time tree above, fossil evidence W.

(gradients show uncertainties; Homo arrows show limits) Genus places most of the mammal divergence in the Paleocene and N. America , shortly after the KPg impact and extinction at 66 Ma. After Strömberg et al., 2013, Communications, 4:1478 Panel 5 60 Ma 50 Ma 40 Ma 30 Ma 20 Ma 10 Ma Modified after a chart by E.L. Grossman in GTS 2012, p. 190 20 Early Eocene Hot Hot climatic optimum Mio- cooling Ice Age Mid- 10 C Temperature climatic optimum Cold EARTH 0 Cenozoic temperatures D Geological events peaked in the Eocene, regions like Tibet and sheets. Unfortunately mountains is more Antarctic glaciation °C Temp Isotopic then declined to glacial the to very high none of these events difficult. Opening or Chicxulub impactChicxulub mass extinction and levels today, and a elevation, and continen- can presently be dated closing of oceanic 65 Ma 50 Matal movements that 35 Ma 20 Ma as as as passages should be as na na na na eu eu eu major geological mys- eu ch N. hemisphere glaciation ch ch ch with the precision in in in Neotethys af sa af sa sa af sa af Indian in Indian Ocean Indian allowed ocean circula- Ocean Ocean au au Indian Ocean au au reflected in the an an tery is why this decline an necessary to test this an India-Asia collision took place. Geological tion to isolate Antarcti- idea. The deformations deep-sea sediments, initiates the growth events may be responsi- ca, keeping warm within mountain belts but this is complicated ble, including the rise of away, and leading to can be dated, but in practice. The reason Drying Catastrophic of the Himalayas the formation of its ice dating the uplift of the for the ice age is still up refilling unsolved. Deformation of the Himalayas and Tibet continues to present time

White = Black = Polarity reversed normal C6AA C5AB C5AA C6C C5D C5C C7A C6B C6A C5E C5B C5A C5A C5A C4A C3B C3A C2A C29 C28 C27 C26 C25 C24 C23 C22 C21 C20 C19 C18 C17 C16 C15 C13 C12 C11 C10 C8 C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 C1 B C9 chrons D C

Age/ Selan- Than- Barton- Priabon- Aqui- Lan- Serra- Mes- stage Daniandian etian Lutetianian ian Chattiantanian Burdigalianghian vallian sinian Plio- Pleist- Epoch A Paleocene Eocene Miocene cene ocene Period Paleogene 60 Ma50 Ma 40 Ma 30 Ma 20 Ma 10 Ma now Ma = million years ago © Walter Álvarez, 2019 Panel 5: Pliocene- (5.33 Ma to now)      ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡʹͲͳͻ  —”‹‰–Š‡‡••‹‹ƒȋ–Š‡Žƒ•–•–ƒ‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ †‡ Ž‹‡† •Ž‹‰Š–Ž›ǡ ™‹–Š •›‡–”‹ ƒŽ ‘– ‰‘ „ƒ  ˆƒ”–Š‡” –Šƒ –Š‡ ‹Ž„‡”–ǡ –Š‘•‡ ˆ‘—” ‹‘ ‡‡Ȍ–Š‡ ‘‡ –‹‘„‡–™‡‡–Š‡–Žƒ–‹ ƒ† ˆŽ— –—ƒ–‹‘•Šƒ˜‹‰ƒͶͳǦ›”ȋͶͳǡͲͲͲȌ ’‡”‹‘†Ǣ–Š‹• ƒ‡• ƒ”‡ •–‹ŽŽ —•‡† ‹ –Š‡ •–—†› ‘ˆ ‡ƒ”Ž› Š—ƒ• –Š‡‡†‹–‡””ƒ‡ƒ™ƒ• Ž‘•‡†‘ˆˆ„›–‡ –‘‹ —’Ž‹ˆ–Ǥ ‹• –Š‡ ’‡”‹‘† ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘„Ž‹“—‹–› ȋƒš‹ƒŽ –‹Ž–Ȍ ‘ˆ –Š‡ „›’ƒŽ‡‘ƒ–Š”‘’‘Ž‘‰‹•–•Ǥ • ™‘—Ž† „‡ –Š‡ ƒ•‡ ‹ˆ –Š‡ •ƒ‡ –Š‹‰ Šƒ’’‡‡† ƒ”–Šǯ•”‘–ƒ–‹‘ƒš‹•Ǥȋ͵Ȍ ‘”ƒ„‘—––Š‡Žƒ•–ͳ›”ǡ ƒŽ‡‘ƒ–Š”‘’‘Ž‘‰› (D) ‹• ’ƒ”–‹ —Žƒ”Ž› †‹ˆˆ‹ —Ž– –‘†ƒ›ǡ –Š‡ ”‹˜‡”• ˆŽ‘™‹‰ ‹–‘ –Š‡ ‡†‹–‡””ƒ‡ƒ –Š‡ˆŽ— –—ƒ–‹‘•Šƒ˜‡‰”‡ƒ–‡”ƒ‰‹–—†‡ƒ†ƒͳͲͲǦ „‡ ƒ—•‡‘ˆ–Š‡”ƒ”‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡•‡DzŠ‘‹‹†dzˆ‘••‹Ž•ƒ† ‘—Ž†‘–”‡’Žƒ ‡–Š‡™ƒ–‡”Ž‘•–„›‡˜ƒ’‘”ƒ–‹‘ǡ ›” ’‡”‹‘†ǡ ™Š‹ Š ‹• –Š‡ ’‡”‹‘† ‘ˆ ƒ”–Šǯ• ‘”„‹–ƒŽ –Š‡ ‹’‘••‹„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ ‡š–”ƒ –‹‰  ˆ”‘ ƒ› „—– ƒ† ™‹–Š ‹–• –Žƒ–‹  ‘‡ –‹‘ „Ž‘ ‡†ǡ –Š‡ ‡ ‡–”‹ ‹–›ǤŠ‡•‡ˆŽ— –—ƒ–‹‘•‘˜‡”–Š‡Žƒ•–ͳ›” –Š‡ ‘•– ”‡ ‡–Ž› ‡š–‹ – Ž‹‡ƒ‰‡ǡ –Š‡ ‡†‹–‡””ƒ‡ƒ ‡ƒ •Ž‘™Ž› ‡˜ƒ’‘”ƒ–‡†ǡ „‡ ‘‹‰ ƒ ƒ”‡ƒ•›‡–”‹ ƒŽǡ™‹–Š•Ž‘™‹ ”‡ƒ•‡‹‹ ‡˜‘Ž—‡ ‡ƒ†‡”–ŠƒŽ•Ǥͷ  Š‡”‡ ‹• Ž‹––Ž‡ ƒ‰”‡‡‡– ‘ –Š‡ †‡•‡”–ƒ‹Ž‡‘”‘”‡„‡Ž‘™•‡ƒŽ‡˜‡ŽǨ‹˜‡”• ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‡† „› ƒ •—††‡ ™ƒ”‹‰ ƒ† ‡Ž–‹‰Ǥ  Š‡ ‰‡‡–‹ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’•Ǣ–Š‡‘‡•Š‘™Š‡”‡͸‹•„›‘ ‡–‡”‹‰ –Š‡ ‡†‹–‡””ƒ‡ƒ „ƒ•‹ǡ Ž‹‡ –Š‡ ‹Ž‡ǡ ƒ•›‡–”›’”‘„ƒ„Ž›”‡ˆŽ‡ –•–Š‡ˆƒ ––Šƒ– ‘˜‡”‹‰ ‡ƒ• —‹˜‡”•ƒŽŽ› ƒ ‡’–‡†Ǥ  ™‘ ˆƒ‘—• ˆ‘••‹Ž• ‡”‘†‡† †‡‡’ ƒ›‘•ǡ —––‹‰ †‘™ –‘ –Š‡ †‡•‡”– ƒƒ†ƒ ™‹–Š ‹ ‡ ‹• ƒ •Ž‘™ ’”‘ ‡•• „‡ ƒ—•‡ ƒŽŽ–Š‡ ƒ”‡ ”‹–‹ ƒŽˆ‘”—†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰Š—ƒ‘”‹‰‹•Ǥ— › ˆŽ‘‘”Ǥ  – ͷǤ͵͵ ƒ –Žƒ–‹  ™ƒ–‡” •’‹ŽŽ‡† ‘˜‡” ‹–‘ •‘™Šƒ•–‘„‡„”‘—‰Š–‹ƒ•‡˜ƒ’‘”ƒ–‡†•‡ƒ™ƒ–‡”ǡ ȋAustralopithecus afarensisǡ ͵Ǥʹ ƒȌ •Š‘™‡† –Šƒ– –Š‡ †‡‡’ „ƒ•‹ǡ ƒ–ƒ•–”‘’Š‹ ƒŽŽ› ‡”‘†‡† ƒ ‡™ ƒ†‹ ‡ƒ ——Žƒ–‹‘‹• ‘•–ƒ–Ž›”‡†— ‡†„›ˆŽ‘™ ™ƒŽ‹‰—’”‹‰Š– ƒ‡„‡ˆ‘”‡‘—”Žƒ”‰‡„”ƒ‹Ǥ͹”†‹ ‡–”ƒ ‡ ƒ– ‹„”ƒŽ–ƒ”ǡ ƒ† •—††‡Ž› ”‡ˆ‹ŽŽ‡† –Š‡ ‘ˆ–Š‡‰Žƒ ‹‡”•–‘Ž‘™‡”ǡ™ƒ”‡”ƒ”‡ƒ•™Š‡”‡‹– ȋArdipithecus ramidusǡͶǤͶƒȌŠƒ•ƒ•–”ƒ‰‡„‹‰–‘‡ ‡†‹–‡””ƒ‡ƒ‡ƒǤŠ‹•”‡ˆ‹ŽŽ‹‰‡˜‡–‹•—•‡†„› ‡Ž–•Ǣ„› ‘–”ƒ•–ǡ–Š‡”‡ƒ”‡‘”‡•–”‹ –‹‘•‘Š‘™ •Š‘™‹‰–Šƒ– Ž‹„‹‰–”‡‡• ƒ‡„‡ˆ‘”‡™ƒŽ‹‰Ǥͺ ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–• –‘ ƒ” –Š‡ „‡‰‹‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ž‹‘ ‡‡ ˆƒ•–‰Žƒ ‹‡”• ƒ‡Ž–‹ˆ–Š‡ Ž‹ƒ–‡™ƒ”•Ǥ  ‹’‘”–ƒ– ”‡•—Ž– ‘ˆ ƒ”‡ˆ—Ž ƒ† †‡–ƒ‹Ž‡† ’‘ ŠǤ Š‡‘”‹‰‹ƒŽ™ƒ›‘ˆ†ƒ–‹‰”‘ •™ƒ•„› ’ƒŽ‡‘ƒ–Š”‘’‘Ž‘‰‹ ”‡•‡ƒ” Š‹•–Š‡”‡ ‘‰‹–‹‘–Šƒ– ‹ ‡ –Š‡ –‹‡ • ƒŽ‡ (A) ‹• ”‡‰—Žƒ”Ž› —’†ƒ–‡† ’ƒŽ‡‘–‘Ž‘‰›Ǥ  ‘••‹Ž• ƒŽŽ‘™ ›‘— –‘ ’—– ”‘ • ‹–‘ Š—ƒ ƒ ‡•–‘”• Ž‹˜‡† ‡š Ž—•‹˜‡Ž› ‹ ˆ”‹ ƒ —–‹Ž ƒ† ‹’”‘˜‡†ǡ ‹–• †‹˜‹•‹‘• ƒ Šƒ‰‡Ǥ  ‘” Š”‘‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ•‡“—‡ ‡ǡƒ†–‘•ƒ›–Šƒ–ƒ’ƒ”–‹ —Žƒ” Ž‡••–Šƒʹ‹ŽŽ‹‘›‡ƒ”•ƒ‰‘ǤŠ‡ˆ‘••‹Ž”‡ ‘”†‹• ‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ ‹  ʹͲͲͶǡ –Š‡ Ž‹‘ ‡‡ǦŽ‡‹•–‘ ‡‡ ˆ‘••‹Ž ƒ† –Š‡ ”‘ •–Šƒ– ‘–ƒ‹ ‹– ƒ”‡ ‘ˆŽ‹‘ ‡‡ ‘™‹–‡”’”‡–‡†ƒ••Š‘™‹‰–™‘•‡’ƒ”ƒ–‡Dz—–Ǧ‘ˆǦ „‘—†ƒ”›™ƒ•’Žƒ ‡†ƒ––Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡ ‡Žƒ•‹ƒ ƒ‰‡ǡ ˆ‘” ‡šƒ’Ž‡Ǥ   –Š‡ ʹͲ–Š ‡–—”›ǡ ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–• ˆ”‹ ƒdz ‹‰”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ (E) Š‡ˆ‹”•–‹‰”ƒ–‹‘ǡ •–ƒ‰‡Ǣƒˆ–‡”— Š†‡Ž‹„‡”ƒ–‹‘ǡ‹ ʹͲͳʹ‹–Šƒ• Ž‡ƒ”‡† Š‘™ –‘ †ƒ–‡ •‘‡ ȋ„—– ‘– ƒŽŽȌ ‹‡”ƒŽ•ǡ „‡‰‹‹‰ƒ„‘—–ͳǤͺǦͳǤ͹ƒǡŽ‡†–‘–Š‡™‹†‡•’”‡ƒ† „‡‡‘˜‡†–‘–Š‡„‡‰‹‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡ ‡Žƒ•‹ƒǤŠ‡ ƒ†–Š‡”‘ •–Šƒ– ‘–ƒ‹–Š‡ǡ‹›‡ƒ”•„‡ˆ‘”‡–Š‡ ‘ —’ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ —”ƒ•‹ƒ „› ƒ†‹–• —‡”‹ ƒŽ ƒŽ‹„”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –‹‡Ǧ• ƒŽ‡ †‹˜‹•‹‘• ƒ ’”‡•‡–ǡ„ƒ•‡†‘”ƒ†‹‘ƒ –‹˜‡†‡ ƒ›Ǥ‡‰‹‹‰‹ †‡• ‡†ƒ–•Ǥ•‡ ‘†‹‰”ƒ–‹‘ǡ„‡‰‹‹‰ƒ„‘—– ƒŽ•‘ Šƒ‰‡ ‘ –Š‡ „ƒ•‹• ‘ˆ ‡™ ƒ† ‹’”‘˜‡† –Š‡ ͳͻ͸Ͳ•ǡ ƒ –Š‹”† ‡–Š‘† ™ƒ• †‹• ‘˜‡”‡†ǡ „ƒ•‡† ͸Ͳ–Š‘—•ƒ†›‡ƒ”•ƒ‰‘ǡŠƒ••’”‡ƒ†Homo sapiensƒŽŽ ”ƒ†‹‘‡–”‹  †ƒ–‹‰Ǥ  • ‘’’‘•‡† –‘ –Š‡ •—„Œ‡ –‹˜‡ ‘–Š‡ˆƒ ––Šƒ––Š‡ƒ”–Šǯ•ƒ‰‡–‹ ˆ‹‡Ž† ‘˜‡”–Š‡‰Ž‘„‡ǤŠ‡•‡‹‰”ƒ–‹‘••Š‘—Ž†‘–„‡ ’‡”‹‘†‹œƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ Š‹•–‘”› —•‡† „› Š‹•–‘”‹ƒ• ‘ˆ ’”‡ˆ‡”‡–‹ƒŽŽ› ƒŽ‹‰• Ž‘•‡ –‘ –Š‡ ƒ”–Šǯ• ”‘–ƒ–‹‘ –Š‘—‰Š– ‘ˆ ƒ• ‹–‡–‹‘ƒŽ ‡š’Ž‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ™”‹––‡ Š‹•–‘”› ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥǡ Dz‡ƒ‹••ƒ ‡ǡdz Dz †—•–”‹ƒŽ ƒš‹•ǡ ‘ ƒ•‹‘ƒŽŽ› ”‡˜‡”•‹‰ ˆ”‘ ’‘‹–‹‰ ”‘—‰ŠŽ› ‘Ž‘‹œƒ–‹‘ǡ „—– ƒ• –Š‡ ˜‡”› ‰”ƒ†—ƒŽ ƒ† ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘dzȌǡ–‹‡Ǧ• ƒŽ‡ ‘•–”— –‹‘‹‰‡‘Ž‘‰›‹• ‘”–Šǡƒ•‹–†‘‡•–‘†ƒ›ȋᐑ”ƒŽ’‘Žƒ”‹–›Ȍ–‘ —‹–‡–‹‘ƒŽ •’”‡ƒ† ‘ˆ ’‡‘’Ž‡ ‘˜‡” –Š‘—•ƒ†• ‘ˆ ”‹‰‘”‘—•ǡ “—ƒ–‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ǡ ƒ† „ƒ•‡† ‘ •–ƒ†ƒ”† ’‘‹–‹‰”‘—‰ŠŽ›•‘—–Šȋᔇ˜‡”•‡†’‘Žƒ”‹–›ȌǤŠ‡ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥͻ ’”‘ ‡†—”‡•ƒ ‡’–‡†„›‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–•‡˜‡”›™Š‡”‡ǡƒ† ”‡•—Ž–‹‰‰‡‘ƒ‰‡–‹ ’‘Žƒ”‹–›–‹‡• ƒŽ‡‹•‘™ƒ ‘‰ –Š‡ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• –Šƒ– ƒ‡ —• Š—ƒ (F) ‹• ‘•–ƒ–Ž›„‡‹‰‹’”‘˜‡†Ǥͳ ‹’‘”–ƒ– –‘‘Ž ˆ‘” ƒ”–Š Š‹•–‘”‹ƒ•Ǥ͵ — Š ‡ƒ”Ž› ƒ”‡ Žƒ‰—ƒ‰‡ǡ –‘‘Ž• ƒ† –Š‡ —•‡ ‘ˆ ˆ‹”‡ǤͳͲƒ†Ž›ǡ Š‡‰”ƒ†—ƒŽ ‘‘Ž‹‰‘ˆƒ”–Šǯ• Ž‹ƒ–‡•‹ ‡–Š‡ ™‘” ‘ –Š‡ ‰‡‘ƒ‰‡–‹  ’‘Žƒ”‹–› –‹‡ • ƒŽ‡ ™ƒ• Žƒ‰—ƒ‰‡ „‡ˆ‘”‡ ™”‹–‹‰ Šƒ• Ž‡ˆ– ‘ –”ƒ ‡ǡ ƒ† ƒ–‡ ”‡–ƒ ‡‘—• ȋƒ‡Ž ͵Ȍǡ ƒ† •‹ ‡ –Š‡ ‡ƒ”Ž› †‘‡‘–Š‡Ž‹‘ ‡‡ǦŽ‡‹•–‘ ‡‡ǡ™Š‡”‡‘”‹‰‹ƒŽŽ› Žƒ‰—ƒ‰‡• ‡˜‘Ž˜‡ •‘ ”ƒ’‹†Ž› –Šƒ– Š›’‘–Š‡–‹ ƒŽ ‘ ‡‡ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ƒš‹— ȋƒ‡Ž ͶȌǡ Šƒ• Ž‡† ˆ‘—”’‘Žƒ”‹–›œ‘‡•™‡”‡”‡ ‘‰‹œ‡†(C)Ȅ”—Š‡• ƒ ‡•–”ƒŽ Žƒ‰—ƒ‰‡• ”‡ ‘•–”— –‡† ‘ –Š‡ „ƒ•‹• ‘ˆ ˆ‹ƒŽŽ› –‘ ‰Žƒ ‹ƒ–‹‘ ‹ –Š‡ Ž‡‹•–‘ ‡‡Ǥ  Š‹• ‹• ȋȌǡ ƒ–—›ƒƒ ȋȌǡ ƒ—•• ȋȌ ƒ† ‹Ž„‡”– ȋȌǤ ‘’ƒ”‹•‘• „‡–™‡‡ ‘†‡” †‡• ‡†‡– •Š‘™ Ž‡ƒ”Ž› ‹ –Š‡ ‘š›‰‡ ‹•‘–‘’‡ ȋͳͺȀͳ͸Ȍ —„•‡“—‡– ™‘” •Š‘™‡† –Šƒ– –Š‡”‡ ™‡”‡ •Š‘”–‡” Žƒ‰—ƒ‰‡•ƒ”‡—•‡Ž‡••„ƒ „‡›‘†ƒˆ‡™–Š‘—•ƒ† ”‡ ‘”†ˆ”‘–Š‡–‹›•Š‡ŽŽ•‘ˆ„‡–Š‹ ȋ„‘––‘Ǧ ‹–‡”˜ƒŽ• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘’’‘•‹–‡ ’‘Žƒ”‹–› ‹ ‡ƒ Š ‘ˆ –Š‡•‡ ›‡ƒ”•Ǥ–‘‡–‘‘Ž•ͳͳƒ”‡–Š‡„ƒ•‹•ˆ‘”ƒ” Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–•ǯ †™‡ŽŽ‹‰Ȍ •‹‰Ž‡Ǧ ‡ŽŽ‡† ˆ‘”ƒ‹‹ˆ‡”ƒʹ (B)Ǥ  Š”‡‡ œ‘‡•‡š ‡’–ˆ‘”–Š‡”—Š‡•ǡƒ†‡˜‡–—ƒŽŽ›ƒ‡™ –‹‡Ǧ• ƒŽ‡ —‹–•ǡ Ž‹‡ ƒŽ‡‘Ž‹–Š‹  ƒ† ‘—•–‡”‹ƒǤ ”‡‰‹‡• Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ ”‡ ‘‰‹œ‡† ‹ –Š‡ Ž‹‘ ‡‡Ǧ • Š‡‡ ™ƒ• †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡† –Šƒ– —„‡”• ’‘Žƒ”‹–› –‡–‹‘ƒŽ ˆ‹”‡ —•‡ ƒ› „‡ –Š‡ ‘•– —‹“—‡Ž› Ž‡‹•–‘ ‡‡”‡ ‘”†‘ˆ–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ƒ†‹ ‡˜‘Ž—‡ǣ Š”‘•ˆ”‘ͳȋ”—Š‡•ƒ†’ƒ”–‘ˆ–Š‡ Š—ƒƒ –‹˜‹–›ǡ„—––Š‡‡˜‹†‡ ‡ͳʹ‹•˜‡”›• ƒ–ƒ† ȋͳȌ  –Š‡ Ž‹‘ ‡‡ –Š‡”‡ ™ƒ• ‡ƒ”Ž› ‘•–ƒ– ƒ–—›ƒƒȌ „ƒ  –‘ ͵͵ǡ ‹ –Š‡ ƒ–‡ ”‡–ƒ ‡‘—•ǡ — ‡”–ƒ‹ —–‹Ž –Š‡ Žƒ•– ˆ‡™ Š—†”‡† –Š‘—•ƒ† –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡™‹–Šƒ•Ž‹‰Š–Ž›‘‹•›•‹‰ƒŽǤȋʹȌ –Š‡ „‡ˆ‘”‡ ™Š‹ Š –Š‡”‡ ™ƒ• –Š‡ ”‡–ƒ ‡‘—• ‘‰ ›‡ƒ”•ȋƒ‡Ž͸ȌǤ ‡Žƒ•‹ƒ ƒ† ‘•– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒŽƒ„”‹ƒ –Š‡ ƒ˜‡”ƒ‰‡ ‘”ƒŽ Š”‘ǤͶ  Ž–Š‘—‰Š–Š‡ ƒ‡† ‹–‡”˜ƒŽ• †‘ PANEL 5: PLIOCENE-PLEISTOCENE – Rise of Humanity (5.33 Ma to now)

Hominid phylogeny Homo sapiens EARLY HUMANS is extremely contro- versial. This version Homo ergaster Homo rhodesiensis is from Tim White “Lucy,” afarensis. Homo erectus ramidus. Named by Johanson and Australopithecus Described by Tim White (2009) Cold Spring White, Science, 26 Jan 1979. “Ardi,” and many co-authors 3.2 Ma garhi Australopithecus Australopithecus in Science, 2 Oct 2009 Harbor Symposium, Homo heidelbergensis D 4.4 Ma v. 54. crassidens robustus Homo Australopithecus neanderthalensis Hominid Phylogeny africanus Australopithecus boisei Homo floresiensis Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus aethiopicus

Second Out-of-Africa migration, H. sapiens, ~1.8-1.7 Ma E First Out-of-Africa migration, All Hominids live in Africa H. erectus, ~1.8-1.7 Ma H. sapiens in Eurasia, then global All human species ( Hominid Domicile Early humans in Eurasia extinct except H. sapiens

Interval One: Interval Two: Interval Three: Interval Four: Interval Five: Intervals Six and Seven: F Use of Fire and Tools No established tool Olduwan artifacts Olduwan artifacts Olduwan and early Acheuian tools See Panel A-5 Newly-discovered stone evidence as of 2010 Acheulian artifacts tools at Lomekwi-3 (Kenya) Early wooden tools dating from ~ 3.3 Ma Toth and Schick, 2010, in The Human Brian Evolving: Stone-Age Institute Publication no. 4. would not be preserved (Harmand et al., Nature, 2015) It is commonly assumed that humans living in ice-age in archaeological sites Eurasia must have used fire, but evidence is lacking. Roebroeks & Villa, 2011, PNAS, v. 108, no. 13, p. 5209. Panel 6 5 Ma 4 Ma 3 Ma 2 Ma 1 Ma Normal polarity Bar 1 shows the original four named polarity intervals. EARTH C Geomagnetic Bars 2 and 3 show the briefer polarity intervals discovered later. polarity Reversed polarity Bar 4 shows the current “C” (= chron) numbers that continue back to C33 (83.6 Ma). Continues to 6.033 Ma Gilbert Bar 1 Gauss Matuyama Brunhes Thvera Sidufjall Nunivak Cochiti Bar 2 Mammoth Kaena Reunion Olduvai Cobb Mtn. Jaramillo Bar 3 Chron C3 Bar 4 Chron C2A Chron C2 Chron C1

2.5 )

