Dramatic action and important elements in the play, scene-by-scene

 Setting: /Argos  Background: 15-20 years ago, (here named as grandson of ) was killed by his wife and lover (also grandson of Pelops). As a boy, , was evacuated by his sister Electra and the ‘Old Slave’ to Phocis, to the kingdom of (Agamemnon’s guest-friend and father of ).  Electra stayed in Mycenae, preserving her father’s memory and harbouring extreme hatred for her mother and her lover Aegisthus. She has a sister, , who says that she accepts the situation.

Prologue: 1- 85 (pp. 169-75)

- Dawn at the palace of . Orestes, Pylades and the Old Slave arrive. Topography of wealthy Argos/Mycenae, and the bloody house of the Atreids. - The story of Orestes’ evacuation. ‘It is time to act!’ v. 22 - ’s oracle at : Agamemnon was killed by deception; use deception (doloisi – cunning at p. 171 is a bit weak) to kill the murderers. - Orestes’ idea to send the Old Slave to the palace. Orestes and Pylades will arrive later with the urn containing the ‘ashes’ of Orestes. «Yes, often in the past I have known clever men dead in fiction but not dead; and then when they return home the honour they receive is all the greater» v. 62-4, p. 173 Orestes like : return to house and riches - Electra is heard wailing. Old slave: “No time to lose”. Prologue: 86-120 (pp. 175-7)

- Enter Electra, who addresses the light of day. - The endless lament, day and night, for the events of the past, and the deep hatred for the adulterers - Before the “father’s doors” Electra invokes the powers of the underworld praying for the return of Orestes and the revenge of her father’s killing. She is worn down by waiting all these years. Parodos (Choral entry ode): 121-250 (pp. 179-87)

Enter chorus, 15 women native to Argos. Age and status unclear. 130 lines of song in a dialogic form (rare), where the heroine’s passion and strong will dominate - The chorus’ warm, almost motherly address to Electra (later on she addreses them as ‘sisters’); wish for equal punishment of killers. Electra and her ceaseless lamentation, again (121-36) - «But you will never raise up your father from the lake of !». Electra mourns, comparing herself to mythical heroines Procne and Niobe, who mourn for their children (137-53) - Endless waiting for Electra (again) and her disappointment of Orestes: “Why, which of his messages does not end in disappointment? Always he feels the longing, but for all his longing he does not think fit to appear” (154-72) - ’ order will be restored, says chorus. Do not harbour excessive anger (176). Electra’s loneliness (no parents, husband, nor children) (173-92) Parodos: 121-250 (pp. 179-87)

- The chorus recalls the murder: «Cunning was the teacher, passion was the killer; horribly they brought into being a shape horrible, whether it was a god or a mortal who was the doer». Electra refers to Agamemnon’s murder as ‘feast’… Wish that the murderers will pay the same price (192-212) - Chorus pleads with her again to tone down her anger. “Put up with this! You cannot struggle against those in power!” Electra is fully conscious:«I know it well, my passion does not escape me!». Asks to be left alone to lament in anger (213-32) - Resists the chorus’ admonitions and says will not forget. “That would be the end of reverence and of the piety of all mortals” (233-250) First episode: 251-471 (pp. 189- 209) [Electra’s presence is dominant and joins prologue, parodos and first episode almost in one continuous act. Repetition is deliberate - not a dramatic flaw] - Only the change of metre to spoken iambic separates this part from the previous. - Electra in monologue, reflecting again on the past: «the sufferings of [my] father’s house, sufferings which I see by day and night always growing worse and not declining» - Turn to present: her mother, Aegisthus and the adulterers’ bed again. Clytemnestra’s monthly celebration of Agamemnon’s murder. - Her daily clashes with Clytemnestra, the attitude of Aegisthus. Her attitude: “When things are so, my friends, there can be no good sense or piety, but since things are bad, then inevitably one’s conduct must be bad also” - Her frustration from Orestes’ delays and postponements. (-323) [Compare the construction of the Sophoclean Electra’s inner world with that of the Aeschylean Electra] First episode: 251-471 (pp. 189- 209) Enter Chrysothemis with . - Her thoughts about Electra’s rights, and her contrasting views: «but if I am to live in freedom, I must obey those in power in everything» - Electra explains her perception of her duty towards the father: “I give pain to them, so that I do honour to the dead, if any pleasure can be felt where the dead are”. Chorus pleads to tone down her anger. - The threat to imprison Electra in underground dungeon. - Stichomythia and climax of clash between siblings (-404, p. 203) - Chrysothemis’ libations and the dream of Clytemnestra (p. 205, 410- ): Agamemnon comes back to ‘the light’. The staff is planted in the house’s hearth and a tree shades Mycenae. - Electra’s change of mood “My dear..”. The provenance of the dream. No libations from Clytemnestra to propitiate the dead – offerings to ask them to help avenge. (-471, p. 209) First stasimon: 472-515 (pp. 211-13)

Electra remains on stage.

