News 75N


News on Reviews technologies can be designed and imple- agents also elicit much interest (and mented, whether as stand-alone solutions particularly how microbial and macrobial The abstracts, news and reviews that make or in combination with other technologies. agents interact). On a wider note, we like to up Biocontrol News and Information (BNI) include reviews on the role of biocontrol in provide biocontrol and integrated pest Country-based reviews are also valuable, the sustainability of natural and agricultural management (IPM) researchers and and we actively solicit these in order to ecosystems; included in this is smallholder practitioners with a unique information make the information more widely avail- farming, and the opportunities for bio- resource, which we strive constantly to able. Valuable results from many countries' control to improve food security, and improve. Our abstracts provide unrivalled biocontrol programmes are available in contribute to financially and environ- coverage of literature on the use of biotic 'grey' literature and national publications, mentally sound commodity crops. agents in the control of pests of all types, and these can be usefully synthesized to and over the recent years, we have make the knowledge accessible to a world- We will not shy away from controversial developed the news section to provide an wide audience. We may publish case issues. We will tackle such topics as bio- information source and stimulate debate on studies, if these are of regional or interna- technology, either as a tool in developing important biocontrol and biocontrol-related tional significance and form resources for improved or new biocontrol technologies, topics. The news is posted free on the other countries facing similar pest prob- or its potential to complement biocontrol in Internet [ lems. an integrated approach. We will also BNI/Bnilogin.htm] both to increase address the shortcomings of biocontrol and One of the great challenges is to understand awareness of the journal and to canvas as its implementation. If you are hot under constraints to uptake of biological control wide a range of opinion as possible. The your collar over an issue in biological solutions, and thence overcome them. We tremendous response the news section has control and can review it in an authoritative are particularly interested in publishing generated is due in no small part to the way that will advance either the science or more about extension and implementation many contributors, to whom we would like the practice of biocontrol, we will be of biological control. In this context, we to extend our thanks. interested. welcome reviews on methodology, espe- We now want to focus equal energy on the cially where these point to ways of We plan to build on the ideas above to bring review section. We are delighted with the increasing biocontrol adoption rates, and you an informative review section. Over high standard of the manuscripts we the commercial development of biocontrol coming issues, for example, we will have a receive, and we want to capitalize on this, agents and technologies. Mass rearing/pro- series of reviews on biocontrol in agro- and develop the size and scope of the duction, marketing/distribution, and farmer forestry systems. These will address many section. We are, therefore, pleased to invite knowledge support, are all areas presently of the cross-cutting themes outlined above you to submit original and substantial targeted to improve the sustainability of including the role of biocontrol in invasive reviews or studies of important problems or biological control. species management, its role as part of issues in biological control (we do not integrated crop management (ICM), and publish reviews that are purely bibliog- Safety of biocontrol, and particularly initiatives for promoting farmer uptake of raphic in nature, nor those that simply classical biocontrol, is a key issue – and a biocontrol. catalogue natural enemies). hot news topic for a much wider audience. Partly because of the current high profile, Reviews on the 'history of' and 'prospects many stakeholders, from researchers to Today, more than ever, there is a need for for' biocontrol remain the cornerstone of national governments, need urgent help in information dissemination: between our review section. We encourage the form of good information and sound researchers, between researchers and authoritative reviews for major pests of all guidance in this arena. Quality reviews on extension workers, between extension kinds to provide key reference resources, biocontrol safety issues including host- workers and farmers, and between and, for example, we are currently de- range testing, risk assessment, nontarget researchers and farmers. All have a great veloping reviews on a number of weed and impacts, monitoring and evaluation, and deal to share as well as a great deal to learn. pests of worldwide significance. the development of guidelines, regulations Much of value is known but not synthe- Often such pests are invasive alien species, and policy are therefore invaluable. sized into usable knowledge. BNI has a role an issue that is climbing ever-higher on the in filling this gap, so if you have an idea for global agenda. Understanding the nature of The days of belief in 'silver bullets' are a review, or want to suggest a topic for us to a pest outbreak is fundamental to designing behind us. Biocontrol may sometimes develop, let us know. an effective solution, be it prevention, provide a complete solution to a pest eradication, containment, management or problem, but more often a combination of And now to the news, which this issue mitigation. Reviews of the , biol- approaches is needed. We are interested in contains large chunks of potato. We begin, ogy and ecology (and, where appropriate, reviews on the integration of biological though, with a classical success story, and a behaviour) of pest species (and their natural control with other compatible techniques, new biopesticide. enemies) can set the framework and including case studies of major signifi- context in which appropriate biocontrol cance. Interactions between biocontrol 

Are we on your mailing list? BiocontrolNews and Information is always pleased to receive news of research, conferences, new products or patents, changes in personnel, collaborative agreements or any other information of interest to other readers. If your organization sends out press releases or newsletters, please let us have a copy. In addition, the editors welcome proposals for review topics. 76N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4

General News

Biocontrol of Diamond- On St Helena a rearing facility was estab- release sites, had found and parasitized the back Moth in St Helena lished in which a DBM culture was pest and were dispersing. maintained on potted cabbage plants and As the insect rearing facility of the IPM The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella the two parasitoids were mass reared in Project on St Helena was needed for other xylostella, is a serious pest of crucifer crops separate wooden cages. In order to boost projects, the rearing of DBM and its parasi- on the island of St Helena, a small British the genetic material of the parasitoid toids was terminated shortly after the last island in the South Atlantic Ocean. Farmers cultures in St Helena, an additional parasitoid release in September 2000. were heavily dependent on chemical pesti- consignment of C. plutellae and cides, often overdosing and mixing several Diadromus collaris was sent from PPRI in The IPM Project personnel conducted pesticides when recommended dosages Pretoria in December 1999. another field survey early in 2001 but it was were not effective. Surveys in cabbage Before the releases of the parasitoids, called off because of extremely low fields revealed that the only parasitoid of extension officers of the IPM Project infestation levels by DBM. However, DBM on St Helena was the ichneumonid visited many farms and recommended that cocoons of C. plutellae were present in larval-pupal parasitoid Diadegma mollipla, in order to give the introduced parasitoids a most farms, which is an indication that the which also occurs in several countries on chance to establish, farmers replace parasitoid could have been the cause for the the African mainland. As most supplies to chemical insecticides with Bt sprays to decline in DBM population levels. Spring St Helena, including fresh produce, are combat DBM outbreaks. (September-October) is normally when shipped from Cape Town, it was assumed DBM outbreaks occur on St Helena but The two parasitoids were released into the that DBM as well as D. mollipla have been local farmers have commented that DBM field continually from May 1999 to introduced into the island with cabbages infestations have not been recorded this September 2000. A total of 17,500 C. from South Africa. Because D. mollipla year and no chemical or Bt treatments have plutellae and 23,500 D. collaris were was not able to reduce DBM populations on been requested by farmers since March released in ten different farms across the St Helena to below economic damage 2001. levels, a biological control project managed island. by the IPM Project on St Helena, NRInter- During January to March 2000, a prelimi- By:RamiKfir, national, UK and funded by DFID (the UK nary survey was conducted in the ten Plant Protection Research Institute, Department for International Develop- release sites and in an additional nine farms Pretoria 0001, South Africa ment) was initiated. The Plant Protection (atotalof19farms)tomonitorthedispersal Email: [email protected] Research Institute (PPRI) in Pretoria, South and establishment of the introduced parasi- and Africa was contracted to supply parasitoids toids. Jason Thomas, of DBM to St Helena and train personnel of Agriculture & Natural Resources Depart- the IPM Project in mass rearing the moth As expected in this early stage of the ment, and its parasitoids, parasitoid release project, Diadegma mollipla was the most St Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean methods and the follow up of parasitoid abundant and widely distributed parasitoid This article also appears in the ARC-PPRI dispersal and establishment. found in the survey. It emerged from DBM samples taken from 17 farms. Bulletin, Plant Protection News No. 59 During May 1999, a consignment of the (Spring/Summer 2001), with agreement of Samples of DBM larvae were collected in the author and PPRI. braconid Cotesia plutellae, a larval parasit- 16 farms and C. plutellae was present in oid, and the ichneumonid Diadromus samples from 15 farms. In eight of these  collaris, a pupal parasitoid, was shipped to farms parasitoids have never been released. St Helena. It was assumed that if these The proportion of DBM larvae parasitized Coconut Mite in India: parasitoids became established they would by C. plutellae was relatively high. For Biopesticide not compete with the local larval-pupal example, in Briars 34 C. plutellae emerged parasitoid Diadegma mollipla. St Helena from 104 collected larvae (32.7% para- Breakthrough does not have an airport, and the consign- sitism), in Mulberry Gut 19 C. plutellae Aceria guerreronis, the only eriophyid mite ment was flown from Pretoria to Cape emerged from 70 larvae (27.7% parasitism) considered to be serious on coconuts, has Townandthenundertooka6-daysea and in Pouncey’s (not a release site) 24 C. been a big problem to coconut cultivation voyage on board the RMS St Helena to the plutellae emerged from 30 DBM larvae in Central and South America, the island. (80% parasitism). Caribbean and West Africa. The mite was The consignment contained all develop- DBM pupae were sampled in 14 farms and first reported from Mexico in 1960 and was mental stages of the parasitoids, i.e. adult samples from five farms, of which one has describedbyKeiferin1965.Recently,the wasps, parasitoid cocoons and parasitized not been a release site, yielded Diadromus pest has assumed serious proportions in DBM larvae and pupae. Daily on board the collaris. The proportion of parasitized India and Sri Lanka and experts have not ship, adult wasps were fed with honey and pupae ranged between 0% and 55%. In one ruled out its further spread to other coconut water, and the parasitized DBM larvae site,NrHalfWay,11D. collaris emerged economies in the east. [See also: Moore, D. were provided with fresh cabbage leaves from 20 collected pupae (55% parasitism). (2000) BNI 21(3) (September), 83N-88N. until parasitoid cocoons formed or the The results from this early survey indicated Non-chemical control of Aceria guerre- larvae pupated. that the two parasitoids had survived in the ronis on coconuts.] News 77N

In India, A. guerreronis was first observed Resistance to chemicals is also feared. With mercializing Mycohit, help has been sought to be causing severe damage to coconuts in the passing of time the problem has been from the Research & Development the southern state of Kerala in the late becoming a political issue as many of the Division of the Hindustan Antibiotics 1990s. The pest has now spread to almost farmers and politicians have come to the Limited (HAL), Pimpri, Pune. We have all the districts of Kerala and the major conclusion that there is no effective control given the fungal culture and know-how to coconut-growing districts of its neigh- measure in sight. HAL for pilot-scale production of the bouring states including Tamil Nadu, mycoacaricide. HAL in turn produced two A recent study in Kerala is an eye-opener. Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Pondicherry different variants of Mycohit, namely, In the Alappuzha district of Kerala, more and Goa in mainland India and the Formulation-T (talc-based and similar to than 70% of coconut growers expressed Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea. the original) and Formulation-W (wettable their reservations about the extensive use of Losses of 25-30% in copra yield have been powder), using our strain and know-how chemicals against the mite, citing the inim- recorded. With its high reproductive rate, for preliminary bioefficacy investigations. ical nature of pesticides to natural enemies. the mite is increasing in great numbers and The field trials conducted by us indicated They preferred the use of biopesticides to spreading fast as well. that the former preformed the better and so toxic chemicals. And surprisingly, many we chose the talc-based formulation for coconut farmers that we came across in the The first symptoms of mite infestation are further work. Subsequently-produced affected states were unanimous in their white streaks, which originate from the batches of the talc-based formulation view that chemicals bring about havoc in perianth and go downwards along the nut ('Mycohit-T') performed consistently well the long term. Yet in spite of the growing surface. Later, white to cream-coloured in the field and produced results on a par alertness of the public, when it comes to the triangular patches are formed along the with our original version of the myco- ground reality, chemicals still have a large edge of the perianth. As the fruit increases acaricide. in size, the older patches turn brown and customer base. In an ongoing trial (started in June 2001, at acquire a corky appearance. And at the Concentrated surveys since early 1999 for the beginning of the southwest monsoon), same time, new patches start appearing pathogens of the coconut mite in the both versions of Mycohit showed highest owing to the shifting or formation of new southern states had indicated the natural mortality of 98.80% (ours) and 96.62% colonies of the mite. Because of the regulatory role played by many (HAL's)bytheendofthethirdweek,i.e.a formation of cracks, the exocarp splits and entomopathogens, especially Hirsutella week after the second application of the the fissures can reach deep into the thompsonii, the well-known eriophyid product. mesocarp. mite-specific fungus. We isolated and Until the advent of the mite, probably no investigated the potential of many strains of The Government of India has recently other pest in India created such an unprece- the fungus against the mite and uncovered (February 2001) included Hirsutella in the dented panic among farmers, agricultural the immense potential of the pathogen. Schedule to the Insecticides Act (1968) scientists, politicians and bureaucrats alike. That resulted in the development of a because of our efforts. This has enabled the Even ordinary people, who have one to a mycoacaricide named 'Mycohit' based registration of products based on the fungus few trees around their residence, became exclusively on H. thompsonii,thefirst with the Central Insecticides Board (CIB). panicky when they first realised that mites Indian mycoacaricide based exclusively on HAL has been testing the biosafety of H. were attacking their coconuts. this species. thompsonii and the product separately for us thus paving the way for registration of The product is based on the strain MF(Ag)5 The ensuing hue and cry resulted in the Mycohit in the coming months. prescription of a variety of chemicals by [ITCC 4962; IMI 385470] originating from scientists and officers of central institutes, Tamil Nadu. The product has a potency of The mite has recently been found to be × 8 universities and the departments of agri- 2.5 10 CFU/g (colony-forming units/g) infesting the palmyrah palm (Borassus culture in different states. The chemicals with a moisture content of about 12%. flabellifer) in Tamil Nadu State, where the that found favour with the farmers during Mycohit is generally recommended for use tree is an important source of toddy. the initial years were monocrotophos (root as a spray when the weather is dry. It should Farmers are also apprehensive of its spread feeding or stem injection), dicofol, be used at 1% concentration and about 2 to the arecanut (Areca catechu), which has endosulfan and ethion. Later triazophos litres of the spray solution is needed per become one of the most remunerative and carbosulfan entered the list of tree. Up to 50 trees (about 1 acre/~0.4 ha) plantation crops in the south, especially in recommended chemicals. In addition, can be treated with 1 kg of the product. In Karnataka. Therefore, H. thompsonii has a micronized wettable powder formulation of certain situations such as after a heavy rain, very significant role to play through its sulphur at 0.4 % and azadirachtin at just dusting of the product on the bunches is natural presence as well as in the form of a 0.004% concentration are also recom- enough because of the wet microclimate product. within the crown. mended for spraying. A homemade 2% We have also isolated Sporothrix neem oil-garlic soap mixture has also been Field investigations have been conducted in fungorum, which is also widely found very popular among Kerala farmers. more than 15 locations to evaluate the associated with the coconut mite in south Nevertheless, none of the methods could performance of Mycohit. In several places, India. Preliminary trials with the fungus bring the pest under sufficient control. by the 70th day of the experiment more have given encouraging results. Similarly, Environment and health have been the than 70% and 90% mortality of the mite we have also tried Verticillium lecanii with ultimate casualties. was observed in nuts sprayed once and considerable success. twice (at 2-week intervals), respectively. The results from experiments in many By: P. Sreerama Kumar & S. P. Singh, countries indicate that chemical control is Then our immediate concern was to make Project Directorate of Biological Control possible, but the many treatments and the available the required quantity of the (ICAR), quantities of chemicals required make it not mycoacaricide, which runs into several P.B.No.2491,H.A.FarmPost, only uneconomical but also dangerous to thousand tonnes, to the affected planters. Hebbal, Bellary Road, the environment and various life forms. Therefore, towards the objective of com- Bangalore 560 024, 78N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4