Flooding of desiccated Mediterranean (5.33 Ma) of desiccated Flooding 107 103101 5 1 105 99 97 93 91 89 87 81 77 47 31 100-kyr glacial cycles 95 83 49 25 Warm 85 79 75 67 63 55 43 37 21 11 7 73 7169 65 61 59 57 53 51 45 41 39 35 33 29 19 17 15 13 9 27 3.5 ‰ B 23 3 4.5 O ( The benthic stack of Lisiecki and Raymo (2005) 41-kyr glacial cycles Cold 18 5.5 δ Age/ Ionian stage A Epoch Pliocene Pleistocene Tarantian Period Neogene 5 Ma4 Ma 3 Ma 2 Ma 1 Ma now Ma = million years ago © Walter Álvarez, 2019 Panel 6: Brunhes Normal and Ice Age (780 ka to now) ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡʹͲͳͻ  ƒ”–Šǯ•‰‡‘ƒ‰‡–‹ ’‘Žƒ”‹–›Šƒ•„‡‡Dz‘”ƒŽǡdz ™‹–Š‘ƒ—‡”ƒŽ•(D)Ǥ‹ ‹‰–Š‡‡šƒ –ƒ‰‡‘ˆƒ •‘—–Š‡ƒ•– ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡† ‡ƒǡ ™Š‹ Š –Š‡ ”ƒ„• ƒŽŽ ‹Ǥ‡Ǥǡ ’‘‹–‹‰ Ž‘•‡–‘–Š‡ ‘”–Š”‘–ƒ–‹‘ ’‘Ž‡ǡ ˆ‘”–Š‡ –‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‹••—„Œ‡ –‹˜‡ǡ „‡ ƒ—•‡‹––‘‘•‘‡–‹‡ ƒ„ǦƒŽǦƒ†ƒ„ ȋ–Š‡ ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ ”‹‡ˆȌǡ ƒ†‡ ƒ””‘™‡” Žƒ•–͹ͺͲǡͲͲͲ›‡ƒ”•ȋ•‹ ‡͹ͺͲƒȌǢ–Š‹•‹•–Š‡”—Š‡• ˆ‘”‡ƒ Š‹ ‡•Š‡‡––‘†‹•ƒ’’‡ƒ”Ǣ‘‡™‡ŽŽǦ‘™•‡– •–‹ŽŽ „› •‡ƒǦŽ‡˜‡Ž †”ƒ™Ǧ†‘™ †—”‹‰ –Š‡ Žƒ•– Žƒ ‹ƒŽǤ ‘”ƒŽ ’‘Žƒ”‹–› Š”‘ (A) ™Š‹ Šǡ ”ƒ–Š‡” ——•—ƒŽŽ›ǡ ‘ˆƒ‰‡’‹ •‹••Š‘™Š‡”‡ǡʹ„—–‘–Š‡”’‹ •Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ Š‡‘–Š‡””‘—–‡‹•ƒ ”‘••–Š‡ƒŠƒ”ƒǤŠ‹•™‘—Ž†‘– Šƒ• ‘– „‡‡ ‹–‡””—’–‡† „› ƒ› •Š‘”– ”‡˜‡”•‡† •—‰‰‡•–‡†Ǥ͵‡‘Ǧ‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽ‡˜‡––Šƒ–ƒ›„‡‘ˆ „‡’”ƒ –‹ ƒŽƒ––Š‡’”‡•‡––‹‡ǡ„—–†—”‹‰–‹‡•‘ˆ ‹–‡”˜ƒŽ•Ǥ ‰”‡ƒ– ‹’‘”–ƒ ‡ ‹• –Š‡ •—’‡”Ǧ‡”—’–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘„ƒ ‘”‡”ƒ‹ȋ’Ž—˜‹ƒŽ•Ȍ–Š‡ƒŠƒ”ƒ™ƒ•™‡ŽŽ™ƒ–‡”‡†ƒ† Š‡ ‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ‹‡ ƒŽ‡ʹͲͳʹ(B)‡š’ƒ†•–Š‡ ‘Ž ƒ‘‹—ƒ–”ƒ Ȅƒ‡˜‡–•‘‡‘”‘—•–Šƒ–‹– ™‘—Ž† Šƒ˜‡ ƒ––”ƒ –‡† ‘ƒ†• ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ƒ”‡ƒ• –‘ –Š‡ ˜‡”› ›‘—‰‡•– ’ƒ”– ‘ˆ ƒ”–Š Š‹•–‘”›ǡ •‘ –Šƒ– –Š‡ Šƒ• „‡‡ •—‰‰‡•–‡† –‘ Šƒ˜‡ ƒ—•‡† ƒ ƒŒ‘” •‘—–ŠǤŠ‡–Š‡ƒŠƒ”ƒ†”‹‡†‘—–„‡–™‡‡’Ž—˜‹ƒŽ•ǡ ƒ”ƒ–‹ƒǡ ‘””‡•’‘†‹‰ –‘ –Š‡ ‘•– ”‡ ‡– ‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽ „‘––Ž‡‡ ‹–Š‡Š‹•–‘”›‘ˆŠ—ƒ‹–›ǤͶƒ–‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡ –Š‡ ƒŠƒ”ƒ ‘ƒ†• ™‘—Ž† Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ †”‹˜‡ ‘—– ƒ†˜ƒ ‡ǡƒ† –Š‡ ‘Ž‘ ‡‡ǡ –Š‡ ’‘•–Ǧ‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽ –‹‡• ‹ ‘„ƒ‡”—’–‹‘Šƒ•‘–„‡‡‡ƒ•›ǡ„—–•‡‡•–‘„‡ „‘–Š •‘—–Š™ƒ”† ƒ† ‘”–Š™ƒ”†ǡ ™‹–Š –Š‡ Žƒ––‡” ™Š‹ Š ƒ‰”‹ —Ž–—”‡ ƒ† ‹˜‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘ Šƒ˜‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡†ǡ ‘˜‡”‰‹‰ ‘ƒ †ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ ͹͵Ǥͻ ƒǤͷ Ž•‘•Š‘™‹•–Š‡ ’‡‘’Ž‡–Š‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ ”‘••–Š‡‹ƒ‹‹–‘—”ƒ•‹ƒǤŠ‹• ƒ”‡ ‘™ ˜‹•‹„Ž‡Ǥ  Š‡ ƒ‡ Dz—ƒ–‡”ƒ”›dz Šƒ• ƒ †ƒ–‡‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ””‹‰‡”‹’ƒ – ”ƒ–‡”‹”‹œ‘ƒǡ‘–ƒ ‹•–Š‡ƒŠƒ”ƒ—’Š›’‘–Š‡•‹•Ǥͻ ƒ ‹‡– ’‡†‹‰”‡‡ ‹ ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ ‘‡ Žƒ–—”‡ǡ †ƒ–‹‰ ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽŽ› •‹‰‹ˆ‹ ƒ– ‡˜‡–ǡ „—– ƒ „‡ƒ—–‹ˆ—ŽŽ› ˆ –Š‡ Šƒ”ƒ –‡”‹•–‹ • –Šƒ– †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š Š—ƒ• „ƒ  –‘ –Š‡ „‡‰‹‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”‡ ‘‰‹–‹‘ –Šƒ– ”‘ • ’”‡•‡”˜‡† ƒ† ‡ƒ•‹Ž› ˜‹•‹–‡† ›‘—‰ ”ƒ–‡”ǡ ƒ† ƒ ˆ”‘‘–Š‡”ƒ‹ƒŽ•(G)ǡŽƒ‰—ƒ‰‡ƒ†–‘‘Ž—•‡ƒ”‡–‘ ”‡ ‘”†ƒ”–ŠŠ‹•–‘”›Ǥ ‹‘˜ƒ‹”†—‹‘ȋͳ͹ͳͶǦͳ͹ͻͷȌ ”‡‹†‡”–Šƒ–‹’ƒ –‡˜‡–• ‘–‹—‡–‘–Š‡’”‡•‡–Ǥ •‘‡‡š–‡–ƒ„‹‰—‘—•ǡˆ‘”™ŠƒŽ‡•ƒ›Šƒ˜‡•‘‡ †‹˜‹†‡†–Š‡”‘ •‹ –ƒŽ›‹–‘ƒ•‡“—‡ ‡Ȅ”‹ƒ”›ǡ  –Š‡ –‹‡ ‹–‡”˜ƒŽ ‘ˆ –Š‹• ’ƒ‡Žǡ –Š‡ ‘Ž› ˆ‘” ‘ˆ Žƒ‰—ƒ‰‡ǡ ƒ† Š‹’ƒœ‡‡• ƒ† •‘‡ „‹”†• ‡ ‘†ƒ”›ǡ ‡”–‹ƒ”›ǡ ƒ† —ƒ–‡”ƒ”›Ǥ  Š‡ ˆ‹”•– –™‘ Š‘‹‹† •’‡ ‹‡• ƒ”‡ Homo sapiens ƒ† ‡ƒ”Ž‹‡” ƒ‡ —•‡ ‘ˆ •‹’Ž‡ǡ ˆ‘—† –‘‘Ž•Ǥ  ‹”‡ ƒ› „‡ –Š‡ ƒ‡• ™‡– ‘—– ‘ˆ —•‡ Ž‘‰ ƒ‰‘ǡ „—– ‡”–‹ƒ”› ‡„‡”• ‘ˆ ‰‡—• Homo (E)ǤŠ‡Ž‹‡•‘ˆƒ ‡•–”› ‘•–—ƒ„‹‰—‘—•ǡˆ‘”ƒŽŽŠ—ƒ•ƒ‡ ‹–‡–‹‘ƒŽ ”‡ƒ‹‡† ‹ —•‡ —–‹Ž ‹– ™ƒ• ”‡’Žƒ ‡† „› ƒŽ‡‘‰‡‡ ƒ‘‰ –Š‡•‡ •’‡ ‹‡• ƒ”‡ ‘–”‘˜‡”•‹ƒŽǡ ƒ† –Š‡ —•‡ ‘ˆ ˆ‹”‡ǡ ƒ† ‘ ‘–Š‡” •’‡ ‹‡• †‘‡•Ǥ  ƒ‰—ƒ‰‡ǡ ƒ† ‡‘‰‡‡ǡ ƒ† ‹– ‹• •–‹ŽŽ —•‡† ‹ˆ‘”ƒŽŽ›Ǥ  Ž› ’ƒ––‡”•Š‘™Š‡”‡‹•–Š‡•‹’Ž‡”‘ˆ–™‘ƒŽ–‡”ƒ–‹˜‡• „‡ˆ‘”‡™”‹–‹‰ǡŽ‡ƒ˜‡•Ž‹––Ž‡‘”‘–”ƒ ‡ǡƒ†‹–•Š‹•–‘”› —ƒ–‡”ƒ”›”‡ƒ‹•ƒˆ‘”ƒŽ‡”‹‘†ǡƒ†‹ ʹͲͳʹ ’‘”–”ƒ›‡†‹ƒˆ‹‰—”‡„›‹‰Š–‹”‡ȋʹͲͲ͹ȌǢ͸–Š‡‘”‡ „‡ˆ‘”‡ƒˆ‡™–Š‘—•ƒ†›‡ƒ”•ƒ‰‘”‡ƒ‹• ‘’Ž‡–‡Ž› –Š‡—ƒ–‡”ƒ”›Šƒ•„‡‡‡š’ƒ†‡†ǡ–‘„‡‰‹ƒ–ʹǤ͸ƒǡ ‘’Ž‹ ƒ–‡†˜‡”•‹‘•Š‘™• –Š‡ƒ††‹–‹‘ƒŽ•’‡ ‹‡• H. ‘„• —”‡ǤŠ‡‡ƒ”Ž‹‡•–Š—ƒ–‘‘Ž•ǡ’‡”Šƒ’•ƒ†‡‘ˆ ”ƒ–Š‡”–Šƒƒ–ͳǤͺƒǡƒ•‹ ʹͲͲͶȋƒ‡ŽͷȌǤ antecessorƒ†H. rhodesiensisǤ  Š‹• †‹ƒ‰”ƒ •Š‘™• ™‘‘†ǡ ™‘—Ž† ”ƒ”‡Ž› •—”˜‹˜‡ ‹ ƒ” Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ Š‡ ”—Š‡• ‘”ƒŽ ’‘Žƒ”‹–› Š”‘ ‹ Ž—†‡• Š‘™ –Š‡ Ž‘•‡Ž›Ǧ”‡Žƒ–‡† ‡ƒ†‡”–ŠƒŽ• ™‡”‡ ‡š ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘•ǡ „—– •–‘‡ –‘‘Ž•ǡ ‹—‡ –‘ †‡•–”— –‹‘ǡ ‘•–‘ˆ–Š‡–‹‡‘ˆ–Š‡ƒŒ‘”—ƒ–‡”ƒ”›‰Žƒ ‹ƒ–‹‘•ǡ ‘–‡’‘”ƒ‡‘—• ™‹–Š Homo sapiensǡ „—– †‘‡• ‘– Šƒ˜‡Ž‘‰„‡‡–Š‡„ƒ•‹•ˆ‘”ƒ••‹‰‹‰‡ƒ”Ž›Š—ƒ ‡ƒ Š Žƒ•–‹‰ ƒ„‘—– ͳͲͲ ›”ǡ ˆ‘” ™Š‹ Š –Š‡ ‘š›‰‡Ǧ •Š‘™ –Š‡ ”‹–‹ ƒŽ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‘™Š‡”‡‡ƒ Š•’‡ ‹‡• •‹–‡•–‘ƒ•‡“—‡ ‡‘ˆ‹–‡”˜ƒŽ•Ȅ‡ƒ”Ž›ǡ‹††Ž‡ǡƒ† ‹•‘–‘’‡–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ —”˜‡„ƒ•‡†‘„‡–Š‹ ˆ‘”ƒ•ͳ ™ƒ•Ž‹˜‹‰ƒ–ƒ‰‹˜‡–‹‡Ǣ–Šƒ–‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‹•‰‹˜‡ Žƒ–‡ƒŽ‡‘Ž‹–Š‹ ǡƒ†–Š‡–Š‡‡•‘Ž‹–Š‹ ǡƒ†‡‘Ž‹–Š‹ ǡ (C) •Š‘™• ƒ •ƒ™Ǧ–‘‘–Š ’ƒ––‡”ǡ ™‹–Š •Ž‘™Ž› ‹–Š‡‡š––‹‡Ž‹‡‘ˆ–Š‹•’ƒ‡ŽǤ ƒ†–Š‡–Š‡”‘œ‡ƒ† ”‘‰‡•Ǥ ‡š’ƒ†‹‰ ‘”–Š‡”ǦŠ‡‹•’Š‡”‡ ‹ ‡ •Š‡‡–• ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‡† Š‡•–‘”›‘ˆŠ—ƒ‹‰”ƒ–‹‘•‘—–‘ˆˆ”‹ ƒ (F)ǡ Š‡ Š‹•–‘”› ‘ˆ ˆ‹”‡ —•‡ Šƒ• „‡‡ Ž‡•• †‹• —••‡†ǡ „›”ƒ’‹††‡‰Žƒ ‹ƒ–‹‘ǤŠ‹••ƒ™Ǧ–‘‘–Š’ƒ––‡”ƒ‡• ƒ• —””‡–Ž› —†‡”•–‘‘†ǡ ‹• “—‹–‡ ”‡ƒ”ƒ„Ž‡Ǥ Š‡ „—– ‹• ˜‡”› ‹–‡”‡•–‹‰ ‹ˆ ”ƒ–Š‡” †‹ˆˆ‹ —Ž– –‘ ƒ••‡••ǡ •‡•‡ǡ ˆ‘” ‹ ‡ •Š‡‡–• ƒ ‡š’ƒ† ‘Ž› ƒ• ˆƒ•– ƒ• ˆ‹”•–Š—ƒ•Ž‡ˆ–ˆ”‹ ƒˆ‘”—”ƒ•‹ƒƒ•‡ƒ”Ž›ƒ•ƒ„‘—– „‡ ƒ—•‡ Šƒ” ‘ƒŽ ˆ‘—† ‹ ‡š ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘• ƒ› ‘” ƒ› ‡˜ƒ’‘”ƒ–‹‘ƒ† ™‹†• ƒ„”‹‰‹‡™ •‘™ǡ ™‹–Š ͳǤͺƒǡ„ƒ•‡†‘–Š‡ˆ‹†‹‰•‘ˆˆ‘••‹Ž•‘ˆ’”‘„ƒ„Ž‡H. ‘–Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ˆ‘”‡†„›‹–‡–‹‘ƒŽˆ‹”‡—•‡Ǥ –Šƒ• –Š‡ ‹ ‡ ‡ƒ™Š‹Ž‡ ˆŽ‘™‹‰ –‘ Ž‘™‡” ‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘• ƒ† erectus ƒ– ƒ‹•‹ ‹ –Š‡ ‡‘”‰‹ƒ ƒ— ƒ•—•ǡ †ƒ–‹‰ Ž‘‰ „‡‡ ƒ••—‡† –Šƒ– Homo erectusǡ Ž‹˜‹‰ ‹ ‡Ž–‹‰Ǣ„› ‘–”ƒ•–ǡ–Š‡”‡ƒ”‡‘”‡•–”‹ –‹‘•‘Š‘™ ˆ”‘ ͳǤ͹͹ ƒǤ͹Š—•H. erectus —•– Šƒ˜‡ Ž‹˜‡† ‹ ‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽǦƒ‰‡ —”ƒ•‹ƒǡ ™‘—Ž† Šƒ˜‡ Šƒ† –‘ —•‡ ˆ‹”‡ ‹ ˆƒ•– ƒ ‰Žƒ ‹‡” ƒ ‡Ž– ™Š‡ –Š‡ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ”‹•‡•Ǥ —”ƒ•‹ƒ –Š”‘—‰Š –Š‡ ‡–‹”‡ •‡“—‡ ‡ ‘ˆ ͳͲͲǦ›” ‘–”‘ŽŽ‡† ™ƒ›• ‹ ‘”†‡” –‘ •—”˜‹˜‡Ǥ  ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ ƒ Š‡ ’‡ƒ•ƒ† ˜ƒŽŽ‡›• ‹ –Š‡–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ —”˜‡ ƒ”‡ ‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽ › Ž‡• ‘””‡•’‘†‹‰ –‘ –Š‡ ”—Š‡• ‘”ƒŽ ”‡ ‡–”‡˜‹‡™Šƒ• ƒ”‡ˆ—ŽŽ›‡˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‡†–Š‡‡˜‹†‡ ‡ǡƒ• —„‡”‡†™‹–Š–Š‡ƒ”‹‡ •‘–‘’‡–ƒ‰‡•ȋ ǣ‘†† ’‘Žƒ”‹–› Š”‘ǤŠ‡”‡‹•ƒ•›‡–‘‡˜‹†‡ ‡ˆ‘”‘–Š‡” •Š‘™‹Š‡”‡‹–Š‡”‡†Š‹•–‘‰”ƒǡƒ†ˆ‘—†‘ ˆ‘”™ƒ”ǡ‡˜‡ˆ‘” ‘Ž†ȌǢ–Š‡•‡ƒ”–Š‡ ƒǤͳͲͲǦ›” —–Ǧ‘ˆǦˆ”‹ ƒ ‹‰”ƒ–‹‘• —–‹Ž –Š‡ †‡’ƒ”–—”‡ ‘ˆ H. ‹†‹ ƒ–‹‘•–Šƒ–ˆ‹”‡™ƒ•—•‡†Šƒ„‹–—ƒŽŽ›„›Š—ƒ‹ › Ž‡ǡ ‡š ‡’– ˆ‘” •–ƒ‰‡• ͵ ƒ† Ͷǡ ™Š‹ Š ™‡”‡ sapiens ƒ„‘—– ͸Ͳ ƒǡ †—”‹‰ –Š‡ ‘•– ”‡ ‡– ‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽ —”‘’‡’”‹‘”–‘ ͳͳǡƒŽ‹––Ž‡„‡ˆ‘”‡ͶͲͲƒǤͳͲŠ‹• —„‡”‡†‡ƒ”Ž›‘Ǥ ƒ‰‡Ǥ •—”’”‹•‹‰ ”‡•—Ž– •—‰‰‡•–• –Šƒ– H. erectusŠ—ƒ• Š‡ ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ ‡˜‡–• ‘ˆ –Š‹• –‹‡ ‹–‡”˜ƒŽ ƒ”‡ Š‡”‡ ƒ”‡ –™‘ ’‘••‹„Ž‡ ”‘—–‡• ˆ‘” Š—ƒ• –‘ ™‡”‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘Ž‹˜‡‹‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽ—”‘’‡™‹–Š‘—– ‘–”‘ŽŽ‡† †‘‹ƒ–‡†„›–Š‡ƒ„”—’–‡†‹‰•‘ˆ‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽƒ†˜ƒ ‡•ǡ Šƒ˜‡ ‡• ƒ’‡† –Š‡ ˆ”‹ ƒ Š‘‡Žƒ† Ȅ ‡‹–Š‡” ‘ˆ ˆ‹”‡—•‡Ǩ ™Š‹ Šƒ”‡‹†‡–‹ˆ‹‡† ƒ•‡”‹ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†—„‡”‡† –Š‡‡ƒ•›Ǥͺ  ‡ ”‘—–‡ ‹• ƒ ”‘•• –Š‡ ƒ””‘™• ƒ––Š‡  PANEL 6: BRUNHES NORMAL and ICE AGE (780 ka to now) HUMANITY E Human family tree Homo sapiens Rightmire, G. P., 2007, Later Middle Pleistocene Homo, in Henke, H. C. W. et al., eds., Handbook of Paleoanthropology: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 1695-1715. Neanderthals Homo heidelbergensis Begins about 1.9 Ma Homo erectus (or ergaster)

F Human migrations ca. 60 ka Out-of-Africa migration, through Sinai and/or the Gate of Grief, involving Homo sapiens First Out-of-Africa migration, involving Homo erectus, began about 1.8-1.7 Ma. As a result, humans lived all over Eurasia through several ice ages. ? (back to at least 2.6 Ma) Early stone tools Late Paleolithic stone tools MIS 3, 20.91 20 Toth, N., and Schick, K., 2007, Overview of Paleolithic archeology, in Henke et al., Middle Paleolithic stone tools eds., Handbook of Paleoanthropology: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 1943-1963. 15 MIS 4, 10.0 10 *Fire-use units: Number of sites with MIS >11 MIS 11-9 MIS 8 MIS 7 MIS 6 MIS 5, 5.25

Fire use use* Fire G Tools and fire use good evidence of fire per 10 kyr 1.92 5 (Roebroeks & Villa, 2011, Fig. 2) 0.0 0.48 0.53 1.47 Panel 7 7 00 ka 6 00 ka 5 00 ka 4 00 ka 3 00 ka 2 00 ka 1 00 ka Toba EARTH D Geologic events super-eruption Barringer (74 ka) – possible , bottleneck in AZ (49 ka) Glacial terminations 1.18 km diam Lisiecki and Raymo, . VII Term. VI Term. V Term. IV Term. III Term. II Term. I 2005, Table 3: 621 ka 533 ka 424 ka 337 ka 243 ka 130 ka 14 ka

2.5 ) C Glaciation 9 5 Lisiecki and MIS (Marine 15 Warm 7 1 19 17 isotope 13 Raymo (2005) 3.5 stage ) 11