“Revenge will come” – and the family’s background.

- First stanza: the dream has been sent from Justice () and Agamemnon. - Second stanza: the Erinys is approaching menacingly. The adultery will be punished, and the dream will be fulfilled. - Epode: The story of Pelops, deception, the prize of a woman, a house (and wealth and power).

Second episode (516-822, pp. 213- 39)

- Clytemnestra enters with offerings: Clash with Electra. Dramatic impression of ‘one more clash in an endless series of clashes…’. Court-like tone ( logon) - Clyt: the behaviour of Electra. Agamemnon’s guilt at Aulis. «Yes, Justice was his killer, not I alone» (528, p. 213) - Electra: the adulterers’ guilt. In defense of Agamemnon. «If we are to take a life for a life, you should die first, if you were to get what you deserve». Clytemnestra’s treatment of her children. Conclusion: «So far as that goes, proclaim me to all, whether you like to call me bad or loud-mouthed or full of shamelessness. For if I am an expert in such behaviour, I think I am no unworthy child of yours!» (-610, p. 221) Second episode (516-822, pp. 213- 39)

- Chorus: “I see you breathing forth anger” (610) - Clytemnestra: Electra’s insolence - Electra «I am aware that my actions are wrong for my age and unlike my nature ... For shocking behaviour is taught by shocking things» (-621) - Electra at 628 (p. 223) “You are carried away into anger” - Climax of altercation – but neither woman goes. They remain in the same space. - Clytemnestra prays to Apollo about the dream (634-659). «If some persons are plotting to rob me of the wealth I now enjoy, do not allow it, but grant that I may always live a life unharmed, ruling the house of the Atreidae and this kingdom, living with the friends with whom I now live, enjoying prosperity …. » Second episode (516-822, pp. 213-39) - Old Slave enters: announces the death of Orestes. Electra is devastated. - The “messenger”’s false speech about Orestes’ death at the Delphic games: Orestes’ sweeping victory at start, then chariot contest and horrific accident. The funeral pyre and the urn with the ashes. (680-763) - Clytemnestra momentarily shocked: «Giving birth is a strange thing; even when they treat one badly, one does not hate one’s children»; bitterness but also relief: «He … swore to do terrible things, so that neither by night nor by day would sleep cover me, but from one moment to another I lived like one about to die.» - Electra’s mourning and new clash. Clytemnestra and the Old Slave exit into the house (803). - Absolute loneliness and devastation for Electra. “By this gate I shall let myself go, and without a friend waste away my life. In face of that, let any of those inside kill me … ”

Kommos (dirge in dialogic form) instead of stasimon 823-70 (pp. 241- 47)

- Electra continues to dominate the stage. She never leaves - Intense lyric dialogue/dirge. - Electra still resists the consolation and admonitions of the chorus. - The mythical example of Amphiaraos who was killed by deception but rules in the underworld. But Electra does not have anyone to avenge the injustice. - Dirge climaxes.

Third episode (871-1057; pp. 247-65)

- Chrysothemis enters at the moment of absolute despair. A stark contrast. Excitement about her findings, confidence for the return of Orestes. The evidence. - Electra resists again: «I have been pitying you for your folly all the while». Orestes is dead. Alternative interpretation of the offerings(«for dead Orestes»). - Electra’s plan to act. Suggestion for collaboration for adulterers’ murder. Their life now and the hope for a better life. - Chrysothemis declines («You are a woman, not a man; 997, p. 259»). The tyrants are so powerful that the sisters could only gain an ignoble death. Advice to restrain passion and yield to those in power. - Electra’s determination to act alone. Clash and passionate reaction. “I envy your good sense but I hate you for your cowardice” (1027, p. 261) Chrysothemis insists: «There are times when being right does one harm». (1042, p. 265) - Chrysothemis goes inside (1052, p. 265)