Karnataka, India proceedings of the workshop are being production and use of insect viruses and Email: [email protected] compiled and will be published shortly. fungi, fungal and bacterial antagonists, Fax: +91 80 341 1961 entomopathogenic nematodes, and fungal Much baseline information on the biology, biocontrol agents of plant parasitic nema-  natural enemies and control of cereal stem todes and weed pathogens. borers in Africa can be found in: Building Stem Borer Polaszek,A.(ed) (1998) African cereal On the information side, a CD version of stem borers: economic importance, tax- the expert system BIORICE is now Management Capacity onomy, natural enemies and control. Wall- available, and a system for pest control in Some 20 moth species constitute the most ingford, UK, CABI Publishing,556pp. oilseeds and pulses is in preparation. ISBN 0 85199 175 0 important cereal pests in many parts of The success of PDBC in conducting Africa. Their caterpillars, commonly Source: Breytenbach, E. (2001) Collabora- necessary basic research, and developing known as stem or stalk borers, bore into the tive cereal stem borer management initia- this through lab studies and field trials to stems of maize, sorghum, millet and rice, tive. effective pest control solutions for farmers often killing the plant. The cereals attacked ARC-PPRI Bulletin, Plant Protection is illustrated by the many and varied field are grown on small farms to feed the News, No. 58 (Autumn/Winter 2001), pp. tests of modules they are developing for the farmers and their families and are of great 2-4. biological management of pests in many importance as the staple food for the popu- crops. In the past year a vast number of For project information contact: Rami Kfir, lation in most parts of Africa. Complex fieldtrialshavebeenconductedin Insect Ecology Division, control measures, including the use of sugarcane, cotton, tobacco, pulses, rice, ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute, chemicals, are often inappropriate, and the coconut, fruit and vegetable crops and Private Bag X134, development of specific regional strategies potatoes in different states. A striking Pretoria 0001, South Africa for environmentally sustainable stem borer success this year has been the development Email: [email protected] management is therefore a priority. of a biopesticide for coconut mite (Aceria Fax:+27123293278 guerreronis) [see 'Coconut mite in India: A 2-year collaborative cereal stem borer Or: Bill Overholt, biopesticide breakthrough', General News, management initiative in southern Africa International Centre of Insect Physiology this issue]. Monitoring and evaluation of plans to bring this goal closer. Funded by and Ecology, weed control agents against water hyacinth USAID (US Agency for International P.O. Box 30772, (Eichhornia crassipes) is also highlighted. Development), this venture involves ICIPE Nairobi, Kenya (International Centre for Insect Physiology Email: [email protected] The Annual Report2 provides details of and Ecology), Kenya and two South  these and other research efforts by PDBC in African ARC (Agricultural Research Bangalore and in its coordinating centres Council) institutions, PPRI (Plant Protec- spread over different parts of India. The tion Research Institute) and GCI (Grain Biocontrol Progress in work at PDBC included biosystematic Crops Institute). The aim is to increase the India studies on Indian predatory . capacity of national institutions in southern Progress in rearing work included Once again, the Project Directorate of Africa to manage maize and sorghum stem multiplication of octomaculata Biological Control (PDBC) based in borers using environmentally sustainable on Ferrisia virgata and Aphis craccivora in Bangalore has been a hive of biocontrol methods. To this end, the project is the lab. It was also shown that higher activity. Major highlights of work in the engaging national programme scientists in parasitization rates of Helicoverpa last year1 included the introduction of two Mozambique, Angola, Swaziland, Lesotho, armigera eggs by Trichogramma chilonis parasitoids of the coffee berry borer Malawi and Botswana. could be achieved with the aid of (Hypothenemus hampei; CBB). Prorops synomones (herbivore-induced plant The project began with a planning nasuta and Phymastichus coffea were chemicals). Artificial diets were syn- workshopandtrainingcourse,heldin imported from Colombia and were thesized for rearing Cheilomenes South Africa in September 2000. The established in the field, thus contributing sexmaculata, Coccinella septempunctata, training course for 15 participants devel- two new country records. oped skills in stem borer and natural enemy Chilocorus nigrita and Cryptolaemus identification, their collection and rearing The maintenance and supply of host montrouzieri. Endosulfan-resistant T. (including mass rearing) and host plant and natural enemies from PDBC, together chilonis was utilized for developing a resistance screening. Participants also with the basic research that supports this, multiple-resistant pesticide strain. Fungal learnt techniques for biological control and continues to be a priority activity to which pathogens were isolated from Helicoverpa habitat management, and were given an much energy and expertise is devoted. armigera, Plutella xylostella, and Chilo introduction to biological and transgenic Biosystematic studies were conducted on partellus. Nomuraea rileyi was cultured plant resistance. The planning workshop Indian predatory coccinellids, with Diomus and a water dispersible powder formulation developed work plans for country-wide recorded from India for the first time. of Bacillus thuringiensis (Pusa Bt) surveys of stem borers and their natural Rearing techniques were standardized for a developed and bioassayed. Trichoderma enemies. number of natural enemies, and biological harzianum PDBCTH10 and T. viride and behavioural studies were conducted. PDBCTV23 as powder formulation were In July 2001, progress was discussed Artificial diets were devised for host insects tested for control of fusarial wilt and during a special symposium held during the including Spodoptera litura and a number Rhizoctonia wet root rot of chickpea. The 13th Congress of the Entomological of natural enemies. More progress was entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) Society of Southern Africa. Represen- made in the development of temperature- Steinernema carpocapsae, S. bicornutum tatives from the participating countries and multiple pesticide-resistant strains of and Heterorhabditis indica isolates were reported on the progress of their work, and trichogrammatid parasitoid wasps. successfully used for control of Leucinodes proposed activities for the future. The Advances were also made on the orbonalis on brinjal [aubergine] in field News 79N trials. A talc-base formulation of EPN [email protected] in promoting its adoption in Uganda, where isolates showed a shelf-life of more than 3 Fax: +91 80 3411961 it has been used successfully to combat months. The mycoherbicidal potential of such devastating pests as the cassava  Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Nigrospora mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti)and, oryzae, Phoma chrysanthemicola and P. more recently, in the successful biological eupyrena was tested against Parthenium IOBC-Africa: Helm control of water hyacinth in Uganda. He is hysterophorus. Changes Hands currently the Head of Biological Control Unit of NARO. In Punjab, a BIPM (biocontrol-based IPM) This year saw the retirement from the module proved effective for cotton pest Presidency of the International Organ- James brings experience, enthusiasm and control. In Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil ization For Biological Control of Noxious energy to meet the challenge of following Nadu, Maharashtra and Punjab, cotton bud and Plants – Afro-Tropical in Helmuth's footsteps. One of his first and boll damage and populations of Regional Section (IOBC-ATRS) of one of initiatives is to organize (together with sucking pests were lower with the BIPM the great figures in weed biological control, Martin Hill, PPRI) the next water hyacinth module than with insecticide treatments. Bt Dr Helmuth Zimmermann. As Division Global Working Group meeting (see products gave effective control in cotton in Manager of the Weeds Division at PPRI, he Announcements section, this issue). Gujarat. In Andhra Pradesh, the use of the oversees the integrated and biological  EPN Steinernema carpocapsae was found control of invading alien plant species in superior to SlNPV against Spodoptera South Africa in four laboratories spread litura in tobacco nurseries. In Tamil Nadu, through South Africa. His own main All About Biocontrol the pod borer (H. armigera) complex in research focus is the biological control of Trawling the Internet for news and pigeon pea was controlled with Bt-HaNPV cacti, and he is currently involved in background information occasionally application. In Andhra Pradesh, Heter- numerous projects throughout the world on throws up a real gem. This quarter it led to orhabditis indica sprays were successful the biological and integrated control of the University of California, Riverside against Helicoverpa armigera in pigeon cacti, and their utilization. pea. In Assam, Punjab, Gujarat and Tamil website, which hosts a biocontrol goldmine Nadu, integrated use of biocontrol agents Helmuth had been President of IOBC- in Professor Legner’s Faculty Homepage and Bt was effective in reducing rice stem ATRS since 1996, and his most enduring at: borer (Scirpophaga incertulas) popu- legacy is the IOBC Global Working Group on Biological and Integrated Control of lations. BIPM modules at different crop Innocuously called ‘Discoveries in Natural Water Hyacinth. This was set up in 1997 stages were useful in management of rice History & Exploration’, the site includes a and held its first workshop in Harare, stem borer and leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis biocontrol database, and this incorporates Zimbabwe in 1998. It is fitting, then, that a medinalis) in Kerala and Punjab. In lecture notes and a biocontrol text devel- Karnataka, as noted above, control of key figure in the well-publicized success of biological control against water hyacinth oped over many years as teaching materials coconut mite was successfully achieved for courses at UC Riverside. The database, (Eichhornia crassipes) in Lake Victoria is with the mycoacaricide formulation which is for educational purposes only, is succeeding him The Global IOBC 'Mycohit' containing Hirsutella thomp- almost a ‘one-stop shop’ for the student of Executive Committee appointed James sonii. In Himachal Pradesh and Karnataka, biological control, and especially the his- fruit damage due to fruit borer Ogwang as President of IOBC-ATRS following Helmuth's recommendation. tory and theory of classical biological con- ( isocrates) was controlled with trol. The Biocontrol Database has a long parasitoid (Trichogramma chilotraeae) James Ogwang was born in Uganda, and and distinguished history. It began as a releases. In Kerala and Assam, the weevils obtained his BSc Degree (Botany and course taught by the founder of the Depart- Neochetina eichhorniae, N. bruchi and the Zoology) from Makerere University in ment of Biocontrol, Harry Scott Smith. mite Orthogalumna terebrantis gave 1979. He continued his studies in the UK, Later Paul DeBach, Charles Fleschner and successful control of water hyacinth. where he gained an MSc. and a DIC Ernest Bay developed the course further, (Diploma of Imperial College) from with Fred Legner teaching the final version, By: Dr. S. P. Singh Imperial College, University of London in which comprises most of the Database on 1Singh, S.P.; Rao, N.S.; Ramani, S.; 1984. Moving back to Africa, he was the Internet today. Now retired from the Poorani, J. (eds) (2001) Research high- awarded a PhD from Rivers State University of California at Riverside, Prof. lights – 2000-01. Bangalore, India; PDBC, University of Science and Technology, Legner is devoting time to developing an 21 pp. Nigeria in 1991. He was employed as a unparalleled Internet resource. Scientific Officer at Uganda’s Ministry of 2Singh, S.P.; Rao, N.S.; Ramani, S.; Agriculture before a spell (1991-1992) at Exhaustive coverage of the theory and Poorani, J. (eds) (2001) Annual Report ICIPE (International Centre for Insect practice of biocontrol – everything from 2000-01, Project Directorate of Biological Physiology and Ecology) in Nairobi as a ecological theory to implementation and Control, Bangalore. Bangalore, India; Post-Doctoral Fellow. Upon his return to evaluation methods, is backed up by PDBC, 218 pp. Uganda from ICIPE in 1992, he was sections covering biocontrol on a group-by- employed as Senior Research Officer in the group basis, and also on a regional basis. Copies can be obtained from: National Agricultural Research Organ- Some 'new' topics, such as nontarget effects Project Directorate of Biological Control ization (NARO), and was assigned to are not yet given up-to-date coverage, but (ICAR), develop a Biological Control Unit to as Prof. Legner makes clear below, the P.B.No.2491,H.A.FarmPost, integrate use of natural enemies in database is very much in development, and Hebbal, Bellary Road, Uganda’s crop protection policy. is building on its solid base. The extensive Bangalore 560 024, coverage afforded by a database allows Karnataka, India James has worked mainly in the field of inclusion of many topics often given scant Email: [email protected] / biological control and he was instrumental space in printed texts, and for which 80N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4 summarized information can be hard to have a Department of Biological Control of dissemination of information, as long as it find. There is, for example, an in-depth international renown. In 1962, when Fred is for nonprofit educational purposes. Fred discussion in the section, ‘Economic gains Legner joined the Department, there were Legner says he is still developing the site, from biological control’ of not only the about 45 full-time faculty and staff devoted and is in the process of obtaining feedback measurable monetary costs and benefits of to the deployment of natural biological from colleagues; parts of it are in a prog- biological control, but also less-easily control (a branch of the Department resided ressive state of change, with new or revised quantifiable economic gains from in- at Albany, California). Most efforts material appearing often daily. creased food security and reduced pesticide involved the importation of natural enemies It is impossible to give more than a flavour use. Prof Legner has considerably enlarged to combat alien pest insects and mites. of what the site contains here, so readers are the database, too, to include peripheral There cannot be many readers of this encouraged to take a look for themselves. aspects of biocontrol, such as insect journal who have not benefited either morphology, taxonomy and integrated directly or indirectly from the work and Contact: Professor Fred Legner control. Other links developed naturally research of this department, yet today only Email: [email protected] from the numerous travels that he made to remnants remain.  secure natural enemies of insects from An enduring legacy of the people who many lands. worked there, though will be this There is a depressing endnote, though. The authoritative Biocontrol Database. There University of California, Riverside used to are no restrictions on the use and IPM Systems

This section covers integrated pest while IPM has led to significant benefits in The NCFAP report argued that natural and management (IPM) including biological some crops and locations in terms of economic forces resulted in some major control, and techniques that are compatible reduced pesticide and management costs, increases in usage that hid reductions for with the use of biological control or [see following articles, for example], it more than a half of the comparisons made minimize negative impact on natural does not appear to have quantifiably (including those resulting from the enemies. reduced national chemical pesticide use. introduction of more effective and less The report notes, though, that the hazardous new products). For example, the Pesticide Use Figures in proportion and total use of most-toxic arrival of a new and virulent strain of potato IPM chemicals (in human terms) have both blight caused almost 17 million kg more declined, although these still represent pesticides to be used in this crop annually, The report of the General Accounting more than 40% of total agricultural while reduced tillage (encouraged by Office1 (GAO), the US Congress’s pesticide use. Quite how this relates to the federal farm policies to reduce erosion) is 'watchdog' agency, 'Management improve- original expectation of reducing pesticides attributed with increasing herbicide use by ments needed to further promote integrated and related risks is therefore not clear. over 250,000 kg annually; overall pest management' makes rather uncomfort- fungicide and herbicide usage increased An earlier report by the National Center for able if not unfamiliar reading. According to 2%. Most notably, though, a fall in citrus Food and Agricultural Policy2 (NCFAP) the report, the US Department of Agricul- prices led Florida growers to switch to sheds more light on this. This NGO is ture (USDA) and the Environmental Pro- cheaper, less-effective oil products, which supported by government agencies, tection Agency (EPA) initiative to achieve single-handedly increased annual insect- agrochemical companies and commodity implementation of IPM on 75% of total icide use by over 21.7 million kg. In organizations. The detailed analysis crop acreage in the USA by 2000 fell far contrast, overall annual insecticide use rose conducted under its Pesticide Use Program short of its target. This is at odds with by 15.1 million kg between 1992 and 1997, showed that although a broad-brush USDA estimates, which showed that IPM while overall pesticide use rose by 42.6 summary showed an overall increase in was being implemented on 70% of national million kg according to this study. pesticide use in agriculture, this glossed crop acreage by the target date, laudably over a multitude of detail. The analysis, The GAO report, however, also suggests close to the ambitious target. The discrep- which compared figures for 1992 and 1997, that a lack of clear objectives is one reason ancy centres on what overall pesticide was based on a database that recorded use for the disparity between IPM adoption and reduction figures mean, and what the IPM of 200 active ingredients in 87 crops in the pesticide reduction figures. Although the initiative achieved, or was meant to 48 mainland states. This report pointed out initiative began in 1993, the definition of achieve. that the overall upward trend hid a complex IPM and a method for measuring its At its outset in 1993, USDA and EPA of hundreds of increased and decreased implementation were not finalized until expected the initiative to lead to a reduction uses for different chemicals, crops and 1997. In this context, IPM farming in pesticide use and associated risks while states. These varied changes were practices were grouped into four cat- maintaining adequate crop protection. The themselves a reflection of many interacting egories: prevention, avoidance, monitoring goal was to be achieved through research, factors including weather, pest populations, and suppression (PAMS). Farmers had to outreach and education. A GAO review of economic factors, shifts in crop acreage and demonstrate adoption of at least one policy implementation was requested by a altered agronomic practices, as well as new practice in at least three categories for US Senator after he learnt that annual cost-effective pesticides, introduction of acreage to be included in the IPM goal. pesticide use had risen by more than 18 effective non-chemical methods, changes However, the GAO analysis focused on million kg since 1992, although crop in regulations and voluntary changes to biologically based practices as the basis for acreage had fallen. The GAO report says reduce crop residues. pesticide reduction. It showed that each News 81N category included biologically based production through reduced pest control Sources: methods (such as conserving natural costs, and increased yields, land values and 1US General Accounting Office (2001) enemies and mating disruption), which area planted to the crop. The NCFAP report Management improvements needed to fur- tended to reduce pesticide use, and others recorded a reduction of more than 900,000 ther promote integrated pest management. (such as monitoring pests and cleaning kg in pesticides used annually (between Website: [listed under implements), which might not. The GAO 1992 and 1997) from the introduction of Bt September 28, 2001] report argues that acreage could be cotton alone, and while insecticide use 2Gianessi, L.P.; Silvers, C.S. (2000) Trends classified as IPM acreage without any against boll weevil increased, this was as in pesticide use: comparing 1992 and 1997. measures that led to pesticide-reduction part of a strategy to eradicate the pest. being implemented. The report says that Washington DC; National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy, 165 pp. although USDA and EPA recognised the According to the GAO report, this is a Website: key importance of biologically based IPM relatively rare example of widespread IPM technologies in reducing pesticide use, and implementation, although there have been  have encouraged growers to adopt these, numerous small successes. It says that their definition of IPM did not reflect this, although USDA researchers, growers’ Apple of Their Eye and their analysis did not distinguish associations and major food processors biologically based practices. However, in have all demonstrated IPM’s significant Codling moth (Cydia pomonella)isthekey many systems cultural control (healthy environmental benefits, farmer uptake has pest of pome fruit in the western USA. seed, crop sanitation, prevention of spread, been poor or patchy. The report cites farm- Codling moth control historically relied tillage, etc.) can have substantial impact on level impediments, such as poor almost entirely on broad-spectrum organo- control and hence pesticide use, communication of IPM information to phosphate insecticides, especially azin- particularly in weeds. Indeed, we have farmers, farmers’ perceptions of financial phosmethyl. The 5-year Areawide Program already noted how the NCFAP report risks of adopting IPM practices, and the for Suppression of Codling Moth in the attributed an increase in herbicide use to the higher costs of IPM products and practices Western United States, which implemented introduction of reduced tillage. However, in some cases. However, this also reflects a a biologically based IPM strategy that led the GAO report argues that the USDA worldwide trend of poor uptake of IPM to an overall reduction of some 60% in implementation rate estimated from their technologies. Despite massive financial organophosphate pesticides directed at criteria does not reflect “meaningful and research inputs the message has largely codling moth control, together with a outcomes in terms of the original goal of not got through to farmers and carefully similar reduction in codling moth damage pesticide reduction”. For example, USDA researched IPM methods have been in pilot sites, is highlighted as a success estimated that 76% of maize acreage discarded or ignored altogether. Inter- story by the GAO report (‘Pesticide use nationally was under IPM by the end of national and national agricultural organ- figures in IPM’, above). 2000, while the GAO report says that izations are now working to change this by biologically based IPM practices that could focusing on engaging farmers in concerted However, one of the architects of this reduce pesticide use were implemented on attempts to develop and deliver appropriate programme, the US Pacific Northwest tree no more than 18%. The NCFAP, on the IPM technologies. fruit industry, has reservations about the other hand, estimated that between 1992 GAO approach and conclusions. It is and 1997, reductions were achieved in Even the GAO report, though, admits that anxious that the programme’s success, of insecticide and fungicide use in maize the USA has some remarkable success which the participants are justly proud, through the introduction of new active stories to build on, and we focus on two of should not be overstated, nor that ingredients (including soil applied these below (apple IPM in the Pacific oversimplification or generalization from insecticides, which led to a 2.6 million kg Northwest and potato IPM in Wisconsin). the results should contribute to inappropri- reduction, and Bt maize), although ate restrictions being placed on pesticide herbicide use increased (with atrazine still USDA, commenting on the report, affirms use. Above all it argues that reductions in widely applied). its determination to improve imple- pesticide use should not be the litmus test mentation and coordination of US national for IPM adoption. Such a short-sighted and The GAO report found the situation in narrow interpretation could have disastrous IPM programmes. The GAO report calls cotton (where USDA estimated the highest consequences for IPM, and place a burden for ‘meaningful outcomes’, but what are IPM adoption rate of 86%) to be markedly on crop management that would make these? Scientists involved in the areawide different. The National Academy of pome fruit production economically apple IPM programme, discussed next, Sciences cites this as an example of IPM unviable in some circumstances. In the case argue that while the GAO report focuses on providing better long-term control than of the Areawide Program, mating dis- pesticide reduction in purely tonnage terms, pesticides. The cotton pesticide treadmill ruption as an IPM tactic is not an adequate amoreusefulmeasureisreductioninrisk story is familiar. Beneficial insects had ‘stand-alone’ method when codling moth from pesticides, together with other been effectively eliminated from the agro- populations are high and conventional measures to build greater biological ecosystem by years of widespread chemical pesticides are needed as a back-up. use, and development of pesticide stability into the system. IPM includes a resistance meant that pest populations basket of technologies, and best solutions The centrepiece of the Areawide Program increased despite more pesticide appli- use a combination of methods developed was codling moth mating disruption based cations. Cotton acreages were falling on a case-specific basis. In particular, they on pheromone dispensers and sterile male dramatically when an IPM programme was point out, a focus on purely ‘biologically releases, which replaced most or, in a few introduced which combined reduced based’ IPM together with an insistence on cases, all of the insecticide azinphosmethyl pesticide application with pheromone- pesticide reduction as the yardstick by otherwise used for its control. However, based mating disruption and other IPM which to measure success may leave control of codling moth with reductions in practices. This brought the pests under farmers with very restricted or even no organophosphate insecticides allowed control and helped restore cotton effective choices in many circumstances. other secondary pests such as leafrollers 82N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4