3 4.5 per mil

18 5.5 O (

4 18 Start ka) (780 polarity magnetic normal of Brunhes chron 16 14 Cold 12 10 8 6 2 δ A Magnetic polarity Brunhes normal magnetic polarity chron (780 ka to present) Age/ stage Ionian Tarantian B GTS 2012 Epoch Middle Pleistocene Period Quaternary Holocene 700 ka600 ka 500 ka 400 ka 300 ka 200 ka 100 ka now ka = thousand years ago © Walter Álvarez, 2019 Panel 7: Homo sapiens out of Africa (ca. 60 ka to now) ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œʹͲͳͻ  Š‡ ‘Ž‘ ‡‡ǡ ‘” ’‘•–Ǧ‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽǡ ‹• –Š‡ Žƒ•– ˆ‘”ƒŽ †ƒ ‘ˆˆ ‹–• ”‘ › ˆŽ‘‘”Ǣ  –Š‡ ‹ ‡ †ƒ †‹•‹–‡‰”ƒ–‡† ‘—–•‹†‡ˆ”‹ ƒ•‹ ‡ƒ„‘—–ͳǤͺǦͳǤ͹ƒǤ— Š‡ˆˆ‘”–‹• •–ƒ‰‡ ‹ –Š‡ ‡‘Ž‘‰‹  ‹‡  ƒŽ‡ (A)Ǥ Š‡ –‡” ‹–‘‹ ‡„‡”‰•™Š‹ Š™‡”‡•™‡’–†‘™–Š‡‘Ž—„‹ƒ —””‡–Ž› ‰‘‹‰ ‹–‘ –”ƒ ‹‰ Š‘™ ‘†‡” Š—ƒ• Dzƒ–Š”‘’‘ ‡‡ǡdz ‡ƒ‹‰ –Š‡ –‹‡ †—”‹‰ ™Š‹ Š ‹˜‡” ‹ ƒ ‘Ž‘••ƒŽ ˆŽ‘‘†ǤͶ  Š‹• • ‡ƒ”‹‘ Šƒ’’‡‡† •’”‡ƒ† ‘˜‡” ‡˜‡”› ‘–‹‡– ‡š ‡’– –ƒ” –‹ ƒ (E)Ǥ Š—ƒ „‡‹‰• Šƒ˜‡ •‡”‹‘—•Ž› ƒˆˆ‡ –‡† Ž‹ƒ–‡ ƒ† †‘œ‡• ‘ˆ –‹‡• „‡–™‡‡ ʹͳǤͶ ƒ† ͳ͵ǤͶ ƒǢͷ‹–• –‹•™‹†‡Ž›ƒ••—‡†–Šƒ–H. sapiensǡ‹‰”ƒ–‹‰‘—–‘ˆ ‘–Š‡” ƒ•’‡ –• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ”–Šǡ ™ƒ• ’”‘’‘•‡† „› ‘Ǧ ”‡ ‘‰‹–‹‘ „›  ƒ”Ž‡ ”‡–œ ‹ ͳͻʹ͵ ‘’‡‡† –Š‡ ˆ”‹ ƒ‘˜‡”ƒ›‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ™‘—Ž†Šƒ˜‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‡† ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–•ǡƒ†‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–•ƒ”‡‘™†‡„ƒ–‹‰™Š‡–Š‡” ˆ‹”•– ”ƒ  ‹ –Š‡ —‹ˆ‘”‹–ƒ”‹ƒ ‰”ƒ†—ƒŽ‹•– ‹†•‡– –Š‡•‘—–Š ‘ƒ•–‘ˆ”ƒ„‹ƒƒ†•‹ƒǤŠ‹•‡ƒ•–Šƒ– ‹–•Š‘—Ž†„‡ˆ‘”ƒŽ‹œ‡†ƒ†ƒ†‘’–‡†ǡƒ†‹ˆ•‘ǡ™Š‡ ™Š‹ Š Šƒ† †‘‹ƒ–‡† ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ –Š‹‹‰ •‹ ‡ ƒ” Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ •‹–‡• ™‹ŽŽ ‘– „‡ ˜‡”› Š‡Ž’ˆ—Ž ‹ ‹–•Š‘—Ž†„‡‰‹ƒ†™Šƒ–ƒ”‡”™‘—Ž†‹†‡–‹ˆ›‹–‹ Šƒ”Ž‡• ›‡ŽŽ ‹ –Š‡ ͳͺ͵Ͳ•Ǥ͸   ‹‹Žƒ” –Š‘—‰Š Ž‡•• –”ƒ ‹‰ –Š‡ ‹‰”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ „‡ ƒ—•‡ ‘ƒ•–Ž‹‡• †—”‹‰ –Š‡•–”ƒ–‹‰”ƒ’Š‹ ”‡ ‘”†Ǥͳ •–—†‹‡†•—’‡”ˆŽ‘‘†•Šƒ˜‡„‡‡”‡ ‘‰‹œ‡†‹•‹ƒƒ• ‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽ–‹‡•™‘—Ž†Šƒ˜‡„‡‡Ž‘™‡”–Šƒ‘™ƒ† ‘”–Š‡–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ȋƒ†‹ ‡˜‘Ž—‡Ȍ‘ˆ–Š‡Žƒ•– ™‡ŽŽ ƒ• ‘ ƒ”•Ǥ͹  Š‡ •Ž‘™ „—‹Ž†Ǧ—’ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Šƒ˜‡„‡‡†”‘™‡†„›–Š‡’‘•–Ǧ‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽ•‡ƒǦŽ‡˜‡Ž”‹•‡Ǥ ͸ͲǡͲͲͲ ›‡ƒ”•ǡ –Š‡ „‡•– ”‡ ‘”† ‘‡• ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ‘”–Š‡”Ǧ ‡‹•’Š‡”‡ ‹ ‡ •Š‡‡–• ™ƒ• ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‡† „› ”ƒ ‹‰ –Š‡ ‹‰”ƒ–‹‘• ‹• ‘™ †‘‡ Žƒ”‰‡Ž› „› ”‡‡Žƒ†‹ ‡ ‘”‡ǡ Ǧʹ(B)Ǥʹƒ–‡”‡˜ƒ’‘”ƒ–‹‰ –Š‡‹” ˜‡”› ”ƒ’‹† ‡Ž–‹‰ǡ ‘’Ž‹ ƒ–‡† „›–Š‡ ™ƒ” •–—†‹‡•‘ˆ‹ —””‡–‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘•Ȅ ˆ”‘ –Š‡ •‡ƒ ‹• ‡”‹ Š‡† ‹ –Š‡ ‘”‡Ǧ‡ƒ•‹Ž›Ǧ ƒ† ‘Ž† ‘—’Ž‡–‘ˆ–Š‡ގŽ‹‰ǦŽŽ‡”Þ†ƒ†–Š‡ ‹–‘ Š‘†”‹ƒŽ  –”ƒ ‹‰ –Š‡ ˆ‡ƒŽ‡ Ž‹‡ ƒ† Ǧ ‡˜ƒ’‘”ƒ–‡†Ž‹‰Š–‹•‘–‘’‡ǡͳ͸Ǣ™Š‡–Š‹•‹••–‘”‡†‹ ‘—‰‡””›ƒ•Ǥ Š”‘‘•‘‡–Š‡ƒŽ‡Ǥͳʹ‹”‡ –Ž›†ƒ–‹‰ ‹ ‡•Š‡‡–•ǡ–Š‡•‡ƒ‹• ‘””‡•’‘†‹‰Ž›‡”‹ Š‡†‹ͳͺǤ –‹Ž ”‡ ‡–Ž› ‹– •‡‡‡† –Šƒ– ƒ‘‰ Š—ƒ•ǡ ‡˜‡–• ‹˜‘Ž˜‡• ƒŒ‘” ƒ••—’–‹‘• ƒ„‘—– —–ƒ–‹‘ •ƒ”‡•—Ž–ǡ‘š›‰‡ˆ”‘ ʹ ‹ Ǧʹ ‹ ‡ ‰‡–• ‘Ž› ‡ƒ†‡”–ŠƒŽ• ƒ† ‘†‡” Homo sapiens Ž‹˜‡† ”ƒ–‡•ǡ ƒ† ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ ƒ’• ‘ˆ –Š‡ Š—ƒ ‹‰”ƒ–‹‘ Ž‹‰Š–‡”‹™ƒ”‹–‡”˜ƒŽ•ǡ™Š‹Ž‡‘š›‰‡ˆ”‘ƒ͵ †—”‹‰–Š‹•–‹‡‹–‡”˜ƒŽǡ™‹–Š‡ƒ†‡”–ŠƒŽ•†›‹‰ •Š‘™ ˜‡”› †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ƒ‰‡• ˆ‘” –Š‡ †‡’ƒ”–—”‡ ˆ”‘ ‹„‡–Š‹ ˆ‘”ƒ•ȋƒ‡Ž•Ͷ–‘͸Ȍ‰‡–•Š‡ƒ˜‹‡”ǤŠ‡ ‘ˆˆ ƒ„‘—– ͶͲ ƒ (D)Ǥ  ‹–Š –Š‡ Žƒ•– ‡ƒ†‡”–ŠƒŽ• ˆ”‹ ƒ ƒ† ƒ””‹˜ƒŽ ‹ •— ‡••‹˜‡ ’Žƒ ‡•Ǥ  Š‡ ’Žƒ ‡ Ǧʹ ”‡ ‘”† †”ƒƒ–‹ ƒŽŽ› •Š‘™• –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ž‹˜‹‰ •‘ ”‡ ‡–Ž›ǡ ‹– Šƒ• „‡‡ ’‘••‹„Ž‡ –‘ •‡“—‡ ‡ ƒ‡•ƒ ”‘••–Š‡„‘––‘‘ˆ–Š‡‰”‡‡†‹ƒ‰”ƒ‰‹˜‡ƒ Ž‡‹•–‘ ‡‡ ‡‰‡ƒ„‘—–ͳͳƒǡ–Š‡ގŽ‹‰ǦŽŽ‡”Þ† –Š‡‹” ‰‡‘‡Ǥͺ  † –Š‡ǡ ‹ ʹͲͲ͵ǡ ƒ‡ –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ‹†‡ƒ „—– –Š‡‹” ƒ‰‡• ƒ”‡ ‘– ƒ– ƒŽŽ ™‡ŽŽ ™ƒ” ƒ† ‘—‰‡” ”›ƒ• ‘Ž† ‹–‡”˜ƒŽ• –Šƒ– †‹• ‘˜‡”› ‘ –Š‡ †‘‡•‹ƒ ‹•Žƒ† ‘ˆ Ž‘”‡• ‘ˆ ‘•–”ƒ‹‡†ǤŠ‡„Ž—‡Dz•’‹†Ž‡†‹ƒ‰”ƒdzƒ––Š‡–‘’ ’”‡ ‡†‡†–Š‡†‡‰Žƒ ‹ƒ–‹‘ǡƒ†–Š‡”‡ƒ”ƒ„Ž› ˆ‘••‹Ž•‘ˆƒ‡™•’‡ ‹‡•‘ˆŠ—ƒ•ǡ•–ƒ†‹‰ƒ„‘—–ͳ ȋƒ †‘—„Ž‡Ǧ•‹†‡† Š‹•–‘‰”ƒ ‘‘ ‹ –Š‡ ‘•–ƒ– –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘Ž‘ ‡‡Ǥ  Š‡ •–‹ŽŽ Š‹‰Šǡ™Š‘Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ƒ‡†Homo floresiensisǡƒ† ’ƒŽ‡‘–‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ Ž‹–‡”ƒ–—”‡Ȍ ‹• ‘‡ ‡šƒ’Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’‘‘”Ž›Ǧ—†‡”•–‘‘† ƒ•‰ƒƒ”†Ǧ‡• Š‰‡” ™ƒ” ƒ”‡ •‘‡–‹‡• ‹ˆ‘”ƒŽŽ› ƒŽŽ‡† DzŠ‘„„‹–•ǤdzͻŠ‡ ‹† ‘ˆ †‡–ƒ‹Ž –Šƒ–  •–—†‹‡• •Š‘—Ž† ‡˜‡–—ƒŽŽ› ‡˜‡–• ™‹–Š‹ –Š‡ Žƒ•– ‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽ ’”‘„ƒ„Ž› ”‡ˆŽ‡ – Ž‘ ƒŽ †‹• ‘˜‡”‡”• ’‘‹–‡† ‘—– –Šƒ– ‹ •–ƒ–—”‡ ƒ† „”ƒ‹ ’”‘˜‹†‡Ǥͳ͵ – •Š‘™• ƒ •‹‰Ž‡ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ ‘ —’›‹‰ ‘”–Š –Žƒ–‹ Ǧ ”‡‡Žƒ†Ǧƒƒ†ƒ ‘†‹–‹‘•Ǣ  –Š‡› •‹œ‡ –Š‡•‡ ˆ‘••‹Ž• ”‡•‡„Ž‡ –Š‡ ’”‡ǦŠ—ƒ —”‘’‡ǡ™‹–Šƒ ‘—’Ž‡‘ˆ„‘––Ž‡‡ •†—”‹‰–Š‡Žƒ•– ƒ”‡‘–˜‹•‹„Ž‡‹–Š‡„‡–Š‹ Ǧˆ‘”ƒ”‡ ‘”†ȋƒ‡Ž͸Ȍǡ —•–”ƒŽ‘’‹–Š‡ ‹‡•ǡ „—– ™‹–Š ƒƒ–‘‹ ƒŽ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽ ‹–‡”˜ƒŽǡ ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‡† „› ‡š–‹ –‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ‹ ™Š‹ Š”‡•’‘†•–‘‰Ž‘„ƒŽ ‘†‹–‹‘•Ǥ –Šƒ–’Žƒ ‡–Š‡‹‰‡—•HomoǤŠ‡›ƒ’’‡ƒ”–‘„‡ ‰‡‡–‹  Ž‹‡ †—”‹‰ –Š‡ ƒ–‡ Žƒ ‹ƒŽ ȋ–Š‡ ‘—‰‡” —”‹‰–Š‡‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽ–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ”ƒ–‹ƒ–ƒ‰‡ǡ ƒ‡šƒ’Ž‡‘ˆ–Š‡†™ƒ”ˆ‹‰–Šƒ–Šƒ•‘ —””‡†ƒ‘‰ ”›ƒ• ‘Ž†‹–‡”˜ƒŽȌǡƒ†ƒ•—„•‡“—‡–”‡’Žƒ ‡‡– •‹šŽ‡˜‡Ž•”‹ Š‹‹ ‡Ǧ”ƒˆ–‡††‡„”‹•ƒ”‡”‡ ‘‰‹œ‡†‹ ‘–Š‡” ƒƒŽ•ǡ ‘–ƒ„Ž› ‡Ž‡’Šƒ–•ǡ ‹•‘Žƒ–‡† ‘ „›ƒ‘ˆˆ•Š‘‘–‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‹Ž‹‡Ǥ ‘”–Š –Žƒ–‹  •‡†‹‡– ‘”‡• (C)Ǥ  Š‡•‡ ‡‹”‹ Š ‹•Žƒ†•‹–Š‡‡†‹–‡””ƒ‡ƒǤͳͲƒ–‹‰H. floresiensis ›͸ͲƒǡŠ—ƒ•™‡”‡’”‘„ƒ„Ž›—•‹‰ˆ‹”‡ ‡˜‡–• ”‡’”‡•‡– –‹‡• ™Š‡ Žƒ”‰‡ —„‡”• ‘ˆ Šƒ• „‡‡ ‘–”‘˜‡”•‹ƒŽǢ  –Š‡ Žƒ–‡•– ™‘” †ƒ–‡• –Š‡ ‡˜‡”›™Š‡”‡ͳͶ ȋƒŽ–Š‘—‰Š ‡˜‹†‡ ‡ ˆ‘” ˆ‹”‡ —•‡ „› H. ‹ ‡„‡”‰• ƒŽ˜‡† ‘ˆˆ –Š‡ ‘”–Š‡”ǦŠ‡‹•’Š‡”‡ ‹ ‡ ˆ‘••‹Ž• ƒ† ‡ Ž‘•‹‰ •‡†‹‡– ƒ– ͳͲͲǦ͸Ͳ ƒǡ ƒ† floresiensis‹••–‹ŽŽ ‘–”‘˜‡”•‹ƒŽȌǤŠ‡—•‡‘ˆ‹††Ž‡ •Š‡‡–• ƒ† ˆŽ‘ƒ–‡† •‘—–Š™ƒ”†ǡ †”‘’’‹‰ –Š‡‹” ƒ••‘ ‹ƒ–‡† •–‘‡ –‘‘Ž• –‘ ͳͻͲǦͷͲ ƒǡͳͳ ƒ† ‹– ‹• ƒŽ‡‘Ž‹–Š‹  •–‘‡ –‘‘Ž• ‘˜‡”Žƒ’’‡† ™‹–Š –Š‡ ƒ–‡ ‡–”ƒ‹‡† ”‘ • ƒ• –Š‡› ‰”ƒ†—ƒŽŽ› ‡Ž–‡†Ǥ͵Š‡ —‘™ ™Š‡–Š‡” –Š‡•‡ •ƒŽŽ Š—ƒ• Ž‹˜‡† Ž‘‰ ƒŽ‡‘Ž‹–Š‹  •–‘‡ ‹†—•–”› ˆ”‘ ƒ„‘—– ͶͲ –‘ ͵Ͳ ƒǡ —‡š’Žƒ‹‡† ‡‹”‹ Š •‡†‹‡–ƒ”› ‡˜‡–• †‘ ‘– ‡‘—‰Š –‘ ‡ ‘—–‡” ‘†‡” H. sapiens •’”‡ƒ†‹‰ ™‹–Š –Š‡ Žƒ––‡” ‰”ƒ†—ƒŽŽ› †›‹‰ ‘—– ƒ„‘—– ͳͲ ƒǡ ƒ• •‡‡ –‘ ‘””‡Žƒ–‡ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‡“—ƒŽŽ› ›•–‡”‹‘—• ˆ”‘ˆ”‹ ƒ–‘™ƒ”†—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǤ –Š‡—•‡‘ˆ ‘’’‡”ƒ†–Š‡„”‘œ‡‰”ƒ†—ƒŽŽ›•’”‡ƒ†ǡ ƒ•‰ƒƒ”†Ǧ‡• Š‰‡”–Š‡”ƒŽ‡˜‡–•Ǥ Š‡ Dz—Ž–‹”‡‰‹‘ƒŽdz Š›’‘–Š‡•‹• Ȅ –Šƒ– Homo ‡˜‡–—ƒŽŽ›•— ‡‡†‡†„›‹”‘(F)ǤͳͷŠ‡‰”‹ —Ž–—”ƒŽ —”‹‰–Š‡ƒš‹—‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽƒ†˜ƒ ‡ǡƒ”‘—†ʹͲ erectus‡˜‘Ž˜‡†‹–‘Homo sapiens‹†‡’‡†‡–Ž›‹ ȋ‘”‡‘Ž‹–Š‹ Ȍ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘•‡‡•–‘Šƒ˜‡„‡‰—‹–Š‡ ƒǡ–Š‡‹ ‡•Š‡‡–‘ˆ–Š‡ƒƒ†‹ƒ‘ ‹‡•„Ž‘ ‡†–Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ’ƒ”–• ‘ˆ —”ƒ•‹ƒ Ȅ ‹• ‘™ Ž‡•• •—’’‘”–‡† ‡ƒ” ƒ•– ƒ„‘—– ͳʹ ƒ ȋͳͲǡͲͲͲ ȌǤ  ‡–ƒŽ –‘‘Ž•ǡ ˜ƒŽŽ‡› ‘ˆ –Š‡ Žƒ” ‘” ‹˜‡” ‹ ‘”–Š‡” †ƒŠ‘ǡ –Šƒ –Š‡ Dz—–Ǧ‘ˆǦˆ”‹ ƒdz Š›’‘–Š‡•‹• Ȅ –Šƒ– H. ƒ‰”‹ —Ž–—”‡ǡƒ†™”‹–‹‰™‹ŽŽ„‡†‘‹ƒ–‹–Š‡ͷǤͷ ‹’‘—†‹‰–Š‡Š—‰‡ Žƒ ‹ƒŽƒ‡‹••‘—ŽƒǤŠ‡ sapiens ‡˜‘Ž˜‡† ‹ ˆ”‹ ƒ ƒ† –Š‡ •’”‡ƒ† ‘˜‡” ƒƒ‡Žͺ(G)Ǥ –Š‡ Žƒ‡ ™ƒ–‡” ”‘•‡ Š‹‰Š ‡‘—‰Šǡ ‹– ˆŽ‘ƒ–‡† –Š‡ ‹ ‡ —”ƒ•‹ƒǡ”‡’Žƒ ‹‰–Š‡ ‡ƒ”Ž‹‡” ’‡‘’Ž‡ ™Š‘Šƒ†Ž‹˜‡†  PANEL 7: H. sapiens OUT OF AFRICA (60 ka to now)

Homo floresiensis (”hobbits”) perhaps extinct by ~50 ka D Human species HUMANITY Neanderthals extinct ~40 ka Anatomically modern Homo sapiens

Posth et al., 2016, Curr. Biol. E Human ? Europe migrations Late Glacial Post- Late Pre- Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) Maximum LGM Glacial Holocene Arabia? India?Australia? Eurasia? Siberia? Alaska Americas Pacific

Middle Paleolithic stone tools F Tools and fire Late Paleolithic stone tools and Iron Age Intentional human use of fire is ubiquitous G Panel 8 50 ka 40 ka 30 ka 20 ka 10 ka C Geologic events Spokane (Missoula) Floods: dozens of catastrophic EARTH floods released when glacial Lake Missoula floated its ice dam off the bottom of the Clark Fork valley. Heinrich events, H1-H6, are large accumulations of ice-rafted 21.4 ka 13.4 ka Very rapid deglaciation migration out of Africa (ca. 60 ka?) (ca. 60 of Africa out migration H6 debris in the North Atlantic H5 H4 H3 H2 H1 ends the Pleistocene ~60 ka sediments. (Hemming, 2004) 45 ka 38 ka ~31 ka 24 ka 16.8 ka ice age. Temperature Dansgaard-Oeschger events (numbered) Bølling-Allerød (warm) -30 B Warm ) 1716 15 14 13 12 11 10 98 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Holocene = Postglacial (warm) O (

-40 18 δ Homo sapiens Homo Greenland GISP-2: Stuiver & Grootes (2000) Cold (cold) -45 Age/ Tarantian stage A GTS 2012 Holocene Epoch Late Pleistocene Period Quaternary 60 ka50 ka 40 ka 30 ka 20 ka 10 ka now ka = thousand years ago © Walter Álvarez, 2019 Panel B-8: Civilization and writing (3500 BC to now) ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡʹͲͳͻ  ‡‰‹‹‰ ™‹–Š –Š‹• ’ƒ‡Žǡ –‹‡ ‹–‡”˜ƒŽ• ‘–Š‡ •—„•‡“—‡– –‹‡•ǡ —’ –‘ ͳͻʹ͵ǡ ‹ ”‘–‡•–ƒ– ƒ† •Š‘™• –Š‡ ƒ‰‡• ‹ –Š‹• ”‡‰‹‘Ǣ  ‡ƒ Š –‡ Š‘Ž‘‰› Š—ƒ • ƒŽ‡ ƒ‡ ƒ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡ ‡ ‹ –Š‡ ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–•ǯ ƒ•–‡” ”–Š‘†‘š —”‘’‡ƒ ‘—–”‹‡•ȌǤ  ƒŽ‡†”‹ ƒŽ ƒ””‹˜‡†Žƒ–‡”‹’‡”‹’Š‡”ƒŽ”‡‰‹‘•Ǥ  ‘–”ƒ•––‘–Š‡ •›•–‡‘ˆDz›‡ƒ”•„‡ˆ‘”‡–Š‡’”‡•‡–Ǥdz –‹•‡ ‡••ƒ”› ‘˜‡”•‹‘• ƒ”‡  ƒ ‘’Ž‡š ƒ–Š‡ƒ–‹ ƒŽ •—„Œ‡ – —•—ƒŽ ‰”ƒ†—ƒŽ Šƒ‰‡• ‹ –‡ Š‘Ž‘‰›ǡ –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘™ –‘ †‡ˆ‹‡ Dz–Š‡ ’”‡•‡–ǡdz ƒ† –‘ •’‡ ‹ˆ› †ƒ–‡• ‹ ™Š‹ Š ƒ ˆ—–—”‡ǡ ‘”‡ •‘’Š‹•–‹ ƒ–‡† Š”‘‘‘‘ ‡ƒ” ƒ•–‡” ”‘œ‡ ‰‡ǡ ƒ„‘—– ͳʹͲͲ ǡ ™ƒ• „‘–Š –Š‡ ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹  ƒ† –Š‡ Š—ƒ‹•–‹  •›•–‡•Ǥ  ‘” ‹‰Š–‡‡†–‘ ‘•‹†‡”Ǥͳ ‡˜‹†‡–Ž› ƒ–ƒ•–”‘’Š‹ ǡƒ† ”‡ƒ‹• ’—œœŽ‹‰Ǣ  ‹– Šƒ• –Š‡’—”’‘•‡•‘ˆŠ”‘‘‘‘ǡ‹–‹•—•‡ˆ—Ž–‘†‡ˆ‹‡–Š‡ —”‹‰ –Š‡ ͷǡͷͲͲ ›‡ƒ”• ‘ˆ –Š‹• ’ƒ‡Ž –Š‡”‡ Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ ƒ––”‹„—–‡† „‘–Š –‘ ƒ†˜ƒ ‡• ‹ ™ƒ”ˆƒ”‡ǡ ’”‡•‡– ƒ• ‹†‹‰Š– ƒ– –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ ›‡ƒ” ͳͻͻͻǡ ƒ– „‡‡ƒ—„‡”‘ˆƒŒ‘”ƒ–—”ƒŽ†‹•ƒ•–‡”•ǡ‹ Ž—†‹‰ ”‡†‡”‹‰ Šƒ”‹‘–• —•‡Ž‡••ǡͶƒ†–‘ Ž—•–‡”•‘ˆƒŒ‘” –Š‡‘‡–™Š‡–Š‡ ƒŽ‡†ƒ” Šƒ‰‡†‘˜‡”–‘ʹͲͲͲǤ ‡š’Ž‘•‹˜‡ ˜‘Ž ƒ‹  ‡”—’–‹‘•ǡ ’‡•–‹Ž‡ ‡•ǡ ƒ† ‡ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡•Ǥͷ ˆ •–‹ŽŽ ‘”‡ †‡–ƒ‹Ž‡† ’ƒ‡Ž• ™‡”‡ ’”‡’ƒ”‡†ǡ ‹– ‘—Ž† †”‘—‰Š– (B)ǡ ‘ˆ ™Š‹ Š ‘Ž› –Š‡ Žƒ  ‡ƒ–Š ‘ˆ –Š‡ Š‡ „‡‰‹‹‰ ‘ˆ ™”‹–‹‰ (E)ƒ”•ƒŠ—‰‡ „‡•’‡ ‹ˆ‹‡†–Šƒ––Š‹•‹•–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡•‡ ‘† ‹††Ž‡ͳͶ–Š ‡–—”›™ƒ••—ˆˆ‹ ‹‡––‘’”‘†— ‡‡˜‡ƒ Šƒ‰‡ ‹ Š‘™ Š‹•–‘”› ‹• —†‡”•–‘‘†Ǥ  ‡ˆ‘”‡ –Š‡ ‹ŽŽ‡‹—ǡ ƒ•–‡” –ƒ†ƒ”† ‹‡ ȋ‹ ‡™ ‘”ȌǤ „”‹‡ˆ†‘™–—”‹–Š‡‰”‘™–Š‘ˆ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ ‹˜‡–‹‘‘ˆ™”‹–‹‰ǡ–Š‡Š‹•–‘”›‘ˆŠ—ƒƒˆˆƒ‹”•ƒ› Š‘‘•‹‰ Dz–Š‡ ’”‡•‡–dz ‹ –Š‹• ™ƒ› ƒ˜‘‹†• –Š‡ Š—ƒ‹† (C)Ǥ   ˆƒ –ǡ ˆ”‘ –Š‡ „‡‰‹‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‹• Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ –‘Ž† ƒ† ”‡‡„‡”‡† ˆ‘” ƒ ˆ‡™ ‡ ‡••‹–›‘ˆ ‘•–ƒ–Ž› Šƒ‰‹‰–Š‡”‡ˆ‡”‡ ‡ˆ”ƒ‡ ’ƒ‡Ž –‘ –Š‡ „‡‰‹‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡š– ‘‡ǡ ƒ– ͳͶͲͲ ǡ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ ’‡”Šƒ’•ǡ ƒ† –Š‡ ‹– ‡‹–Š‡” ‡–‡”‡†–Š‡ ˆ‘”Š—ƒŠ‹•–‘”›ǡƒ†‹–Š‘‘”•–Š‡Š—ƒ‹•– –Š‡ ”ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ ‰”‘™–Š ‹ ”‡ƒ•‡†ǡ ”‡ƒ Š‹‰ ƒ ”‡ƒŽ‘ˆŽ‡‰‡†‘”ǡ‘”‡ ‘‘Ž›ǡ™ƒ••‹’Ž›Ž‘•–Ǥ Š‹•–‘”‹ƒ•ǯ ”‡ ‘‰‹–‹‘ –Šƒ– Dz —””‡– ‡˜‡–•dz ȋ‹ –Š‡ ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ–‘–ƒŽ‘ˆƒ„‘—–ͶͲͲ‹ŽŽ‹‘Ǥʹ ˆ–‡” ’‡‘’Ž‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡† –‘ ™”‹–‡ǡ Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ ”‡ ‘”†• Š”‘‘‘‘ ƒ•‡ǡ †‡ˆ‹‡† ƒ• ‡˜‡”›–Š‹‰ „‡‰‹‹‰ —ƒ Š‹•–‘”› ’”‹‘” –‘ –Š‡ ‹˜‡–‹‘ ‘ˆ ™”‹–‹‰ „‡ ‘‡ ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ ‹ Š—ƒ Žƒ‰—ƒ‰‡ǡ •‘‡ ‘ˆ ‹– ƒ—ƒ”› ͳǡ ʹͲͲͲȌ ƒ”‡ –Š‡ ’”‘˜‹ ‡ ‘ˆ Œ‘—”ƒŽ‹•–•ǡ ȋƒ‡Ž ͹Ȍ ‹• Žƒ”‰‡Ž› ”‡ ‘˜‡”‡† ˆ”‘ ƒ” Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ ‹–‡–‹‘ƒŽŽ› †‘ —‡–‹‰ Š‹•–‘”›ǡ „—– — Š ‘ˆ ‹– Žƒ ‹‰ –Š‡ Š”‘‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ ’‡”•’‡ –‹˜‡ –Šƒ– ƒŽŽ‘™• ‡š ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ‘‘Ž•ƒ†‘–Š‡”ƒ”–‹ˆƒ –•’”‘˜‹†‡— Š —•‡ˆ—Ž ˆ‘” Š‹•–‘”‹ƒ• ƒŽ–Š‘—‰Š ‘– ™”‹––‡ ˆ‘” –Šƒ– Š‹•–‘”‹ƒ• –‘ ƒ‡ •‡•‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ „‡™‹Ž†‡”‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ„‘—– Š‘™ ’”‡ǦŽ‹–‡”ƒ–‡ ’—”’‘•‡ Ȅ Ž‹‡ ‡” Šƒ–•ǯ ‹˜‡–‘”‹‡•ǡ ƒ† –ƒš ‘’Ž‡š‹–›‘ˆŠ—ƒ‡˜‡–•Ǥ ’‡‘’Ž‡Ž‹˜‡†ǤŠ‡‡ƒ”Ž‹‡•––‘‘Ž•ƒ›Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ƒ†‡ ”‡ ‘”†•Ǥ  ”‹––‡ ”‡ ‘”†• ƒ”‡ •‘ ƒ„—†ƒ– ƒ† ”‹ Š Š—ƒ‹•–‹ Š‹•–‘”›‹–‹•–”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ–‘‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š ƒ‹Ž› ‘ˆ ™‘‘†ǡ ™Š‹ Š ”ƒ”‡Ž› •—”˜‹˜‡• ‹ –Šƒ– ‡˜‡ ‘™ •‘‡ Š‹•–‘”‹ƒ• ƒ”‰—‡ –Šƒ– ‘Ž› ƒ”‡ˆ‡”‡ ‡†ƒ–‡ƒ–•‘‡–‹‡‹–Š‡’ƒ•–ǡ™‹–Š†ƒ–‡ ƒ” Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ •‹–‡•Ǥ Š‡ ƒ‹ ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘‡• ™”‹––‡ †‘ —‡–• ‘•–‹–—–‡ ”‡ƒŽ Š‹•–‘”› Ȅ ƒ ˜‹‡™ —„‡”• ‹ ”‡ƒ•‹‰ –‘™ƒ”† –Š‡ ’ƒ•– ’”‹‘” –‘ –Š‡ ˆ”‘ ‘Ǧ’‡”‹•Šƒ„Ž‡ –‘‘Ž•ǡ ’ƒ”–‹ —Žƒ”Ž› –Š‘•‡ ƒ†‡ •–”‘‰Ž› ”‡Œ‡ –‡† „› Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ • ‹‡–‹•–• ƒ† ‹‰ ”‡ˆ‡”‡ ‡ †ƒ–‡ǡ ƒ† ‹ ”‡ƒ•‹‰ –‘™ƒ”† –Š‡ ’”‡•‡– ˆ”‘•–‘‡‘”‡–ƒŽǤ ƒ›’ƒ”–•‘ˆ–Š‡™‘”Ž†ǡ‹– ‹•–‘”‹ƒ•Ǥ ƒ†–Š‡ˆ—–—”‡ƒˆ–‡”‹–ǤŠ”‘‘‘‘—•‡•ƒ† Šƒ• „‡‡ —•‡ˆ—Ž –‘ †‹˜‹†‡ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ —Ž–—”‡•ǡ ˆ”‘ ‡ ƒ—•‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘’Ž‡š‹–› ƒ† †‡–ƒ‹Ž ‘ˆ ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ (A)ǡ™Š‹ Šƒ”‡—‡”‹ ƒŽŽ›‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡––‘ȋ‡ˆ‘”‡ ‘Ž†‡” –‘ ›‘—‰‡”ǡ ‹–‘ –‘‡ ‰‡ǡ ”‘œ‡ ‰‡ǡ ƒ† Š—ƒ Š‹•–‘”›ǡ ‹– ‹• ‘– ’‘••‹„Ž‡ –‘ ’”‡•‡– ƒ —•‡ˆ—Ž –Š‡‘‘”ƒȌƒ†ȋ‘‘”ƒȌǤŠ‡”‡ƒ”‡ ”‘ ‰‡ (D)ǡ ƒ† –Š‘•‡ ƒ› „‡ •—„†‹˜‹†‡† •—ƒ”›‘ˆŽ‹–‡”ƒ–‡Š‹•–‘”›‘ƒŠ”‘‘‘‘’ƒ‡ŽǤ ‘–Š‡” •›•–‡• ™‹–Š †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ”‡ˆ‡”‡ ‡ †ƒ–‡•ǡ ƒ† ”‡’‡ƒ–‡†Ž› ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥǡ ›’”—• ƒ–‡ ”‘œ‡ ‰‡ ǦȌǤ   ‘™‡Šƒ˜‡ Š‘•‡–‘Ž‡ƒ˜‡ŠƒŽˆ‘ˆ–Š‹•’ƒ‡Ž‡’–›ǡ ™‹–Š ‘’Ž‡š‹–‹‡••— Šƒ•–Š‡—•‡‘ˆŽ—ƒ””ƒ–Š‡”–Šƒ •‘‡ ’Žƒ ‡• ƒ ŠƒŽ ‘Ž‹–Š‹  ‰‡ ȋ•–‘‡ ’Ž—• –Š‡ •‘ˆ– •—‰‰‡•–‹‰ –Šƒ– —•‡”• ‹‰Š– ™‹•Š –‘ ’”‹– ‘—– –Š‡ •‘Žƒ” ƒŽ‡†ƒ”•ǡ ƒ† ™‹–Š ‹’”‘˜‡‡–• ‹ –Š‡ ‡–ƒŽǡ ‘’’‡”Ȍ ƒ„‡”‡ ‘‰‹œ‡†„‡–™‡‡–Š‡–‘‡ ’ƒ‡Žƒ†•‡– Š‹–Š‡Š‹•–‘”›–Šƒ–‹–‡”‡•–•–Š‡‘ ƒŽ‡†ƒ”‹–”‘†— ‡†ƒ––‹‡•‹–Š‡’ƒ•–ȋ•— Šƒ•–Š‡ ‰‡ ƒ† –Š‡ ”‘œ‡ ‰‡Ǥ  Š‡ ‡ƒ” ƒ•–‡” ”‡‰‹‘ –Š‹•ƒ†–Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰’ƒ‡Ž•Ǥ Šƒ‰‡ ˆ”‘ –Š‡ —Ž‹ƒ –‘ –Š‡ ”‡‰‘”‹ƒ ƒŽ‡†ƒ”ǡ •—””‘—†‹‰–Š‡ƒ•–‡”‡†‹–‡””ƒ‡ƒ™ƒ•ƒ ‡–‡”  ƒ†‘’–‡† „› ƒ–Š‘Ž‹  ‘—–”‹‡• ‹ ͳͷͺʹǡ ƒ† ƒ– ˆ”‘™Š‹ Š–Š‡•‡–‡ Š‘Ž‘‰‹‡•†‹ˆˆ—•‡†ǡ͵•‘–Š‹•’ƒ‡Ž  