Second stasimon 1058-97 (pp. 267-9)

Electra remains on stage, while the chorus sings a short stasimon : - The animals are more capable of love than humans, since the children look after the parents who reared them. The crime will be punished. - The house is diseased. Electra is isolated and ready to exchange life with death. - Expression of hope for her to shine as a scion of a noble family and to be called wise and virtuous. - The laws of nature and justice are in accordance with Electra’s actions. Third episode (1098-1383, pp. 269-303)

- Enter Orestes and Pylades: encounter with Electra. The urn “house” of Orestes (stegos = house, not vessel (at 1118, p. 273 and 1165, p. 275 (‘mansion of yours’)). It is given to Electra. - Holding the urn, Electra mourns like a mother. (cf. “You were never your mother’s more than you were mine”) She expresses a desire to share her brother’s death. - At. 1175ff. Orestes realises that this is Electra, and the extent of his sister’s misery. He snatches the urn from her. He reveals himself at 1222 (250 lines before the end of the play). - Just 10 lines of celebration and an embrace. But that’s it. «I am afraid of your excessive surrender to delight» (1271, p. 291). Repeated suppression of Electra’s joy. Deception and the right time is above all. Sudden increase of dramatic speed – stark contrast with tortuous delay beforehand.

Third episode(1098-1383, pp. 269-303) -Old Slave enters at 1326: «You utter fools, you senseless people... And now get clear of your long speeches and of the cries of joy of which you are never wary…». Stresses not to miss the opportunity. Must act now. - Recognition scene of Electra and Old Slave. No reaction from him towards Electra’s addresses to him as father. “I think that is enough” He admonishes them to hurry up. - Electra prays to Apollo for help. Third stasimon (1384-97, pp. 303-5) Orestes, Pylades and (probably) Electra exit into the house.

- Even shorter than before, only 13 lines long! A notable acceleration towards the end of the play - The avengers and the imagery of the (spoken by the chorus) “Already they have gone beneath the house’s roof, the hounds, not to be fled from, that pursue evil crimes, so that the vision of my mind shall not long wait in suspense!”

- The powers of the earth (underworld) take revenge Exodos (1398-1510, pp. 305-21)

- Electra enters again from house. Her and chorus out of the house – Screams from inside Chorus: “O unhappy race, now the fate that was yours from day to day is dying, dying!” - Electra encourages Orestes to strike again. Chorus: “The curses are at work! Those who lie beneath the ground are living, for the blood of the killers flows in turn, drained by those who perished long ago!” - Exit Orestes and Pylades «In the house all is well, if Apollo prophesied well.» - Enter Aegisthus. Orestes exits again into the house. Deception that Orestes’ body lies inside - Door opens, ekkyklema reveals covered body of Clytemnestra - Deception realised. Orestes orders Aegisthus to go inside “where he killed the father”. “Is it needful that this house should witness the present and the future woes of the Pelopids?” - The play closes with audience waiting for Aegisthus’ murder to take place. - Final three lines: “Seed of Atreus, after many sufferings you have at last emerged in freedom, made complete by this day’s enterprise”. 2nd part

- The reception of Electra by scholarship and the perception of - The ‘dark’ Sophocles: light and darkness imagery in Electra

The reception of Electra in scholarship

- One of the few Greek which has provoked contrasting reactions and very different interpretations by scholars. - Commentators cannot even agree on whether the spirit of the play (and the representation of the matricide) is dark, or optimistic; different approaches vary hugely: 1. Electra and the as intertext => Orestes’ actions and the murder of the usurpers of the house and power is positively regarded. 2. Orestes’ (and Electra’s) revenge is just, just like in the (!) 3. The revenge is problematic (~ cf. ’ Electra) both in the way it is represented, but also in the way the murderers are represented: Sophoclean irony 4. Sophocles is not interested in the matricide, hence he goes through it very quickly. Ultimately he is (mainly or only) interested in the construction of Electra’s character. «OPTIMISTIC» OR «NEGATIVE» (IRONIC) READING?? The reception of Electra in scholarship The advocates of the OPTIMISTIC reading use especially the following arguments: - The progression of the play is from evil, despair, isolation and tyranny to reunion, restoration of justice and freedom (1505-9) - The matricide and the revenge as a whole is dictated by the god Apollo. - There are no Erinyes here to go after Orestes (in contrast to the Oresteia) - The play closes with the death of Aegisthus, a death that is much less problematic than that of (the mother) Clytemnestra. The reception of Electra in scholarship