(Pandemis pyrusana and Choristoneura sustainable system. Given the GAO’s sites were using reduced rates of mating rosaceana) to emerge, and these were criticism of the level of IPM adoption disruption in combination with pesticides controlled by combinations of organo- countrywide, this Areawide Program so the same level of pesticide reduction phosphate insecticides used prior to bloom provides interesting lessons on how it noted in the Areawide Program was not and non-organophosphate insecticides and promoted successful large-scale adoption achieved. A full 50% of growers still do not Bt sprays used during the summer period. by growers in Washington, Oregon, and practise use of mating disruption for In most western orchards, some key natural California (and with some effect in codling moth, in part because of the diffi- enemies (predatory mites and some Colorado). cult economic times which have left leafminer parasitoids) have developed growers strapped for cash to pay for pest To begin with, the industry has a long tolerance to organophosphate insecticides, control activities. history of integrating chemical and bio- so good biological control of spider mites logical control in this area – growers are (Panonychus ulmi and Tetranychus A second identifiable reason for good accustomed to the principles of IPM and, urticae)andleafminer(Phyllonorycter adoption was more fortuitous, and more of for example, considering nontarget effects elmaella) existed in most orchards. A re- a stick. The Food Quality Protection Act, of pesticides and resistance issues in duction in use of azinphosmethyl, however, 1996 (FQPA) set the stage for radical decision making. Initially, five pilot sites allowed generalist predators to recover, change in pest management programmes in were established in which partial costs whichhelpedtosuppresssuchpestsas (50%) of mating disruption were covered the USA by establishing a new standard for aphids and the pear psylla (Cacopsylla for participating growers for the first 3 assessing the impact of pesticides, that pyricola). years. Further sites were financed for one there would be “a reasonable certainty that This industry is a strong supporter of IPM year only with 'seed money grant', after no harm will result from exposure”. It and has one of the longest histories of IPM whichgrowershadtobearallthe required re-registration of all pesticides implementation in the country (using both programme costs. Growers and scientists (including organophosphates) according to biologically based and practice-based IPM worked as partners, electing management more rigorous safety standards. This tactics). It approves of the GAO focusing boards with representatives of both, and eliminated or restricted the use of most on IPM but, despite the resounding success hiring project coordinators to monitor broad-spectrum pesticides, especially on of the Areawide Program, questions pest- codling moth and collate information. crops that are important foods for infants or icide reduction per se as an accounting tool. Results were made available to participants children in the USA, including apples and IPM in perennial tree crops is complicated. and the industry via newsletters, news pears. However, the Areawide Program Many factors, such as the mode of action of releases and newspaper articles. was underway and the usefulness of mating a given control tool, overall pest pressure, disruption as an IPM technology was being Word-of-mouth, though, proved the most the weather and the availability of effective demonstrated concurrently with the effective tool in increasing acceptance and alternatives to broad-spectrum pesticides, implementation of these new regulations. uptake. At first, according to the pro- play a role in the total amount of pesticide The IPM strategy thus furnished a tool for gramme team, most growers were used on a crop. While the US Pacific North- growers to control codling moth and reduce sceptical. Although some asked to be part west tree fruit industry continues to support the use of chemical pesticides just when of the pilot, many adopted a wait-and-see higher visibility and increased funding for regulatory pressures were encouraging attitude. At the end of the first year IPM programmes at the state and regional them to consider alternatives. participating growers were happy with level, it stresses that IPM research and progress, and at the end of the second more implementation priorities must reflect the However, one drawback to the sustain- were asking to join the programme. By the needs of the growers. Successful strategies ability of a pheromone-based strategy is end of the third year, growers were are always based on local conditions and that codling moth populations must remain clamouring to be included – even those the realities of the cropping system low in the region for continued success. outside the programme’s area. In 1995, community, the pest complex and the Currently, owing to low or negative returns some 8800 ha of pome fruit were treated economics of the commodity. to apple growers, many orchards in the with mating disruption products (the pilot region have been abandoned or are poorly The USDA-ARS Agricultural Research sites represented less than 10% of this farmed. This has led to rising codling moth Service (ARS), Washington State Univer- area), and by 2000 this had increased to populations and reduced success with sole sity, Oregon State University, the Univer- more than 38,000 ha. An IPM strategy that reliance on mating disruption. Is good IPM sity of California, Berkeley and many farmers could see worked and reduced pest still going on? Yes, but there has been a management costs was a carrot to private companies collaborated to develop change in the virulence of the pest complex. encourage adoption. Thus, the Areawide the Areawide Program’s four components: The message from this is that IPM, Program worked because it showed whatever technologies this comprises, has • establishing implementation sites in growers that they could successfully use to be part of an economically sustainable Washington, Oregon and California mating disruption as a control for codling production system. The next article moth, and these growers were able to • researching questions and problems suggests that this might be achievable – but convince other growers that it was neither a relating to implementation not just at the farmers’ expense. difficult nor an expensive method when • continuously assessing progress supplemented with insecticides. Sources: • communicating how the strategy works The programme notes, however, that IPM Brunner, J; Welter, S.; Calkins, C.; Hilton, and how the programme progresses to was not necessarily implemented with the R.; Beers, E.; Dunley, J.; Unruh, T.; growers level of success achieved in the pilot sites. Knight, A.; Van Steenwyk, R.; Van A significant factor in the success of the For example, only 50% of the total apple Buskirk, P. (2001) Mating disruption of programme was getting orchards in a large and pear orchard acreage in Washington codling moth: a perspective from the area to implement the IPM strategy, so that even used the technologies employed in the western United States. they could begin to function as a complex pilot sites by the year 2000. Most of these IOBC wprs Bulletin 25(1), 207-215. News 83N

Calkins, C.O. (2001) Areawide Program and fruit thinning by hand. The integrated of three apple production systems. for Suppression of Codling Moth in the treatment included compost, foliar sprays, Nature 410, 926-930. Western United States. and synthetic fertilizers; mulch and herbi- Wapato, WA, USA; Yakima Agricultural cides for weeds; PMD and insecticides for  Research Laboratory, 4 pp. insect control; and chemical fruit thinner. Conventional system interventions in- Contacts: Michael J. Willett, cluded foliar sprays and synthetic ferti- Wisconsin Measures Aid Northwest Horticultural Council, lizers; herbicides for weed control; PMD Branding Room 600, 6 South 2nd St.,Yakima, and insecticides for insect control; and WA 98901, USA chemical fruit thinner. Since 1996, the US Wisconsin Potato and Email: [email protected] Vegetable Growers Association (WPVGA) Fax: +1 509 457 7615 All three systems gave similar cumulative and the WWF (World Wildlife Fund) have Website: apple yields, and there were no observable pioneered an initiative to reduce pesticide differences in tree growth, physiological Jay F. Brunner, reliance and risk through the adoption of disorders, or pest and disease damage Washington State University Tree Fruit biologically-based IPM. The University of across the types of production system. Research and Extension Center, Wisconsin potato IPM research and However, the integrated and organic sys- 1100 N. Western Ave., Wenatchee, extension team officially joined this col- tems had higher soil quality and potentially WA 98801, USA laboration in 1999. This project’s success lower negative environmental impact than Email: [email protected] was highlighted by the GAO report the conventional system. Organic apples Fax: +1 509 662 8714 (‘Pesticide use figures in IPM’, above). An rated highest in profitability, energy outstanding feature, particularly in the  efficiency and taste appeal. context of the report, has been the development of measurement systems to The authors conclude that organic and monitor both progress in the transition to More Than Just Good integrated apple production systems in biologically based IPM, and the linkage Taste Washington State are not only better for the between IPM adoption and significantly soil and environment than the conventional The pressure to move away from the reduced reliance on high-risk pesticides. system, but have comparable yields and, for pesticide reliance of conventional agri- From the outset, the importance of credible the organic system, higher profits and culture stems at least in part from the methods to track potato growers’ progress greater energy efficiency. They note that, perceived poor environmental sustain- in meeting pesticide reduction and IPM although crop yield and quality are ability of this approach. However, often the adoption targets was recognised. important products of a farming system, the economic and environmental sustainability benefits of better soil and environmental of alternative strategies is unproven. This The 180 WPVGA members grow some quality provided by the organic and makes a recent study of apple production 32,000 ha of potatoes annually. IPM integrated systems are as valuable. systems particularly interesting, as it education and outreach was conducted Currently they tend to be overlooked in the provides evidence in support of the superior through an integrated set of grower marketplace, but come at a financial cost to environmental and economic sustainability education meetings, field days, magazine the grower. The challenge facing policy- of organic and integrated systems over articles, a web site ( makers, the authors argue, is to incorporate conventional approaches in this crop. bioipm/) and grower-to-grower neighbour- the value of ecosystem processes into the hood meetings. The biologically based IPM The study compared the sustainability of traditional marketplace, and so support strategy included scouting, and field, weed, conventional, organic and integrated producers trying to implement eco- insect and disease management, and ‘Golden Delicious’ apple production sys- nomically and environmentally sound addressed issues of soil and water quality tems in an orchard in Yakima, Washington, practices. and crop storage. At its core were imple- USA in 1994-99. The integrated system Overall in this study, the organic system menting practices to minimise pest included soil improvement, and is distinct ranked first in environmental and economic problems and collecting data necessary for from the IPM system promoted by the sustainability, the integrated system making informed and knowledgeable Areawide Program, described above. second, and the conventional system last. decisions. Adoption was measured on a Ecological and economic factors were used Organic apples were the most profitable positive ‘points’ system: the more and to assess sustainability, and a sustainable owingtopricepremiumsandquicker better the IPM practices, the more points. farm was argued to need to produce investment return or break-even point. Crop rotation, for example, and scouting, adequate high-quality yields, be profitable, Were the premiums paid for organic apples record keeping and decision-making protect the environment, conserve removed, though, the conventional system practices earned high points. Overall, IPM resources and be socially responsible in the would have broken even first, and organic measures enhanced the crop’s ability to long term. Indicators of sustainability used last. The price premiums reflect consumer resist pests, and encouraged a switch to in the study were soil quality, horticultural willingness to pay extra for organically reduced-risk pesticides with less impact on performance, orchard profitability, en- grown produce. Similar premiums could be beneficial insects. vironmental quality and energy efficiency applied to integrated products, but for this WWF helped to develop a measure for the (the amount of total inputs in relation to 'integrated' needs to be certifiable. This is toxicity of the chemicals, based on the output or yield). one of the issues addressed by a potato project in Wisconsin, USA, which we look acute and chronic risk to humans and other Organic interventions included compost at next. organisms, and the impact on the environ- and foliar sprays; mulches, cultivation and ment (including effects on the viability of mowing to control weeds; pheromone- Source: the IPM system). In practice, a rating mating disruption (PMD) and Bacillus Reganold, J.P.; Glover, J.D.; Andrews, system scores each pesticide for ‘toxicity thuringiensis (Bt) sprays for insect control; P.K.; Hinman, H.R. (2001) Sustainability units’ per application. 84N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4