    PANEL 8: LAST 5,500 YEARS – civilization and writing (3,500 BC to now)

30 00 25 00 20 00 15 0010 00 5 00BC AD 5 00 10 00 15 00 Oldest writing in Mesoamerica (early first millenium BC) Early writing Oldest Chinese script, on oracle bones (ca. 1200-1050 BC) (For population since 1500, see Panel 9) Panel 9 E Undeciphered writing from Harappa, in the Indus Valley (ca. 3000 BC) B 500 Earliest (questionable) on hieroglyphics in Egypt (ca. 3200 BC) Volcanic eruptions, Plagues, Population Appearance of cuneiform writing in Sumer (2700-2500 BC) Protoliterate period in (35th to 32nd ) The Plague The Black Death * * 400 of Athens The Plague 1347-1353 D Tool materials 430 BC * Dramatic end of the Near-East Bronze Age (ca. 1200 BC) may of Justinian have been caused by advances in warfare, or by earthquakes 541-542 300 Krakatoa (1883 AD) Chalco- Near-East Bronze age (ca. 3300 BC - 1200 BC) Near-East Iron Age (ca. 1200 BC - now) lithic >30,000 dead * 200 Thera (Santorini) eruption may Tambora (1815 AD) >17,000 dead have ended Minoan civilization “ without a summer” (1816) C * * population (millions) World Radiocarbon age Archaeological age Vesuvius (79 AD) Great Drought* in SW U.S. 100 Approximate date of the earliest writing (3,500 BC = 5.5 ka) BC = 5.5 (3,500 writing the earliest of date Approximate 1600-1627 BC **~1500 BC destroyed Pompeii destroys Anasazi, Hohokam and Herculaneum towns (1276-1279) 0 ka = thousand 3,000 BC2,000 BC 1,000 BC BC - AD 1,000 AD © Walter now years ago 5 ka4 ka 3 ka A 2 ka 1 ka Álvarez, 2019 Panel 9: Global reconnection (1400 to 2000 AD) ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡʹͲͳͻ  Š‹•’ƒ‡Ž„‡‰‹•͸ͲͲ›‡ƒ”•ƒ‰‘ǡƒ–ͳͶͲͲǡ(A) –Šƒ –Šƒ– (E)Ǥ   ‡ƒ™Š‹Ž‡ǡ –Š‡ Š—ƒ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ –‹› ‘”–—‰—‡•‡ ƒ”ƒ˜‡Ž• ‰”ƒ†—ƒŽŽ› ‡š’Ž‘”‡† –Š‡ Š‘•‡ „‡ ƒ—•‡ –Š‹• ‹ Ž—†‡• –Š‡ „‡‰‹‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ (F) ‘–‹—‡† –‘ ‰”‘™ǡ ƒ– ƒ ƒ ‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‰ ’ƒ ‡ǡ ™‡•– ‘ƒ•– ‘ˆ ˆ”‹ ƒǡ ƒ’’‹‰ ™‹†•ǡ —””‡–•ǡ ƒ† ‘›ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ ‹• ‘˜‡”›ǡ ™Š‹ Š ‰”ƒ†—ƒŽŽ› ”‡ ‘‡ –‡† ‡•’‡ ‹ƒŽŽ› ƒ• –Š‡ †—•–”‹ƒŽ ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ —ˆ‘Ž†‡†ǡ ƒ‰‡–‹  †‡ Ž‹ƒ–‹‘•ǡ ƒ† †‹• ‘˜‡”‹‰ ƒ •‡ƒ ”‘—–‡ ’‡‘’Ž‡ ˆ”‘ ƒŽŽ ‘˜‡” –Š‡ ‰Ž‘„‡ ™Š‘ Šƒ† „‡‡ ”‡ƒ Š‹‰ͳ„‹ŽŽ‹‘‹–Š‡‡ƒ”Ž›ͳͻ–Š ‡–—”›ǡƒ†Œ—•– –‘ †‹ƒ„›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡ͳͷ–Š‡–—”›Ǥ ‹•‘Žƒ–‡† •‹ ‡ –Š‡ —–Ǧ‘ˆǦˆ”‹ ƒ ‹‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ Homo ‘˜‡”͸„‹ŽŽ‹‘„›–Š‡›‡ƒ”ʹͲͲͲǤʹ ‹–Š –Š‡ ‘“—‡•– ‘ˆ ”ƒƒ†ƒ ‘’Ž‡–‡† ‹ sapiensƒ„‘—–͸ͲǡͲͲͲ›‡ƒ”•ƒ‰‘Ǥ ƒ‘”‡”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ Š‡‰Ž‘„ƒŽ†‹•’‡”•ƒŽ‘ˆHomo sapiens–Šƒ–„‡‰ƒ ͳͶͻʹǡ –Š‡ ’ƒ‹•Š †‹• ‘˜‡”‡† ƒ† ‘Ž‘‹œ‡† ™Šƒ– ˜‹‡™ǡ‹–‹•ƒŽ•‘–Š‡ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‡†ƒ–‡‘ˆ–Š‡–”ƒ•‹–‹‘ ™‹–Š –Š‡ •‡ ‘† —–Ǧ‘ˆǦˆ”‹ ƒ ‹‰”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ„‘—– –—”‡† ‘—– –‘ „‡ –Š‡ –™‘ ‡™ ‘–‹‡–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆ”‘–Š‡‹††Ž‡‰‡•–‘–Š‡‡ƒ‹••ƒ ‡ǡ™Š‹ ŠŠƒ• ͸ͲǡͲͲͲ›‡ƒ”•ƒ‰‘ȋƒ‡Ž•͸ǡ͹ȌŽ‡ˆ–ƒŽŽ–Š‡ ‘–‹‡–• ‡”‹ ƒ•Ǥ  ‘” ‰‘‘† ‘” ‹ŽŽǡ Š—ƒ‹–› ƒ”‘—† –Š‡ Ž‘‰ „‡‡ ƒ ƒŒ‘” ’‡”‹‘†‹œƒ–‹‘ „‘—†ƒ”› ‹ ‡š ‡’––ƒ” –‹ ƒǡƒ•™‡ŽŽƒ•ƒ›‹•Žƒ†•ǡ‘ —’‹‡† ‰Ž‘„‡Šƒ†„‡‡”‡Ǧ ‘‡ –‡†Ǥ ‡•–‡”Š‹•–‘”›Ǥ „›Š—ƒ„‡‹‰•Ǥ‘•–‘ˆ–Š‘•‡’‡‘’Ž‡‘Ž‘‰‡” – ‹• ™‘”–Š ‘–‹‰ ƒ †‹•ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ —”‹‰–Š‡–‹‡‹–‡”˜ƒŽ‘ˆ–Š‹•’ƒ‡Žǡƒ—„‡” ‡™ Š‘™ ‘” ™Š‡ –Š‡‹” ƒ ‡•–‘”• ‰‘– –Š‡”‡ǡ ƒ† Š”‘‘‘‘ †‡•‹‰ǡ ‹ ™Š‹ Š ‡ƒ Š Ž‹‡ƒ” ’ƒ‡Ž ‘ˆ •‡”‹‘—• ƒ–—”ƒŽ †‹•ƒ•–‡”• Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ ˜‹•‹–‡† —’‘ ™‡”‡—ƒ™ƒ”‡‘ˆ’‡‘’Ž‡™Š‘Ž‹˜‡†„‡›‘†–Š‡‹”‘™ ‡Žƒ”‰‡• –Š‡ ‘•– ”‡ ‡– ̱ͳͲΨ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’”‡ ‡†‹‰ Š—ƒ‹–›Ǥ  Š‡ Šƒƒš‹ ‡˜‡– ‘ˆ ͳͷͷ͸ (B) ™ƒ•–Š‡ ‡–™‘”•‘ˆ–”ƒ˜‡Žƒ† ‘—‹ ƒ–‹‘ǤŠ‡•‡–‡• ’ƒ‡ŽǤ  Ž–Š‘—‰Š –Š‹• Š‘‘”• –Š‡ ƒ–Š”‘’‘ ‡–”‹  †‡ƒ†Ž‹‡•–‘™‡ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡ǡ™‹–ŠŠ—‰‡—„‡”•‘ˆ ‘ˆ –Š‘—•ƒ†• ‘ˆ ›‡ƒ”• ‘ˆ ‹•‘Žƒ–‹‘ ƒ‡ –‘ ƒ ‡†ǡ ‹‰Ǧ ‹•–‘”› ƒ’’”‘ƒ Š „› œ‘‘‹‰ ‹ ‘ ‡˜‡” ‘”‡ ’‡‘’Ž‡‹ŽŽ‡†™Š‡–Š‡‹”Š‘‡•ǡ‡š ƒ˜ƒ–‡†‹–‘Ž‘‡••ǡ „‡‰‹‹‰‹–Š‡ͳͷ–Šƒ†ͳ͸–Š ‡–—”‹‡•(G)ǡ™Š‡ ”‡ ‡– ‡’‹•‘†‡• ‹ –Š‡ Š‹•–‘”› –Šƒ– Šƒ• Ž‡† –‘ –Š‡•‘ˆ–ǡ™‹†Ǧ„‘”‡‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽ†‡’‘•‹–•ǡ ‘ŽŽƒ’•‡†ǤŠ‡ –Š‡‘›ƒ‰‡•‘ˆš’Ž‘”ƒ–‹‘„”‘—‰Š–ƒ„‘—––Š‡‰Ž‘„ƒŽ ’”‡•‡–Ǧ†ƒ› Š—ƒ‹–›ǡ ‹– †‘‡• ‡ƒ –Šƒ– Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ ‹•„‘ ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡ ‘ˆ ͳ͹ͷͷ ‘– ‘Ž› Žƒ”‰‡Ž› ”‡ ‘‡ –‹‘ ™Š‹ Š Šƒ• Ž‡†ǡ ‹ ‘—” –‹‡• –‘ –Š‡ †‡–ƒ‹Ž•ˆ”‘ˆƒ”–Š‡”„ƒ ‹–‹‡—•–„‡‡‰Ž‡ –‡†Ǥ †‡•–”‘›‡†‹•„‘ƒ†‘•–‘ˆ–Š‡Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ”‡ ‘”†• ’Š‡‘‡‘‘ˆ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ‹œƒ–‹‘Ǥ ‘–Š‹‰ ‹ ‹‰ ‹•–‘”› ’”‹‘” –‘ ͳͶͲͲ  ƒ „‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘”–—‰—‡•‡ ‡š’Ž‘”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ ™Š‹ Š ƒ› Šƒ˜‡ ‘‰Ǧ†‹•–ƒ ‡ •‡ƒˆƒ”‹‰ „‡‰ƒ ™‹–Š –Š‡ •‡˜‡ •Š‘™ƒ––Š‡• ƒŽ‡‘ˆƒ‡Žͻǡ‘”ƒ–Žƒ”‰‡”• ƒŽ‡ǤŠ‹• „‡‡ –Š‡ „‡‰‹‹‰ ‘ˆ ‘†‡” • ‹‡ ‡ǡͳ „—– •Š‘‘ ˜‘›ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ–Š‡Š‹‡•‡ƒ†‹”ƒŽŠ‡‰ ‡‹–Š‡‡ƒ”Ž› ‘ˆ ‘—”•‡ ‹• ƒ ’”‘„Ž‡ƒ– ‡˜‡”› • ƒŽ‡ǣ  ƒ‡Ž ͵ǡ ˆ‘” –Š‡ Ž‹‰Š–‡‡– ˜‹‡™’‘‹– ‹ ™Š‹ Š –Š‡ ™‘”Ž† ͳͷ–Š ‡–—”›Ǥ  Š‡•‡ ‰‹ƒ– ‡š’‡†‹–‹‘• ™‹–Š ‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ ™Š‹ Š •Š‘™• –Š‡ Š‹•–‘”› ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡–‹”‡ ™ƒ••‡‡ƒ•ƒ„‡‹‰‡˜‹”‘‡–ǡ†‡•‹‰‡†„›–Š‡ Š—†”‡†• ‘ˆ Žƒ”‰‡ •Š‹’• ƒ† –‡• ‘ˆ –Š‘—•ƒ†• ‘ˆ Šƒ‡”‘œ‘‹ ǡ ƒ‘– •Š‘™ –Š‡ Š‹•–‘”› ‘ˆ –Š‡ †‡‹–›ˆ‘”Š—ƒŽ‹ˆ‡Ǥ‘Ž ƒ‹ ‡”—’–‹‘•(C)‹‡”ï ‡•‡‡–‘Šƒ˜‡„‡‡‘”‡ƒ„‘—–‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‹‰ ”†‘˜‹ ‹ƒ ‘” –Š‡ ”‡–ƒ ‡‘—• ƒ– –Š‡ Ž‡˜‡Ž ‘ˆ †‡–ƒ‹Ž ƒ† ‡Žƒ† ƒ—•‡• ™‹†‡•’”‡ƒ† ”‘’ ˆƒ‹Ž—”‡•ǡ ƒ† Š‹‡•‡ †‘‹ƒ ‡ ƒ† ‡š–”ƒ –‹‰ –”‹„—–‡ ˆ”‘ ™‹–Š™Š‹ Š’ƒ‡ŽͶ’‘”–”ƒ›•–Š‡‡‘œ‘‹ Ǥ –™‘ ‡š ‡’–‹‘ƒŽŽ› ˜‹‘Ž‡– ˜‘Ž ƒ‹  ‡š’Ž‘•‹‘• ‹‰†‘• ƒ”‘—† –Š‡ ‘™ †‹ƒ  ‡ƒ –Šƒ •‹ƒ‡Žͺǡ™‡Šƒ˜‡•Š‘™ǡ‹–Š‡Ž‘™‡”ŠƒŽˆ ‘ —””‡† ‹ †‘‡•‹ƒ †—”‹‰ –Š‡ ͳͻ–Š ‡–—”›ǡ ƒ– ƒ„‘—–‡š’Ž‘”‹‰–Š‡—‘™ǡƒ†ƒˆ–‡”Š‡‰†‹‡† ‘ˆ–Š‹•’ƒ‡Žǡ–Š‡‰Ž‘„ƒŽ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ƒ†•‘‡ƒ–—”ƒŽ ƒ„‘”ƒƒ†”ƒƒ–‘ƒǤ‡˜‡”ƒŽ”‡ —””‡ ‡•(D)‘ˆ ƒ† ƒ ‡™ ’‡”‘” –‘‘ –Š‡ –Š”‘‡ǡ –Š‡ Š‹‡•‡ ‡˜‡–•–Šƒ–ƒˆˆ‡ –‡†Š—ƒŠ‹•–‘”›Ǥ‰ƒ‹™‡Šƒ˜‡ –Š‡ ͳͶ–Š ‡–—”› „—„‘‹  ’Žƒ‰—‡ǡ ‘” „Žƒ  †‡ƒ–Šǡ ƒ„ƒ†‘‡†Ž‘‰Ǧ†‹•–ƒ ‡•‡ƒˆƒ”‹‰Ǥ Ž‡ˆ––Š‡—’’‡”ŠƒŽˆ‘ˆ–Š‹•’ƒ‡Ž„Žƒˆ‘”–Š‡—•‡”–‘ ‘ —””‡† ‹ —”‘’‡ ‹ –Š‡ ͳ͹–Š ƒ† ‡ƒ”Ž› ͳͺ–Š •–‡ƒ† –‹› ‘”–—‰ƒŽǡ ‘ –Š‡ •Š‘”‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆ‹ŽŽ‹™‹–Šƒ’‡”•‘ƒŽ•‡Ž‡ –‹‘‘ˆ‡˜‡–•ƒ†–”‡†• ‡–—”‹‡•ǡƒ†–Š‡‰”‡ƒ–‹ˆŽ—‡œƒ’ƒ†‡‹ ‘ˆͳͻͳͺǦ –Žƒ–‹  ‡ƒƒ†—ƒˆˆ‡ –‡†„›–Š‡™ƒ”•–Šƒ– ˆ”‘–Š‡˜ƒ•– ‘”— ‘’‹ƒ‘ˆ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡–‘ ͳͻͳͻ ƒ—•‡† ƒ ‡‘”‘—• —„‡” ‘ˆ ˆƒ–ƒŽ‹–‹‡• Ȅ †‹•–”ƒ –‡†–Š‡ƒŒ‘”–Žƒ–‹ Ǧˆƒ ‹‰ ‘—–”‹‡•‘ˆ Š‹•–‘”‹ƒ•‘ˆŽ‹–‡”ƒ–‡Š—ƒ‹–›Ǥ ‡˜‡–Š‡Ž‘™‡•–‡•–‹ƒ–‡‡š ‡‡†•–Š‡Ž‘••‘ˆŽ‹ˆ‡‹ ‰Žƒ†ǡ ”ƒ ‡ǡ ƒ† ’ƒ‹ǡ „‡‰ƒ –Š‡ ‰‡ ‘ˆ ‘”Ž†ƒ” ǡƒ†Š‹‰Š‡”‡•–‹ƒ–‡•ƒ”‡— ŠŽƒ”‰‡” š’Ž‘”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ”‹˜‡„›”‹ ‡ ‡”›–Š‡ƒ˜‹‰ƒ–‘”ǡ     PANEL 9: LAST 600 YEARS – Global reconnection (1400 to 2000 AD)

G

15 00 16 00 17 00 18 00 19 00 Earthquakes, volcanoes, DA Outbreaks of Volcanic eruption of Mt. Tambora Panel 10 plagues, and population bubonic plague (Indonesia) 1815.04.10 6 “Year without a summer” (1816) ** * * ** * 5 Volcanic eruption of Huaynaputina (Perú) Volcanic eruptions at Laki 1600.02.19 Many deaths, and global effects* C *

Baltic (Icelend) 1783-1784 Crop Milan Seville Vienna 4 London failures throughout Europe Marseille Shaanxi Earthquake (China)* Volcanic eruption of Krakatoa 3 1556.01.23 ~800,000 fatalities; B (Indonesia) 1883.05.20 Deadliest earthquake in history “Loudest sound in ” Lisbon Earthquake (Portugal) 1755.11.01 est. 50,000 fatalities; * 2 Destroyed Lisbon, and deeply * * E Approximate beginning of global exploration (1400 AD = 600 a) = 600 (1400 AD exploration of global beginning Approximate F affected Enlightenment philosophy Flu pandemic, 1918-1919 1 World population 20-50 (or 100) million deaths (cf. ~ 15 million deaths in WW I) population (billions) World A 0 1400 AD1500 AD 1600 AD 1700 AD 1800 AD 1900 AD© Walter 2000 AD Álvarez, 2019 Panel 10: /Long Peace (1945 to 2000 AD) ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡʹͲͳͻ  –Š‹•’ƒ‡Žǡˆ‘”–Š‡ˆ‹”•––‹‡ǡ‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ›‡ƒ”• ‡”—’–‹‘Ǥ  —”‹‰ –Š‡ ‡˜‡–ǡ Žƒ”‰‡ ƒ‘—–• ‘ˆ Š‘– †‘‡• ‘– ”‡ˆŽ‡ – ‡˜‡ ‰”‡ƒ– ƒ–—”ƒŽ †‹•ƒ•–‡”•Ǥ ƒ”‡”‡•‘Ž˜‡†‘–Š‡–‹‡ƒš‹•ǡ•‘–Š‡–‹ ƒ”•ƒ”‡ ˜‘Ž ƒ‹  ƒ•Š ˆ‡ŽŽ ‘–‘ –Š‡ •‘™ǡ ‡Ž–‹‰ ‹– ƒ† ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ–Š‹••‹–—ƒ–‹‘‹•‘–‡ ‡••ƒ”‹Ž›’‡”ƒ‡–Ǥ Žƒ„‡Ž‡† ƒ• ƒ—ƒ”› ͳ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”‡Ž‡˜ƒ– ›‡ƒ” (A)Ǥ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‰ ŽƒŠƒ”•ǡ ‘” ˜‘Ž ƒ‹  —†ˆŽ‘™•ǡ ™Š‹ Š — Š ‰”‡ƒ–‡” †‹•ƒ•–‡”• ƒ”‡ ‡”–ƒ‹Ž› ’‘••‹„Ž‡Ǥ ‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‹• ™‹–Š ƒ‡Ž ʹǡ •Š‘™‹‰ ƒŽŽ ‘ˆ ƒ”–Š •™‡’–†‘™˜ƒŽŽ‡›•‘–Š‡‡ƒ•–•‹†‡‘ˆ–Š‡˜‘Ž ƒ‘Ǥ ’ƒ – ‘ˆ ƒ ͳͲǦ ƒ•–‡”‘‹† ‘” ‘‡– ͸͸ ‹ŽŽ‹‘ Š‹•–‘”›ǡ ™Š‡”‡ ‡ƒ Š –‹  ƒ” ”‡’”‡•‡–• ͳͲͲ ‡ŽƒŠƒ”‘˜‡”™Š‡Ž‡†–Š‡–‘™‘ˆ”‡”‘ǡ‹ŽŽ‹‰ ›‡ƒ”• ƒ‰‘ ƒ—•‡†ƒ ƒ•• ‡š–‹ –‹‘ –Š”‘—‰Š‘—––Š‡ ‹ŽŽ‹‘ ›‡ƒ”•Ǩ  Š‡ •–ƒ”– ‘ˆ–Š‹• ’ƒ‡Ž ‹• ƒ—ƒ”› ͳǡ ʹȀ͵ ‘ˆ ‹–• ‡ƒ”Ž› ͵ͲǡͲͲͲ ‹Šƒ„‹–ƒ–•Ǥʹ  Š‹• ‡˜‡–ǡ ’Žƒ– ƒ† ƒ‹ƒŽ ™‘”Ž†•Ǥ  —ŽŽǦ• ƒŽ‡ — Ž‡ƒ” ™ƒ” ͳͻͶͷǡƒˆ‡™‘–Š•„‡ˆ‘”‡–Š‡‡†‘ˆ‘”Ž†ƒ” ǡ ‘™ ƒ• –Š‡ ”ƒ‰‡†› ‘ˆ ”‡”‘ǡ ™ƒ• ‰”‡ƒ–Ž› ‡ƒ”Ž› –‘‘ ’Žƒ ‡ ƒ– Ž‡ƒ•– –™‹ ‡ †—”‹‰ –Š‡ –‹‡ ‘ˆ ™Š‡–Š‡‰Ž‘„ƒŽŠ—ƒ•‹–—ƒ–‹‘ Šƒ‰‡†ˆ”‘ƒŽŽǦ ™‘”•‡‡† „› –Š‡ ’ƒ”ƒŽ›•‹• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘Ž‘„‹ƒ –Š‹• ’ƒ‡Žǡ ƒ† ƒ› •— Š ™‡ƒ’‘• ”‡ƒ‹ǡ ™‹–Š ‘—–™ƒ”ˆƒ”‡–‘–Š‡—‡ƒ•›ǡƒ”‡†’‡ƒ ‡–Šƒ–Žƒ•–‡† ‰‘˜‡”‡–ǡ –Š‡ ˆƒ ‹‰ –Š‡ Š‡‹‰Š– ‘ˆ ƒ ƒ”‡† ‡™ — Ž‡ƒ” ’‘™‡”• ‡‡”‰‹‰Ǥ  ‘ŽŽƒ’•‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ —–‹Žƒ†„‡›‘†–Š‡›‡ƒ”ʹͲͲͲǤ ‹•—”‰‡ ›ǡ ƒ† „› –Š‡ ˆƒ – –Šƒ– –Š‡ ‡š‹ ‘ ‹–› ‡ ‘‘‹  •›•–‡ ‘” ‘ˆ ƒ‰”‹ —Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘†— –‹‘ ƒ† ˜‡ ‹ –Š‹• •Š‘”– –‹‡ ‹–‡”˜ƒŽǡ –Š‡”‡ ™‡”‡ ƒ ‡ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡Šƒ†–ƒ‡’Žƒ ‡Œ—•––™‘‘–Š•‡ƒ”Ž‹‡”ǡ †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ ƒ”‡ ‘– ‹’‘••‹„Ž‡Ǥ  Š‡ —””‡– —„‡” ‘ˆ ƒŒ‘” ƒ–—”ƒŽ †‹•ƒ•–‡”•Ǥ  Š‡ ‰”‡ƒ–‡•– •‘ –Šƒ– — Š ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ ‡‡”‰‡ › ”‡•’‘•‡ ‡ ‘‘‹ •›•–‡†‡’‡†•‘ ‘–‹—ƒŽ‰”‘™–Šǡ„—– ‡ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡•(B)”‡ ‘”†‡†‹‘”–Š‡”‹ ƒȋŽƒ•ƒǡ ƒ’ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ™ƒ• ƒŽ”‡ƒ†› †‡’Ž‘›‡† ‹ ‡š‹ ‘Ǥ  ƒŒ‘” —”‡•–”ƒ‹‡† ‰”‘™–Š ‹• Ž‡ƒ”Ž› ‘– •—•–ƒ‹ƒ„Ž‡ ͳͻ͸Ͷǡ™αͻǤʹȌƒ†‰Ž‘„ƒŽŽ›ȋŠ‹Ž‡ǡͳͻ͸Ͳǡ™αͻǤͷȌ ˜‘Ž ƒ‹ ‡˜‡–•™‹–Šˆ‡™‡”ˆƒ–ƒŽ‹–‹‡•–‘‘’Žƒ ‡ƒ–Ž ‹†‡ˆ‹‹–‡Ž›‘ƒˆ‹‹–‡ƒ”–ŠǤ –‹•Šƒ”†–‘ƒ˜‘‹†–Š‡ –‘‘’Žƒ ‡†—”‹‰–Š‡ͳͻ͸Ͳ•ǡƒŽ‘‰™‹–Š–Š‡‡š‹ ‘ Š‹ Š× ‹ ‡š‹ ‘ǡ ‘—– ‹ƒ–—„‘ ‹ –Š‡ ‘ Ž—•‹‘–Šƒ–™‡—•–˜‘Ž—–ƒ”‹Ž› –”ƒ•‹–‹‘–‘ƒ ‹–› ‡ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡ ‘ˆ ͳͻͺͷǡ ™Š‹ Š ™ƒ• ’ƒ”–‹ —Žƒ”Ž› Š‹Ž‹’’‹‡•ǡƒ†‘—–ƒ‹– ‡Ž‡•‹–Š‡ƒ• ƒ†‡• ‘Ǧ‰”‘™‹‰’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ƒ†ƒ•—•–ƒ‹ƒ„Ž‡‡ ‘‘›ǡ †‡•–”— –‹˜‡ „‡ ƒ—•‡ ‘ˆ ‹•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ –Š‡ •‘ˆ– ‘ˆƒ•Š‹‰–‘–ƒ–‡Ȅ–Š‡Žƒ––‡”„‡‹‰ˆ‹”•–‡”—’–‹‘ ‘”ƒ–—”‡™‹ŽŽ†‘‹–ˆ‘”—•Ǥ •‡†‹‡–‘ˆˆ‘”‡”ƒ‡‡š ‘ ‘ǡ‘™Š‹ Š— Š‘ˆ ‹–Š‡Ž‘™‡”‹–‡†–ƒ–‡••‹ ‡‘—–ƒ••‡‹ ƒŒ‘”Š—ƒ‹Ž‡•–‘‡™ƒ•’ƒ••‡†ǡˆ‘”‰‘‘† –Š‡ ‹–›‹•„—‹Ž–ǤŽŽ–Š”‡‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‡‡˜‡–•ǡƒ†‹ˆƒ –ǡ ͳͻͳͷǤ ‘”‹ŽŽǡ‘ —Ž›ͳ͸ǡͳͻͶͷǡ™‹–Š–Š‡‡š’Ž‘•‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ‹”•– ‘•– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡• ™‹–Š ™ η ͺ •‹ ‡ ͳͻͲͲ ‡‰‹‹‰‹ͳͻͺͳƒ† ‘–‹—‹‰–‘–Š‡’”‡•‡– ‡˜‡” ƒ–‘‹  ȋˆ‹••‹‘Ȍ „‘„ ƒ– Žƒ‘‰‘”†‘ǡ ‡™ Šƒ˜‡ ‘ —””‡† ‘ •—„†— –‹‘ œ‘‡• ‡‹–Š‡” †ƒ›ǡ –Š‡ ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ Ȁ  ’ƒ†‡‹  (D) Šƒ• ‹ŽŽ‡† ‡š‹ ‘ (F)Ǥ  ‹–Š‹ ƒ ‘–Šǡ –™‘ •— Š ™‡ƒ’‘• •—””‘—†‹‰–Š‡ƒ ‹ˆ‹  ‡ƒ‘”ƒ”‘—† †‘‡•‹ƒǤͳ ‘”‡–Šƒ͵Ͳ‹ŽŽ‹‘’‡‘’Ž‡ǡƒ†‹•‘Ž›•Ž‘™Ž› †‡•–”‘›‡† ‹”‘•Š‹ƒ ƒ† ƒ‰ƒ•ƒ‹ǡ –Š‡ ƒ’ƒ‡•‡ Š‡†‡ ƒ†‡‘ˆ–Š‡ͳͻͺͲ••ƒ™–Š”‡‡†‡˜ƒ•–ƒ–‹‰ „‡‹‰„”‘—‰Š–—†‡” ‘–”‘ŽǤ͵ •—””‡†‡”‡†ǡƒ†‘”Ž†ƒ” ™ƒ•‘˜‡”Ǥ‹–Š‹ƒ ˜‘Ž ƒ‹  ‡˜‡–• (C)ǡ ™‹–Š ƒ‘–Š‡” ‹ ͳͻͻͳǤ  Š‡ Š‡ ‰”‘™–Š ‘ˆ –Š‡ Š—ƒ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ (E)ǡ †‡ ƒ†‡–Š‡‘˜‹‡–‹‘–‡•–‡†‹–•‘™ƒ–‘‹ „‘„ǡ ™‘”•–‘ˆ–Š‡•‡™ƒ•–Š‡‡”—’–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡•–”ƒ–‘˜‘Ž ƒ‘ǡ ”‡ƒ Š‹‰ ͸ „‹ŽŽ‹‘ Œ—•– „‡ˆ‘”‡ –Š‡ ›‡ƒ” ʹͲͲͲǡ Ž‘‘• –Š‡ ǤǤ –‡•–‡† ƒ — Š ‘”‡ ’‘™‡”ˆ—Ž Š›†”‘‰‡ ‡˜ƒ†‘ †‡Ž —Àœǡ ‹ –Š‡ ‘Ž‘„‹ƒ †‡•ǡ ‘ Ž‡•••–‡‡’–Šƒ‹–†‘‡•‘ƒ‡Žͻǡ„—––Š‹•‹•„‡ ƒ—•‡ ȋˆ—•‹‘Ȍ„‘„ǡ–Š‡‘˜‹‡–‹‘ƒ– Š‡†‹–ǡƒ†–Š‡ ‘˜‡„‡”ͳ͵ǡͳͻͺͷǤŽ–Š‘—‰Š‘Ž›ͷι ‘”–Š‘ˆ–Š‡ ‘ˆ–Š‡‡š’ƒ•‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡–‹‡• ƒŽ‡„›ƒˆƒ –‘”‘ˆ̱ͳͲǤ ™‘”Ž†‡–‡”‡†ƒ‡™‡”ƒǡŽ‹˜‹‰ ‘•–ƒ–Ž›—†‡”–Š‡ ‡“—ƒ–‘”ǡ –Š‹• ‘—–ƒ‹ ‹• ͷǡ͵ͲͲ  ȋͳ͹ǡͷͲͲ ˆ–Ȍ Š‹‰Šǡ —ƒ„‡‹‰•ƒ”‡‘™•‘—‡”‘—•ƒ†Š‡ƒŽ–Š ƒ”‡ –Š”‡ƒ–‘ˆ— Ž‡ƒ”ƒ‹Š‹Žƒ–‹‘Ǥ ƒ† ™ƒ• ‘˜‡”‡† ™‹–Š •‘™ ƒ– –Š‡ –‹‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ •‘ ƒ†˜ƒ ‡† –Šƒ– –Š‡ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ —”˜‡ •Š‘™ Š‡”‡      PANEL 10: LAST 55 YEARS – Cold War/Long Peace (1945 to 2000 AD)