There are issues with this interpretation, however: 1. The problem of deception: never a positive thing in Sophocles. - Sophoclean heroes: usually characterised by a bold, direct manner, honesty of aims, lack of hypocrisy, uncompromising . “I think that no word that brings you gain is bad” (61, p. 173) - Deception is a crucial element in the play as a whole and in the murder scene especially, echoing the deception of al previous crimes. 2. The characterisation of Electra at the matricide The reception of Electra in scholarship

- Judging the characters with psychological-realist criteria is not adequate as approach, and is especially inadequate for and Sophocles. - One needs to consider IMAGERY, STAGING, DRAMATURGY, SYMBOLISM, which constitute inextricable parts of the overall meaning of the play - E.g. The imagery of light and darkness, life and death How the imagery of light and darkness informs the characters’ actions => The imagery of light and darkness

1491-6, p. 319

105-16, p. 177 The imagery of light and darkness

 The references to light and darkness cannot be ignored. The play progresses from the light of dawn, the light of a new day which is full of hope, to darkness. This makes any positive interpretation of the outcome problematic.  Cf. The characterisation of Apollo in the beginning of the play. He is referred to as the Lycean Apollo, but the association is not light (*-λυκ- ~lux), the myth that presents the god as killer.

17-19, p. 169

6-7, p. 169

The imagery of light and darkness

- Clytemnestra: avoids the light (640), prays to Apollo for the terrible dreams of the night (644)

Why does she pray to Apollo? - Apollo has a negative characterisation already in the Oresteia. Η εικονοπλασία του φωτός και του σκότους

The darkness of the final scene

Electra spends her life indoors, in constant darkness, which is associated with the house’s oppressive characterisation and the crimes of the past Does she find light through the matricide and revenge? The play ends with Orestes exiting into the house, to complete the revenge. The presence of the dead awaiting to be avenged

- , killed by Pelops (Agamemnon’s grandfather) by deception in chariot races

For since Myrtilus fell asleep, plunged into the sea, hurled headlong from the golden chariot with cruel torment, never yet has the torment of many troubles departed from this house. (508-15, p. 213)

- Iphigeneia, sacrificed by deception (527-41, pp. 213-15) - Agamemnon, killed by the lovers by deception. - The living Orestes “who has come back from the dead” also kills by deception (1478-9, pp. 317)

Aegisthus’ last words and their effect (1496-8)


- The early perception of Sophocles could not be more different than that: Already since the 5th century, Sophocles was perceived as the golden medium between the more ‘primitive’ and ‘grand’ Aeschylus and ‘decadent’ and ‘controversial’ Euripides - The responsibility of COMEDY and Aristophanes’ Frogs in particular (the oldest surviving work of literary criticism, or, more accurately the oldest work which reflects literary-critical perceptions of ancient poets)… in creating the image of the ‘serene’ and ‘peaceable’ Sophocles, the ‘golden medium’ between the two others, the ideal image of ‘classic beauty’. Early reception of Sophocles Halo effect!

«Besides, Euripides is a slippery character and would probably even help me pull off an escape, whereas Sophocles was peaceable here and will be peaceable there.» !!!!!! (Frogs 80-2, 29)

- Then how come Sophocles didn’t stake a claim to the Chair of ? - Not him, he would never do that! When he came down here Aeschylus gave him a kiss and grasped his hand, and Sophocles withdrew any rival claim on the chair. (Frogs, 786-90)

Early reception of Sophocles «Sophocles said he created characters as they ought to be, Euripides as they really are...» (Aristotle, Poetics 25.6)

For an introduction to the poets

- Lived an extremely long (‘blessed’) life: 497/6 BC – 406/5 BC - Illustrious public career in , including general - Piety: contributed to the introduction of ’ cult into Athens - Prolific productivity: 120-130 plays - Popularity and success: over 20 victories, more than any other poet - This biography influenced the reception of his works

More on poets’ biographies and significance for interpretation of plays next time 3rd Part

- Characterisation in Sophocles - Natural order and justice in Electra - Natural order, justice, and philia: Parents, children and care in human relationships - Time and past in Electra - The ending of the play and the ‘absence’ of Erinyes

Characterisation in Sophocles  The characters of should not be judged only with criteria pertaining to psychological realism, especially in Aeschylus and in Sophocles.  The of Aeschylus and Sophocles tend to focus on the world of the characters, the relationship between characters’ behaviour and the wider world around them. The cosmic / natural order is a perennial concern.