As a result of applying the IPM measures, meaningful standards for improving eco- above the national average. Farmers have growers reduced use of potentially toxic system function in and around farmland. shifted from subsistence towards com- compounds by nearly 250,000 kg between mercial production, in a step that potato Sources: 1997 and 2000, and many found that profits farmers in other parts of the country may Pest Management at the Crossroads / increased as a consequence of reduced also follow. This shift, however, has Topics / IPM in the Marketplace: chemical use. increased the exposure of families to Website: pesticides, and most notably the highly potatipm.htm In the last year, though, the project has toxic insecticides carbofuran and metha- movedintoanewphase.Growersare Protected Harvest: midophos. An escalating economic crisis in hoping to capitalize on the fact that US Email: [email protected] the 1990s threatened the profitability of consumers consider pesticide use in food Website: potato production, and made it increasingly crops a serious issue, and are promoting difficult for communities to address long- WWF/WPVGA/UW Collaboration: their potatoes under an ‘eco-label’ to gain term health and environmental concerns. market-based rewards for their environ- Website: mental stewardship. This has entailed the Scientific Certification Systems: For more than 10 years a number of creation of a new label, ‘Protected Website: organizations including INIAP (Instituto Harvest’, and a new brand, ‘Healthy Nacional Autónomo de Investigaciones Grown’, for the IPM potatoes. The Healthy Wisconsin Potato and Vegetable Growers Agropecuarios, Ecuador), CIP (Inter- Grown brand focuses on marketing Association (WPVGA): national Potato Center), Montana State certified potatoes and is a separate legal Website: University (USA), McMaster Institute of entity from the independent nonprofit Healthy Grown: Environment and Health (Canada) and Protected Harvest. Protected Harvest is Website: Wageningen University (the Netherlands) responsible for maintaining high standards, have been working with communities in and insuring the integrity of the Contact: Deana Sexson, Carchi on a variety of projects to assess the certification and chain of custody pro- Biointensive IPM Field Coordinator, role and impact of pesticide use in potato cedures, and conducting consumer WWF/WPVGA/UW Collaboration Project, production and how the latter may be outreach. The collaboration's success was 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, ameliorated. These projects have both instrumental in World Wildlife Fund’s WI 53706, USA provided quantitative assessments of decision to allow the use of its logo on bags Fax: +1 608 262 7743 community-wide pesticide effects, and of certified potatoes. Email: [email protected] shown ways that may allow pesticide use to  be lessened. To make the label credible, the IPM certification process is being undertaken by Hidden Costs an internationally recognised certifier, Potato IPM Should Focus Scientific Certification Systems, with on Pesticide Reduction Pesticides play a dual role in Carchi. On one side is the positive role where Protected Harvest giving final approval. 1,2 This is the conclusion of a study of pesticides contribute to improved product- Some of the recommended IPM measures, potato production in the Province of Carchi such as scouting and recording, rotations ivity. Potatoes can be planted more in northern Ecuador, one of the most frequently and yields are higher as result of with non-potato seasons, and removing/ productive potato-growing areas in the destroying discarded potatoes are man- their use. Undoubtedly, pesticides have country. It argues that IPM is an abstract helped residents of rural Carchi improve datory to meet the IPM standard. There are concept that can be difficult to measure, also ceilings on the number of pesticide their incomes. At the same time, almost all while pesticide reduction is relatively easy farm families know of or have experienced toxicity units that can be applied to to quantify and analyse. certifiable short- and long-season crops. pesticide poisoning to some degree. Some other chemicals can be used with Potatoes have been a staple crop in the Nevertheless, the local attitude is that restrictions, and some pesticides are Andes since time immemorial. But with pesticides can be tolerated by the 'strong.' excluded from use altogether under the agricultural intensification and its concom- This rationalization, based on ignorance, certification standard. itant adverse ecological consequences, highlights the other finding: despite their farmers have come to view pesticides as central role in the economic life of the The key issue now is to persuade retailers to essential to their economic survival. It is community, most know startlingly little stock‘HealthyGrown’potatoesinthe quite clear that pesticides have played a about pesticides, how to recognize shops, and encourage consumers to buy vital role in sustaining potato production in dangerous products, how exposure can them. A marketing campaign directed at Carchi, particularly against late blight occur, and how to prevent intoxication. retailers and a consumer outreach cam- (Phytophthora infestans) and Andean Farmers’ conventional production tech- paign are underway. potato weevil (Premnotrypes vorax). While nology is dependent on the fungicide the impact of systematic pesticide overuse This project has successfully addressed the mancozeb and the insecticides carbofuran on the environment and human health IPM adoption/pesticide reduction conun- and methamidophos. Pesticides, though, means that alternatives needed to be found, drum that the GAO report highlighted. are not as widespread in the Carchi farmers’ faith in pesticides made achieving Challenges ahead, as Jeff Dlott (President environment as might be expected. pesticide reduction a socially complex and of Board of Directors of Protected Harvest) Carbofuran, for example, is present in politically challenging goal. said in an interview with the WPVGA groundwater but at levels well below newsletter ‘Badger Common ‘Tater’, In Carchi, potato farmers have taken contamination standards used by the US include strengthening programme stand- advantage of the favourable climate and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ards (on soil and water quality, for soils, and combined fertilizers and agro- In the environmental and soil conditions in example). He also cites a long-term chemicals with their knowledge of crop Carchi, carbofuran is relatively short lived objective of the project, to develop management to produce potato yields well andlikelytobondtosoilanddegrade News 85N before entering water supplies. Con- as measured by health tests, were generally Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) tamination is most likely from accidental or the less productive ones, who made less Global IPM Facility, led a stakeholder intentional dumping of pesticides in efficient use of their production inputs. If meeting in Carchi on ‘the impacts of streams. Another potential danger, un- carbofuran use were reduced by taxing it, pesticides on health, production and the cooked and unpeeled potatoes, showed no results showed that improved farming due environment’. The aim was to bring significant presence of carbofuran. to improved neurobehavioral status would together scientific, government and Presumably, any reaching the tuber more than offset the losses from reduced farming communities and to encourage degrades before it is harvested. carbofuran use. Simply ‘punishing’ carbo- them to work together for more rational and furan use through taxation created a effective pest management. As a result, There is, however, a pervasive presence of situation where both rural health and stakeholders in Carchi have called for: pesticides in the workplace and at home. productivity of potato growing could gain. Trials showed that most user exposure • better control of agrochemicals (and occurs during mixing and spraying, with A combination of taxes and changes in for the most toxic compounds to be hands, arms, backs and legs the most technology and pesticide handling prohibited) exposed body parts. A trial using practices also showed positive results. • increased funding for IPM phosphorescent powder demonstrated to Economic analysis showed that either • provision of school-level education on the communities that poor handling changes in technology or practices or a pesticide impacts practices and skimpy personal hygiene led combination of both could achieve public to pesticide contamination both inside and health goals while at least preserving the • inclusion of IPM in university-level outside the home. agricultural income in the region. At their agricultural training most fundamental level, the policy solu- The health impacts of pesticide use in • promotion of awareness of collateral tions rest on strengthening farmer capacity Carchi are widespread and serious. An impacts of agricultural practices in to change farming practice and to change active pesticide poisoning vigilance system rural communities pesticide-handling practices. Solutions also established the number of pesticide poison- rest on establishing external conditions, • direct financial support of the agro- ings in the province is 171 per 100,000 such as regulatory policies and market chemical industry in implementing the inhabitants (with results about twice as high incentives, to promote pesticide reduction resolutions. in rural areas), a figure among the highest and safer use. This was demonstrated in IPM Depends on Farmers reported in the world. The treatment costs practice in the Eco-Salud project. and work days lost impose a significant Educational campaigns and capacity- financial burden on the public health The multi-institutional broad-based Eco- building interventions by projects in Carchi system and the individual. Salud project in Carchi was established in have been largely based on existing IPM 1997 to promote change, and particularly alternatives. Eco-Salud disseminated IPM Fungicide use, dominated by mancozeb, pesticide reduction, through participatory information (e.g. pest ecology, pesticide causes a variety of eye and skin problems. learning and action with farmer house- effects on beneficials, and specific IPM Carbofuran and methamidofos are neuro- holds. It was directed at a three-faceted goal technologies). Together with its collabo- toxins and exposure affects the peripheral of better human health, improved economic rating projects (including the Swiss-funded and central nervous systems. Research to welfare and greater environmental national potato programme FORTIPAPA, measure adverse neurobehavioural effects integrity. The project began with public the US Agency for International Develop- in at-risk and control samples of families in forums to discuss outputs of previous ment (USAID) funded IPM/CRSP (Collab- Carchi produced startling results. They research in order to (a) raise awareness and orative Research Support Program) and an showed that the entire family unit of potato (b) begin to develop possible interventions. FAO Global IPM Facility initiative), Eco- farming enterprises was at risk, not just the Cross-cutting themes of the project were Salud viewed IPM not merely as a suite of farmer who applied products. Thus in pesticide safety and IPM. technologies, but one whose adoption was Carchi, the at-risk population is the dependent on good farmer decision- majority of rural dwellers or urban dwellers It developed mechanisms for informing the making, motivation and confidence. that for farming or other reasons handle public of pesticide safety concerns from the Beyond merely 'disseminating' informa- neurotoxic insecticides. A battery of World results of research and community led- tion, Eco-Salud and others have been Health Organization tests found that nearly activities in Carchi (such as the working to increase farmer innovative 60% of the at-risk sample, and by contamination pathway outlined above). In capacity through empowerment and envi- implication 60% of the at-risk population a ‘Safe Use of Pesticides’ (SUP) approach, ronmental education, in particular were affected. the project sought to increase under- regarding the management of the agricul- standing and awareness of product Putting Pesticides in their Place tural ecology for greater productivity and labelling. Project staff discussed pesticide sustainability. Agricultural research financed by the safety strategies with participating families, government and external donors has especially storage and safety equipment. At the heart of the Eco-Salud strategy was developed viable technological alternatives More than two-thirds of families took the farmer field school (FFS) approach. based on IPM. These options, which reduce advantage of interest-free 2-month credit IPM was promoted through building and but do not eliminate pesticide dependence, towards purchase of high-quality protective strengthening farmer capacity in decision- and the identified knowledge gaps outlined equipment, which cost the equivalent of a making through new information and above point the way to possible solutions. week’s labour. Some rented the equipment enhanced agroecosystem analysis. With out to recover costs. leadership of INIAP, the Ministry of Unexpectedly, an economic analysis Agriculture and CIP, Eco-Salud established indicated that taxing pesticides could Eco-Salud also worked with provincial FFS in three communities in Carchi in improve both health and crop production, government officials to influence public 1999. FFS participants conducted ex- without any other technology changes. policies. In one innovative move, INIAP periments on conventionally managed and Farmers with lower neurobehavioral status, and CIP, encouraged by the Food and IPM plots of about 2500 m2.They 86N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4 experimented with use of technologies such the emergence of main crop potato plants in Inter-institutional partnerships and as adult weevil traps, late blight-resistant new fields. collaborations for IPM and pesticide potatoes, specific and low-toxicity reduction are also seen as key. These would pesticides, and pre-spray monitoring. Traps introduced to farmers in Carchi include involving scientists and even the through the FFS were subsequently pesticide industry in the solution-finding Late blight poses a particular problem for improved through experimentation. One and implementation process. In particular, potato IPM. However, previous partici- farmer described how he planted a small scientists’ expertise and farmers’ practical patory research by farmer groups in number of potatoes in newly prepared land orientation are important for formulating Montufar and Tulcan with INIAP immediately after ploughing. Once ade- policies that will work. These can have an researchers significantly decreased the time quate foliage was in place (2 weeks after important impact on the thinking of taken to develop new resistant varieties emergence), the plants were sprayed with decision-makers, public opinion, and fromabout15yearsto5bytheendofthe insecticide and left in the ground as shelter policy outcomes. 1990s. Acceptance of new varieties, and traps while the main crop emerged. particularly ‘Fripapa’, has consequently Another farmer described how he found he IPM also needs to face the heterogeneity of been increased in Carchi. could transfer live potatoes from another communities and farming styles. The After two seasons, the application of IPM field after ploughing, and treat these with projects in Carchi have led partners to techniques had led to a reduction of insecticide. Both modifications meant conclude that while the FFS approach pesticide applications from 12 (in treated foliage did not need replenishing. works in some contexts other IPM conventional plots) to 7 in IPM plots, while Yet another farmer says he is planning to intervention strategies may be needed in production was maintained or increased. put treated potato foliage into a container others. An analysis of farmers by social The amount (of active ingredient) of full of water in each shelter to keep it fresh, grouping, farming style and social and fungicide for late blight was decreased while he expects dead weevils to collect in economic resource management strategies 50%, and insecticides for Andean weevil the water and be easy to count. indicated that FFS was most attractive to farmers with a low-risk approach. and leafminer (Liriomyza sp.) by 75% and Farmershavethusdemonstratedthatthey 40%, respectively. FFS participants had not can eliminate highly toxic compounds from Intervention Strategies: a Way Forward only reduced pesticide use. They had their production system and substantially identified how to maintain production with reduce pesticide use and production costs Interventions can be broadened along three considerably less financial outlay; while not adversely affecting production axes: pesticide substitution, market production costs were decreased from per area. Complementary projects support changes and community capacity building US$104 (in conventional plots) to $80/t in follow-up activities, including the tran- by: plots under IPM. sition of FFS to small-production enterprise • Involving all stakeholders in TherealtestforanFFSiswhetherthe groups, the development of local FFS eliminating most-toxic pesticides and practices learnt are adopted and work for facilitators, and establishment of farmer-to- substituting less toxic compounds. the farmers in their own fields, year on farmer extension. Early evaluations by the Less toxic compounds are currently year. Early evidence in Carchi is promising IPM/CRSP project suggest that the Carchi more expensive and costs would need with farmers appearing highly motivated. experience of FFS reflects the positive findings elsewhere. to be ameliorated through alternative FFS graduates are showing a willingness to FFS-generated technologies, but also experiment and adapt the IPM technologies However, moving farmers from thinking in financial incentives for implementing they learnt in the FFS. Farmers explained terms of single-element (‘silver bullet’) IPM. Scientists’ involvement in how they had experimented with ‘traps’ for solutions to multiple tactics based on decision support and policy devel- Andean weevil. understanding of ecological principles is opment is highlighted as vital. Potato weevils are the most serious insect quite some undertaking. Farmers in Carchi, • Promoting market-based supports for pests of potatoes cultivated in the high for example, have accepted late blight- movements towards sustainable pro- resistant potatoes, but inducing them to try Andes. Female weevils lay eggs inside duction, through such avenues as post- other cultural controls was a challenge. An straw debris near potato plants, and the marketing surveillance for pesticide approach is required that focuses on emerging larvae dig into the soil and bore adverse effects, distribution networks environment-pest interactions, localized into the tubers. Tuber damage from weevils for personal protection equipment, and technology development and farmer/ can exceed 50%. Full-grown larvae labelling, certification or preferential community decision-making capacity with abandon the tuber and pupate in the soil, pricing for IPM products. and the adults emerge during the rainy an emphasis on the integrated management season to infest new potato fields. Earlier of practices. • Developing capacity in highly diverse CIP research developed a suite of IPM rural communities through collabora- A call is also made for a more balanced technologies for this pest. See BNI 19(3) tive community-led and community- research agenda, and for past neglect of (September 1998), 76N-77N, 'Teaching based activities, with the focus on user- biological approaches to pest control, in success in Andean communities'; also see: centred farming interventions. particular disease and weed management, to be remedied. Better understanding is This study was originally financed by the cat11_sol98.htm needed of naturally occurring antagonists Rockefeller Foundation. Subsequent inves- Adult weevils hide in the shade during the in agro-ecosystems; for example, the tigations were conducted with the support day. One control option is to create traps by impact of fungicides on entomopathogenic of the USAID Soil Management and IPM treating potential shelters (such as straw organisms. There is a need to begin to deal Collaborative Research Programs as well debris or cut potato foliage) with insecti- with the complex interactions among the as the FAO, the Ecosystem Health Program cide. Plant material is replaced and weevil multitude of organisms in the agro- of the Canadian International Development counts are made at intervals. These 'shelter ecosystem and work toward integrating Research Council, and the Dutch/Swiss traps' are particularly effective just prior to pest management approaches. Fund for Eco-Regional Research. News 87N