F

A 1/1 ‘50 1/1 ‘60 1/1 ‘70 1/1 ‘80 1/1 ‘90 EARTH Panel 11 HIV/AIDS global pandemic (1981, continuing) 6 D Great Chilean Earthquake (MW ~9.5) 1960.05.22 Most powerful earthquake ever recorded 5 End of World War II (1945 AD = 55 a) AD = 55 II (1945 War World End of * Eruption* of Nevado del Ruíz (Colombia) E 4 World population C 1985.11.13 > 20,000 fatalities Eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington State, U.S.) 1980.05.18 3 B * Three eruptions of El Chichón (Mexico) Great Alaskan Earthquake* (M ~9.2) 1964.03.27 W * March-April 1982 ~2,000 fatalities 2 Most powerful North American earthquake recorded * Eruption of 1 (Philippines) 1991.06.15 population (billions) World Mexico City Earthquake 1985.09.19 5,000-30,000 fatalities major atmospheric effects * 0 1 Jan 1950 1 Jan 1960 1 Jan 1970 1 Jan 1980 1 Jan 1990© Walter 1 Jan 2000 Álvarez, 2019 Panel 11: Sunset of the Millennium (1995 to 2000 AD)  ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡʹͲͳͻ  ƒ‡ŽͳͲ™ƒ•–Š‡Žƒ•–‘‡ˆ‘”™Š‹ Š–Š‡”‡‹• Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ •‡“—‡ ‡ ˆ”‘ ‘‡ †ƒ› –‘ –Š‡ ‡–‹”‡ †‡–ƒ‹Žǡ –Š‡ ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ –‡š– •’ƒ ‡ ‹• —•‡† –‘ ‘•‹†‡” ƒŒ‘” Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ ‘–‡––‘ ’‘”–”ƒ› ‰”ƒ’Š‹ ƒŽŽ›ƒ† †—”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‘•‘•Ȅƒœ‘‘ˆƒ –‘”‘ˆͷšͳͲͳʹ „”‘ƒ†‡” ‹••—‡• ‘ˆ ‹‰ ‹•–‘”› Ȅ ƒ–‹‰ ƒ† †‡• ”‹„‡Ǥ  ™‘ ‘”‡ ’ƒ‡Ž•ǡ ͳͳ ƒ† ͳʹǡ Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ ȋͷ–”‹ŽŽ‹‘ȌǤŽƒ•’ƒ ‡ƒ‰ƒ‹‹•Ž‡ˆ–ˆ‘”—•‡”•ǡƒ†ƒ ’‡”‹‘†‹œ‹‰Š‹•–‘”›ȋƒ‡ŽͳͳȌǡƒ†–Š‡Šƒ”ƒ –‡”‘ˆ ƒ††‡†‹‘”†‡”–‘ ‘–‹—‡–‘–Š‡Žƒ•–†ƒ›‘ˆͳͻͻͻǡ•‘ ˆ‡™ ƒ–—”ƒŽ ‡˜‡–• Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ •‡Ž‡ –‡† –‘ ’‘’—Žƒ–‡ Š‹•–‘”›ȋƒ‡ŽͳʹȌǤ –Šƒ– Š”‘‘‘‘ ƒ †‹•’Žƒ› ƒ ‘–‹—‘—•ǡ Ž‹‡ƒ” –Š‡ –™‘ ’ƒ‡Ž•ǡ „—– ”ƒ–Š‡” –Šƒ †‡• ”‹„‹‰ –Š‡ ‹

Dating and periodizing history  —ƒ „‡‹‰• ƒ”‡ ‘– „‘” ™‹–Š –Š‡ƒ„‹Ž‹–› –‘ ”ƒ†‹‘‡–”‹ †ƒ–‹‰‹›‡ƒ”•†—”‹‰–Š‡ʹͲ–Š ‡–—”›Ǥ ‰”ƒ‹• ‹ ƒ ƒ•Š „‡† ™‹ŽŽ Šƒ˜‡ Šƒ† –Š‡‹” ƒ‰‡ •‡– –‘ †ƒ–‡ ‡˜‡–• ‹ –Š‡ ’ƒ•–ǡ ‘” ‡˜‡ –‘ ”‡‡„‡” ƒ† ™‘–Š‹‰•ƒ‡”ƒ†‹‘‡–”‹ †ƒ–‹‰’‘••‹„Ž‡Ǥ ‹”•–ǡ œ‡”‘ ™Š‡ Š‘– ƒ‰ƒ ‘‘Ž‡† †—”‹‰ –Š‡ ‡”—’–‹‘ǡ ’ƒ•• ‘ –Š‡‹” ‡‘”‹‡• ‘ˆ „›‰‘‡ ‡˜‡–• ˆ‘” ‘”‡ ”ƒ†‹‘ƒ –‹˜‡ ƒ–‘• ‹ ƒ ‹‡”ƒŽ ‰”ƒ‹ †‡ ƒ› ƒ– ƒ ƒ† ‹ˆ –Š‡ ‰”ƒ‹• –Š‡ ˆ‡ŽŽ ‹ ƒ ƒ•Š „‡†ǡ –Š‡‹” –Šƒƒˆ‡™‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ‡ˆ‘”‡™”‹–‹‰ƒ†™”‹––‡ •–ƒ–‹•–‹ ƒŽŽ› ‘•–ƒ– ”ƒ–‡ ‰‹˜‡ „› –Š‡ ŠƒŽˆǦŽ‹ˆ‡ǡ •‘ ”ƒ†‹‘‡–”‹  ƒ‰‡ ƒŽ•‘ †ƒ–‡• –Š‡ „‡†Ǥ  — Š ™‘” ‹• †‘ —‡–• „‡ ƒ‡ ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ǡ –Š‡ ‘”‡ †‹•–ƒ– ’ƒ•– –Šƒ– –Š‡ ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ †ƒ—‰Š–‡” ƒ–‘• –‘ ’ƒ”‡– ƒ–‘• —””‡–Ž› „‡‹‰ †‘‡ ‘ ‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‹‰ ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ƒ”› ™‘—Ž† „‡ ‘‡ ’ƒ”– ‘ˆ Ž‡‰‡†Ǥ  †‡” –Š‘•‡ ‰‹˜‡• –Š‡ ƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹‡”ƒŽ ‰”ƒ‹ ȋƒŽ–Š‘—‰Š –Š‹• ‹• –”‡‡• „ƒ•‡† ‘ –Š‡  ‘ˆ Ž‹˜‹‰ ‘”‰ƒ‹••ǡ ƒ† ‘†‹–‹‘•ǡ•‡”‹‘—•Š‹•–‘”›™ƒ•‘–’‘••‹„Ž‡Ǥ ‘”‡ ‘’Ž‹ ƒ–‡†‹’”ƒ –‹ ‡ǨȌǤ‡ ‘†ǡ”ƒ†‹‘ƒ –‹˜‡ ƒ––‡’–• Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ ƒ†‡ –‘ †ƒ–‡ ‘†‡• ‹ –Š‡•‡ ”‹–‹‰ †‘‡• ‘– ‰—ƒ”ƒ–‡‡ †ƒ–‡† Š‹•–‘”›ǡ †‡ ƒ› –ƒ‡• ’Žƒ ‡ ‹ –Š‡ –‹› — Ž‡—• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ–‘ǡ ˆƒ‹Ž›–”‡‡•—•‹‰–Š‡ƒ••—’–‹‘–Šƒ–”ƒ–‡•‘ˆ Š‘™‡˜‡”Ǥ ‹”•–ƒ ƒŽ‡†ƒ”‹•‡‡†‡†ǡƒ†–Š‡ •Š‹‡Ž†‡† „› –Š‡ — Š Žƒ”‰‡” •—””‘—†‹‰ ‡Ž‡ –”‘ —–ƒ–‹‘ ƒ”‡ ‘•–ƒ– –Š”‘—‰Š –‹‡Ǥ͵Š‹• ”‡ ‘‰‹œƒ„Ž‡ Šƒ‰‡•‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ‘—”•‡ƒ•‘•ƒ‡years Ž‘—†ǡ •‘ –Š‡ †‡ ƒ› ”ƒ–‡ ‹• ’”‘–‡ –‡† ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ƒ••—’–‹‘•‡‡—Ž‹‡Ž›–‘„‡ ‘””‡ –ǡ•‹ ‡‹– –Š‡ ‘„˜‹‘—• ƒŽ‡†”‹ ƒŽ „ƒ•‹•Ǥ  ‘†‡” ƒŽ‡†ƒ”• –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ƒ† ’”‡••—”‡ ‘†‹–‹‘• –Šƒ– ƒ‡ ‹˜‘Ž˜‡• Š‡‹ ƒŽ Šƒ‰‡• ‹ ǡ —Ž‹‡ –Š‡ ‘—–›‡ƒ”•‹ ‘–‹—‘—••‡“—‡ ‡ǡ„—–•–—†‡–•‘ˆ ”ƒ–‡•‘ˆchemical Šƒ‰‡˜ƒ”›™‹–Š–‹‡Ǥ —†”‡†• ’”‘–‡ –‡† — Ž‡ƒ” Šƒ‰‡• –Šƒ– ƒ‡ ”ƒ†‹‘‡–”‹  ‡ƒ”Ž› ‹˜‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘• —•– †‡ƒŽ ™‹–Š†ƒ–‡•Ž‹‡Dz‹–Š‡ ‘ˆ–Š‘—•ƒ†•‘ˆ”ƒ†‹‘‡–”‹ †ƒ–‡•‘™ ‘•–”ƒ‹–Š‡ †ƒ–‹‰•‘•— ‡••ˆ—ŽǤ ˆ‘—”–‡‡–Š ›‡ƒ” ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”‡‹‰ ‘ˆ ‹‰ ‘Ǧƒ†Ǧ‘Ǥdz Š”‘‘Ž‘‰› ‘ˆ ƒ”–Š Š‹•–‘”›Ǥ   –Š‡ Žƒ–‡” ʹͲ–Š •–”‘‘‡”•Šƒ˜‡ ‘‡‘•–”‡ ‡–Ž›–‘†ƒ–‹‰ — Š ‡ˆˆ‘”– Šƒ• ‰‘‡ ‹–‘ –”ƒ•Žƒ–‹‰ ’Š”ƒ•‡• Ž‹‡ ‡–—”›ǡƒ††‹–‹‘ƒŽ™ƒ›•‘ˆ†ƒ–‹‰”‘ •™‡”‡ Š‹•–‘”›Ǥ‹–Š ‘•‹ ‡š’ƒ•‹‘—†‡”•–‘‘†ǡ”‡†•Š‹ˆ– –Š‹• ‹–‘ ›‡ƒ”• ǡ „—– “—‡•–‹‘• ”‡ƒ‹ Ȅ ˆ‘” †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡†ǡ ‹ Ž—†‹‰ ˆ‹‰‡”’”‹–‹‰ ™‹–Š ƒŽŽ‘™• –Š‡ †ƒ–‹‰ ‘ˆ Ž‹‰Š– ‡‹––‡† ˆ”‘ †‹•–ƒ– ‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ –Š‡”‡ ƒ”‡ •‡˜‡”ƒŽ †‡ ƒ†‡• †‹ˆˆ‡”‡ ‡ ‰‡‘ƒ‰‡–‹  ’‘Žƒ”‹–› ”‡˜‡”•ƒŽ•ǡ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• ‹†• ‘ˆ ‰ƒŽƒš‹‡•Ǥ  Ž‘„—Žƒ” Ž—•–‡”•ǡ Š—‰‡ ‰”ƒ˜‹–ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽ›Ǧ „‡–™‡‡–Š‡DzŠ‹‰Šdzƒ†DzŽ‘™dz ‰›’–‹ƒ”‘œ‡‰‡ •–ƒ„Ž‡ ‹•‘–‘’‡ •–”ƒ–‹‰”ƒ’Š›ǡ › Ž‘•–”ƒ–‹‰”ƒ’Š› ƒ†ǡ „‘—† ‘ŽŽ‡ –‹‘•‘ˆ•–ƒ”•‹–Š‡‹Ž›ƒ› ƒ„‡ Š”‘‘Ž‘‰‹‡•Ǥ  Š‡ ƒ›ƒ ƒŽ‡†ƒ” ™ƒ• •–‹ŽŽ ‘”‡ ˆ‘” ‘–Š‡” •‘Žƒ”Ǧ•›•–‡ „‘†‹‡•ǡ ”ƒ–‡”Ǧ ‘—– „‡‡†ƒ–‡†„›–Š‡ƒ••‘ˆ–Š‡•–ƒ”•–Šƒ––—”‘ˆˆ–Š‡ ‘’Ž‹ ƒ–‡†ƒ† ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‹‰–‘†‡ ‹’Š‡”Ǥͳ˜‡ˆ‘” •–ƒ–‹•–‹ •Ǥʹ ƒ‹•‡“—‡ ‡ǡˆ‘”Žƒ”‰‡”ǡ„”‹‰Š–‡”•–ƒ”•„—”‘—– –‹‡•ƒ†’Žƒ ‡•™‹–Š™‡ŽŽǦ‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‡† Š”‘‘Ž‘‰‹‡•ǡ ” Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–• †ƒ–‡ –Š‡‹” ˆ‹†‹‰• ‹ ™ƒ›• ‘”‡ “—‹ Ž›ǤͶ  – Šƒ• Ž‘‰ „‡‡ ‹’‘••‹„Ž‡ –‘ †ƒ–‡ ƒ›†‘ —‡–•ƒ”‡‘–†ƒ–‡†Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ‘ ‡–Š‡ •‹‹Žƒ”Ž› –‘ –Š‘•‡ —•‡† ‹ ‰‡‘Ž‘‰›ǡ ƒŽ–Š‘—‰Š ™‹–Š ‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ •–ƒ”•ǡ „—– –Š‹• ƒ› „‡ •‘Ž˜‡† „› ƒ ‡™ ‘†‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒ‡Žͻƒ”‡”‡ƒ Š‡†ǡ–Š‡”‡ƒ”‡ˆ‡™ ”ƒ†‹‘ ƒ”„‘ †ƒ–‹‰ „‡‹‰ ‘ˆ ‰”‡ƒ– ‹’‘”–ƒ ‡ǡ –‡ Š‹“—‡ ƒŽŽ‡† ‰›”‘ Š”‘‘Ž‘‰›ǡ ˆ‘” ‹– Šƒ• „‡‡ ’”‘„Ž‡•™‹–Š†ƒ–‹‰–Š‡™”‹––‡Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ”‡ ‘”†Ǥ „‡ ƒ—•‡ ͳͶǡ’”‘†— ‡†„› ‘•‹ Ǧ”ƒ›„‘„ƒ”†‡– •Š‘™ǡ ’‡”Šƒ’• •—”’”‹•‹‰Ž›ǡ –Šƒ– –Š‡ ”‘–ƒ–‹‘ ”ƒ–‡ Š‹•Šƒ•Ž‡†‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ• Š‘Žƒ”•–‘ ‘•‹†‡”–Šƒ– ‘ˆ‹–”‘‰‡‹–Š‡ƒ–‘•’Š‡”‡ǡŠƒ•ƒŠƒŽˆŽ‹ˆ‡‘ˆ‘Ž› ‘ˆƒ•–ƒ”‹•ƒˆ— –‹‘‘ˆ‹–•ƒ‰‡ǤͷŠ‡ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ‡˜‡–• –Š‡ ‘Ž› DzŠ‹•–‘”›dz ‹• ™”‹––‡ Š‹•–‘”›Ǥ  ‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ ̱ͷǡ͹͵Ͳ ›‡ƒ”•ǡ •‘ ‹– ‹• •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ ˆ‘” ‘„–ƒ‹‹‰ †ƒ–‡• †—”‹‰–Š‡‹‰ƒ‰ƒ”‡ ƒŽ —Žƒ–‡†–Š‡‘”‡–‹ ƒŽŽ›Ǥ • ‹‡–‹•–• ƒ† ‹‰ ‹•–‘”‹ƒ• ‘•‹†‡” –Š‹• ˜‹‡™ „ƒ –‘ƒ„‘—–ͶͲǡͲͲͲ›‡ƒ”•Ǥ ƒ” Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰›ǡƒ”–‹ˆƒ –•ǡ ‹˜‹†‹‰ Š‹•–‘”› ‹–‘ ’‡”‹‘†• ‹• ‡••‡–‹ƒŽ ˆ‘” ‘—–‘†‡†ǡƒ†‹–‹•‰”ƒ†—ƒŽŽ›’ƒ••‹‰ƒ™ƒ›Ǥ ‡•’‡ ‹ƒŽŽ› ’‘––‡”› •Šƒ”†• ƒ† ‘‹•ǡ ’Žƒ› –Š‡ •ƒ‡ —†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰‹–Ǥ ‹•–‘”‹ƒ•ƒ†ƒ” Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–•—•‡ —”‹‰ –Š‡ ʹͲ–Š ‡–—”›ǡ Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ scientists ”‘Ž‡ƒ•ˆ‘••‹Ž•†‘‹‰‡‘Ž‘‰›Ǥ ‹ˆ‘”ƒŽ ’‡”‹‘†‹œƒ–‹‘• ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥǡ ‘ƒ ’‹”‡ǡ ƒ–‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡†–‘†ƒ–‡ƒ›‹†•‘ˆ‡˜‡–•–Šƒ–‘ —””‡† ƒŽ‡‘–‘Ž‘‰‹•–• ƒ‘– ‰‡– †ƒ–‡• ‹ ›‡ƒ”• ”‘œ‡‰‡ȌǤŽ›‹‰‡‘Ž‘‰›ƒ†’ƒŽ‡‘–‘Ž‘‰›ƒ”‡ „‡ˆ‘”‡ –Š‡ ‹˜‡–‹‘ ‘ˆ ™”‹–‹‰Ǥ  ‡‘Ž‘‰› ™ƒ• –Š‡ †‹”‡ –Ž› ˆ”‘ ˆ‘••‹Ž•ǡ ‡š ‡’– ˆ‘” ˜‡”› ›‘—‰ ‘‡• –Š‡”‡ ˆ‘”ƒŽ ’‡”‹‘†‹œƒ–‹‘• ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥǡ ”‡–ƒ ‡‘—•Ȍǡ ˆ‹”•–ǡ•–ƒ”–‹‰™‹–Šˆ‘••‹Ž•‹–Š‡ͳͻ–Š ‡–—”›ǡ™Š‹ Š ™Š‡”‡ ”ƒ†‹‘ ƒ”„‘ †ƒ–‹‰ ƒ „‡ —•‡†Ǥ  ƒ–‹‰ ‘ˆ ‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‡† „› •–ƒ†ƒ”† ’”‘ ‡†—”‡• ƒ† ƒ ‡’–‡† ƒŽŽ‘™‡† ”‘ • –‘ „‡ ’Žƒ ‡† ‹ Š”‘‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ ˆ‘••‹Ž•‹•†‘‡‹†‹”‡ –Ž›ǡ‘ˆ–‡„›†ƒ–‹‰˜‘Ž ƒ‹  ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽ›ǡŽ‡ƒ†‹‰–‘–Š‡ ‘•–ƒ–Ž›‹’”‘˜‹‰ •‡“—‡ ‡ǡ ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‡† „› •‡˜‡”ƒŽ •›•–‡• ‘ˆ ‹‡”ƒŽ‰”ƒ‹•‹ƒ••‘ ‹ƒ–‡†˜‘Ž ƒ‹ ƒ•Š„‡†•ǤŠ‡ ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ –‹‡• ƒŽ‡Ǥ͸  PANEL 11: SUNSET OF THE MILLENNIUM – (1995 AD to now) Jul Jan Jun Oct Apr Feb Sep Mar Dec Nov Aug 1995 1996 1997 1998 May 1999 Panel 12

Hurricane Mitch 1998.10.23-1998.11.09; >12,000 fatalities

Hanshin (Kobe) Earthquake, Japan; Izmit Earthquake, Turkey; Mw = * Mw = 6.9; ~6,400 fatalities: 1995.01.17 7.4; ~17,000 fatalities: 1999.08.17 *

Colossal wildfires in Indonesia:

5 years before the end of the Second Millenium the Second end of the a) AD = 5 (1995 before 5 years EARTH mid-1997 to mid-1998