Natural order and justice in

- Light and darkness.Electra - The imagery of vegetation. Natural imagery abounds, but shows its more ominous face. The play is full of the language of growth, of generation, of fertility, but what “is generated” and “grows” is death and decay. - The disturbed natural order reflects the disturbed state of the house of the Pelopids

(951-3, p. 255, has been adapted to reflect the Greek) “So long as I heard that my brother blossomed with life, I nourished hopes that he would come to exact payment for the murder of our father”.

Natural order and justice in Electra: Parents, children and care in human relationships

The animal world “Why, when we see birds above that are so wise taking care to sustain those that gave them life and care, do we not render the same services?” (1058-62, p. 267):

The human world:

“But the daughter is betrayed and alone tosses on the sea, ever lamenting her father’s fate in sorrow, like the ever- grieving nightingale, reckless of death and ready to renounce the light, if she can bring down the twin Erinyes. Who could grow to be so noble a daughter of so noble a father? (1075-81, p. 269) (translation adapted to reflect the Greek more accurately) τίς ἂν εὔπατρις ὧδε βλάστοι;

Philia in Greek culture

Philia is a fundamental concept in Greek culture. ‘Philos’ is often translated as ‘friend’, which could be accurate, however: Above all, in tragedy philoi are the persons who are closely connected, either by blood or by social convention (e.g. marriage), belong to the same family and they have some duty of care: siblings, parents, children Natural order and justice in Electra: Parents, children and care in human relationships Philia: its ultimate form is the bond between parents and children In the family of the Atreids, the most disturbed and the most destructive relationships are the relationships between parents and children. The utmost ‘friends’ are the utmost enemies:

- Agamemnon sacrificed Iphigeneia

- Clytemnestra gave life, but not nurture / care

- Electra says that she wants to pay her father

back for her nurture, but she intends to do this by killing the other parent. The role of the parent has been distributed to several characters in the play. Natural order and justice in Electra: Parents, children and care in human relationships

- Electra and chorus: the image / role of the mother has been transferred to the chorus “Well, I speak as a well-wisher, like a mother in whom you can have trust…” (233-5, p. 187)

- Electra, Orestes and motherhood “Alas for my care for you long ago, gone for nothing, the care I often rendered, delighting in my labour! You were never your mother’s more than you were mine… ” (1143- 5, p. 275)

Natural order and justice in Electra: Parents, children and care in human relationships

- Electra and Agamemnon: “Foolish in he who forgets the piteous end of parents! Ever in my mind is the lamenting one, she who mourns always for Itys, for Itys, she the bird distraught … Ah, Niobe who endured every sorrow, I regard you as a goddess, you who in

your rocky tomb, alas, lament” (145-52, p. 179-81)

- Orestes and Old Slave Father-son - like relationship


- Every single character understands dike as revenge - This form of dike, however, continues and intensifies the violation of the natural order (also dike) - Dike cannot be restored when the most fundamental natural relationship, the relationship of parent and child, has been disturbed and violated, and continues to be so. Time and past in Electra

- Time, the past and their effect on the present preoccupy Greek tragedy extensively, especially Aeschylean and Sophoclean tragedy. - In , we saw that the past “weighs down” the present. - The similarity with previous generations is a basic theme in the plays which dramatise the Atreid mythic cycle. The Oresteia plays explore this fundamental source of tragicality in human nature - Psychological observation of human relationships across generations in Electra is perhaps the sharpest in the whole of the Sophoclean oeuvre. - There was an understanding that that the combination of nature and nurture has dramatic effects on the subsequent generations. - Different generations are presented as so far apart from each other, and yet so uncomfortably close. Clytemnestra, Electra and the succession of generations

“When things are so, my friends, there can be no sense of piety but since things are bad, then inevitably one’s conduct must be bad also.” (307-9, 193)

- Electra’s obsession with her ‘noble nature’ which she has inherited from her father and her refusal to accept any relation with her mother. - And yet, the play puts in Electra’s mouth words which reflect something very different:

«So far as that goes, proclaim me to all, whether you like to call me bad or loud-mouthed or full of shamelessness. For if I am an expert in such behaviour, I think I am no unworthy child of yours!» (605-609, pp. 219-21)