1 Crissman, C. C.; Antle, J.M.; Capalbo, Smallholders are frequently unable to management practices, taking advantage of S.M. (eds) (1998) Economic, environ- obtain good seed owing to the capacity and/ the ‘window of opportunity’ for intensive mental, and health tradeoffs in agriculture: or linkage constraints of certified seed management afforded by the nursery bed. pesticides and the sustainability of Andean production. Yet bacterial wilt and viruses Six farmer-field sites were selected in 1997 potato production. are primarily seed-borne, and hence for the evaluation of the SSPS against the Netherlands; Kluwer, 281 pp. disease-free seed is of paramount traditional ware-to-ware system and importance. Certified seed production in 2 certified seed-tubers from KARI National Crissman, C.C.; Espinosa P. (eds) (2001) Uganda and Kenya is vastly insufficient to Potato Research Centre (NPRC). Two Impactos del uso de plaguicidas en la meet national demand. In South Africa, varieties are under assessment, traditional producción, salud y medioambiente en where certified seed is not a constraint, Roslin Tana and new Tigoni. From the Carchi: un compendio de investigaciones y marketing is oriented to large enterprises, results of five seasons’ trials, seed-tuber respuestas multidisciplinarias [The impact which limits the availability to production per unit area of land has been of pesticide use on production, health and smallholders of certified seed of both new shown to be some 2-3 times greater under environment in Carchi: a compendium of and old varieties. Smallholder farmers in all the SSPS, with a concomitant reduction in multidisciplinary research and responses]. three countries therefore use potato tubers land required to meet on-farm seed-tuber Quito,Ecuador;CIP,300pages. from their previous harvest as seed tubers. needs. Disease and pest incidence has not But in the traditional ware-to-ware Contact: Stephen Sherwood, been significant under any system during production system, this seed-tuber Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP), the period of the trial. Ware productivity selection is an afterthought, made from Apartado Postal 17-21-1977, has not been shown to be significantly what is left following selection of ware Quito, Ecuador different during the early phases. The latest potatoes for market and home Email: [email protected] harvest, however, has shown a strong trend consumption. This process biases seed- Fax: +593 2 269 2604 towards greater productivity under the tuber selection towards leftover, under- SSPS.  sized, damaged and unhealthy tubers that will inevitably be low yielding. Although A facet of working across six farms is that Nursery System Improves farmers can discard the smallest tubers, the data tend to be very variable. This has Potato Seed latent infection (such as bacterial wilt) is highlighted the importance of soil factors less apparent. A downward spiral of and has also revealed an unexpected Potato is an increasingly important and increased disease incidence and falling strength of the SSPS nursery bed: its popular staple component of sub-Saharan productivity is thus almost inevitable. buffering capability against extremes of African diets. In East Africa, potato- drought and frost. The practical signifi- Control practices for baterial wilt have producing areas are characteristically the cance of this is that farmers, following a centred on plant breeding, field sanitation, populous highland regions, dominated by poor season, are less likely to need to crop rotation and bactericides, but have had smallholder farmers who operate intensive source seed-tubers from outside their farm only limited success. Alternatives, such as low-input agriculture. Emerging markets (uncertified market material), thus reducing biological control, involving appropriate for chips and crisps are making potato an the risk of introducing diseases such as technologies and low costs to the farmer are increasingly attractive cash crop, although bacterial wilt to the farm. Furthermore, the urgently needed. We describe two home consumption remains important for reduction in land planted for seed-tuber initiatives here. The first, in this article, local food security. This situation contrasts production makes available a near-equal deals with on-farm production of disease- with South Africa, the largest potato- area of land for a non-solanaceous crop free seed-tubers. The second, in the article producer in Africa. Here, large, highly without a notable reduction in ware below, discusses a novel GM approach to mechanized commercial farms dominate production, which presents a largely new biological control. production, but as in East Africa, opportunity for crop rotation. smallholders value potatoes for both In Kenya, the challenge of improving The initial goals of the SSPS have been income generation and home consumption, potato seed health is being addressed by realized, although robust conclusions on and stimulation of smallholder potato researchers at CABI Bioscience, the Kenya the benefits to smallholders require production is a priority for the South Africa Agriculture Research Institute (KARI), the addition trial seasons at Njabini, wider Government. International Potato Centre (CIP) and the testing under varying environments (as is farming community of Njabini. They have Smallholders rarely achieve the potato happening under analogous research at been developing a small-scale seed-tuber productivity known to be possible when Meru in Kenya and in Uganda) and production system (SSPS) to replenish planting healthy seed-tuber on well promotion at the farmer community level. current farmer seed-tuber material with managed, fertile land. In Kenya, for In addition, the SSPS provides a window new disease-free material whose quality example, average on-farm yields of less for application of biocontrol agents to can be maintained over a number of on- than 10 t/ha contrast markedly with control seed pests and diseases at the farm generations. research station yields of over 40 t/ha. Such nursery bed stage. Development of a low yields have been attributed to near- The SSPS separates ware and seed-tuber possible agent for bacterial wilt is described continuous potato production on the same production on each farm by the below. land, which leads to increased incidence of establishment of a seed-tuber nursery bed Contact: Julian Smith, diseases and pests, (linked to) a shortage of (a flatbed strip of land planted at high CABI Bioscience, disease-free seed, and a decline in soil density). This provides the seed-tubers for Bakeham Lane, Egham, fertility. Diseases, in particular, are rife both the next ware planting and for the Surrey TW20 9TY, UK with potato blight (Phytophthora seed-tuber nursery bed for the next season Email: [email protected] infestans), bacterial wilt (Ralstonia (selectedonanoptimalyieldbasis).The Fax: +44 1491 829100 solanacearum) and viruses recognised as SSPS system also incorporates IPM of primary constraints to production. seed-borne diseases through improved land  88N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4

Bacterial Wilt Faces GM produced statistically significant (P<0.001) cause injury to plants may soon be Competition data in support of its potential against R. subjected to an additional process under the solanacearum populations of Kenya and IPPC. Fortunately, there are efforts to In comparison to investment in the other countries, and also with diverse coordinate this risk assessment process development and deployment of genetic- potato varieties. The mechanism by which with the requirements of the Cartagena ally manipulated (GM) crops for pest the GM strain protects potato from disease Protocol. Following two years of technical management, the use of biotechnology to infection is not yet understood, although discussions, the new standard on risk enhance the capacity of natural enemies to induction of host resistance or competitive assessment of LMOs is slated for act as biological control agents (BCAs) is exclusion of the pathogen have been development under the IPPC in 2002. largely unexplored and unexploited. IOBC suggested. These assessments have to date These international efforts to harmonize (the International Organisation for been conducted under contained-use methodologies and criteria for assessment Biological Control of Noxious Animals and conditions only (CABI Bioscience,UKand of GM organisms are aimed at reducing the Plants) has the topic up for discussion at its the Agricultural Research Council – burden of disparate requirements or next Symposium [See Announcements Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute restrictions by various trading partners. section, this issue]. One avenue exciting (ARC-VOPI), Republic of South Africa) Against this background, CABI and KARI interest is the potential for biological and require the satisfactory fulfilment of have worked closely with the emerging control of bacterial plant diseases by using biosafety assessments before progressing biosafety framework of Kenya. The antagonistic or competitive bacteria, to a field release phase. including non-pathogenic mutants of the procedure and formulation of an appli- pathogen. Preliminary biosafety assessments have cation to allow testing of this potential focused on method development that BCA in Kenya and the subsequent review In line with CABI’s open and objective enables the tracking of the BCA and WT of that application has provided a useful test policy on crop-related GM technologies, populations in soil. These studies have case. This reached the final stages of review CABI Bioscience is providing technical focused on antibiotic marker-based by the National Biosafety Committee, and support and training to countries for the systems for numeric isolations on selective the framework for testing the GM BCA in development and evaluation (including media and molecular approaches in the Kenya is now in place. In addition, biosafety) of, and informed decision study of microbial community dynamics, counterparts at KARI received instruction making on crop-related GM technologies. and have shown the GM bacterial in bacteriology and GM working practices In this context, and as an adjunct to the populations to decline in soils in- in preparation for in-country testing. In SSPS project described above, CABI dependently of the crop imposed, including Republic of South Africa, approval for Bioscience and partners are researching potato. From this it was concluded that soil testing under contained-use has been whether biotechnology can contribute to GM BCA populations are unlikely to gained by ARC-VOPI. the biocontrol of bacterial wilt disease on persist in agricultural soils beyond the potato in Africa. Specifically, they are Project partners are current actively timeframe expected of natural populations. engaging donors to secure the additional investigating the potential of using a non- No evidence of gene transfer between GM pathogenic mutant of the causal organism funds necessary to realise the potential of and WT populations has been observed. this innovative technology. of bacterial wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum, These data have been used in support of as the biological control agent. The testing the GM BCA in-country. Contact: Julian Smith, application for the BCA in the first instance CABI Bioscience, is the smallholder potato cropping systems The transition to in-country assessments of Bakeham Lane, of Kenya where the BCA is envisaged as an a GM and the introduction of a BCA Egham, ICM (integrated crop management) requires compliance under the International Surrey TW20 9TY, UK component of the SSPS. This research has Plant Protection Convention’s (IPPC's) Email: [email protected] been funded by the UK Department for 'Code of Conduct for the Import and Fax: +44 1491 829100 International Development (DFID). Release of Exotic Biological Control  Agents' (ISPM No. 3). While genetically The technology used in the induction of the modified BCAs will continue to fall under non-pathogenic mutation was developed by the Code of Conduct, it is recognized that the Institute National de la Recherche Control Menu for Potato Agronomique, France (INRA) on R. additional screening may be required. Aphids solanacearum of tomato, and it has proven International agreements on these requirements are generally not yet imple- In the Pacific Northwest region of the USA, relatively straightforward to apply the mented, although some countries have the biggest insect-related threat to potatoes technology to the potato isolates of Kenya. enacted national measures independently. comes from viruses, and particularly the Accordingly, a representative number of The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the leafroll virus transmitted by the green ecologically fit R. solanacearum isolates of peach aphid, Myzus persicae. The potato Kenya have been identified by genomic Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) leafroll virus is responsible for huge losses population characterization and developed addresses transboundary movement of GM organisms, or “living modified organisms” worldwide, and in the warm production as non-pathogenic mutants. Confirmatory (LMOs) as defined in that text. While over zones of this part of the USA a long season tests have confirmed the dysfunction of the 100 countries are signatories to this provides extensive opportunity for pathogenicity genes in R. solanacearum Protocol since January 2000, only five have infection. and the creation of a defined GM non- taken the steps of national adherence in pathogenic strain of the bacterium. Biocontrol Buffet order to become contracting parties. The Efficacy assessments of the non- Protocol itself does not enter into force until Aphids are attacked by a broad diversity of pathogenic bacterium as a BCA against the the 50th party to the CBD ratifies or predators and parasitoids, and the wild-type (WT) disease-causing bacterium approves it through the national pro- Homoptera as a whole are very amenable to have since been undertaken that have cedures. All GM organisms that could biological control. Encouragingly, two News 89N

Aphidius species (A. colemani and A. infected aphids, and conversely fungi were parasitoids. Internal plant residues should matricariae) that parasitize M. persicae are less likely to establish in parasitized aphids. not be accessible to insects probing along already established in parts of the Although they did not enhance each other's the leaf surface or scraping the epidermis, Northwest. Aphidius matricariae appears actions, neither did they dampen them. The but directly sprayed predators could be at to have a high preference for M. persicae mechanisms that decreased antagonistic risk, and the effects on natural enemies and is rapidly becoming common in behaviour allowed each to co-exist with walking on dried deposits on leaf surfaces collections made in potato fields in minimal negative impact on the other. have yet to be assessed. Imidacloprid seems Washington State. Another Old World Current research by USDA-ARS (US to have a persistence measured in a small parasitoid, Praon galicum, was recorded Department of Agriculture – Agricultural number of days on some leaf surfaces. from the State for the first time in 2000 and Research Service) is aimed at evaluating has been mass-reared for augmentative interactions between V. lecanii and the Another aspect of compatibility with IPM releases in 2001. parasitoid A. colemani in the M. persicae– systems is the rapidity with which a pest is potato system. likely to develop resistance and whether a The aphid parasitoids are relatively easy to pesticide is likely to be compatible in mass rear, making mass releases a viable PiècedeRésistance chemical rotation schemes designed to option. However, how far early-season delay resistance development. During the Another approach compatible with augmentative releases might suppress development of imidacloprid, more than 90 biocontrol is to decrease susceptibility to population build up has not yet been generations of M. persicae were repeatedly viral infection by engaging host plant adequately studied. Neither has a treated with different concentrations of resistance. Virus-resistant cultivars can be systematic study been conducted on the imidacloprid and resistance did not developed by conventional and bio- possible role of wild plants that harbour develop. One study, though, has found engineering techniques. It has long been early season aphids to serve as a breeding wide variation in susceptibility among realised that there is a high degree of ground to enhance early season parasitoid different populations of the Colorado resistance to the leafroll virus in potato abundance. potato (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), breeding materials. This resistance is also and this tolerance seems to be linked to pre- But could parasitoids provide a complete highly heritable, which means that the existing resistance to the carbamate answer to aphid-vectored viruses in potato? genes that control resistance are transmitted insecticide carbofuran, which suggests the Unfortunately, the answer is 'no'. Aphid from the parent to the offspring in such a possibility of cross-resistance and makes parasitoids reduce aphid populations, and way that a high proportion of the progeny resistance management is a priority. often below a level where they cause direct have high resistance too. Results from damage, but the key point about insect- conventional breeding suggested that just Information in this section comes from vectored viruses is that you do not need one or two genes had a major influence on articles focusing on imidacloprid in the many vectors to cause economically this resistance. Since then, advances in October issue of Agrichemical & Environ- damaging levels of disease in your crop. biotechnology have confirmed this. mental News (AENews), a publication from There is little evidence that aphids become Monsanto has successfully taken a gene the Pesticide Information Center, Wash- abundant enough to cause yield reduction from the potato leaf roll virus (the orf1/orf2 ington State University, USA at: or damage in cultivated potatoes, yet they gene) and inserted it into potato to create a cause major virus disease outbreaks. leafroll-resistant GM variety. The mech- Oct01AENews.htm Because of this, the economic threshold for anism of resistance is not yet understood, aphids is far lower than the population but the presence of the viral gene in the GM Single printed copies of issues of AENews levels associated with even high levels of strain of potato prevents the potato leaf roll are available while supplies last. Once parasitism. Thus parasitoid-based bio- virus from reproducing in the potato plant. supplies are diminished, individual photo- control has to be just one course in a menu This technology has been given EPA (US copies of articles or issues are available. of options for a successful IPM strategy. Environmental Protection Agency) (From January 2002, the journal will be approval and have been included in GM published in electronic form only, but What else could be on the menu? Each potato varieties, although there has been printed copies will still be available on option needs to form part of a winning apparently limited uptake so far. request.) team. Creating a menu of appropriate options, however, is not straightforward. Insecticide Role Contact: Sally O’Neal Coates, Editor of Research Publications, One potentially compatible option is the Aphid-selective insecticides are also being Pesticide Information Center, use of microbial controls, but will these assessed, with imidacloprid one candidate. Washington State University, have an additive effect? A promising This one of the neonicotinyl insecticides, 2710 University Drive, Richland, candidate is Verticillium lecanii, which has analogues of naturally occurring nicotine, WA 99352, USA been shown to have excellent activity which specifically bind to an insect’s Email: [email protected] against M. persicae in humid environ- nicotinic receptor. When first introduced to Fax+15093727491 ments. Its activity against M. persicae in the the market 8 years ago, imidacloprid was potato agroecosystem has yet to be argued to be natural enemy-friendly Clearing the Leftovers assessed, however, as is its ability to because of its low nontarget toxicity and instigate effective epizootics in the irrigated systemic action. Now it seems the story is Selective control of one pest, however, desert regions of the Pacific Northwest. more complicated. A number of different opens the door for secondary pests. In the Significantly, too, there is another possible studies have provided evidence to variously case of the Pacific Northwest potato crops, fly in the ointment. Research on Russian support or disprove the claim. Imidacloprid one such pest is the Colorado potato beetle, wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia), its common is not universally compatible with IPM, but L. decemlineata. Similarly, frequent use of parasitoid, asychis,andthe because it can be used as a systemic soil or fungicides for late blight control in some fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus seed treatment it should have definite areas has resulted in exploding M. persicae showed that parasitoids avoided fungi- benefits in protecting predators and populations because the fungicides also kill 90N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4 naturally-occurring fungi that attack the insects glow in the dark. One strain tested in G. pallida) in the Netherlands, funded by aphid. laboratory studies against Leptinotarsa NWO (Netherlands Organization for decemlineata gave 100% control, making it Scientific Research) and STW (Nether- Selective and effective control of L. a prime biocontrol candidate. Researchers lands Technology Foundation) has made decemlineata has been achieved with are now investigating some of the toxins it promising advances in this field. Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis. produces, as well as the whole bacteria for The nematodes, which cause serious This was discovered and developed as a their potential as a biocontrol for the beetle. selective larval bioinsecticide for a number damage to potato crops throughout the of chrysomelid in Germany. Fungal The P. luminescens strain tested by ARS world, normally hatch from their protective pathogens are also important naturally caused the beetles to stop eating, although cysts in spring in response to a substance occurring agents, and Beauveria bassiana the mechanism for this is not understood. excreted by potato plants. This neat has been shown to be the most effective Bacterial testing in the beetles is difficult, mechanism means that infective nematodes against L. decemlineata, although results though, because feeding is affected by emerge only when host plants at a suitable have been highly variable. Lacey has now ambient conditions. They stop, for growth stage are nearby. Each cyst is shown that in the Northwest situation, L. example, if temperature margins present in formed from the swollen remains of a decemlineata can be kept under good the field are exceeded. An artificial diet has mature female and contains several control by a mixture of B. bassiana and been developed to help study the pest, and hundred fertilized egg cells. The hatched Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis.The scientists will conduct more tests to deter- nematodes make their way to the growing fungus can persist in the soil by infecting mine the mechanism of control and roots of the plant, which they penetrate. overwintering adults. whether P. luminescens can successfully be From then on they live as parasites on the transferred from the laboratory to the field. plant. As a result, plant growth is impeded Leptinotarsa decemlineata control, though, and productivity falls. provides another angle on the neonicotinide USDA-ARS Insect Biocontrol Laboratory story, as history repeated itself with website: Researchers at NWO have produced a promising biocontrol technologies being substance in the laboratory that breaks potato cyst nematode hibernation. In field side-lined following to the introduction of Main sources: trials, this caused the nematodes to break this new chemical insecticide group. Just Lacey, L.A.; Horton, D.R. (2001) New hibernation prematurely, when there was before the neonicotinyl insecticides came ways to foil potato pests. no crop in the field, and they subsequently on the market, considerable progress was Agricultural Research, May 2001. died from starvation. being made with developing biopesticides See: for L. decemlineata control. Promising archive/may01/foil0501.htm The substance responsible for stimulating results were obtained from research Lacey, L.A.; Horton, D.R. Unruh, T.R.; nematode emergence was identified by centered on inserting delta endotoxin from Pike, K.; Márquez, M. (2001) Biological chemists at Amsterdam University as B. thuringiensis var. kurstakii into control of insect pests of potato in North solano-eclepin A, which young potato Pseudomonas fluorescens.However, America. plants excrete via their roots. Solano- continued product development was not Presented at: 2001 Washington State Potato eclepin A is, however, a complex chemical economically viable in the face of Conference and Trade Show, ‘Taller en compound whose molecular structure was competition from the neonicotinides, so Espanõl sobre la Producción de Papas’ [in only identified in 1992. Since then, work was shelved. English and Spanish]. researchers have tried to reconstruct the On the positive side, as we discussed See: complex natural product, and successfully above, neonicotinides constitute an May01AENews/May01AENews.htm synthesized the tetracyclic left-hand important group of efficaceous systemic  substructure of the compound in the compounds that have provided viable sub- configuration of solano-eclepin A. In stitutes for more (human) toxic insecticides subsequent laboratory and field tests, two Waking the Worm: Potato such as organophosphates. derivatives showed a promising ability to Cyst Nematode hatch juvenile nematodes. What the issues discussed in this article highlight above all, however, is Lacey and The potential of soil as a long-term source The team intend doing further research on a his colleagues’ assertion that an effective of viable inoculum is a common problem in wide range of substances derived from solution to pest management in potatoes crop diseases, insects and weeds. The solano-eclepin A with the aim of producing will need a truly integrated approach of all challenge is how to remove the inoculum a biologically active substance that can be agricultural practices. source effectively and safely. A promising simply prepared on an industrial scale and approach is to interfere with the life cycle which will provide an environmentally- LightattheEndoftheTunnel? of the pest so that it emerges, hatches or friendly means of protecting potato crops germinates when conditions are not against potato cyst nematode infestation. To end on a bright note, USDA researchers suitable for further development because of at the ARS Insect Biocontrol Laboratory, Such a product would allow farmers to treat adverse environmental conditions or lack Beltsville (Maryland) have reported fallow fields in order to activate the of hosts. finding a strain of Photorhabdus lumines- dormant nematode cysts in the ground. cens that outshines the competition. Many In the case of diseases with soil dormancy, These would die because there would be no strains have been found of this widely- one approach is to stimulate this to break potatoes to feed on, and potatoes could be dispersed multiple strain bacterium that when there is no host for it to infect. planted the following season without any lives in the gut of, and in symbiosis with, Understanding what is involved in natural danger of infection. If the success so far can soil-dwelling nematodes that invade breaking of dormancy, and being able to be translated into an effective product, insects. The bacteria produce a variety of simulate the same conditions artificially are potatoes will be able to be planted in the insecticidal toxins as well as luminescent essential elements. Research on potato cyst samefieldevery2yearsinsteadofevery5 proteins that make the corpses of infected nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and as at present. News 91N