1 Jan 19951 Jan 1996 1 Jan 1997 1 Jan1998 1 Jan 1999© Walter 1 Jan 2000 Álvarez, 2019 Panel 12: Millennium’s End (1995.5 to end of the Second Millennium) ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡʹͲͳͻ   ƒ •‡•‡ǡ Š‹•–‘”› ‹• ‡˜‡”›–Š‹‰ –Šƒ– Šƒ• ʹͲͲͲ Ȅ ƒ– –Š‡ ‡šƒ – ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡ ‘† ‹ŽŽ‡‹—Ǥ ƒ†’‡”•’‡ –‹˜‡Ǥ•‹•–Š‡ ƒ•‡ˆ‘”ƒ‡Žͳͳǡ–Š‹• Šƒ’’‡‡†ˆ”‘–Š‡‹‰ƒ‰—’–‘Dz‘™ǡdz–Šƒ–„‡‹‰ Š‹•Šƒ•–™‘ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡•ǣ‹–ƒ˜‘‹†•–Š‡’”‘„Ž‡–Šƒ– ’ƒ‡Ž™ƒ•ƒ††‡†–‘„”‹‰–Š‡”‡•‘Ž—–‹‘†‘™–‘‘‡ –Š‡ ƒ‡ ˆ‘” –Š‡ ›•–‡”‹‘—• ƒ† ˆŽ‡‡–‹‰ ‹•–ƒ– Dz‘™dz ‹• ‘•–ƒ–Ž› ƒ†˜ƒ ‹‰ǡ ™Š‹ Š™‘—Ž† ”‡“—‹”‡ †ƒ›ǡƒ†ƒˆ‡™‡˜‡–•ƒ”‡•Š‘™ˆ‘”–Š‹•ŠƒŽˆ›‡ƒ”ǡ„—– „‡–™‡‡ ’ƒ•– ƒ† ˆ—–—”‡Ǥͳ –Šƒ•„‡‡ ‘˜‡‹‡– ‘–‹—ƒŽ—’†ƒ–‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡–‹‡Ž‹‡ǡƒ†‹–ƒ˜‘‹†•–Š‡ ‘–†‡• ”‹„‡†Ǥ •–‡ƒ†–Š‹••’ƒ ‡‹•—•‡†–‘‰‹˜‡•‘‡ Š‘™‡˜‡”ǡ ‹Š”‘‘‘‘ǡ –‘ —– ‘ˆˆ –Š‡ –‹‡ Ž‹‡ƒ– Žƒ•– ˆ‡™ ›‡ƒ”•ǡ ™Š‹ Š Š‹•–‘”‹ƒ• –Š‹ ‘ˆ ƒ• —””‡– ‘•‹†‡”ƒ–‹‘–‘–Š‡ Šƒ”ƒ –‡”‘ˆŠ‹•–‘”›Ǥʹ ‹†‹‰Š–„‡–™‡‡‡ ‡„‡”͵ͳǡͳͻͻͻƒ† ƒ—ƒ”›ͳǡ ‡˜‡–•ǡ ‘– ›‡– ‘ˆˆ‡”‹‰ –Š‡ ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ Š‹†•‹‰Š–  The Character of History  ˆ–‡” •ƒƒ  ‡™–‘ ƒ† –Š‡ ’Š›•‹ ‹•–• ™Š‘ Œ—•–‹ˆ›‹–Š‡Ž‹‰Š–‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ„—†ƒ–“—ƒ–‹–ƒ–‹˜‡†ƒ–ƒ •‹‰‹ˆ‹ ƒ–ǡ „—– –Š‡”‡ ƒ”‡ ’”‘„Ž‡• ‹ “—ƒ–‹ˆ›‹‰ ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‡†Š‹•Š‘™‡†–Šƒ––Š‡„‡Šƒ˜‹‘”‘ˆ–Š‡™‘”Ž† –Šƒ– ‹• ‘”‡ ƒ† ‘”‡ ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ ‹ –Š‡ Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ ‡ƒ Š ‘ˆ –Š‡•‡Ǥ  ƒ”‹–› ‹• • ƒŽ‡ †‡’‡†‡– Ȅ ˆ‘” ‹• ‰‘˜‡”‡† „› —„”‡ƒƒ„Ž‡ ƒ–Š‡ƒ–‹ ƒŽ Žƒ™•ǡ ƒ • ‹‡ ‡•ǡ ‡•’‡ ‹ƒŽŽ› ‰‡‘Ž‘‰›Ǥ   ‡š ‡ŽŽ‡– ‡šƒ’Ž‡ ‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ‘Ž›‘‡‹’ƒ –‘ˆƒ˜‡”‡•–Ǧ•‹œ‡‘„Œ‡ –‹• ‘„˜‹‘—• ‘”‘ŽŽƒ”› ™ƒ• –Šƒ– Š‹•–‘”› ƒŽ•‘ —ˆ‘Ž†• ‘‡•ˆ”‘–Š‡–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡”‡ ‘”†•‹Š”‘‘‘‘Ǥ ‘™ ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ‡–‹”‡ Šƒ‡”‘œ‘‹ ǡ „—– •ƒ†Ǧ•‹œ‡ ƒ ‘”†‹‰ –‘ ƒ–—”ƒŽ Žƒ™•ǡ ƒ† Š‹•–‘”‹ƒ• •‘—‰Š– –‘ ƒ‡Ž ͵ •Š‘™• ƒ Ž‘‰ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ Š‹•–‘”› ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹ ”‘‡–‡‘”‹–‡•ǡ ƒ‹‰ ‡–‡‘” •–”‡ƒ•ǡ Šƒ’’‡ — ‘˜‡” –Š‘•‡ Žƒ™•Ǥ  Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‘”– ™ƒ• ‘–ƒ„Ž› Šƒ‡”‘œ‘‹ ™Š‹ Š‹• Ž‡ƒ”Ž› › Ž‹ ƒŽǡ„—–™Š‡–Š‡”–Š‡ ƒ› –‹‡• ‡ƒ Š ‹‰Š–Ǥ  ’”‡†‹ –ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‹• —•— ‡••ˆ—Žǡ͵ƒ†–Š‡”‡ƒ•‘•ˆ‘”–Šƒ–Žƒ ‘ˆ•— ‡•• ’‡”‹‘† ‘ˆ –Š‡ › Ž‹ ‹–› ‹• ƒ„‘—– ͶͲ ‹ŽŽ‹‘ ›‡ƒ”• ‘” ƒ„‹‰—‘—• Ȅ ‘”„‹–ƒŽ ‘˜‡‡–• ‘ˆ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ ƒ”‡„‡‰‹‹‰–‘„‡ Ž‡ƒ”ǤŠ‡Žƒ™•‘ˆ’Š›•‹ ••’‡ ‹ˆ› ƒ„‘—–ͳͲͲ‹ŽŽ‹‘›‡ƒ”•†‡’‡†•‘Š‘™–Š‡ —”˜‡‹• ‹’ƒ –‘”• ƒ”‡ ’”‡†‹ –ƒ„Ž‡ ™‹–Š ‡š“—‹•‹–‡ ’”‡ ‹•‹‘ ™Šƒ– can Šƒ’’‡ ƒ† ™Šƒ– ƒ‘– ȋŽ‹‡ ”‘ • ˆ‹––‡†Ǥƒ‡ŽͶ•Š‘™•ƒŽ‘‰ ‘‘Ž‹‰–”‡†ǡ„—––Š‡”‡ ‘˜‡” –‹‡ • ƒŽ‡• ‘ˆ ›‡ƒ”• ‘” ‡–—”‹‡•ǡ „—– •—††‡Ž› ”‹•‹‰ ‹–‘ –Š‡ ƒ‹”ǡ ‘” ƒ•Š‡• ‹ ƒ ‘Ž† ƒ”‡ Ž‘‰ › Ž‹ ƒŽ ˆŽ— –—ƒ–‹‘• •—’‡”‹’‘•‡† —’‘ ‹–Ǥ —’”‡†‹ –ƒ„Ž‡ ‘˜‡” ‘Žƒ”Ǧ•›•–‡ Š‹•–‘”› „‡ ƒ—•‡ ‘ˆ ˆ‹”‡’Žƒ ‡„—”•–‹‰‹–‘ˆŽƒ‡Ȍǡƒ†•‘’Š›•‹ •ƒ›„‡ ƒ‡Ž ͷ •Š‘™• ˆŽ— –—ƒ–‹‘• ™Š‹ ŠŽ‘‘ ”ƒ†‘ —–‹Ž •‡•‹–‹˜‡ †‡’‡†‡ ‡ ‘ ‹‹–‹ƒŽ ‘†‹–‹‘•Ǥ –Š‘—‰Š–‘ˆƒ•ƒprocess• ‹‡ ‡Ǥ—––Š‡”‡ƒ”‡Ž‹‹–•–‘ ƒ„‘—– ͵ ƒǡ –Š‡ ƒ”‡ Š‹‰ŠǦˆ”‡“—‡ ›ǡ •›‡–”‹ ƒŽ ‹‰‹ˆ‹ ƒ ‡ †‡’‡†• ‘ ‘–‡š– Ȅ –Š‡ †‡ƒ–Š• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ ’Š›•‹ • –‘ ’”‡†‹ – ‘—– ‘‡• Ȅ ‹ –Š‡ › Ž‡• —–‹Ž ƒ„‘—– ͳ ƒǡ ƒ† ˆ‹ƒŽŽ›ǡ ƒ• ‡Žƒ”‰‡† ‹ ‘•–‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ•ƒ”‡•‹‰‹ˆ‹ ƒ–‘Ž›ˆ‘”–Š‡‹”ˆƒ‹Ž‹‡•ǡ ƒ•‡ǡ ˆ‘” ‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ ‘ˆ•‡•‹–‹˜‡ †‡’‡†‡ ‡ ‘ ‹‹–‹ƒŽ ƒ‡Ž ͸ǡ Ž‘™Ǧˆ”‡“—‡ ›ǡ ƒ•›‡–”‹ ƒŽ › Ž‡• ™Š‹Ž‡–Š‡ †‡ƒ–Š ‘ˆ —Ž‹—• ƒ‡•ƒ” ’”‘ˆ‘—†Ž› ƒˆˆ‡ –‡† ‘†‹–‹‘•ǡͶ ‘” ™Š‡ ƒ Š—ƒ „‡‹‰ –Š‹• ƒ„‘—– ‘–‹—‹‰ —–‹Ž –Š‡ ’”‡•‡– –‹‡Ǥ  ‹ƒŽŽ› ƒ‡Ž ͹ Š‹•–‘”›Ǥ †‡•‹”‡†‘—– ‘‡•ƒ†ƒ‡• Š‘‹ ‡•Ǥ ‹†‹‰‘—– •Š‘™• –Šƒ– –Š‡ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ˆ‘” –Š‡ Žƒ•– ͳͲ ›” Šƒ• Š‡ —’”‡†‹ –ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‹–”‘†— ‡† ‹ ƒ–—”ƒŽ ™Šƒ–‡šƒ –Ž›didŠƒ’’‡‹•–Š‡”‡ƒŽ‘ˆ–Š‡historical „‡‡ “—‹–‡ ‘•–ƒ–Ǥ  Š‡ ˆƒ ‡† ™‹–Š “—ƒ–‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ •›•–‡•„› ‘•‹†‡”ƒ–‹‘•Ž‹‡•‡•‹–‹˜‡†‡’‡†‡ ‡ • ‹‡ ‡• Ž‹‡ ‰‡‘Ž‘‰›Ǥ  Š‡ ‘’Ž‡š‹–› ‘ˆ Š‹•–‘”› Š‹•–‘”‹ ƒŽ †ƒ–ƒ •‡–•ǡ ‡‹–Š‡” –‹‡ǯ• ƒ””‘™ ‘” –‹‡ǯ• ‘ ‹‹–‹ƒŽ ‘†‹–‹‘• ‹• †™ƒ”ˆ‡† „› –Š‡ ’‘”–”ƒ›‡†„›–Š‡Š”‘‘‘‘’ƒ‡Ž•ƒ‡•‹–Šƒ”† › Ž‡•‡‡•Ž‹‡ƒ—•‡ˆ—Ž†‡• ”‹’–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ Šƒ”ƒ –‡” —’”‡†‹ –ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ •‡š—ƒŽ ”‡’”‘†— –‹‘ ‹ –‘•—’’‘•‡–Šƒ––Š‡ƒ–—”ƒŽ•‹–—ƒ–‹‘ ‘—Ž†Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ ‘ˆŠ‹•–‘”›Ǥ —Ž–‹ ‡ŽŽ—Žƒ” ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ƒ† „› –Š‡ Š—ƒ „”ƒ‹Ǥ ’”‡†‹ –‡† ‹ŽŽ‹‘• ‘ˆ ›‡ƒ”• ‹ ƒ†˜ƒ ‡ǡ ‘” –Šƒ– ‹–•  „‡––‡” ƒ’’”‘ƒ Š ƒ› „‡ –‘ –Š‹ ‹ –‡”• ‘ˆ ƒ ŠŠ—ƒ„‡‹‰Šƒ•–™‘’ƒ”‡–•ǡͶ‰”ƒ†’ƒ”‡–•ǡ Š—ƒƒ•’‡ –•™‡”‡‹‡˜‹–ƒ„Ž‡‡˜‡ƒˆ‡™›‡ƒ”•ƒ‰‘Ǥ ‘–‹—‹–‹‡• ˜•Ǥ ‘–‹‰‡ ‹‡•Ǥ  ‘–‹—‹–‹‡• ƒ”‡ –‹‡ ‡– Ǥǡ ™‹–Š ̱ͳǡͲͲͲ ˆƒ‹Ž›Ǧ–”‡‡ „‘š‡• ͳͲ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ–Š‡” –Šƒ •‡ƒ” Š ˆ‘” laws ‘ˆ Š‹•–‘”›ǡ ‹– –Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ •‡“—‡ ‡• Ž‹‡ –Š‘•‡ Œ—•– ‘•‹†‡”‡†ǡ ™‹–Š •‘‡ „ƒ ǡ̱ͳͲ͸„‘š‡•ʹͲ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‘•„ƒ ǡ̱ͳͲͻ„‘š‡•͵Ͳ ƒ‡• ‘”‡ •‡•‡ –‘ ƒ• ™Šƒ– ‹• –Š‡ character‘ˆ †‡‰”‡‡‘ˆ‘”†‡”ƒ†ƒ–Ž‡ƒ•–•Š‘”–Ǧ–‡”’”‡†‹ –ƒ„‹Ž‹–›ǡ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‘•„ƒ ǡ‡– ǤŠ‡•‡š‘ˆ‡ƒ Šƒ ‡•–‘”™ƒ• Š‹•–‘”›Ǥ ™Š‡–Š‡” ‘”‡ ƒ””‘™ǦŽ‹‡ ‘” ‘”‡ › Ž‡ǦŽ‹‡Ǥ †‡–‡”‹‡†‡••‡–‹ƒŽŽ›”ƒ†‘Ž›ƒ– ‘ ‡’–‹‘ǡƒ†‹ˆ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ™ƒ›–‘–Š‹ƒ„‘—––Š‡ Šƒ”ƒ –‡”‘ˆ ‘–‹‰‡ ‹‡• ’— –—ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ‘–‹—‹–‹‡• ‘ˆ Š‹•–‘”›ǡ ‡˜‡‘‡‘ˆ–Š‘•‡›”‹ƒ†ƒ ‡•–‘”•Šƒ†„‡‡‘ˆ–Š‡ Š‹•–‘”› ‹• –‘ ƒ• ™Š‡–Š‡” ‹– Šƒ• —ˆ‘Ž†‡† ƒ• ƒ ˜‡”› ƒ†ƒ”‡”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡Ž›„”‹‡ˆ ‘’ƒ”‡†–‘–Š‡‹–‡”˜ƒŽ•‘ˆ ‘’’‘•‹–‡•‡šǡ–Šƒ–’‡”•‘ ‘—Ž†‘–„‡‹–Šƒ–„‘š‘ˆ Ž‘‰•‡”‹‡•‘ˆ › Ž‡•ǡƒ•‹ ‹†—’Š‹Ž‘•‘’Š›ǡ‘”™‹–Š ‘–‹—‹–›–Šƒ–ˆŽƒ–Š‡Ǥƒ–—”ƒŽ‡šƒ’Ž‡•‹ Ž—†‡ –Š‡ˆƒ‹Ž›–”‡‡ǡƒ† ‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡†‡• ‡†ƒ–•‘ˆ–Šƒ– Ž‹‡ƒ”–”‡†•ǡƒ•‹–Š‡„”‹‡ˆŠ”‹•–‹ƒ–”ƒŒ‡ –‘”›ˆ”‘ –Š‡ƒ••‡„Ž›‘ˆƒ”–Šȋƒ‡ŽʹȌǡ–Š‡ ”‡ƒ–”†‘˜‹ ‹ƒ ƒ ‡•–‘”™‘—Ž†‡š‹•–ǤŠ‡ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆŠ—ƒ„‡‹‰•–‘ ”‡ƒ–‹‘–‘–Š‡ƒ›‘ˆ —†‰‡–ǤŠ‹•†‹ Š‘–‘›™ƒ• ‹‘†‹˜‡”•‹ˆ‹ ƒ–‹‘˜‡–ƒ†–Š‡‹’ƒ –ƒ† †‘ –Š‘—‰Š– ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ƒ† ƒ‡ †‡ ‹•‹‘• ƒŽ•‘ ’”‘‹‡– ‹ –Š‡ –Š‹‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡ƒ”Ž› ‡š–‹ –‹‘ȋƒ‡Ž͵Ȍǡƒ†–Š‡†‡•‹ ƒ–‹‘ƒ†”‡ˆ‹ŽŽ‹‰ ‹–”‘†— ‡• ‡˜‡ ‘”‡ —’”‡†‹ –ƒ„‹Ž‹–› –‘ Š‹•–‘”›ǡ ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–•Ǥͷ  – ‹• ‡ƒ•› –‘ –ƒŽ ƒ„‘—– ƒ””‘™• Ž‹‡ Dz–Š‡ ‘ˆ–Š‡‡†‹–‡””ƒ‡ƒȋƒ‡ŽͶȌǤ –‹•‘–ƒ–ƒŽŽ Ž‡ƒ” ™Š‹ Š ‹‰Š– „‡ –Š‘—‰Š– ‘ˆ ƒ •›•–‡ ˆ‘” ‡•—”‹‰ †‡ Ž‹‡‘ˆ–Š‡‡•–ǡdz‘” › Ž‡•Ž‹‡Dz–Š‡”‹•‡ƒ†ˆƒŽŽ‘ˆ Š‘™ –‘ †‡ˆ‹‡ ‘–‹‰‡ › ™‹–Š ”‹‰‘”Ǥ  ‡”Šƒ’• ƒ —ˆ‘”‡•‡‡ƒ„Ž‡‘—– ‘‡•Ǥ ‡’‹”‡•ǡdz „—– –Š‡•‡‡ƒ•› †‡• ”‹’–‹‘• ƒ”‡ †‹ˆˆ‹ —Ž– –‘ ‘–‹‰‡ › ‡‡†• –‘ „‡ ”ƒ”‡ǡ —’”‡†‹ –ƒ„Ž‡ǡ ƒ† PANEL 12: MILLENNIUM’S END – (1999.5 AD to end of the Second Millennium)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 17 18 19 20 2122232425262728293031 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10101112131415 11 12 13 14 1516 17 18 19 20 212122232425262728293031 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 123456789101112131415 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1516 17 18 19 20 212223242526272829303121 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30331 1 July 1999 Aug 1999 Sept 1999 Oct 1999 Nov 1999 Dec 1999

Earthquake Earthquake Earthquake Earthquake Izmit, Turkey M 7.4 Taiwan M 7.7 Oaxaca, Mexico Vanuatu M 7.5 1999.08.17 * 1999.09.20 * * M 7.5 1999.09.30 * 1999.11.26 Flash floods and debris flows Hurricane Floyd Cat. 4 in Vargas State, Venezuela killed Bahamas, N. America tens of thousands 1999.12.15 1999.09.7-17 Hurricane Bret Cat. 4 * Mexico, Texas Hurricane Gert Cat. 4 Hurricane Lenny Cat. 4 1999.08.18-25 Bermuda, N. America Colombia, Caribbean 6 before the end of the Second of the the end Millennium (0.5 a) before 6 months 1999.09.11-23 1999.11.13-23