- Literally, the Greek text says: “I do not embarrass / let down your nature” (609) Clytemnestra, Electra and the succession of generations

«I am aware that my actions are wrong for my age and unlike my nature . But it is the hostility that comes from you and your actions that force me to act thus against my will. For shocking behaviour is taught by shocking things» (617-21, p. 221) The play may not condemn Electra as much as it condemns Clytemnestra. This is not, however, the point. The play reflects on ‘big issues’ that concern human nature: what is the role of the past in human life; what is the influence of previous generations on current and future ones is a huge question that obsesses much of Greek tragedy, and this play in particular. - Electra, the damage she has suffered over the years, but also her pathological attachment to it. Electra and her relationship to the past

- Electra is obsessed with the dead and the past. Her attachment to it and her refusal to escape shows how drastic is the effect of the years of distress, and suffering, sometimes self-imposed. Electra obsessively rejects life and has opted for a death-like state. Her rejection of life corresponds to her rejection of the present. She lives in the past and takes all her energy from the past. - The life and character of Electra are constantly illuminated through the past. As the play progresses, we realise that the past has worn Electra both physically and emotionally, eating up even the life that is left for her to live. (Segal) - Striking visual antithesis: Orestes’ vibrant youth– Electra’s rags and miserable state (βλ. 1181-5) Electra, the past, and the motif of waiting Time in Sophocles

- Electra’s situation is tragic, because her life presents the most unfulfillable potential: Her waiting has completely destroyed her youth, as well as her hopes for marriage and children, for the creation of new life. - Dramatic use of time: endless wearisome past – brief, fleeting, moments of happiness at present: - The moments of happiness, for which Electra has put up with so much misery and decay, last shockingly little (in dramatic terms) and soon it is silenced by the Old Slave and Orestes, and their obsession with the “right time to act”. - In our scripts, the recognition comes only 1100 after the first appearance of Electra, and the joy lasts for only 10 lines of dramatic time. Electra, the past and the end of the play

- Electra is so obsessed with the past, that although it has crushed her, she keeps reviving it. Although she mourns about her suffering, she constantly brings it back. - Other heroes are not locked up in the past to the degree that Electra is (although see below for a different locking up in the past in the case of Orestes.)

- The play does not end with the murder of Aegisthus, but with us waiting for it to happen. - Alsmost in an impressionistic manner, the past is extended into the present and the future, and becomes the present and the future. Orestes, distant and recent past

- The importance of the chariot race narrative (680- 763, p. 227-33 = 1/20th of the play). Cf. the chorus’ words at 505-515 (pp. 211-13)

“O ride of Pelops long ago, bringer of many sorrows, how dire was your effect upon this land! For since Myrtilus fell asleep, plunged into the sea, hurled headlong from the golden chariot with cruel torment, never yet has the torment of many troubles departed from this house.”

- The role of deception in all murders The ending of the play and the “absence” of the Erinyes

- One of the most commonly used arguments for the ‘positive’ reading of the play. - The Erinyes of the Oresteia: in the entire trilogy, the Erinyes, powers of the cosmic order, intervene to restore justice, but with a very paradoxical way: they punish the criminal, but open up the way for a new crime. They tempt the criminal to perpetrate crime, so that they take revenge on them. They are almost the embodiments of the primitive justice, the barbaric justice of eye for an eye: they do act on behalf of the cosmic order, but in a way that upsets it even further. - Is it true that in Sophocles’ Electra there are no Erinyes? The ending of the play and the “absence” of the Erinyes

- Winnington-Ingram on Electra and the importance of the Erinyes - Four passages refer to the intervention by the Eriny(e)s: 112, 276, 491, 1080 - The most telling passage is perhaps the passage where enter the house (1386- 90, pp. 303)

The ending of the play and the “absence” of the Erinyes

- Sophocles revives the issue of the problematic justice that we find in the Oresteia, through the actions of both Orestes and Electra. - In fact, if you follow the imagery of the play, you will find that Orestes and Electra have a strong connection with the Erinyes: e.g. Orestes is presented as coming from the world below, Electra is perennially waiting to take revenge, her words that she lives in Hades and those of her mother’s that she drinks the blood of the living.

1417, p. 307

- Furthermore, just like in the Oresteia, the action of the Erinyes is combined with the will of Apollo. Both are problematic - The matricide is no less problematic than it is in the Oresteia Readings:

 Segal, Electra  Winnington-Ingram, Electra