Contact: Jorg Benningshof, solution for wireworms (elaterid beetle isolates tested. Further work is needed, Amsterdam University, larvae), one of British Columbia and however, to determine the conditions in Institute of Molecular Chemistry, eastern Canada's most devastating pests of which it works well and not so well, so Nieuwe Achtergracht 129, potatoes and other crops. predictions about efficacy can be made. 1018 WS Amsterdam, The Netherlands The new strain was found during field trials However, with the results of field trials Email: [email protected] by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's showing 65% mortality (55% associated Fax: +31 20 545 5670 Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre in Website: with M. anisopliae infection), the prospects Agassiz in 1999. Wireworms found with a research/imc/hiemstra/index.html for a new 3-year research programme 'fuzzy' appearance proved to be fatally appear promising.  infected with the fungus. Further laboratory tests conducted in collaboration with Contact: Todd Kabaluk, Lethbridge Research Centre and other Fungus From Fuzzy PARC Agassiz, agriculture associations investigated the Wireworms P.O. Box 1000, Agassiz, relationship between fungal dose and Finally on the potato scene for this section, infection/mortality under different soil B.C., Canada, V0M 1A0 anewstrainofMetarhizium anisopliae exposure conditions, and compared the Email: [email protected] isolated from a wireworm (Agriotis new isolate with other M. anisopliae Fax: +1 604 796 0359 obscurus) in potatoes in British Columbia, strains. Assays indicated the new strain to Canada may herald a new biocontrol be more lethal to A. obscurus than the other  Training News

In this section we welcome all your • the Farmer Field School (FFS) cotton farmer groups interviewed and their use of experiences in working directly with the IPM project run by Voice Trust and natural enemies in decision-making. end-users of and microbial Agriculture Man Ecology (AME) in Trained farmers were consistently more biocontrol agents or in educational Tamil Nadu State, India aware of natural control mechanisms than activities on natural enemies aimed at • the Farmer Field School vegetable their untrained counterparts and could students, farmers, extension staff or IPM project managed by CABI identify several key groups of important policymakers. Bioscience in collaboration with arthropod predators and parasitoids, as a Kenyan research, extension and NGOs direct result of the training activities. In in Central Province, Kenya terms of their use in decision-making, FFS Natural Enemies and farmers appeared to make much more Fieldwork was done by a multidisciplinary Farmer Decision-making active use of natural enemy incidence and team in collaboration with training project levels as decision tools than did farmers staff and involved semi-structured Understanding farmers' decision-making from the IRM programme. individual interviews with men and women processes is important if outside farmers, and farmer group analysis and interventions are to enable farmers to make IRM programme staff explained that discussion using partial participatory farm more informed pest management decisions, management budgets and causal diagrams. previously many cotton farmers would and especially if interventions are to result Details of methodology are given in the spray indiscriminately against any insects in farmers deciding to adopt IPM practices project report2. The use of discovery- in their fields, including beneficials, and the which are better for farm family welfare training had helped them to distinguish 1 learning exercises in FFS programmes to and for the environment . In order to gain a help farmers appreciate the role of natural between good and bad insects. Decision- better understanding of farmers’ decision- enemies forms a key pillar of the IPM making on the need for pesticide appli- making in pest management, fieldwork was training curriculum3 and the effectiveness cations and timing and product selection by carried out in 1999-2000 in smallholder of such training in encouraging the IRM trained farmers was mainly based on vegetable systems in Kenya and cotton conservation of natural enemies has been scouting for specific pests, observation of systems in India, both characterized by reviewed4. Farmers’ awareness of natural spray thresholds (e.g. Helicoverpa relatively high levels of external inputs, enemies was therefore studied in this armigera eggs present on 10 out of 20 increasing production costs, and pesticide fieldwork, with attention to how such plants sampled) and project recom- misuse problems. A further objective was knowledge might be used in pest mendations. These recommendations were to explore the impact of training management decision-making. Farmers validated with farmers through interventions on farmers’ decision-making were also asked how they would deal with demonstrations in their field, evaluating and the study therefore compared trained a hypothetical example of an unfamiliar particular products for specific pests, pest and untrained farmers at three sites where insect appearing in their crop, in order to stages or crop growth stages. Untrained IPM training projects were underway or explore how training and other information farmers in the same area relied mainly on had recently taken place. These were: sources influence subsequent problem pesticide dealers for advice, often spraying analysis and decision-making. insecticides on a calendar basis every 8-15 • the Insecticide Resistance Manage- days. They tended to select products such Putting Training into Practice ment (IRM) project of the Natural as monocrotophos which they perceived as Resources Institute and the Central Table 1 summarizes the awareness of 'powerful', i.e. fast-acting, or to use up Institute for Cotton Research (CICR) natural enemies and recognition capability chemicals left over from earlier in Maharashtra State, India among the different trained and untrained applications. Untrained cotton farmers in 92N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4

Table 1. Farmers’ knowledge and use of natural enemies (NE) in decision-making

Farmer group Knowledge of NE Use of NE in decision-making IRM cotton farmers, Maharashtra, Learnt about biological control as part of their train- No longer spray against "any insect" but otherwise India ing and aware of insect natural enemies. NE levels did not appear to play a significant role in Able to recognise certain groups (ladybirds, lacew- their decision-making process. ings). Untrained cotton farmers, Mahar- Low awareness of natural enemies, only 2/6 inter- None. ashtra viewed had heard of "pests that eat other pests." FFS cotton farmers, Tamil Nadu, Learnt about biological control during training and all NE population levels, in both main crop and intercrop India aware of natural enemies. rows, important in deciding whether or not to spray. Could recognise a range (ladybirds, hoverflies, lacew- Final decision made on basis of pest and natural ings, spiders, egg and larval parasitoids). enemy levels in each field. Untrained cotton farmers, Tamil Concept not totally new but they had either not None. Nadu observed any in their fields, or said they would not be able to recognise them. FFS vegetable farmers, Kenya Acquired a detailed understanding and appreciation Pest control decisions on action and methods partly of natural enemies via training (lacewings, hoverflies made with respect to NE levels via AESA1. and ladybirds (larvae and adults) parasitic wasps, cha- Avoided spraying synthetic insecticides to conserve meleons). natural enemies. Farmers invented their own names for natural enemies Pegging rather than ash preferred for cutworm control that did not have names in the local language. as it “leaves pests alive for natural enemies to eat.” Untrained vegetable farmers, Aware that natural enemy insect species existed, but None. Kenya said they would not be able to identify them. One respondent aware that chameleons were benefi- cial in coffee but did not want them in her vegetable plot in case they got diseased and contaminated the crop.

1 Agro-ecosystem analysis.

Tamil Nadu also made very similar bollworm when they quickly killed other Where Kenyan FFS graduates differed decisions. pests. from their untrained counterparts was in the use of a much wider range of pest and In contrast, cotton FFS graduates in Tamil In Kenya, untrained vegetable farmers disease management options, careful field Nadu observed natural enemies and used relied on extension services and other observation and specific decision-making them in deciding whether the balance farmers for their pest management infor- tools. They used home-made chilli extracts between pests and beneficials merited any mation. They applied insecticides on a as their first choice against a variety of control action, in addition to making preventative basis for aphids in kale and insect pests, a traditional practice which augmentative releases of Trichogramma beans, either by calendar or crop stage. they had also learnt via farmer exchange spp. for bollworm control. They also used Preventative weekly sprays of contact visits. Farmers explained that this choice pheromone and light traps to monitor fungicides were applied for late blight was influenced by their desire to avoid the adult.bollworm populations and time (Phytophthora infestans) in tomato, plus use of synthetic pesticides where possible parasitoid releases, and erected bird curative products if preventative control and conserve natural enemies but it also perches to encourage predation. Farmers broke down. These farmers mainly used had the advantage of being much cheaper recounted how they used regular field synthetic insecticides but one or two had and not requiring observance of post- observation and agro-ecosystem analysis used home-made botanical preparations or harvest intervals. They demonstrated (AESA), rather than specific thresholds, to wood ash. Inexperienced vegetable farmers knowledge of root-knot nematode make decisions, building on their group admitted that they watched to see what their Meloidogyne spp.andburnedplanttrashon experience gained during and after training. neighbours were doing and were not nursery beds to prevent this and other soil- All FFS farmers we met grew cotton as part confident in making their own decisions. borne problems. For insect control they of an intercropping system, with various Kenyan FFS graduates growing vegetables also used ash and they pegged thin sticks combinations of pigeonpea, cowpea, also relied on preventative and curative against seedling stems to prevent cutworms maize, sunflower and castor. The majority fungicide application for blight, in the (Agrotis spp.) encircling and chewing viewed intercropping as a valuable pest absence of effective, proven alternatives for through the stalk. This was another farmer management technique by maintaining or this key production constraint. However, practice acquired via exchange visits and increasing natural enemy numbers, several also used diluted milk solution to tested during training and FFS farmers although one or two farmers expressed delay the onset of blight, a practice which opted for pegging over ash as it "left pests concern that pests might 'jump' from they had learnt via farmer exchange visits alive for natural enemies to eat". cowpea to the cotton plants. Some FFS during FFS training, with variable success. farmers explained that insecticides For other disease control, FFS and Experimenting and Adapting exacerbate bollworm infestations by killing untrained farmers alike would rogue out off natural enemies, while others were not wilt-infected plants when spotted in their Farmers’ responses to the hypothetical sure why insecticides failed to control fields. questiononwhattheywoulddoon News 93N

Table 2. Farmers’ responses to a hypothetical new insect appearing in their crop

Farmer group Response on observing a new insect

IRM cotton farmers, Maharashtra, 4/5 respondents: would consult CICR1 for advice. India 1/5 respondents: would spray, but not sure which pesticide to use. Untrained cotton farmers, Maharashtra 4/6 respondents: would either consult agricultural officer or pesticide dealer. 2/6 respondents: would spray immediately. FFS cotton farmers, Tamil Nadu, India 5/6 respondents: would ask the Voice Trust for advice, and discuss with neighbours or extensionist. 1/6 respondents: would set up an insect zoo (an observation exercise from FFS) to find out if it caused damage. Untrained cotton farmers, Tamil Nadu 2/3 respondents: would spray immediately. 1/3 respondents: would see if it is doing damage before spraying. FFS vegetable farmers, Kenya Group response: (1) would catch insect, place it in a jar and observe its feeding behaviour to determine whether it was a natural enemy or a pest, (2) discuss outcome with rest of group and extension and research staff and share information with neighbours who had not been trained, and (3) if it proved to be a pest and spraying was required, chilli would be first choice. Untrained vegetable farmers, Kenya Experienced respondents: would handpick it if there were only a few, or if there were many, spray and send a sample to extension services. Less experienced respondents: would ask their neighbours for advice.

1 Central Institute for Cotton Research.

encountering an unfamiliar insect in their evaluations of discovery-learning based natural enemy populations in cotton has crop were varied, yet indicated that the IPM training5. The discussions also now been taken up by AME and partners majority of trained farmers would not spray showed that trained farmers were willing to for further research and validation. immediately on sight but seek advice or invest considerable time and effort in conduct their own experiments (Table 2). detailed field observation of , Perceptions that pesticides are essential to Regular field observation is key to effective contrary to the popular perception of many obtain good yields and that fields must be decision-making in pest management and researchers and extensionists. kept insect-free were expressed by all the all the training programmes studied had untrained farmers in this study. For the succeeded in persuading farmers of the While only one of the Indian FFS farmers Indian cotton farmers, their decision need to check what is happening in the field said they would carry out an insect zoo making had traditionally been strongly before deciding what action to take. Most experiment, case study work from other influenced by the advice and opinions of of the trained farmers appeared to be much cotton FFS groups facilitated by AME in local input supply providers, in terms of more confident in their pest management Tamil Nadu reveals how trained farmers choice of product and timing of application. capability than the untrained farmers. The actively experiment with pest and natural Independent decision making was more FFS farmers, especially in Kenya, enemy manipulation6. Cotton farmers in difficult under these circumstances, even described how they now relied more on Tiruchirapalli had learnt about agro- for trained farmers, especially those who their own knowledge or on their group to ecological functions of intercropping as wished to change from dependency on syn- solve problems than they had before. FFS part of their FFS training, observing how an thetic pesticides. Despite these pervasive training certainly appeared to have intercrop of cowpea served as an alternate influences, all three training projects provided farmers with new decision tools host to cotton aphids, , which studied had managed to alter participating and useful knowledge on pest and natural then attracted populations of ladybirds and farmers’ perceptions about pests and their enemy biology to assist decision-making. syrphids. The farmers agreed that cowpea dependency on pesticides, demonstrating The value of these tools was demonstrated provided a useful build-up of natural the importance of effective training in in the Kenyan farmers’ answers on how enemies to help control aphids in their bringing about attitudinal and behavioural they would deal with an unfamiliar insect: cotton crop but pointed out that this benefit change at farmer-level. Season-long they would catch it, place it in a jar and only lasted for the 60-day cropping period training, where farmers observe field study its feeding behaviour to find out of cowpea, whereas natural enemies are ecology and compare different pest whether it was a pest or beneficial. This needed throughout cotton’s 150 days in the management regimes, as opposed to experiment is called an 'insect zoo' and is field. They decided to adapt AME’s conventional extension methods, is critical practised as part of the FFS curriculum3. recommended intercrop design by planting in achieving such change and discovery- These decision tools and new agro- cowpea every 10-15 days during the cotton learning about biological control should ecological understanding appeared to have season, to ensure that there would always form an essential element in these training enhanced farmers’ analytical capacity, via be food for ladybird predators. This programmes. an ordered framework for observation and example demonstrates farmers’ ability to decision-making and more criteria for make in-depth observations regarding a This publication is an output of a research selection of pest control methods. Trained problem and how participatory training and project (CPP/R7500) funded by the United farmers in this study, from both FFS and research methods can encourage further Kingdom Department for International IRM programmes, also stated how much experimentation and build individual Development (DfID), for the benefit of they had enjoyed learning about pests and analysis and decision-making skills. The developing countries. The views expressed natural enemies, a finding common to most issue of how to encourage season-long are not necessarily those of DfID. 94N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4