6 5 4 3 2 1 © Walter 0 months “ago” Álvarez, 2019 The ChronoZoom Time Atlas of Earth History and Big History – Footnotes and References ̹ƒŽ–‡” Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡʹͲͳͻ  Introduction ‘†‡”˜‹‡™‘ˆ–Š‡‘”‹‰‹‘ˆ–Š‡‹˜‡”•‡ǡ‡™ ‘”ǡƒ•‹ ‘‘•ǡʹͲ͵’Ǥ ͳǤŠ”‹•–‹ƒǡǤǡʹͲͲͶǡƒ’•‘ˆ–‹‡Ǥ‹–”‘†— –‹‘–‘  Earth and Life (Panel 2) „‹‰Š‹•–‘”›ǡ‡”‡Ž‡›ǡ‹˜‡”•‹–›‘ˆƒŽ‹ˆ‘”‹ƒ”‡••ǡ ͸Ͷʹ’ǤǢŠ”‹•–‹ƒǡǤǡʹͲͲͺǡŠ‹• Ž‡‡–‹‰‘”Ž†ǣ Cosmos (Panel 1) ͳǤŠ‡‘•–”‡ ‡–‘ˆˆ‹ ‹ƒŽ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ –‹‡• ƒŽ‡‹• Š‘”– ‹•–‘”›‘ˆ —ƒ‹–›ǡ ”‡ƒ–ƒ””‹‰–‘ǡǡ ”ƒ†•–‡‹ǡ Ǥǡ‰‰ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ Š‹–œǡǤǡƒ†‰‰ǡ Ǥǡ ‡”•Š‹”‡ǡͳͳʹ’ǤǢŠ”‹•–‹ƒǡǤǡ”‘™ǡǤǤǡƒ† ͳǤŽ˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡʹͲͳ͸ǡ‘•–‹’”‘„ƒ„Ž‡Œ‘—”‡›ǡ‡™ ʹͲͳʹǡŠ‡‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ –‹‡• ƒŽ‡ʹͲͳʹǡ‡™‘”ǡ ‡Œƒ‹ǡǤǡʹͲͳͶǡ‹‰ ‹•–‘”›ǣ‡–™‡‡‘–Š‹‰ ‘”ǡǤǤ‘”–‘ǡʹͷ͸’ǤǡŠǤʹǤ Ž•‡˜‹‡”Ǥ ƒ†‡˜‡”›–Š‹‰ǡ‡™‘”ǡ ”ƒ™ ‹ŽŽǡ͵͵ʹ’Ǥ ʹǤ —–ŠǡǤ Ǥǡͳͻͻ͹ǡŠ‡‹ˆŽƒ–‹‘ƒ”›—‹˜‡”•‡ǡ‡™ ʹǤƒŽ”›’Ž‡ǡ ǤǤǡͳͻͻͳǡŠ‡ƒ‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ”–Šǡ–ƒˆ‘”†ǡ ʹǤ’‹‡”ǡ Ǥǡͳͻͻ͸ǡŠ‡•–”— –—”‡‘ˆ„‹‰Š‹•–‘”›ǡ ‘”ǡ‹–ƒ‰‡ǡ͵ͷͺ’Ǥ ƒŽ‹ˆǤǡ–ƒˆ‘”†‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡͶ͹Ͷ’Ǥ •–‡”†ƒǡ•–‡”†ƒ‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡͳͳ͵’ǤǢ ͵Ǥ‡”Ž—––‡”ǡǤǡʹͲͲ͵ǡ—’‡”‘˜ƒ‡ǡ†ƒ”‡‡”‰›ǡƒ† ͵ǤƒŽ–‡”ǡǤ Ǥǡƒ†”ސ‡•ǡǤ ǤǡʹͲͲͶǡƒ”Ž›ƒ”–Š ’‹‡”ǡ ǡʹͲͳͲǡ‹‰ ‹•–‘”›ƒ†–Š‡ —–—”‡‘ˆ –Š‡ƒ ‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‰—‹˜‡”•‡ǣŠ›•‹ •‘†ƒ›ǡ˜Ǥͷ͸ǡ‘Ǥ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‹‘ǣƒ”–Šƒ†Žƒ‡–ƒ”› ‹‡ ‡‡––‡”•ǡ —ƒ‹–›ǡŠ‹ Š‡•–‡”ǡ ‘Š‹Ž‡›ƒ†‘•ǡʹ͹ʹ’Ǥ Ͷǡ’Ǥͷ͵Ǧ͸ͲǤ ˜Ǥʹʹͷǡ’Ǥʹͷ͵Ǧʹ͸ͻǤ ͵ǤŠ‡ʹͲͳͲ ƒ —Ž–›‡•‡ƒ” Š‡ –—”‡ƒ–‡”‡Ž‡›ǣ ͶǤ‹‡™‡ƒ˜‡”ǡǤ ǤǡʹͲͲͳǡ‡•–‹ƒ–‡‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‰‡ ͶǤƒ—’ǡǤǤǡƒ†‹‰Š–‡”ǡǤǡʹͲͲͲǡ”‹‰‹‘ˆ–Š‡ Š––’•ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ›‘—–—„‡Ǥ ‘Ȁ™ƒ– Šǫ˜α •Ž͹‰ †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘‘ˆ–‡””‡•–”‹ƒŽ’Žƒ‡–•‹–Š‡—‹˜‡”•‡ǣ ‡ƒ”–Šƒ†‘‘ǣ— •‘ǡǡ‹˜‡”•‹–›‘ˆ”‹œ‘ƒ ͶǤŠ––’ǣȀȀ‡’•Ǥ„‡”‡Ž‡›Ǥ‡†—Ȁ̱•ƒ‡‘™Ȁ Š”‘‘œ‘‘Ȁ “—ƒ–‹ˆ›‹‰‡–ƒŽŽ‹ ‹–›ƒ•ƒ•‡Ž‡ –‹‘‡ˆˆ‡ –ǣ ƒ”—•ǡ ”‡••ǡͷͷͷ’Ǥ ͷǤ ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ ˜‡†›ǡǤǡͳͻͻʹǡŠ‡‡™‡‰—‹ ˜Ǥͳͷͳǡ‘Ǥʹǡ’Ǥ͵Ͳ͹Ǧ͵ͳ͵Ǥ ͷǤƒ„”‘••‡ǡǤǡ‘‹”‹‡”ǡ ǤǦǤǡƒ†‡‘—‡Žǡ ǤǦǤǡʹͲͲͳǡ –Žƒ•‘ˆ‡†‹‡˜ƒŽ ‹•–‘”›ǡ‘†‘ǡ‡‰—‹ǡͳͳʹ’Ǥ ͷǤ ”‡„‡ŽǡǤǡʹͲͳͷǡ‡ƒ” Š‹‰ˆ‘”–Š‡‘Ž†‡•–•–ƒ”•ǣ Š‡ƒ‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹‡” ‘”‡ǣƒ”–Šƒ†Žƒ‡–ƒ”›   ‹‡–”‡Ž‹ •ˆ”‘–Š‡‡ƒ”Ž›—‹˜‡”•‡ǡ”‹ ‡–‘ǡ  ‹‡ ‡‡––‡”•ǡ˜ǤͳͻͲǡ‘Ǥ͵ǦͶǡ’ǤͳͳͳǦͳʹ͵Ǥ Big Bang and Cosmos (Panel 0) ”‹ ‡–‘‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡ͵Ͳʹ’Ǥ ͸Ǥ‘ŽŽ‹•‘ǡ ǤǡʹͲͲ͹ǡŠ‡†‹†’Žƒ–‡–‡ –‘‹ •„‡‰‹ǫǣ ͸Ǥ‡Ž‘•‘ǡǤ Ǥ†‡Žǡ†ƒ‹Ž˜ƒǡǤǡ‘”–‘†‡‡ŽŽ‘ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡƒ† ‡‘Ž‘‰›‘†ƒ›ǡ˜Ǥʹ͵ǡ‘Ǥͷǡ’Ǥͳͺ͸ǦͳͻͳǢ ƒ•–‹‡ǡǤǤǡ ͳǤŽ˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡʹͲͳ͸ǡ‘•–‹’”‘„ƒ„Ž‡Œ‘—”‡›ǡ‡™ ”ƒ›Ǧ”ƒ†‘ǡǤ ǤǡʹͲͲͷǡŠ‡ƒ‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡ ƒŽƒ –‹ –Š‹ ‹––‘ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ”‘‹Ž‡›ǡ ǤǤǡ—–Ž‡”ǡ ǤǤǡƒ††Ž‹‰ǡ ‘”ǡǤǤ‘”–‘ǡʹͷ͸’ǤǡŠǤʹǤ †‹•ˆ”‘ŠȀ—— Ž‡‘ ‘•‘ Š”‘‘Ž‘‰›ǣƬǡ˜Ǥ ǤǤǤǡʹͲͳ͸ǡŠ‡‘”‹‰‹‘ˆƒ”–Š̵•ˆ‹”•– ‘–‹‡–• ʹǤƒ•‡†‘ʹͲͳͷ”‡•—Ž–•‘ˆ–Š‡—”‘’‡ƒŽƒ  ͶͶͲǡ‘Ǥ͵ǡ’Ǥͳͳͷ͵ǦͳͳͷͻǤ ƒ†–Š‡‘•‡–‘ˆ’Žƒ–‡–‡ –‘‹ •ǣ ‡‘Ž‘‰›ǡ˜ǤͶͶǡ‘Ǥ •ƒ–‡ŽŽ‹–‡ǡ”‡•—Ž–•„—”‹‡†‹‘„• —”‡–‡ Š‹ ƒŽ ͹Ǥ‡ ™‹–ŠǡǤǤǤǡ–‹ƒ˜‡ŽŽ‹ǡǤǡ‘‡‡‘‡”ǡǤǤǡ ͳͲǡ’ǤͺͷͷǦͺͷͺǤ Ž‹–‡”ƒ–—”‡Ǥ ƒŽ†™‡ŽŽǡ ǤǤǤǡ ‡”‰—•‘ǡ ǤǤǡ ‘‘ǡǤǡƒ›ǡǤǤǡ ͹Ǥ‘‰‡”•ǡ Ǥ ǤǤǡƒ†ƒ–‘•ŠǡǤǡʹͲͲͶǡ‘–‹‡–•ƒ† ͵Ǥ —–ŠǡǤ Ǥǡͳͻͻ͹ǡŠ‡‹ˆŽƒ–‹‘ƒ”›—‹˜‡”•‡ǡ‡™ ‡”‰‡”‘ǡǤǤǡ‘”„‹ǡǤǡ ‘‰‡‡ǡǤǡƒƒ‰‹ƒǡǤǡ •—’‡” ‘–‹‡–•ǡšˆ‘”†ǡšˆ‘”†‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡ ‘”ǡ‹–ƒ‰‡ǡ͵ͷͺ’Ǥ ‘„„‡”–‘ǡǤǡ‘›Ž‡ǡǤǡ‘‡”˜‹ŽŽ‡ǡǤǤǡƒ†‘•‡›ǡ ʹͺͻ’ǤǢƒ ‡ǡǤǤǡ—”’Š›ǡ ǤǤǡƒ†ƒ–‘•ŠǡǤǡ ͶǤ —–ŠǡǤ Ǥǡͳͻͻ͹ǡƒ• ‘•‹ ‹ˆŽƒ–‹‘–Š‡̵„ƒ‰̵‘ˆ ǤǡʹͲͲ͸ǡŠ‡ —„„Ž‡Ž–”ƒ‡‡’ ‹‡Ž†ǣŠ‡ ʹͲͳ͵ǡŠ‡•—’‡” ‘–‹‡– › Ž‡ǣ”‡–”‘•’‡ –‹˜‡ –Š‡‹‰ƒ‰ǫǣ‡ƒ‹‡ǡ˜Ǥʹ͹ǡ’ǤͳͶǦʹͳǡˆ‹‰—”‡‘ •–”‘‘‹ ƒŽ ‘—”ƒŽǡ˜Ǥͳ͵ʹǡ‘Ǥͷǡ’Ǥͳ͹ʹͻǤ ‡••ƒ›ǣ ‘†™ƒƒ‡•‡ƒ” Šǡ˜Ǥʹͷǡ‘Ǥͳǡ’ǤͶǦʹͻǤ ’ǤʹͲǤŠ‡‡•–‹ƒ–‡‘ˆͷͲ‘”†‡”•‘ˆƒ‰‹–—†‡‹• ͺǤŠƒ˜‡”ǡǤǤǡƒŽŽǡ ǤǤǡ‡ŽŽ‡”ƒǡǤ Ǥǡ ƒ •‘ǡǤ ͺǤ—”˜‡ˆ”‘‘†‹‡ǡǤǤǡƒ†•–‡”ǡǤǤǡʹͲͲͻǡ ˜‡”›— ‡”–ƒ‹Ǥ Ǥǡƒ† ƒ™‹•ǡǤǤǤǡͳͻͻ͸ǡ‡ ”‡ƒ•‡‹–Š‡ ‹” ‘ƒ‰‡‡’‹•‘†‹ ‹–›ƒ†‰”‘™–Š‘ˆ ‘–‹‡–ƒŽ ͷǤ —–ŠǡǤ Ǥǡͳͻͺͳǡ ˆŽƒ–‹‘ƒ”›—‹˜‡”•‡ǣ’‘••‹„Ž‡ •’ƒ ‡†‡•‹–›‘ˆ“—ƒ•ƒ”•ƒ–Š‹‰Š”‡†•Š‹ˆ–ǣƒ–—”‡ǡ˜Ǥ ”—•–ǣ‘•ǡ”ƒ•ƒ –‹‘•ǡ‡”‹ ƒ ‡‘’Š›•‹ ƒŽ •‘Ž—–‹‘–‘–Š‡Š‘”‹œ‘ƒ†ˆŽƒ–‡••’”‘„Ž‡•ǣ ͵ͺͶǡ’ǤͶ͵ͻǦͶͶͳǤ ‹‘ǡ˜ǤͻͲǡ‘ǤͶͳǡ’Ǥ͵͸ͶǤ Š›•‹ ƒŽ‡˜‹‡™ǡ˜Ǥʹ͵ǡ‘Ǥʹǡ’Ǥ͵Ͷ͹Ǧ͵ͷ͸Ǥ ͻǤŠ”‹•–‡•‡ǡǤǤǡŠ‹†ƒǡǤǤǡƒ†‡ƒ”–‹ǡǤǡ ͻǤ‹Ž˜‡”ǡǤ Ǥǡƒ†‡ŠǡǤǤǡʹͲͲͺǡ –‡”‹––‡–’Žƒ–‡ ͸Ǥ‡ƒ”‡ ‘•‹†‡”‹‰‘Ž›‘”ƒŽƒ––‡”ǡ‘ˆ™Š‹ Š ʹͲͲͻǡ‘•‹  ‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘•ǣ–Š‡ —„„Ž‡ƒ–Žƒ•‘ˆ –‡ –‘‹ •ǫǣ ‹‡ ‡ǡ˜Ǥ͵ͳͻǡ‘Ǥͷͺͷͻǡ’ǤͺͷǦͺͺǢ ‡˜‡”›–Š‹‰˜‹•‹„Ž‡‹–Š‡‹˜‡”•‡‹•ƒ†‡Ǥ ‡”‰‹‰‰ƒŽƒš‹‡•ǡ‡™‘”ǡ’”‹‰‡”Ǥ ‘†‹‡ǡǤǡ‹•ƒ”‡˜•›ǡǤǤǡ‘”‡ƒ‰ƒǡ Ǥǡƒ† —””‡–Ž›Ž‹––Ž‡‹•—†‡”•–‘‘†ƒ„‘—–†ƒ”ƒ––‡”ǡ ͳͲǤŠ‡–ŠǡǤǡ‡Ž„‘—”‡ǡ ǤǡŽ‡‰”‡‡ǡǤǤǡ ƒ”†‘ŽŽǡǤǡʹͲͳͷǡ •–Š‡”ƒ–‡‘ˆ•—’‡” ‘–‹‡– ‹˜‹•‹„Ž‡„—–‘™„›‹–•‰”ƒ˜‹–ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‡ˆˆ‡ –•‘ Ž‡‰”‡‡ǡǤ Ǥǡ–Šƒƒ••‘—ŽƒǡǤǡ„”ƒŠƒǡǤ Ǥǡ ƒ••‡„Ž› Šƒ‰‹‰™‹–Š–‹‡ǫǣ”‡ ƒ„”‹ƒ ˜‹•‹„Ž‡•–ƒ”•ƒ†‰ƒŽƒš‹‡•ǣƒ†ƒŽŽǡǤǡʹͲͳͷǡƒ” ƒ†‡‹‡”ǡǤ ǤǡʹͲͳʹǡ ‘–†‹••ƒ††‡Žƒ›‡†„ƒ” ‡•‡ƒ” Šǡ˜Ǥʹͷͻǡ’Ǥʹ͹ͺǦʹͺͻǤ ƒ––‡”ƒ†–Š‡†‹‘•ƒ—”•ǡ‡™‘”ǡ ƒ”’‡”‘ŽŽ‹•ǡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ǣ•–”‘’Š›•‹ ƒŽ ‘—”ƒŽǡ˜Ǥ͹ͷͺǡ‘ǤʹͲ –Ǥǡ ͳͲǤ ‘‡•ǡǤǡ‡˜‹•‘ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ•‹‰ƒ‹•ǡǤǡƒ† Ͷͳʹ’Ǥ ’ǤͳǦ͹Ǥ ‘”„‹†‡ŽŽ‹ǡǤǡʹͲͲͷǡ”‹‰‹‘ˆ–Š‡ ƒ–ƒ Ž›•‹ ƒ–‡ ͹Ǥ‡‹„‡”‰ǡǤǡͳͻͻ͵ǡŠ‡ˆ‹”•––Š”‡‡‹—–‡•ǣƒ  ‡ƒ˜›‘„ƒ”†‡–’‡”‹‘†‘ˆ–Š‡–‡””‡•–”‹ƒŽ  ͵Ͳ ’Žƒ‡–•ǣƒ–—”‡ǡ˜ǤͶ͵ͷǡ’ǤͶ͸͸ǦͶ͸ͻǤ ͸ǤŽ˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǤǡŽ˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡ•ƒ”‘ǡ Ǥǡƒ†‹ Š‡Žǡ ǤǤǡ ʹǤ‘™”‹‡ǡǤǡƒ†Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡͳͻͺͳǡ‡Š—†”‡† ͳͳǤŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ’ƒ•• Ǥ‡–Ȁƒ”–Š ’ƒ –ƒ–ƒ„ƒ•‡Ȁ‹†‡šǤ ͳͻͺͲǡš–”ƒ–‡””‡•–”‹ƒŽ ƒ—•‡ˆ‘”–Š‡”‡–ƒ ‡‘—•Ǧ ‹ŽŽ‹‘›‡ƒ”•‘ˆ‰‡‘ƒ‰‡–‹ ’‘Žƒ”‹–›Š‹•–‘”›ǣ Š–Ž ‡”–‹ƒ”›‡š–‹ –‹‘ǣš’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ”‡•—Ž–•ƒ† ‡‘Ž‘‰›ǡ˜Ǥͻǡ’Ǥ͵ͻʹǦ͵ͻ͹Ǣ‰‰ǡ ǤǡʹͲͳʹǡ ͳʹǤ‹”• Š˜‹ǡ ǤǤǡͳͻͻʹǡƒ–‡”‘–‡”‘œ‘‹ Ž‘™ǦŽƒ–‹–—†‡ –Š‡‘”‡–‹ ƒŽ‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘ǣ ‹‡ ‡ǡ˜ǤʹͲͺǡ’ǤͳͲͻͷǦ ‡‘ƒ‰‡–‹ ’‘Žƒ”‹–›–‹‡• ƒŽ‡ǡ‹ ”ƒ†•–‡‹‡–ƒŽǤǡ ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ‰Žƒ ‹ƒ–‹‘ǣ–Š‡•‘™„ƒŽŽƒ”–Šǡin Š‘’ˆǡ Ǥ ͳͳͲͺǢ ‹Ž†‡„”ƒ†ǡǤǤǡ‡ˆ‹‡Ž†ǡ ǤǤǡ”‹‰ǡǤǤǡ ʹͲͳʹǡŠ‡‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ –‹‡• ƒŽ‡ʹͲͳʹǡ‡™‘”ǡ Ǥǡƒ†Ž‡‹ǡǤǡ‡†•ǤǡŠ‡”‘–‡”‘œ‘‹ „‹‘•’Š‡”‡ǣ ‹Ž‹‰–‘ǡǤǡƒƒ”‰‘Ǧƒ‘‰—‡”ƒǡǤǡ ƒ ‘„•‡ǡǤ Ž•‡˜‹‡”ǡ˜Ǥͳǡ’ǤͺͷǦͳͳ͵Ǥ ƒ„”‹†‰‡ǡƒ„”‹†‰‡‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡ’ǤͷͳȂͷʹǢ Ǥǡƒ†‘›–‘ǡǤǤǡͳͻͻͳǡŠ‹ š—Ž—„ ”ƒ–‡”ǣƒ ͵Ǥ ”‘••ƒǡǤǤʹͲͳʹǡ‹ ”ƒ†•–‡‹‡–ƒŽǤǡ‘’Ǥ ‹–ǡ˜Ǥͳǡ ‘ˆˆƒǡǤ Ǥǡƒ† Š”ƒ‰ǡǤǤǡʹͲͲʹǡŠ‡ ’‘••‹„Ž‡”‡–ƒ ‡‘—•Ȁ‡”–‹ƒ”›„‘—†ƒ”›‹’ƒ – ’ǤͳͻͲǤ •‘™„ƒŽŽƒ”–ŠŠ›’‘–Š‡•‹•ǣ–‡•–‹‰–Š‡Ž‹‹–•‘ˆ ”ƒ–‡”‘–Š‡— ƒ–ž‡‹•—Žƒǡ‡š‹ ‘ǣ ‡‘Ž‘‰›ǡ˜Ǥ ͶǤ‡‡ŽŽ‡•ǡǤ Ǥǡƒ’’ǡǤǡ ‡Š”‡Ž•ǡ ǤǤǡƒ†‹‰ǡǤǡ ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ Šƒ‰‡ǣ‡””ƒ‘˜ƒǡ˜ǤͳͶǡ‘Ǥ͵ǡ’ǤͳʹͻȂͳͷͷǤ ͳͻǡ‘Ǥͻǡ’Ǥͺ͸͹Ǧͺ͹ͳǢ‹–ǡ Ǥǡ‘–ƒƒ”‹ǡǤǡ ʹͲͳͶǡƒŽ‡‘ ‡‡Ǧ‘ ‡‡ˆ‘”‡Žƒ†„ƒ•‹‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ ͳ͵Ǥ ‘ŽŽƒ†ǡ ǤǤǡʹͲͲ͸ǡŠ‡‘š›‰‡ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ ™‹„—”‡ǡǤ ǤǤǡŽ˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡ ‹Ž†‡„”ƒ†ǡǤǤǡ ‹–Š‡ ‹ƒŽƒ›ƒ‘ˆ•‘—–Š‡”‹„‡–ƒ†‡’ƒŽǢ ƒ–‘•’Š‡”‡ƒ†‘ ‡ƒ•ǣŠ‹Ž‘•‘’Š‹ ƒŽ ƒ”‰‘Ž‹•ǡǤǤǡŽƒ‡›•ǡǤǡ‘™”‹‡ǡǤǡƒ†•ƒ”‘ǡ Ǥǡ ‹’Ž‹ ƒ–‹‘•ˆ‘”–Š‡ƒ‰‡‘ˆ‹‹–‹ƒŽ †‹ƒǦ•‹ƒ ”ƒ•ƒ –‹‘•Ǧ‘›ƒŽ‘ ‹‡–›‘ˆ‘†‘Ǥ‹‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ ͳͻͻʹǡ‡–‹–‡Ǧ„‡ƒ”‹‰ǡ†‡‡’Ǧ™ƒ–‡” Žƒ•–‹ —‹–ƒ– ‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘ǣ‡ –‘‹ •ǡ˜Ǥ͵͵ǡ‘Ǥͷǡ’ǤͺʹͶǦͺͶͻǤ  ‹‡ ‡•ǡ˜Ǥ͵͸ͳǡ‘ǤͳͶ͹Ͳǡ’ǤͻͲ͵ǦͻͳͷǤ –Š‡”‡–ƒ ‡‘—•Ǧ‡”–‹ƒ”›„‘—†ƒ”›‹‘”–Š‡ƒ•–‡” ͷǤŽ˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡʹͲͳͲǡ”‘–”ƒ –‡† ‘–‹‡–ƒŽ ‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘• ͳͶǤ‡‡”ǡǤǡŽƒ ǡ Ǥ ǤǡŽƒƒ˜•›ǡǤǡ”ƒ’‡œǡǤǡ ‡š‹ ‘ǣ ‡‘Ž‘‰›ǡ˜ǤʹͲǡ‘Ǥʹǡ’ǤͻͻǦͳͲ͵Ǣ‡ƒŽƒǡ ƒ”‰—‡ˆ‘” ‘–‹‡–ƒŽ’Žƒ–‡•†”‹˜‡„›„ƒ•ƒŽ ‘ˆƒǡǤǡ‘Šƒ—•‡”ǡǤǤǡƒ†‘—š‡ŽǡǤ Ǥǡ ǤǤǡ‹–ǡ Ǥǡ—”ŠƒǡǤǤǡ—‹’‡”ǡǤǡƒ‹‰ǡǤ –”ƒ –‹‘ǣƒ”–Šƒ†Žƒ‡–ƒ”› ‹‡ ‡‡––‡”•ǡ˜Ǥ ʹͲͳͲǡ ”‘ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘Ǣ–Š‡•‡†‹‡–ƒ”›’”‘†— –‘ˆƒ ǤǡŽ‡‹‹ǡǤǡƒ”•‘ǡǤǡƒ—””ƒ••‡ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ‡ŽŽ‡‘‘’ǡ ʹͻ͸ǡ’ǤͶ͵ͶǦͶͶʹǤ ‘’Ž‡š‹–‡”’Žƒ›ƒ‘‰ƒ–Ž‡ǡ–‡ –‘‹ ǡ‘ ‡ƒ‹ ǡ Ǥǡ‹ Šƒ”†•ǡǤǤǡ —” Š‡ǡǤǡƒ†Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡʹͲͳͻǡ ͸Ǥ •òǡǤ Ǥǡͳͻͺ͵ǡŠ‡‡†‹–‡””ƒ‡ƒ™ƒ•ƒ†‡•‡”–ǡ ƒ†„‹‘•’Š‡”‹ ’”‘ ‡••‡•ǣ ‘‘‹  ‡‘Ž‘‰›ƒ† •‡‹•‹ ƒŽŽ›‹†— ‡†‘•Š‘”‡•—”‰‡†‡’‘•‹–ƒ––Š‡ ”‹ ‡–‘ǡǤ Ǥǡ”‹ ‡–‘‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡͳͻ͹’ǤǢ –Š‡—ŽŽ‡–‹‘ˆ–Š‡‘ ‹‡–›‘ˆ ‘‘‹  ‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–•ǡ˜Ǥ ‰„‘—†ƒ”›ǡ‘”–Šƒ‘–ƒǣ”‘ ‡‡†‹‰•‘ˆ–Š‡ ‘˜‡”‹ǡǤǡ Ž‡ ‡”ǡǤǡ”‹Œ‰•ƒǡǤǡ‘ˆ‹ǡ Ǥǡ—‰Ž‹ǡ ͳͲͷǡ‘Ǥ͵ǡ’ǤͶ͸͹ǦͷͲͺǤ ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ†‡›‘ˆ ‹‡ ‡•ǡ˜Ǥͳͳ͸ǡ‘Ǥͳ͹ǡ’Ǥ Ǥǡƒœ‹ǡǤǡ‹‡””‘ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ‡”–‹‹ǡǤǡƒ‡”Ž‡‰Š‹ǡǤǡ ͳͷǤ‘ŽŽǡǤ ǤǡʹͲͲ͵ǡ‹ˆ‡‘ƒ›‘—‰’Žƒ‡–ǣ–Š‡ˆ‹”•– ͺͳͻͲǤ †‡ƒ‰‡ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ ‘˜‡”•ǡǤǡ ‹Ž‰‡ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ —‡„• Š‡”ǡǤǡ –Š”‡‡„‹ŽŽ‹‘›‡ƒ”•‘ˆ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘‘ƒ”–Šǡ”‹ ‡–‘ǡ ͹Ǥ‘—”–‹ŽŽ‘–ǡǤǡƒ† Ž—–‡ƒ—ǡ ǤǡʹͲͳͶǡ”‡˜‹‡™‘ˆ–Š‡ ‡‹Œ‡”ǡǤǤǡ–‘‹ ƒǡǤǡ‹’‡”ǡǤ ǤǤǡƒ†‡ŽŽ•ǡ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥǡ”‹ ‡–‘‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡʹ͹͹’Ǥ ‡„‡††‡†–‹‡• ƒŽ‡•‘ˆˆŽ‘‘†„ƒ•ƒŽ–˜‘Ž ƒ‹• ǤǡʹͲͳͶǡŠ‡‡••‹‹ƒƒŽ‹‹–›”‹•‹•Ǣ’ƒ•–ƒ† ͳ͸Ǥ ‡†‰‡•ǡǤǤǡƒ†—ƒ”ǡǤǡʹͲͲͻǡŠ‡–‹‡–”‡‡‘ˆ ™‹–Š•’‡ ‹ƒŽ‡’Šƒ•‹•‘†”ƒƒ–‹ ƒŽŽ›•Š‘”– ˆ—–—”‡‘ˆƒ‰”‡ƒ– ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡ˆ‘”ƒ”‹‡• ‹‡ ‡•ǣ Ž‹ˆ‡ǡšˆ‘”†ǡšˆ‘”†‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡͷͷͳ’Ǥ ƒ‰ƒ–‹ ’—Ž•‡•ǣ’‡ ‹ƒŽƒ’‡”Ǧ ‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ‘ ‹‡–› ƒ”‹‡ ‡‘Ž‘‰›ǡ˜Ǥ͵ͷʹǡ’ǤʹͷǦͷͺǤ  ‘ˆ‡”‹ ƒǡ˜ǤͷͲͷǡ’Ǥ͵ͲͳǦ͵ͳ͹Ǥ ͹Ǥ–”ڏ„‡”‰ǡǤǤǤǡ—ǡǤǤǡƒ††‡ǡǤ Ǥǡ‘Šǡ Phanerozoic (Panel 3) ͺǤ‹ Šƒ”†•ǡǤǤǡŽ˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡ‡ŽˆǡǤǡƒ”Ž•–”‘ǡǤǡ Ǥ Ǥǡƒ†ƒ”Ž‹‹ǡǤǤǡʹͲͳ͵ǡ‡ ‘—’Ž‹‰–Š‡•’”‡ƒ† ‡‡ǡǤǤǡƒ‰ƒǡǤǡ’”ƒ‹ǡǤ Ǥǡ‹–ǡ Ǥǡ ‘ˆ‰”ƒ••Žƒ†•ˆ”‘–Š‡‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘‘ˆ‰”ƒœ‡”Ǧ–›’‡ ͳǤ ”ƒ†•–‡‹ǡ Ǥǡ‰‰ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ Š‹–œǡǤǡƒ†‰‰ǡ ǤǡʹͲͳʹǡ ƒ†‡”Ž—›•‡ǡǤǡƒ† ‹„•‘ǡǤǤǡʹͲͳͷǡ Š‡”„‹˜‘”‡•‹‘—–Š‡”‹ ƒǣƒ–—”‡ Š‡‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ –‹‡• ƒŽ‡ʹͲͳʹǡ‡™‘”ǡŽ•‡˜‹‡”Ǥ ”‹‰‰‡”‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡Žƒ”‰‡•–‡ ƒ‡”—’–‹‘•„›–Š‡ ‘—‹ ƒ–‹‘•ͶǣͳͶ͹ͺǤ ʹǤ ‡†‰‡•ǡǤǤǡƒ†—ƒ”ǡǤǡʹͲͲͻǡŠ‡–‹‡–”‡‡‘ˆ Š‹ š—Ž—„‹’ƒ –ǣ ‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ‘ ‹‡–›‘ˆ‡”‹ ƒ  Ž‹ˆ‡ǡšˆ‘”†ǡšˆ‘”†‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡͷͷͳ’Ǥ —ŽŽ‡–‹ǡ˜Ǥͳʹ͹ǡ‘ǤͳͳȀͳʹǡ’ǤͳͷͲ͹ǦͳͷʹͲǤ  ͵Ǥ‡’‘•‹ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ ”Ǥǡͳͻͻ͹ǡ‹‘†‹˜‡”•‹–›ǣ’ƒ•–ǡ’”‡•‡–ǡ ͻǤŠ‹•’Ž‘–™ƒ•‘†‹ˆ‹‡†ƒˆ–‡”ƒ‰”ƒ’Š‘ˆŠƒ‡”‘œ‘‹  