Figures 5-9 and their legends are taken as such from Olsen, 2001. References:

Brown, RC, Lemmon, BE, Olsen, OA (1994). Endosperm development in : microtubule involvement in the morphogenetic pathway. Cell 6:1241-1252.

Brown, RC, Lemmon, BE, Olsen, OA (1999a) Polarization predicts the pattern of cellularization in endosperm. Protoplasma 192: 168-177.

Brown, RC, Lemmon, BE, Olsen, OA (1999b). Development of endosperm in (Oryza sativa L.): cellularization. J Plant Res 109: 301-313.

Costa LM, Gutierrez-Marcos JF, Bruntell TP, Greenland AJ and Dickinson HG (2003). The globby-1 (glo-1) mutation disrupts nuclear and cell division in the developing causing alterations in endosperm cell fate and differentation. Development 130:5009-5017.

Floyd SK and Friedman WE. (2000). Evolution of endosperm development patterns among basal flowering . Int J Plant Sci 161:S57-S81. Development evolution of endosperm in basal angiosperm: evidence from Amborella (Amborellaceae), (), and (Illiciacea). Plant Sys Evol 228:153-169.

Friedman WE and Williams JH. (2004). Development evolution of the sexual process in ancient lineages. 16:S119-S132.

Hirner B, Fischer WN, Rentsch D, Kwart M and Frommer WB. (1998) Development control of H+/amino acid permease gene expression during seed development of Arabidopsis. Plant J 14:535-544. http://vannocke.hrt.msu.edu/plb865/5dec/meafis1.html http://www.meritnation.com/ask-answer/question/what-is-endosperm-explain-it//2437070 http://www.public.iastate.edu/~becraft/Endosperm.htm Huh, J.H., Bauer, M.J., Hsieh, T.F and Robert L (2007). Fischer Endosperm Gene Imprinting and Seed Development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 17(6): 480–485.

Plant development Endosperm development

Johri, B.M. (1984). Embryology of Angiosperms. Springer VerlagBerlin, HeidelbergNewYorkTokyo. Pp 319- 376. Kinoshita, T., Yadegari, R., Harada, JJ., Goldberg, RB., and Fischer, RL. (1999). Imprinting of MEDEA Polycomb gene in the Arabidopsis Endosperm. The plant cell, vol.11. 1945-1952. Koul A K, Veenu K and Verma S. (2005). Autonomous endosperm development in angiosperms. In Plant Reproductive and Molecular Biology (Festschrift in honour of Professor S.V.S Chauhan) Ed. Dr. S.N. Chaturvedi and Dr. K.P. Singh 30-37.[ISBN: 81-7910-119-3]. Magnard J-L, Lehouque G, Massonneau A, Frange N, Heckel T, Gutierrez-Marcos JF, Perez P, Dumas C and Rogowsky PM (2003). ZmEBE genes show a novel, continuous expression pattern in the central cell before fertilization and in specific domains of the resulting endosperm after fertilization. Plant Mol Biol 53:821-836. Maheshwari, P (1999 Reprint). An introduction to the embryology of Angiosperms. Tata MaGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi. Pp. 221-267. Olsen, O. A. (2004). Nuclear endoperm development in and Arabdiopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 16:S214- S227. Olsen, O.A. (2001). Endosperm development: cellularization and cell fate specification. Annu. Rev. Plant : Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 52: 233-67. Periasamy, K. (1962a). The ruminate endosperm. Development and types of rumination. 62-74. Plant embryology, a symposium. C.S.I.R. New Delhi. Periasamy, K. (1962b). Studies on with ruminate endosperm. II. Development of rumination in the vitaceae. Proc. Indian Acad. Scien. 56B:13-26. Raghvan, V. (1997). Molecular biology of flowering plants. Cambridge University Press, New York. 322-356. Raghvan, V. (2006). . and endosperm development in flowering plants. Springer- verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Stebbins, G.L. (1974). Flowering plants: Evolution above the species level. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Thomson, R.D. (2000). Plant Biology: Turning fields into grains. Nature 408: 39-41. www.hos.ufl.edu/faculty/amsettles/research-interests

Plant development Botany Endosperm development

Learn More / Supporting Materials / Source of Further Reading

• Glossary • Things to remember • Web links / references

Glossary

Starting Term Defination Related Term Character Alveolation The process forming alveolus with the involvement of radial arrays of microtubules and various deposing materials in the endosperm coenocytes. Perisperm The diploid nutritive tissue derived from nucellus of other than embryo. Functionally similar to endosperm chiefly composed of unlike protein in endosperm. Haustoria Aggressive structure formed either by micropylar or chalazal chamber to invade the maternal tissue to divert more nutrition to developing embryo. Imprinting Alteration of gene interaction through epigenetic modifications like cytosine methylation and histone acetylation depending on parental origin is referred to as imprinting. Poly-comb A complex of genes regulating their function genes through epigenetic mechanisms. E.g., FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED 2 (FIS1, FIS2, FIS3,), FERTILIZATION- INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) and MEA.

Plant development Botany Endosperm development

Things to remember

Description Endosperm specific Genes Specific genes endospermic tissue

Esr1, Esr2, Esr3 (Embryo surrounding region) and Embryo ZmAE1, ZmAE3 ((Zea mays androgenic embryo1), surrounding layer ZmEBE (Zea mays embryo sac/basal endosperm transfer layer/embryo surrounding region).

Transfer layer Betl1 , Betl2, Betl3, Betl4 (endosperm transfer cell layer1), Bap1, Bap2, Bap3 (basal layer -type antifungal protein1) MEG1, End 1, ZmMRP-1 (Zea mays MYB- related protein-1) and ZmEBE (Zea mays embryo sac/basal endosperm transfer layer/embryo surrounding region)

Starchy endosperm dek (defective kernel), dsc1 ((discolored1) and emp2 layer (empty pericarp2)

Ltp2, CHI26 (chitinase 26), B22E, pZE40, ole-1, ole-2, layer per-1,chi33, C1, Sal1 (Supernumerary aleurone 1), Cp2 (collapsed2) and o12 (opaque12)

Plant development Botany Endosperm development

WebLinks

Web links

http://www.public.iastate.edu/~becraft/Endosperm.htm

http://www.meritnation.com/ask-answer/question/what-is-endosperm-explain- it/biology/2437070 www.hos.ufl.edu/faculty/amsettles/research-interests

http://vannocke.hrt.msu.edu/plb865/5dec/meafis1.html

Plant development Botany Endosperm development