References East Asia. Weikersheim, Germany; Margraf Verlag, In: Haskell P.; McEwen, P. (eds)Ecotoxi- pp. 265-279. 1 Meir, C.; Williamson, S.; Little, T. (2000) cology; pesticides and beneficial organ- Literature review of farmer decision- 6 isms. Anand Raj, D.; Suresh, C. (2000) Farmers' making in pest management. research on natural crop protection. Report for DFID CPP project ZA0352 Dordrecht, Netherlands; Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 404-409. In: Stoll, G. (ed) Natural crop protection in Analysis of farmers’ decision making in the tropics. Letting information come to pest management. 4 life. CABI Bioscience, Ascot, UK, 48 pp. Williamson, S.F.J. (1998) Understanding natural enemies: a review of training and Weikersheim, Germany; Margraf Verlag, 2 pp. 291-296. Little, T.; Ali, A.; Kimani, M.; Oruko, L.; information in the practical use of Williamson, S. (2000) Analysis of farmers’ biological control. By: Stephanie Williamson, decision making in pest management BNI 19, 117N-125N. DFID/CPP Project ZA0352 (R7500). International Project Officer, Pesticide Action Network-UK Eurolink A report on fieldwork carried out in Kenya 5 Meir, C. (2000) Learning and changing: and India, December 1999 – February Centre, helping farmers move to natural pest 49 Effra Road, 2000. control. CABI Bioscience, Ascot, UK, 54 pp. London SW2 1BZ, UK In: Stoll, G. (ed) Natural crop protection in Email: [email protected] 3 Vos, J. (1998) Development of decision- the tropics. Letting information come to making tools for vegetable farmers in South life.  Announcements

Are you producing a newsletter, holding a Proposed themes, which will have a key- 3rd IOBC International meeting, running an organization or note speaker and several oral contributions Symposium rearing a natural enemy that you want together with poster presentations, are: other biocontrol workers to know about? 1 Biological theory and new The Role of Genetics and Evolution in Send us the details and we will announce it approaches. Biological Control is the title of the 3rd in BNI. International Symposium of the Inter- 2 Target and agent selection: ecology in national Organization for Biological International Arthropod target selection, and ecology in Control of Noxious Animals and Plants Biocontrol Symposium exploration and agent selection. (IOBC). Co-organized with CILBA (Com- 3 Risk analysis: host-specificity proce- plexe International de Lutte Biologique The 1st International Symposium on dures, non-target effects (including Agropolis), it will be held on 14-16 October Biological Control of Arthropods [see BNI food-web and downstream impacts) 2002 in Montpellier, France. 22(1), 14N (March 2001)] has been and risk assessment, decision-making rescheduled for 13-18 January 2002, and The last decade of the 20th century brought and risk management. will be held at the same venue as planned major change, with revolutionary advances for last September. At the time of preparing 4 Evaluation: population ecology in the in molecular biology that opened vast new this issue (October 2001), re-registration measurement of biocontrol impact, areas for basic and applied research. This was well advanced, with the majority of community and landscape scale has provided new issues for classical, registered participants planning to attend. approaches to evaluating biocontrol augmentative and conservation approaches The organizers have made every effort to effectiveness, and economic and to biological control. For example: (1) How contact all of these, and extend their thanks social indicators of biocontrol impact. and when can molecular genetics be used to to all for their patience and understanding. 5 Integration and management: release trace the origin of target pests in classical BNI will include a report from the meeting and redistribution tactics and strate- biological control? (2) What will be the inafutureissue. gies, integration with other control genetic consequences of releasing trans- Contact: Roy Van Driesche methods, and technology transfer genic or non-transgenic biological control Email: [email protected] (national and international). agents? (3) How compatible are transgenic Website: crops and natural enemies in conservation The Congress Committee is chaired by biological control?  Mark Lonsdale, with David Briese as Treasurer. The Symposium will address recent International Weed Contact: Congress Secretary, developments in genetics and evolutionary Biocontrol Congress CSIRO Entomology, biology, and their relevance to biological GPO Box 1700, control, and the organizers have invited The XI Symposium on Biological Control Canberra ACT 2601 Australia leading genetic ecologists and biological of Weeds, the next in this pivotal meetings Email: [email protected] control researchers to speak on these topics. series, will be held in Canberra, Australia Fax:+61262464177 The Symposium's aims are to acquaint on 27 April – 2 May 2003, with an Website: biological control workers with the latest emphasis on the importance of ecology as weeds2003/index.html advances in genomics and molecular the underpinning discipline for biological biology and to explore ways in which these control  advances can be put to practical use in News 95N biological control. The aims will be research activities and achievements. In the [email protected] addressed under the following themes: latest issue*, a short report is given on Fax: +91 80 3411961 planning for international collaboration on 1 Genetic variation in pests and natural  biological control. A report on training enemies. conducted, publications issued, and 2 Genetic diagnostic tools in biological workshops, seminars and exhibitions Biocontrol in Hindi control. organized is included, together with a list of The Project Directorate of Biological 4 Tracing the origin of pests and natural distinguished visitors to PDBC. Control, Bangalore organized scientific enemies. *Biocontrol Newsletter 2001. Vol. XI, No. seminars in Hindi on the 14th of every 5 Predicting evolutionary change in 1. PDBC, Bangalore, India, 4 pp. month from September 1999 to September pests and natural enemies. 2000 in connection with the National Copies can be obtained from the publisher: Language ('Raj Bhasha – Hindi) Golden 6 Compatibility of transgenic crops and Project Directorate of Biological Control Jubilee Celebrations. The seminars covered natural enemies. (ICAR), many aspects of the biological control of 7 Transgenic biological control agents. P.B. No. 2491, H. A. Farm Post, crop pests and weeds. A book* comprising Hebbal, Bellary Road, 14 chapters has now been published based Contact: Mireille Montes de Oca, Bangalore 560 024, Karnataka, India on the seminars, and will be of immense IOBC International Symposium, Email: [email protected] / help on the specialized topic of biological AGROPOLIS, Avenue Agropolis, [email protected] control to readers of Hindi. 34394 Montpellier, Fax: +91 80 3411961 Cedex 5, France Singh, S.P. (2001) Email: [email protected]  Jaivik Niyantran [Biological control] Fax:+33467047599 Bangalore, India, PDBC, 127 pp. Website: Copies can be obtained from: symposium2002/ Indian Potato Biocontrol Bibliography Project Director,  Project Directorate of Biological Control Among the world's food crops, potatoes (ICAR), IOBC Water Hyacinth rank fifth in tonnage. In 1996-7, India P.B.No.2491,H.A.FarmPost, Meeting emerged as the third largest producer of Hebbal, Bellary Road, potatoes in the world with a total Bangalore 560 024, Karnataka, India The 3rd IOBC Global Working Group production of 25 million tonnes and an Email: [email protected] / Meeting for the Biological and Integrated average yield of 19.2 t/ha. A number of [email protected] Control of Water Hyacinth will take place pests, both in fields and stores, attack potato Fax: +91 80 3411961 in Entebbe, Uganda on 27-29 August 2002, and are responsible for reducing yield. Of  organized by the Biological Control Unit of these, about 80 pests have been reported the Namulonge Agricultural and from India. The current plant protection Production Research Institute (NAARI) of techniques are mainly pesticide-based, New Leafminer Website Uganda. This workshop proposes to which, in spite of their indisputable merits A new Philippines-based leafminer facilitate the dissemination of recent in increasing crop production, have a webpage has been launched to assist local research into the biological and integrated number of adverse side effects. In the technicians and farmers, and enhance control of water hyacinth and to identify changing scenario of pest management, an interactions between scientists around the areas that may lead to improved control. It integrated approach is advocated, where globe. Please browse through the site at: also aims to establish closer links between predators, parasitoids and diseases of pests researchers and water hyacinth managers. along with other safe and environmentally and send comments and suggestions via the sound methods of pest control play a Contacts: Dr James Ogwang, guestbook or directly to Dr Joshi at the Biological Control Unit, dominant role. It was, therefore, felt address below. Namulonge Agricultural and Animal Pro- imperative to consolidate the entire work Although developed as a primer focusing duction Research Institute, done on biocontrol of potato pests in India. on leafminers of vegetables in the P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, This bibliography* will be of interest to scientists, students and research workers, Cordillera Region, and dealing with species Uganda project funding agencies and others. identified from there, much of the Email: [email protected] information has a wider relevance. It covers Dr Martin Hill, *Singh, S.P.; Joshi, S. (eds) (2001) reasons for the increased importance of PPRI, Annotated bibliography of biological con- these pests, life cycles, host plants and Private Bag X 134, trol of potato pests in India (1914-2000). damage caused, together with management Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Bangalore, India; options. There is also an international Email: [email protected] Project Directorate of Biological Control directory of relevant expert individuals and Technical Bulletin No. 28, 92 pp.  organizations and a bibliography. A science comic on leafminer for farmers and Copies of can be obtained from: technicians and a video film on leafminer Project Director, Project Directorate of Newsletter from can be opened in Microsoft PowerPoint. Bangalore Biological Control (ICAR), P.B. No. 2491, H. A. Farm Post, Contact: Dr R.C. Joshi, The newsletter from the Project Directorate Hebbal, Bellary Road, Crop Protection Specialist, of Biological Control Bangalore gives a Bangalore 560 024, Karnataka, India c/o Department of Agriculture, brief update on activities and highlights Email: [email protected] / Regional Field Unit, 96N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4

Cordillera Administrative Region, growers, processors, retailers and Published in English and French, they Baguio City, Philippines researchers around the world instant and cover methods for controlling pests Email: [email protected] / free access to the latest business and crop (including pathogens and weeds) of [email protected] / management information. He sees primarily ware potatoes. Each pest problem [email protected] communication and information exchange is outlined, and the strategy for dealing with  between growers, processors and it is described, including details, where researchers as key to the potato sector’s applicable, of control methods and timing success. Since last year, the site has been New IPM Website of interventions, together with constraints sponsored by Syngenta (and there are links such as pesticide resistance. Pests covered The new 'sp-IPM 2001' website of the to their business and crop management include: Phytophthora infestans (late CGIAR (Consultative Group on Interna- tools). The site combines up-to-the-minute blight), Alternaria solani (early blight), tional Agricultural Research) Systemwide international potato news, market infor- Thanatephorus cucumeris (black scurf and mation, trends and statistics with access to Program on Integrated Pest Management is stem canker), Verticillium dahliae a large reference database. up and running at: (verticillium wilt), storage diseases, It hosts also Potato Research Online, which Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado The sp-IPM is a complex multi-centre, provides email alerts of key potato research beetle), aphids, Phthorimaea opercullela multi-stakeholder initiative, so this well- news. The latest development is a bi- (potato tuber moth), soil Coleoptera designed site is particularly useful for monthly emailed research-focused news- (Agriotis spp. wireworms and Melolontha explaining how the programme operates letter, the first appearing in November 2001 spp. whitegrubs), noctuids (cutworms), the and the involvement of its different with some 40 articles on all aspects of mirid Lygoris pabulinus, leafhoppers stakeholders. Also invaluable are the potato research. A veritable feast! (Empoasca vitis, E. solani and Eupteryx project pages themselves, which provide a Contact: Lukie Pieterse, atropunctata), Globodera spp. (potato cyst wealth of well-organized detail covering Content Manager, Global Potato News, nematodes), slugs and weeds. The use of the rationale for the work, partner Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, desiccants as haulm killers and sprout involvement, activities undertaken and Canada suppressants is also covered. The progress so far – and lots of pictures! Email: [email protected] guidelines, part of an EPPO programme to   prepare such guidelines for all major crops of the EPPO region, should be read in conjunction with EPPO Standard PP 2/1(1) Hot Potato Research On- EPPO Potato Guidelines Principles of Good Plant Protection line Given all the articles on potatoes in this Practice. The new Global Potato News website at: issue, it seems a good time to include a note about the new EPPO (European and *OEPP/EPPO (2001) Bulletin OEPP/ has developed out of a homegrown-site, Mediterranean Plant Protection Organ- EPPO Bulletin 31, 183-199. which grew and grew. Lukie Pieterse, who ization) Guidelines On Good Plant founded it in 1997, aims to give potato Protection Practice for potatoes*.  Conference Reports

Have you held or attended a meeting that discussion of the many aspects of 2. Taxonomic identification and selec- you want other biocontrol workers to know biological control. tion of natural enemies (predators, about? Send us a report and we will include parasitoids and insect pathogens). There were eight conferences, and 24 it in BNI. plenary sections organized within the The correct taxonomic identification established themes: of a biocontrol agent is of great VII Siconbiol importance since its scientific name is 1 Ecology and biological control (tri- key to providing correct information The VII Symposium on Biological Control trophic interactions, plant diversity on its morphology, biology, behaviour (VII Siconbiol) was held in Poços de and biological control, weeds and and potential harm for human health. Caldas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil on 3- insecticides, endophytic microorgan- Improving identification techniques 7 June 2001. The meeting was attended by isms). 530 registered participants and invited and developing methods based on Strategies used to preserve native and/ speakers. phylogenetic studies and direct or introduced natural enemies in analysis of DNA will lead to better The Symposium benefited from the agroecosystems were discussed. precision in identifications, increasing participation of specialists from Belgium, Supplementary food sources, refuges the prob-ability of success in efficient Canada, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, the USA, and/or adoption of crop management natural enemy selection. Finland, France, Holland, the UK, Israel tactics which guarantee more 3 Attributes of a good natural enemy and Italy who contributed with Brazilian ecological stability in the crop area (predators, parasitoids and insect experts to the success of the event, are considered key factors in pathogens). demonstrating once more that the symposia biological control programmes and on biological control are recognized by the for the preservation of biocontrol Specific attributes are of great impor- scientific community as the best forum for agents. tance for using entomophagous and News 97N

pathogenic organisms in an economic organisms, and assuring their Practising Biological and efficient way, and similarly as efficiency in the target organism. Control biocontrol agents for weeds and as 7 Risk analysis and environmental antagonists for the biological control An international conference, The Practice impact in the introduction of natural of plant diseases. Biocontrol of of Biological Control: Importation and enemies (legislation, biological con- human and domestic animal diseases Management of Natural Enemies and trol and genetically modified requires agents with special character- Agents, was held on 2-5 August 2001 at organisms, classic biological control) istics, given the nature of the problem. Montana State University, in Bozeman, New knowledge on the ecology and The introduction of biological control USA. The conference consisted of 11 biology of these organisms will allow agents in a particular ecosystem alters invitational keynote speaker and panel the identification of new desirable its composition and has a not well- discussion sessions covering issues of characteristics for a good biological understood impact. The importance of importance to all of the disciplines involved control agent. risk analysis and environmental in applied biological control. Afternoon impact evaluation has been increas- poster sessions were held for specific 4 Improving the efficiency of natural ingly recognised as an indispensable research posters submitted by attendees. enemies (increment factors in procedure to assure a sustainable The conference was attended by 140 biological control, insect pathogens in agriculture. practitioners from 20 countries, and was agriculture and in vector insect co-sponsored by IOBC-NRS (International control). 8 Cases of success in biological control Organization for Biological Control, (agricultural, urban and forest eco- Natural enemies (predators, parasi- Nearctic Regional Section) and the systems) toids, insect pathogens or antagonists) Cooperative States Research, Education and Extension Service Experiment Station have characteristics which make them Biological control should not be con- Committee on Organization and Policy, specific or generalist, enzootic or sidered a unique and isolated method, Biological Control Working Group epizootic agents of control, which but as one tool in a group of strategies (ESCOP-BCWG). The conference was indicates strategies for their use in of management. The success of the supported largely by registration fees of inoculative or inundative releases, and establishment of a native or exotic attendees, with additional funds provided conservation and augmentation natural enemy or the efficiency of a by the National Biological Control Institute among other uses. These character- pathogen in pest control are therefore (USDA-APHIS-PPQ-NBCI), the USDA istics can be manipulated to favour dependent on several factors: biotic, Competitive Grants Program (NRI), and their utilization as biocontrol agents. abiotic, cultural and social. Biological the Invasive Species Initiative (USDA- Techniques for breeding better natural control programmes established as APHIS). enemies were discussed, covering standard practice in pest control were more conventional to more advanced discussed in this section. Limited copies of the conference pro- techniques, such as the use of the gramme, which includes abstracts, are In addition, 430 papers covering establish- rDNA. available from the conference organizer. ed themes were presented in poster sessions 5 Commercial production of biocontrol over the 4-day event. Contact: Tim Kring, agents (entomophages, biological University of Arkansas - Entomology, control and pheromones in agribusi- Two sets of abstracts were produced: Cralley-Warren Research Laboratories, ness, insect pathogens). • Abstracts book/Livro de resumos. VII 2601 N. Young Avenue, Fayetteville, Modern agriculture causes severe Simpósio de Controle Biológico, AR 72704, USA problems in environmental and Poços de Caldas, MG, Brazil, 3-7 June Email: Email: [email protected] human health and leads to a dramatic 2001, 472pp. This contains abstracts of Fax: +1 501 575 3348 reduction in biodiversity, as a result of papers presented in the poster sections, intense and frequent utilization of without the texts of the conferences.  pesticides. In this section, analyses • CD-ROM - Simpósio de Controle were presented of incentives and Biológico. VII Simpósio de Controle Biological Control perspectives for the commercial- Biológico, Poços de Caldas, MG, Meetings in India ization of biological control in Brazil Brazil, 3-7 June 2001. This contains in the light of similar initiatives in the abstracts of the papers presented in Biological Control Symposium other countries. the poster sections, together with the The Society for the Advancement of texts of the conferences. 6 Quality control of natural enemies Biological Control, Bangalore, and the (entomophages and insect pathogens) The success of VII Siconbiol was the result Indian Society for the Advancement of of the united efforts of many people, Insect Science organised a Symposium on Rearing and producing natural universities, research institutions, develop- 'Biocontrol Based Pest Management for enemies under laboratory conditions ment agencies, scientific societies and Quality Crop Protection in the Current can alter the performance of such private initiative, which in direct or indirect Millennium', which was held at Punjab organisms, resulting in failures in ways contributed for the realization of the Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana biological control. Care in selection event, and to whom the Organizing on 18-19 July 2001. [See Proceedings criteria and attention to rearing Committee expresses its gratitude. section, this issue.] methodologies are important to guarantee the quality of the product. By: Vanda Helena Paes Bueno, Dr S. P. Singh, Project Directorate of Quality control is of great importance President, VII Siconbiol Biological Control (PDBC), Bangalore, for assuring the performance of welcomed the delegates and gave a brief predators, parasitoids and pathogenic  account of advances in biological control in 98N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4