Pliocene-Pleistocene (Panel 5) ƒ†ˆ—–—”‡ǣ ‘—”ƒŽ‘ˆƒŽ‡‘–‘Ž‘‰›ǡ˜Ǥ͹ͳǡ‘ǤͶǡ’Ǥ Ž‹ƒ–‡ Šƒ‰‡„›‘„‡”–‘Š†‡ǡ„ƒ•‡†‘‘š›‰‡  ͷ͵͵Ǧͷ͵ͻǤ ‹•‘–‘’‡†ƒ–ƒ‘ˆ ƒ‡‹œ‡”ǡƒ†™‹†‡Ž›”‡’”‘†— ‡† ͳǤŽ˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡŽƒ‡›•ǡǤǡƒ†‘–ƒƒ”‹ǡǤǡʹͲͲͻǡ ͶǤ‡”˜ƒ‹•ǡǤǡ ƒ”’‡”ǡǤǤǤǡ‹ǡ Ǥǡ—‡ ‡ǡǤǡ™‡ǡ ‘–Š‡™‡„ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥǡ ‹‡Ǧ• ƒŽ‡ ‘•–”— –‹‘ƒ†’‡”‹‘†‹œ‹‰‹‹‰ ǤǤǡƒ†Š‡‡ŠƒǡǤǤǡʹͲͲͻǡ†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰–Š‡ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ‡™™‘”Ž†‡ › Ž‘’‡†‹ƒǤ‘”‰Ȁ‡–”›Ȁ ‹Ž‡ ‹•–‘”›ǣˆ”‘–Š‡‘ ‡‡ǦŽ‹‰‘ ‡‡„‘—†ƒ”›–‘ƒŽŽ ”‡ƒ–”†‘˜‹ ‹ƒ‹‘†‹˜‡”•‹ˆ‹ ƒ–‹‘˜‡–ȋ ȌǢ ǣŠƒ‡”‘œ‘‹ ̴Ž‹ƒ–‡̴Šƒ‰‡Ǥ’‰ȌǤ ‘ˆ–Š‡’ƒ•–ǣ ‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ‘ ‹‡–›‘ˆ‡”‹ ƒ’‡ ‹ƒŽ ‹ˆŽ—‡ ‡•‘ˆ’ƒŽ‡‘‰‡‘‰”ƒ’Š›ǡ’ƒŽ‡‘ Ž‹ƒ–‡ǡ‘”  ƒ’‡”ǡ˜ǤͶͷʹǡ’ǤͳǦͳͷǤ ’ƒŽ‡‘‡ ‘Ž‘‰›ǫǣ ‘†ƒ›ǡ˜Ǥͳͻǡ‘ǤͶǦͷǡ’ǤͶǦͳͲǤ Cenozoic (Panel 4) ʹǤ‹•‹‡ ‹ǡǤǤǡƒ†ƒ›‘ǡǤǤǡʹͲͲͷǡŽ‹‘ ‡‡Ǧ ͷǤŠ—„‹ǡǤǡʹͲͲͺǡ‘—”‹‡”ˆ‹•ŠǣƒŒ‘—”‡›‹–‘–Š‡  Ž‡‹•–‘ ‡‡•–ƒ ‘ˆͷ͹‰Ž‘„ƒŽŽ›Ǧ†‹•–”‹„—–‡†„‡–Š‹  ͵ǤͷǦ„‹ŽŽ‹‘Ǧ›‡ƒ”Š‹•–‘”›‘ˆ–Š‡Š—ƒ„‘†›ǡ‡™ ͳǤ ”ƒ†•–‡‹ǡ Ǥǡ‰‰ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ Š‹–œǡǤǤǡƒ†‰‰ǡ ǤǤǡ μͳͺ”‡ ‘”†•ǣƒŽ‡‘ ‡ƒ‘‰”ƒ’Š›ǡ˜ǤʹͲǡ‘Ǥͳǡ’Ǥͳ͹ ‘”ǡƒ†‘ ‘—•‡ǡʹͶͲ’Ǥ ʹͲͳʹǡŠ‡‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ –‹‡• ƒŽ‡ʹͲͳʹǡ‡™‘”ǡ ’’Ǥ Ž•‡˜‹‡”Ǥ ͵Ǥ‰‰ǡ Ǥ ǤǡʹͲͳʹǡ ‡‘ƒ‰‡–‹ ’‘Žƒ”‹–›–‹‡• ƒŽ‡ǡin  ͵ͳ ”ƒ†•–‡‹ǡ ǤǤǡ‰‰ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ Š‹–œǡǤǤǡƒ†‰‰ǡ Ǥ ͶǤƒ’‹‘ǡǤǤǡƒ†‡ŽˆǡǤǡͳͻͻʹǡ‘Ž ƒ‹ ™‹–‡” —– Š‹•‘ƒ†‘••ǡ͵͸Ͳ’Ǥ Ǥǡ‡†•ǤǡŠ‡‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ–‹‡• ƒŽ‡ʹͲͳʹǡ‘Ž—‡ͳǣ ƒ†ƒ ‡Ž‡”ƒ–‡†‰Žƒ ‹ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰–Š‡‘„ƒ ͷǤ ƒ•‘ǡǤǤǡ‹ƒǡǤǤǡƒ†Žƒ‰—‡ǡ Ǥ ǤǡʹͲͳʹǡŠ‡ •–‡”†ƒǡŽ•‡˜‹‡”ǡ’ǤͺͷǦͳͳ͵Ǥ •—’‡”Ǧ‡”—’–‹‘ǣƒ–—”‡ǡ˜Ǥ͵ͷͻǡ‘Ǥ͸͵ͻͲǡ’ǤͷͲȂͷʹǤ •‡“—‡ ‡ƒ†–‹‹‰‘ˆŽƒ”‰‡Žƒ–‡Ž‡‹•–‘ ‡‡ˆŽ‘‘†• ͶǤ‘™”‹‡ǡǤǡƒ†Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡͳͻͺͳǡ‡Š—†”‡† ͷǤ–‘”‡›ǡǤǡ‘„‡”–•ǡǤ Ǥǡƒ† ƒ•ŽƒǡǤǡʹͲͳͷǡ͹Ͷ ˆ”‘‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽƒ‡‹••‘—Žƒǣ—ƒ–‡”ƒ”› ‹‡ ‡ ‹ŽŽ‹‘›‡ƒ”•‘ˆ‰‡‘ƒ‰‡–‹ ’‘Žƒ”‹–›Š‹•–‘”›ǣ ‘”͹ͷƒƒ‰‡ˆ‘”–Š‡‘„ƒ•—’‡”Ǧ‡”—’–‹‘ǫ ‡˜‹‡™•ǡ˜Ǥ͵ͳǡ’Ǥ͸͹ǦͺͳǤ ‡‘Ž‘‰›ǡ˜Ǥͻǡ’Ǥ͵ͻʹǦ͵ͻ͹Ǥ ‡•‘Ž˜‹‰–Š‡†‡„ƒ–‡ǣ‡”‹ ƒ ‡‘’Š›•‹ ƒŽ‹‘ ͸Ǥ”‡–œǡ Ǥ Ǥǡͳͻʹ͵ǡŠ‡ Šƒ‡Ž‡†• ƒ„Žƒ†•‘ˆ–Š‡ ͷǤ¡¡„‘ǡǤǡʹͲͳͶǡ‡ƒ†‡”–ŠƒŽƒǣ ‡ƒ” Š‘ˆ‘•– ƒŽŽ‡‡–‹‰ǡ˜ǤʹͲͳͷǡ’Ǥ„•–”ƒ –ͷͳǦ͵Ͳ͵ͲǤ ‘Ž—„‹ƒŽƒ–‡ƒ—ǣ ‘—”ƒŽ‘ˆ ‡‘Ž‘‰›ǡ˜Ǥ͵ͳǡ’Ǥ͸ͳ͹Ǧ ‡‘‡•ǡ‡™‘”ǡƒ•‹ ‘‘•ǡʹ͹ͷ’Ǥ ͸Ǥ‹‰Š–‹”‡ǡ ǤǤǡʹͲͲ͹ǡƒ–‡”‹††Ž‡Ž‡‹•–‘ ‡‡ ͸ͶͻǤ ͸ǤŠ‹–‡ǡǤǤǡʹͲͲͻǡ —ƒ”‹‰‹•ƒ†˜‘Ž—–‹‘ǣ ‘‘ǡin ‡‡ǡ ǤǤǤǡ ƒ”†–ǡǤǡƒ†ƒ–‡”•ƒŽŽǡ Ǥǡ ͹Ǥƒ‡”ǡǤǤǡʹͲͲʹǡŠ‡•–—†›‘ˆ•—’‡”ˆŽ‘‘†•ǣ ‹‡ ‡ǡ ‘Ž†’”‹‰ ƒ”„‘”ǡ±Œ—ǣ‘Ž†’”‹‰ ƒ”„‘” ‡†•Ǥǡ ƒ†„‘‘‘ˆƒŽ‡‘ƒ–Š”‘’‘Ž‘‰›ǣ‡”Ž‹ǡ ˜Ǥʹͻͷǡ‘Ǥͷͷ͸Ͷǡ’Ǥʹ͵͹ͻǦʹ͵ͺͲǤ ›’‘•‹ƒ‘—ƒ–‹–ƒ–‹˜‡‹‘Ž‘‰›ǡ˜ǤͷͶǡ’Ǥ͵͵ͷǦ͵ͶͶǤ ’”‹‰‡”Ǧ‡”Žƒ‰ǡ’Ǥͳ͸ͻͷǦͳ͹ͳͷǡ ‹‰ǤͳʹǤͶǤ ͺǤ¡¡„‘ǡǤǡʹͲͳͶǡ‡ƒ†‡”–ŠƒŽƒǣ •‡ƒ” Š‘ˆŽ‘•– ͹Ǥ ‘Šƒ•‘ǡǤǤǡƒ††‡›ǡǤǤǡͳͻͺͳǡ— ›ǡ–Š‡ ͹Ǥ‹‰Š–‹”‡ǡ ǤǤǡ‘”†‹’ƒ‹†œ‡ǡǤǡƒ†‡—ƒǡǤǡ ‰‡‘‡•ǡ‡™‘”ǡƒ•‹ ‘‘•ǡʹ͹ͷ’Ǥ „‡‰‹‹‰‘ˆŠ—ƒ‹†ǡ‡™‘”ǡ‹‘ƒ† ʹͲͲ͸ǡƒ–‘‹ ƒŽ†‡• ”‹’–‹‘•ǡ ‘’ƒ”ƒ–‹˜‡ ͻǤ”‘™ǡǤǡ—–‹ƒǡǤǡ‘”™‘‘†ǡǤ Ǥǡ‘‡Œ‘‘ǡǤǤǡ  Š—•–‡”ǡͶͲͻ’Ǥ •–—†‹‡•ƒ†‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ƒ”›•‹‰‹ˆ‹ ƒ ‡‘ˆ–Š‡ ƒ–‹‘ǡƒ›Š—ƒ’–‘‘ǡǤǡƒ†™‡—‡ǡǤǡʹͲͲͶǡ ͺǤŠ‹–‡ǡǤǤǡ•ˆƒ™ǡǤǡ‡›‡‡ǡǤǡ ƒ‹Ž‡Ǧ‡Žƒ••‹‡ǡǤǡ Š‘‹‹•—ŽŽ•ˆ”‘ƒ‹•‹ǡ‡’—„Ž‹ ‘ˆ ‡‘”‰‹ƒǣ ‡™•ƒŽŽǦ„‘†‹‡†Š‘‹‹ˆ”‘–Š‡ƒ–‡ ‘˜‡Œ‘›ǡǤǤǡ—™ƒǡ Ǥǡƒ†‘Ž†‡ ƒ„”‹‡Žǡ ǤǡʹͲͲͻǡ ‘—”ƒŽ‘ˆ —ƒ˜‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ˜ǤͷͲǡ‘Ǥʹǡ’ǤͳͳͷǦͳͶͳǤ Ž‡‹•–‘ ‡‡‘ˆ Ž‘”‡•ǡ †‘‡•‹ƒǣƒ–—”‡ǡ˜ǤͶ͵ͳǡ‘Ǥ Ardipithecus ramidusƒ†–Š‡’ƒŽ‡‘„‹‘Ž‘‰›‘ˆ‡ƒ”Ž› ͺǤŽ˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡʹͲͳ͸ǡ‘•–‹’”‘„ƒ„Ž‡Œ‘—”‡›ǡ‡™ ͹Ͳͳʹǡ’ǤͳͲͷͷǦͳͲ͸ͳǤ Š‘‹‹†•ǣ ‹‡ ‡ǡ˜Ǥ͵ʹ͸ǡ’Ǥ͸Ͷǡ͹ͷǦͺ͸Ǥ ‘”ǡǤǤ‘”–‘ǡʹͷ͸’ǤǡŠǤͺǤ ͳͲǤƒ–‡ǡǤǤǤǡͳͻͲʹȂͳͻͲ͵ǡ”‡Ž‹‹ƒ”›‘–‡‘–Š‡ ͻǤ‡”ƒǡǤ Ǥǡƒ†ƒ˜ƒŽŽ‹Ǧˆ‘”œƒǡǤǤǡͳͻͺͶǡŠ‡ ͻǤ ƒ‰ƒǡǤǡͳͻͻͻǡ Ž‘‘†•ǡˆƒ‹‡•ǡƒ†‡’‡”‘”•ǣŽ †‹• ‘˜‡”›‘ˆƒ’‹‰›‡Ž‡’Šƒ–‹–Š‡Ž‡‹•–‘ ‡‡‘ˆ ‡‘Ž‹–Š‹ –”ƒ•‹–‹‘ƒ†–Š‡‰‡‡–‹ •‘ˆ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹Ó‘ƒ†–Š‡ˆƒ–‡‘ˆ ‹˜‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘ǡ‡™‘”ǡƒ•‹  ›’”—•ǣ”‘ ‡‡†‹‰•‘ˆ–Š‡‘›ƒŽ‘ ‹‡–›‘ˆ‘†‘ǡ ‹—”‘’‡ǡ”‹ ‡–‘ǡ ǡ”‹ ‡–‘‹˜‡”•‹–› ‘‘•ǡ͵Ͷ͸’Ǥ ˜Ǥ͹ͳǡ’ǤͶͻͺȂͷͲͲǤ ”‡••ǢŽ˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡʹͲͳ͸ǡ‘•–‹’”‘„ƒ„Ž‡ ͳͲǤ‘‡„”‘‡•ǡǤǡƒ†‹ŽŽƒǡǤǡʹͲͳͳǡ–Š‡‡ƒ”Ž‹‡•– ͳͳǤ—–‹ƒǡǤǡ‘ Š‡”‹ǡǤǤǡ‘”™‘‘†ǡǤ Ǥǡƒ’–‘‘ǡ Œ‘—”‡›ǡ‡™‘”ǡǤǤ‘”–‘ǡʹͷ͸’ǤŠǤͺǤ ‡˜‹†‡ ‡ˆ‘”Šƒ„‹–—ƒŽ—•‡‘ˆˆ‹”‡‹—”‘’‡ǣ ǤǤǡ ƒ–‹‘ǡ™‡ǡǤǤǡƒ•‹•–‘ǡǤǡ‡•–ƒ™ƒ›ǡǤ ͳͲǤŽ˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡʹͲͳ͸ǡ‘•–‹’”‘„ƒ„Ž‡Œ‘—”‡›ǡ‡™ ”‘ ‡‡†‹‰•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ†‡›‘ˆ ‹‡ ‡•ǡ˜Ǥ Ǥǡ—„‡”–ǡǤǡ‹ǡǤǡŠƒ‘ǡ ǤǦšǤǡ–‘”‡›ǡǤǡŽŽ‘™ƒ›ǡ ‘”ǡǤǤ‘”–‘ǡʹͷ͸’ǤŠǤͻǤ ͳͲͺǡ‘Ǥͳ͵ǡ’ǤͷʹͲͻǦͷʹͳͶǤ ǤǤǡ‘”Ž‡›ǡǤǤǡ‡‹Œ‡”ǡ Ǥ ǤǤǡ˜ƒ†‡‡”‰Šǡ ͳͳǤ Š‹ ǡǤǤǡƒ†‘–ŠǡǤǡͳͻͻ͵ǡƒ‹‰•‹Ž‡– ǤǤǡ ”òǡǤǡ‘••‡–‘ǡǤǡ”—ǡǤǡ —‰‡”•ǡǤǤǡ •–‘‡••’‡ƒǡ‡™‘”ǡ‹‘ƒ† Š—•–‡”ǡ͵ͷʹ’Ǥ Homo sapiens Out of Africa (Panel 7) ƒ†‘„‡”–•ǡǤ ǤǡʹͲͳ͸ǡ‡˜‹•‡†•–”ƒ–‹‰”ƒ’Š›ƒ† ͳʹǤ‘‡„”‘‡•ǡǤǡƒ†‹ŽŽƒǡǤǡʹͲͳͳǡ–Š‡‡ƒ”Ž‹‡•–  Š”‘‘Ž‘‰›ˆ‘”Homo floresiensisƒ–‹ƒ‰—ƒ‹ ‡˜‹†‡ ‡ˆ‘”Šƒ„‹–—ƒŽ—•‡‘ˆˆ‹”‡‹—”‘’‡ǣ ͳǤ ǤƒŽƒ•‹‡™‹ œǡǤ Ǥǡ”—–œ‡ǡƒ†–‡ˆˆ‡ǡǤǡʹͲͳʹǡ †‘‡•‹ƒǣƒ–—”‡ǡ˜Ǥͷ͵ʹǡ‘Ǥ͹ͷͻͻǡ’Ǥ͵͸͸Ǧ͵͸ͻǤ ”‘ ‡‡†‹‰•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ†‡›‘ˆ ‹‡ ‡•ǡ˜Ǥ Š‡ƒ–Š”‘’‘ ‡‡ǡin ”ƒ†•–‡‹ǡ ǤǤǡ‰‰ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ ͳʹǤ ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡ǣ‡ŽŽ•ǡǤǡʹͲͲ͹ǡ‡‡’ƒ ‡•–”›ǡ ͳͲͺǡ‘Ǥͳ͵ǡ’ǤͷʹͲͻǦͷʹͳͶǤ  Š‹–œǡǤǤǡƒ†‰‰ǡ ǤǤǡ‡†•ǤǡŠ‡‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ ƒ•Š‹‰–‘ǡƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‡‘‰”ƒ’Š‹ ‘ ‹‡–›ǡʹͶ͹’Ǥ  –‹‡• ƒŽ‡ʹͲͳʹǡ‘Ž—‡ʹǣ•–‡”†ƒǡŽ•‡˜‹‡”ǡ’Ǥ ͳ͵Ǥ‘•–ŠǡǤǡ‡–ƒŽǤǡŽ‡‹•–‘ ‡‡‹–‘ Š‘†”‹ƒŽ‰‡‘‡• Bruhnes Normal and Ice Age (Panel 6) ͳͲ͵͵ǦͳͲͶͲǤ •—‰‰‡•–ƒ•‹‰Ž‡ƒŒ‘”†‹•’‡”•ƒŽ‘ˆ‘Ǧˆ”‹ ƒ•  ʹǤ–—‹˜‡”ǡǤǡƒ† ”‘‘–‡•ǡǤǤǡʹͲͲͲǡ ʹ‘š›‰‡ ƒ†ƒƒ–‡ Žƒ ‹ƒŽ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘–—”‘˜‡”‹—”‘’‡ǣ ͳǤ‹•‹‡ ‹ǡǤǤǡƒ†ƒ›‘ǡǤǤǡʹͲͲͷǡŽ‹‘ ‡‡Ǧ ‹•‘–‘’‡”ƒ–‹‘•ǣ—ƒ–‡”ƒ”›‡•‡ƒ” Šǡ˜Ǥͷ͵ǡ‘Ǥ͵ǡ’Ǥ —””‡–‹‘Ž‘‰›ǡ˜Ǥʹ͸ǡ‘Ǥ͸ǡ’Ǥͺʹ͹Ǧͺ͵͵Ǥ Ž‡‹•–‘ ‡‡•–ƒ ‘ˆͷ͹‰Ž‘„ƒŽŽ›†‹•–—”„‡†„‡–Š‹  ʹ͹͹ǦʹͺͶǢˆ—ŽŽ†ƒ–ƒƒ– ͳͶǤ‘‡„”‘‡•ǡǤǡƒ†‹ŽŽƒǡǤǡʹͲͳͳǡ–Š‡‡ƒ”Ž‹‡•– †‡Ž–ƒͳͺ”‡ ‘”†•ǣƒŽ‡‘ ‡ƒ‘‰”ƒ’Š›ǡ˜ǤʹͲǡ‘Ǥͳǡ’Ǥ Š––’ǣȀȀ†‡’–•Ǥ™ƒ•Š‹‰–‘Ǥ‡†—Ȁ“‹ŽȀ†ƒ–ƒ•‡–•Ȁ‰‹•’ʹ̴ʹ ‡˜‹†‡ ‡ˆ‘”Šƒ„‹–—ƒŽ—•‡‘ˆˆ‹”‡‹—”‘’‡ǣ ͳ͹Ǥ Ͳ›”Ǥ–š– ”‘ ‡‡†‹‰•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ†‡›‘ˆ ‹‡ ‡•ǡ˜Ǥ ʹǤ‹•‹‡ ‹ǡǤǤǡƒ†ƒ›‘ǡǤǤǡʹͲͲͷǡ‘’Ǥ ‹–Ǥǡƒ„Ž‡͵Ǥ ͵Ǥ ‡‹‰ǡǤǤǡʹͲͲͶǡ ‡‹”‹ Š‡˜‡–•ǣƒ••‹˜‡Žƒ–‡ ͳͲͺǡ‘Ǥͳ͵ǡ’ǤͷʹͲͻǦͷʹͳͶǤ ͵Ǥ Š—ŽœǡǤ Ǥǡƒ†‡‡„‡ǡǤǤǡʹͲͲ͸ǡŽ‡‹•–‘ ‡‡ Ž‡‹•–‘ ‡‡†‡–”‹–—•Žƒ›‡”•‘ˆ–Š‡‘”–Š–Žƒ–‹  ͳͷǤ‘–ŠǡǤǡƒ† Š‹ ǡǤǡʹͲͲ͹ǡ˜‡”˜‹‡™‘ˆ ‰Žƒ ‹ƒŽ–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘•–”‹‰‰‡”‡†„›•› Š”‘‘—• ƒ†–Š‡‹”‰Ž‘„ƒŽ Ž‹ƒ–‡‹’”‹–ǣ‡˜‹‡™•‘ˆ ƒŽ‡‘Ž‹–Š‹ ƒ” Š‡‘Ž‘‰›ǡin ‡‡ǡ ǤǤǤǡ ƒ”†–ǡǤǡ Šƒ‰‡•‹‘—–Š‡”ƒ†‘”–Š‡” ‡‹•’Š‡”‡ ‡‘’Š›•‹ •ǡ˜ǤͶʹǡ‘ǤͳǤ ƒ†ƒ–‡”•ƒŽŽǡ Ǥǡ‡†•Ǥǡ ƒ†„‘‘‘ˆ ‹•‘Žƒ–‹‘Ǣ–Š‡‹•‘Žƒ–‹‘ ƒ‘Š›’‘–Š‡•‹•ǣƒ”–Š ͶǤƒ‡”ǡǤǤǡͳͻͺͳǡƒ–ƒ•–”‘’Š‹ ˆŽ‘‘†‹‰ǣ–Š‡‘”‹‰‹ ƒŽ‡‘ƒ–Š”‘’‘Ž‘‰›ǣ‡”Ž‹ǡ’”‹‰‡”Ǧ‡”Žƒ‰ǡ’Ǥ ƒ†Žƒ‡–ƒ”› ‹‡ ‡‡––‡”•ǡ˜ǤʹͶͻǡ‘Ǥ͵ǦͶǡ’Ǥ ‘ˆ–Š‡Šƒ‡Ž‡† ƒ„Žƒ†ȋ‡ Šƒ”ƒ’‡”•‹ ͳͻͶ͵Ǧͳͻ͸͵Ǥ ͵ʹ͸Ǧ͵͵͸ǡƒ„Ž‡ͳǤ ‡‘Ž‘‰›ǡ˜ǤͷͷȌǣ–”‘—†•„—”‰ǡǡ‘™†‡ǡ   ͵ʹ Š––’•ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ ‡•—•Ǥ‰‘˜Ȁ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘Ȁ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽȀ†ƒ– Ž•‡˜‹‡”Ǥ˜ǤͳǡŠ•ǤʹǦͳͷǤ ƒȀ™‘”Ž†’‘’Ȁ–ƒ„Ž‡̴’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘Ǥ’Š’Š‡‡ƒ”ˆŽƒ– ͵Ǥ ‡†‰‡•ǡǤǤǡƒ†—ƒ”ǡǤǡʹͲͲͻǡŠ‡–‹‡–”‡‡‘ˆ •‡‰‡–ˆ”‘ͳͻͶͲ–‘ͳͻͷͲ™‘—Ž†„‡Ž‡••‹ˆ™‡ Ž‹ˆ‡ǡšˆ‘”†ǡšˆ‘”†‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡͷͷͳ’Ǥ —•‡†–Š‡—’’‡”•—ƒ”›ˆ‘”ͳͻͷͲǡ‹•–‡ƒ†‘ˆ–Š‡ ͶǤ ‡†ƒǡ‘’Ǥ ‹–ǤǡŠǤͳͲǤ Civilization and Writing (Panel 8) Ž‘™‡”•—ƒ”›Ǥ ͷǤ‰—•ǡǤǡ‹‰”ƒ‹ǡǤǡ ‘”‡ƒǦƒ ‡›ǡǤǡƒ†    —‹ŽŽƒǡǤǡʹͲͳͷǡƒŽ‹„”ƒ–‹‰‰›”‘ Š”‘‘Ž‘‰› ͳǤ‡”•Š‘™‹–œǡǤǡƒ†‡‹‰‘Ž†ǡǤǤǡʹͲͲͺǡƒŽ‡†”‹ ƒŽ Cold War/Long Peace (Panel 10) —•‹‰‡’Ž‡”ƒ•–‡”‘•‡‹•‹ –ƒ”‰‡–•ǣ‘–ŠŽ› ƒŽ —Žƒ–‹‘•ǡƒ„”‹†‰‡ǡƒ„”‹†‰‡‹˜‡”•‹–›  ‘–‹ ‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‘›ƒŽ•–”‘‘‹ ƒŽ‘ ‹‡–›ǡ˜ǤͶͷͲǡ ”‡••Ǥ ͳǤ ‘”ƒ—•‡ˆ—Ž‰”ƒ’Š•Š‘™‹‰–Š‡Š‹•–‘”›‘ˆ‡ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡ ‘Ǥʹǡ’Ǥͳ͹ͺ͹Ǧͳ͹ͻͺǤ ʹǤ ˜‡†›ǡǤǡƒ† ‘‡•ǡǤǡͳͻ͹ͺǡ–Žƒ•‘ˆ™‘”Ž† ƒ‰‹–—†‡ƒ†ˆƒ–ƒŽ‹–‹‡•ˆ”‘ͳͻͲͲ–‘ʹͲͳͷǡ ͸Ǥ ”ƒ†•–‡‹ǡ‡–ƒŽǤ‘’Ǥ ‹–ǤǢŽ˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡŽƒ‡›•ǡǤǡƒ† ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘Š‹•–‘”›ǡ‘†‘ǡŽŽ‡ƒ‡Ȁ‡‰—‹ǡ ’”‡’ƒ”‡†„›‰Ž‡‡ǡ•‡‡ ‘–ƒƒ”‹ǡǤǡʹͲͲͻǡ‹‡Ǧ• ƒŽ‡ ‘•–”— –‹‘ƒ† ͵͸ͺ’Ǥ Š––’•ǣȀȀ ‘‘•Ǥ™‹‹‡†‹ƒǤ‘”‰Ȁ™‹‹Ȁ ‹Ž‡ǣ ̴ ’‡”‹‘†‹œ‹‰‹‹‰ ‹•–‘”›ǣˆ”‘–Š‡‘ ‡‡Ǧ ͵Ǥ ˜‡†›ǡǤǡͳͻ͸͹ǡŠ‡‡‰—‹ƒ–Žƒ•‘ˆ ‹‡– ƒ‰‹–—†‡̴ͺ̴‡ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡•̴•‹ ‡̴ͳͻͲͲǤ•˜‰ȋŠ‹• Ž‹‰‘ ‡‡„‘—†ƒ”›–‘ƒŽŽ‘ˆ–Š‡’ƒ•–ǣ ‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ ‹•–‘”›ǡ‘†‘ǡ‡‰—‹ǡ’ǤʹͲǦͶ͵Ǥ ‰”ƒ’Š ƒ‘–„‡‡š’ƒ†‡†„ƒ ‹–‹‡ǡ„‡ ƒ—•‡ ‘ ‹‡–›‘ˆ‡”‹ ƒ’‡ ‹ƒŽƒ’‡”ǡ˜ǤͶͷʹǡ’ǤͳǦͳͷǤ ͶǤ”‡™•ǡǤǡͳͻͻ͵ǡŠ‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡”‘œ‡‰‡ǣŠƒ‰‡• ‹•–”—‡–ƒŽ•‡‹•‘Ž‘‰›†‘‡•‘–‰‘„ƒ — Š  ‹™ƒ”ˆƒ”‡ƒ†–Š‡ƒ–ƒ•–”‘’Š‡ ƒǤͳʹͲͲǤǤǡ „‡ˆ‘”‡ͳͻͲͲǤȌ Millenium’s End (Panel 12) ”‹ ‡–‘ǡ”‹ ‡–‘‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡʹͷʹ’Ǥ ʹǤŠ‡”‡ƒ‹•‘ˆ”‡”‘ ƒ„‡•‡‡‘ ‘‘‰Ž‡ƒ”–Š  ͷǤ—”ǡǤǡʹͲͲͺǡ’‘ ƒŽ›’•‡ǣƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡•ǡƒ” Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰›ǡ ƒ–Ͷιͷ͹Ǥͺǯǡ͹ͶιͷͶǤ͵ǯǤ ͳǤ—ŽŽ‡”ǡǤǤǡʹͲͳ͸ǡ‘™ǣŠ‡’Š›•‹ •‘ˆ–‹‡ǡ‡™ ƒ†–Š‡™”ƒ–Š‘ˆ ‘†ǡ”‹ ‡–‘ǡ”‹ ‡–‘ ͵Ǥ  ˆ‘Ž‹‡ ‘”ǡǤǤ‘”–‘ǡ͵͸Ͷ’Ǥ ‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡ͵Ͳͻ’Ǥ ȋŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥƒ‹†•‹ˆ‘‘Ž‹‡Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ†‡˜‹ˆ‘ȀŽ‹„”ƒ”‹‡•Ȁ ʹǤ ‘”ƒˆ—ŽŽ‡”–”‡ƒ–‡–‘ˆ–Š‡ Šƒ”ƒ –‡”‘ˆŠ‹•–‘”›ǡ•‡‡  ƒ•’šȀ†ƒ–ƒ˜‹‡™Ǥƒ•’šȌ†‘‡•‘–‰‹˜‡ˆ‹‰—”‡•ˆ‘”–Š‡ Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡʹͲͳ͸ǡ‘•–‹’”‘„ƒ„Ž‡Œ‘—”‡›ǡ‡™ Last 600 Years – Global Reconnection (Panel 9) ͳͻͺͲ•ǡ„—–•Š‘™•ƒ„‘—–͵Ͷ‹ŽŽ‹‘ Ǧ”‡Žƒ–‡† ‘”ǡǤǤ‘”–‘ǡŠǤͳͲǡ‘ˆ™Š‹ Š–Š‡’”‡•‡–  ˆƒ–ƒŽ‹–‹‡•ˆ”‘ͳͻͻͲ–‘ʹͲͳͷǤ –‡š–‹•ƒ„”‹‡ˆ•›‘’•‹•Ǥ ͳǤ‡‹– ‘ǡ Ǥǡƒ†Ž˜ƒ”‡œǡǤǡʹͲͳͳǡŠ‡‘”–—‰—‡•‡ƒ†  ͵Ǥ‘‘•ǡ ǤǤǡͳͻͻͺǡŠ‡Žƒ™•‘ˆŠ‹•–‘”›ǡ‘†‘ǡ ’ƒ‹•Š˜‘›ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ†‹• ‘˜‡”›ƒ†–Š‡‡ƒ”Ž›Š‹•–‘”› Sunset of the Millenium (Panel 11) ‘—–Ž‡†‰‡ǡ͵Ͳͺ’Ǥ ‘ˆ‰‡‘Ž‘‰›ǣ ‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ‘ ‹‡–›‘ˆ‡”‹ ƒ—ŽŽ‡–‹ǡ˜Ǥ  ͶǤ Ž‡‹ ǡ Ǥǡͳͻͺ͹ǡŠƒ‘•ǣƒ‹‰ƒ‡™• ‹‡ ‡ǡ‡™ ͳʹ͵ǡ‘Ǥ͹Ǧͺǡ’ǤͳʹͳͻǦͳʹ͵͵Ǥ ͳǤ ‡†ƒǡǤǡʹͲͲ͹ǡŠ‡ƒ‰‡‘ˆ‡˜‡”›–Š‹‰ǣŠ‘™ ‘”ǡ‹‹‰ǡ͵ͷʹ’Ǥ ʹǤ‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ —”˜‡ ‘„‹‡•†ƒ–ƒˆ”‘ʹǤǤ‡•—• • ‹‡ ‡‡š’Ž‘”‡•–Š‡’ƒ•–ǡŠ‹ ƒ‰‘ǡ‹˜‡”•‹–›‘ˆ ͷǤ ‘—Ž†ǡǤ Ǥǡͳͻͺ͹ǡ‹‡̵•ƒ””‘™ǡ–‹‡̵• › Ž‡ǣ›–Š •‹–‡•ǣ Š‹ ƒ‰‘”‡••ǡŠǤʹǤ ƒ†‡–ƒ’Š‘”‹–Š‡†‹• ‘˜‡”›‘ˆ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽ–‹‡ǡ Š––’•ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ ‡•—•Ǥ‰‘˜Ȁ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘Ȁ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ʹǤ ”ƒ†•–‡‹ǡ Ǥǡ‰‰ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ Š‹–œǡǤǤǡƒ†‰‰ǡ ǤǤǡ ƒ„”‹†‰‡ǡƒ••Ǥǡ ƒ”˜ƒ”†‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡʹʹʹ’Ǥ Ȁ†ƒ–ƒȀ™‘”Ž†’‘’Ȁ–ƒ„Ž‡̴Š‹•–‘”›Ǥ’Š’Ǣ ʹͲͳʹǡŠ‡‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹ –‹‡• ƒŽ‡ʹͲͳʹǡ‡™‘”ǡ  

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