APPENDIX E Classification of

This appendix presents a taxonomic classification for the Various alternative classification schemes are discussed major extant groups of organisms discussed in this text; not in Unit Five of the text. The taxonomic turmoil includes all phyla are included. The classification presented here is debates about the number and boundaries of kingdoms and based on the three- system, which assigns the two about the alignment of the Linnaean classification hierar- major groups of , and , to chy with the findings of modern cladistic analysis. In this separate domains (with making up the third review, asterisks (*) indicate currently recognized phyla domain). thought by some systematists to be paraphyletic.


In the phylogenetic hypothesis we present in Chapter 28, major of eukaryotes are grouped together in the five “supergroups” listed below in blue type. Formerly, all the eu- • Chlamydia karyotes generally called were assigned to a single , Protista. However, ad- • Spirochetes vances in have made it clear that Protista is in fact polyphyletic: Some protists are more closely related to , fungi, or than they are to other protists. As a re- • Gram-positive Bacteria sult, the kingdom Protista has been abandoned.

• Diplomonadida (diplomonads) • Rhodophyta (red ) • Parabasala (parabasalids) • (: chlorophytes) • (euglenozoans) • (green algae: charophytes) Kinetoplastida (kinetoplastids) • Plantae Euglenophyta (euglenids) Hepatophyta (liverworts) Nonvascular Phylum Bryophyta () v Chromalveolata plants () Phylum Anthocerophyta () • Alveolata (alveolates) Phylum Lycophyta () Dinoflagellata (dinoflagellates) Seedless vascular Phylum Pterophyta (, horsetails, v (apicomplexans) plants whisk ferns) Ciliophora () Phylum Ginkgophyta () • Stramenopila (stramenopiles) Phylum Cycadophyta () DOMAIN ARCHAEA Bacillariophyta () v Phylum (gnetophytes) Seed Chrysophyta (golden algae) v Phylum Coniferophyta () plants • Phaeophyta (brown algae) Phylum Anthophyta (flowering Oomycota (water molds) V Angiosperms • plants)

Rhizaria • (radiolarians) • (forams) • (cercozoans) Appendix E Classification of Life

E–1 APPENDIX E Classification of Life DOMAIN EUKARYA, continued

Unikonta Phylum Annelida (segmented ) • (amoebozoans) Polychaeta () Myxogastrida (plasmodial slime molds) (oligochaetes) Dictyostelida (cellular slime molds) Phylum (spiny-headed worms) Gymnamoeba (gymnamoebas) (ecdysozoans) Entamoeba (entamoebas) Phylum (loriciferans) • Nucleariida (nucleariids) Phylum Priapula (priapulans) • Fungi Phylum Nematoda (roundworms) *Phylum (chytrids) Phylum Arthropoda (This survey groups into *Phylum (zygomycetes) a single phylum, but some zoologists now split the Phylum (glomeromycetes) arthropods into multiple phyla.) Phylum (club fungi) (horseshoe crabs, ) Phylum (sac fungi) Subphylum (, centipedes) Subphylum (, ) Subphylum Crustacea () Phylum Tardigrada () Phylum (velvet worms) Deuterostomia () Phylum Hemichordata () Phylum Echinodermata () Asteroidea ( stars, sea daisies) Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) • Choanoflagellata (choanoflagellates) Echinoidea (sea urchins and sand dollars) • Animalia Crinoidea (sea lilies) Phylum Porifera () Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) Phylum (comb jellies) Phylum Chordata () Phylum (cnidarians) Subphylum Cephalochordata (: ) (hydrozoans) Subphylum Urochrodata (urochordates: ) (jellies) Subphylum () Cubozoa (box jellies and sea wasps) Myxini (hagfishes) (sea anemones and most ) Petromyzontida (lampreys) Phylum Acoela (acoel flatworms) Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays, chimaeras) Phylum (placozoans) Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) (lophotrochozoans) Actinistia (coelacanths) Phylum (kinorhynchs) Dipnoi (lungfishes)v Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Amphibia () Catenulida (chain worms) Reptilia (tuataras, lizards, snakes, turtles, Rhabditophora (planarians, flukes, tapeworms) crocodilians, birds) Phylum ( worms) Mammalia () Phylum Ectoprocta (ectoprocts) Phylum Brachiopoda () Phylum Phoronida () Phylum Rotifera () Phylum Cycliophora (cycliophorans) Phylum (molluscs) Polyplacophora () (gastropods) (bivalves) Cephalopoda () Appendix E Classification of Life

APPENDIX E Classification of Life E–2