Microorganism Notes What is a ? •A tiny living thing that can be seen only with the help of a • Are microscopic (a unicellular that does not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound ). • Is a single-celled organism. Bacteria • – another well-known prokaryotes. • Similar to bacteria; no membrane organelles. • Bacteria are much smaller than or cells. Bacteria • Pili (Pie-Lee)- hair like cover the entire surface and help the bacteria stick • Cilia-hair like structures on the surface • Flagella-tail like , helps move Common Shapes of Bacteria Bacteria • Bacteria reproduce asexually by . o Fission: is division that forms two genetically identical cells. o Are identical to the parent cell. Bacteria • Conjugation: happens when two bacteria of the same attach to each other and combine their genetic material. • New are not produced during this – not considered . Bacteria • Some bacteria do not need oxygen to survive. o Anaerobic: bacteria that does not need oxygen to survive. o Aerobic: bacteria that need oxygen, Bacteria • 1. Some take in and break it down and obtain . • 2. Some feed on dead organisms. • 3. Some take in from living hosts. • 4. Some make their own food. Bacteria • /- helps with digestion

- K helps with clotting

• E.Coli-prevents harmful bacteria from growing in the intestines

Viruses • A strand of DNA or RNA surrounded by a layer of that can infect and replicate in a cell. Characteristics • Does not have a , a nucleus, or any other organelles present in cells. • Viruses are not considered to be alive o Cannot take in nutrients or use energy. o Cannot replicate by themselves. Viruses • The living cell that a virus infects is called a host cell. o 1. Latent viruses go through an inactive stage, o 2. When active, a virus takes control of the host cell and replicates. Viruses • : allows viruses to adjust to changes in their host cell. o These changes happen so fast that it is difficult to cure or prevent viral before they mutate again. Viruses • : a protein that can attach to a and make it useless.

• Vaccine: a mixture containing material from one or more deactivated .

Protists • Eukaryotic organisms: membrane-bound nucleus. • • Can be harmful o Parasites • Plantlike Protists • 1. Plantlike Protists: • Example: – plantlike protists that produce food through using energy and carbon dioxide. Plantlike Protists 1. 2. • Hard outer wall • Unicellular • Found in pond • Has flagella • Unicellular Plantlike Protists 3. Eugleniods • Unicellular with at one end • Pellicle is the cell coat • Eaten by tadpoles and small

Animal-Like Protists • Protozoans – are protists that resemble tiny . • Unicellular • Live in wet environments. Animal-Like Protists 2. Pseudopods 1. (Rhizopods) • Are short, hairlike • A temporary ‘foot’ that structures that grow on forms as the organisms the surface of some pushes part of the body protists. outward.

Paramecium Stentor Animal-Like Protists 3. • Use flagella that whip through a watery environment. • Eat decaying .

• Example: Euglena Funguslike Protists • Break down dead plant and animal matter, making the nutrients from these dead organisms available for living organisms.

Fungi Fungi • : membrane-bound nucleus.

– cannot make their own food. • Grouped together based on how they look and how they reproduce. Types of Fungi Club Fungi • They are named for the clublike shape of their reproductive structures.

• Example: Mushroom Types of Fungi Sac Fungi • Sac like shape • Named also for the reproductive structures.

• Example: () Types of Fungi Fungi • Grow over materials dissolving the material and absorbing nutrients.

• Example: Bread Pictures Imperfect Fungi • Do not have a ‘perfect’ reproductive stage in their cycle.

• Example: Blue and athlete's foot.