India. Padma Bhushan Dr Rajindra Singh PCR (V. K. Dilawari); Importance of 11 Development of protocols for non- Paroda, Secretary, Department of quality control in commercial production of target risk assessment. Agricultural Research and Education and biocontrol agents (K. P. Jayanth); and Policy areas recommended for develop- Director General, Indian Council of Pheromones as a tool for IPM (Kinya ment were: Agricultural Research, New Delhi, Ogawa & Toshimi Kobayashi). inaugurated the symposium and delivered 12 The constitution of focused working There were three poster sessions in which the inaugural address: 'Relevance of groups and experts’ panels for visual- more than 170 papers were presented. The biocontrol in the current agricultural izing future thrusts and developing papers presented by Dr S. Ramani, Dr S. S. scenario in India.' Padma Bhushan appropriate vision documents and Hussaini and Dr ( Mrs) C. R. Ballal, all Professor Virender L. Chopra, National concept notes for inter-institutional from PDBC, Bangalore, took the best Professor, delivered a special lecture on cooperation including stakeholder poster paper awards for the three sessions. 'Biotechnological approaches to biological participation and popularization of the control of crop pests.' Dr Kirpal Singh The Symposium came up with 20 technology for biocontrol. Aulakh, Vice Chancellor, PAU, Ludhiana, recommendations in three areas. Areas 13 Initiatives to further promote policy presided over the function. Dr Darshan recommended for targeting in research support, encourage private enterprise Singh, Professor and Head, Department of were: and simplify the product registration Entomology, PAU, Ludhiana, proposed a as well as quality control guidelines 1 Strengthening national capacity for vote of thanks. of bioagents. utilizing molecular tools together with There were 200 participants from India, conventional taxonomic tools in 14 Enforcement of quality control checks Kenya, the UK, Australia, Thailand, the characterizing and mapping the necessary in production, sale and use Philippines and Japan. Eighteen invited diversity of native biocontrol agents. of biocontrol agents. papers were presented in three different 2 Intensification of software develop- 15 Registration and licensing of sessions over two days. Lead papers were ment for identification and databases. biocontrol producing individuals and presented on: Innovations in mass rearing organizations in the government and 3 Exploration of additional opportun- technology and techniques for mass private sectors. releases, transportation and storage of ities for selective deployment of natural enemies (S. P. Singh); Bio- biocontrol agents that perform more 16 Designation of quality control labora- intensive management of cereal stemborers effectively in important crop targets. tories for biological control. in Africa: exploiting chemical ecology and 4 Intensification of work on evolving 17 Policy on registration of pesticides natural enemies in a ‘push-pull’ strategy (Z. superior strains of parasitoids and that are ecofriendly and safe to natural R. Khan); New approaches in maximizing predators which would perform better enemies, including provision of re- the effectiveness of natural enemies (D. N. in field conditions. registration after evaluating their Yadav); Tritrophic interactions amongst performance. host plants, insect pests and their natural 5 Identification and utilization of 18 Strengthening of human resource enemies (A. J. Tamhankar & K. Shan- manipulative practices that enhance development (HRD) and transfer of tharam); Augmentation biocontrol: recent the efficacy of promising biocontrol technology mechanisms. progress and emerging opportunities (S. agents. Development issues recommended for Sithanantham & N. K. Maniania); Innova- 6 Creation of a National Repository for addressing were: tions in mass production of microbial potential bio-agents. agents for the control of insect pests (V. M. 19 To intensify awareness programmes Pawar, U. T. Thombre & P. S. Borikar); 7 Development of inter-disciplinary and international collaboration in selected among the farmers about the benefits Biotechnological approaches in increasing of use of natural enemies and themes including biosystematics, effectiveness of microbial agents (R. J. availability of resources. Rabindra, J. S. Kennedy, N. Sathiah & B. native diversity characterization, gene Rajasekaran); Biological control of plant banks, habitat management, tritrophic 20 Country-wide networking to dissemi- pathogens – an application of natural interactions and quality monitoring. nate information on biological con- trol. control (A. N. Mukhopadhyay); Integration 8 Strengthening of research strategies to of biocontrol with chemical and non- promote in vitro production tech- The above recommendations may be chemical methods of pest management niques of biocontrol agents to adopted as appropriate by different (Banpot Napompeth); Transgenics in insect enhance the capacity to produce and organizations such as the Ministry of pest management (D. S. Brar & G. S. enable the commercial production of Agriculture, Ministry of Commerce, Khush); Development and use of heat and these agents. Ministry of Human Resource Develop- insecticide tolerant strains of natural ment, Department of Agriculture and 9 Increased emphasis on genetic enemiesinIPM(J.Singh,K.S.Brar&J.P. Cooperation, Department of Agricultural improvement, utilization, commercial Singh); Biocontrol of weeds using Research and Education, Indian Council of production and popularization of pathogens: recent advances (Carol A. Agricultural Research, Department of viral, fungal and bacterial pathogens, Ellison & H. C. Evans); Bt-cotton to Biotechnology, Department of Science and fungal and bacterial antagonists and combat bollworms: its development and Technology, Department of Environment entomopathogenic nematodes in current status (T. M. Manjunath & K. S. and Forests, Directorate of Plant biological control. Mohan); Recent developments in Protection, Quarantine and Storage, biocontrol of weeds using insects (Rachel 10 Establish and standardize quality University Grants Commission, Council of E. Cruttwell McFadyen); Role of cultural control parameters for biocontrol Scientific and Industrial Research, state practices in improving the abundance and agents to enable quality control agricultural universities, state departments efficiency of natural enemies (M. V. Potdar checks necessary in production, sale of agriculture, state departments of & A. K. Kakkar); Development of RAPD and use of biocontrol agents. horticulture, etc. News 99N

Indian Biocontrol Workers' Group although more Mediterranean species were There were 2 oral sessions in biological Meeting highlighted than previously. It was pleasing control, and in IPM there were 3 sessions. from a biocontrol perspective for there to be The papers presented in the biological The 10th Biocontrol Workers' Group American, Australian and New Zealand control sessions could be broadly classified Meeting was held at Punjab Agricultural speakers since classical biocontrol is so into those dealing with: (1) Status of natural University, Ludhiana on 20-21 July 2001 commonplace in these cutting edge enemies and their biology including (under the aegis of the Indian Council of countries. Due to high demand there was a advances in the rearing of selected natural Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Japanese knotweed discussion group enemies; and (2) Implementation of Delhi). Around 60 delegates representing chairedbyMaxWadewhichspentsome ICAR, New Delhi, ICAR institutes, state time discussing biological control and biological control in crop systems. Some of agricultural universities and other invitees concluded that it was a good idea. As the the papers presented in (1) were: (i) Some participated. The members presented work problems with invasive plant species grow native parasitoids and their biological done in the year 2000-01 on various aspects worse, more and more attention is being control aspects on aphids of vegetables relating to biological control of crop pests paid to practical solutions and sustainable from Kyushu Island of Japan; (ii) and weeds. The workshop then held tech- management solutions; this should mean Parasitoids and hyperparasitoids of walnut nical sessions. The technical programme that biocontrol receives the attention it aphid in Iran; (iii) Multiparasitism between was formulated for the years 2002-03 and deserves. Eriborus argenteopilosus and Microplitis 2003-04 in the final session. manilae: its effect on encapsulation and The proceedings of the conference will be parasitoid survival and (iv) Recent advance By:DrS.P.Singh, published by Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, in in vitro rearing of egg parasitoids in Project Director, The Netherlands and will continue the Project Directorate of Biological Control ‘Plant Invasions’ series. The next China. Topics presented in (2) included: (i) (ICAR), conference is planned for 2003, with the Cotton aphid management by using a P.B.No.2491,H.A.FarmPost, venue yet to be decided. marginal mutual alfalfa zone; (ii) Hebbal, Bellary Road, Successful biological control of Bemisia Bangalore 560 024, For details of previous conferences in the tabaci species complex in the United Karnataka, India series including abstracts, see: States; (iii) Managing pesticide use on Email: [email protected] / sugarpeas in relation to parasitoid [email protected] invasives/index.htm dynamics; (iv) Biological control of the Fax: +91 80 3411961 cocoa pod borer using cocoa black ants By: Lois Child, Loughborough University (CBA) in Malaysia: CBA colony  and Richard Shaw, CABI Bioscience development in artificial pests. Contact: Lois Child, The papers presented in the IPM sessions Alien Plant Invaders Centre for Environmental Studies, Loughborough University, encompassed areas that dealt with: (1) The 6th EMAPi (Ecology and Management Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK Status of pests and their IPM programmes of Alien Plant Invasions) Conference was Email [email protected] in crop systems; (2) Review and held at Loughborough University, UK on Fax: +44 1509 222558 assessment of current methodologies and 12-15 September 2001 and was organised approaches, with emphasis on bio-based by Dr Lois Child. This was the latest in a  technologies, used in IPM programmes; (3) series of international conferences which Role of extension in area-wide IPM started in Loughborough in 1992 and programmes. A sample of papers presented intervening ones have been held in recent Asia Pacific Entomology in (1) includes: (i) Insect infestation of years in Kostelec, Czech Republic; indigenous vegetables in Sarawak; (ii) IPM Arizona, USA; Berlin, Germany; and La The4thAsiaPacificConferenceof Maddalena, Sardinia, Italy. Entomology was held on 14-17 August of Sesamia nonagriodes, a sugarcane borer 2001 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The in Iran; in (2): (i) Dispersion of the cocoa A total of 34 oral papers and 31 posters theme of this meeting, which was jointly pod borer egg population in cocoa-coconut were presented at the conference under the organized by the Malaysian Plant ecosystems; (ii) Sampling of Xantho- seven conference themes: Global issues; Protection Society (MAPPS) and the galeruca luteola on Ulmus spp. in urban Mechanisms; Alien floras; Species ecology Entomological Society of Malaysia condition and development of sequential - congeners; Species ecology - case studies; (ENTOMA) was 'Entomology for a sampling plans; (iii) Bio-based pest Impacts; and Control and management. dynamic and borderless world'. The management approaches against the Conference saw the participation of 273 diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella in The conference, which was truly participants from 22 countries covering brassicas grown within a nethouse; and in international, was attended by 71 delegates various disciplines and vocations. In (3): (i) Area-wide fruitfly control in Taiwan from countries including Australia, New congruence to the fluid nature of the Zealand, South Africa, China, USA, conference theme, and the varied response (1994-2000); (ii) Extension’s role in area Ecuador, Hungary, Spain, Portugal, Italy, from participants, amongst the 34 sessions wide programmes for managing fruit flies France, Germany, Czech Republic, on different topics, papers dealt with some in Hawaii. Slovakia, Poland, Denmark, England, generic issues in the areas of biological Scotland, Ireland and Wales. control and IPM, and papers addressed a By: Dr A. Sivapragasam, whole range of basic to applied topics of MARDI, Malaysia From the European context, the usual interests, both for the tropical and suspects still dominated discussions temperate situations.  100N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4

New Books

Toolkit for Aliens best practice. It identified bodies to lead in by example, and leads on where to learn the international arena, and called for a more. This new publication* is neither a focus on (bio)geographically isolated The book provides a wealth of information spaceship repair manual, nor a companion ecosystems. on best management practices for IAS and volume to 'The Hitchhiker's Guide to the will assist and direct those involved with Galaxy', but a key resource from the Global GISP was initiated to address these issues biodiversity conservation and land man- Invasive Species Programme (GISP). Its of IAS formulated in the CBD. It is agement. The breadth of the management publication marks the culmination of a 2½- coordinated by SCOPE (the Scientific approach and the numerous case studies year consultative process to develop a Committee on Problems of the will also be of interest and an information compilation of best prevention and Environment) in conjunction with IUCN source for a wider public audience. management practices for invasive alien (the World Conservation Union), CABI Management (in a wider sense) of IAS is species (IAS). Over this period, it has and UNEP (the UN Environment described: from the establishment of become known to those involved as simply Programme). Its goal is to enable com- national management plans, to measures to 'The GISP Toolkit'. munities and conservation managers to draw on the best available tools to improve prevent invasions, opportunities for risk IAS are familiar territory to biocontrol prevention and management of biological analysis processes, early detection systems researchers and practitioners. Water invasions, and that is the focus of the GISP and methods for management. hyacinth, depicted on the toolkit's front toolkit. Publication of the GISP Toolkit is not the cover, is one of the best-publicized cases in end of the line. The text and case studies recent years. Originating in South America, The toolkit was designed and partially will be adapted to form a website, and it is it has become widely distributed by drafted at a workshop held in Kuala intended that this will become an enduring humans in the Old World tropics because of Lumpur in March 1999 by a group of but dynamic version of the Toolkit, to be its attractive flowers. It inflicts significant experts gathered together from 13 countries updated with new information, Internet economic damage by impairing water around the globe. In addition, these and links, and case studies as these become transport, disrupting hydro-electric power other internationally renowned experts available. In particular, the some hundred generation, preventing fishing, and prepared case studies of successful projects separate case studies in the published highlighting successes, problems and blocking irrigation schemes and reservoirs, version represent the expertise of the but it also affects biodiversity by reducing opportunities for prevention and man- workshop participants, and the people native fish, aquatic invertebrates and plants. agement of IAS. Continuing from this, subsequently involved in the preparation of Integrated pest management (IPM) has Rüdiger Wittenberg and Matthew Cock of the toolkit, and are therefore not proven to be most efficient in clearing lakes CAB International prepared the text of the representative of the full range of experi- and rivers, using case-specific combin- toolkit, which was then reviewed by the ence worldwide. Therefore, nationally and participants of the Kuala Lumpur workshop ations of mechanical, chemical, and regionally focused case studies using local biological control techniques. and their feedback incorporated. Dick adaptations of the toolkit will be Veitch of New Zealand acted as a third particularly welcomed. The Convention on Biological Diversity editor during this review process. The (CBD) recognises IAS as the second resultant draft was presented at the GISP Initial financial support for the Toolkit greatest threat to biodiversity after habitat Final Synthesis Conference held in Cape came from the Global Environment Facility destruction (and the greatest threat on Town, South Africa in September 2000, (GEF), UNEP, UNESCO (UN Edu- islands). All signatories to the CBD have an and reviewed in working groups during the cational, Scientific and Cultural Organ- obligation under Article 8(h) to "prevent conference. Many valuable suggestions ization), the Norwegian Government, the introduction of, control or eradicate made at this time were incorporated in the NASA (US National Aeronautics and those alien species which threaten toolkit text prepared for publication as this Space Administration), ICSU (Inter- ecosystems, habitats and species." The book. national Council for Science), La mechanisms for this were elaborated at Fondation Total, and the John D. and COP-5 (the 5th Conference of the Parties to Although the toolkit's focus is on IAS Catharine MacArthur Foundation, while the CBD, held in Nairobi, May 2000). affecting biodiversity, many examples are the participating groups have made Decision V/8, ‘Alien species that threaten drawn from traditional sectors such as substantial in-kind contributions. GISP is a ecosystems, habitats or species’, urged agriculture and forestry, reflecting the component of DIVERSITAS, an Parties, other governments and relevant diverse problems caused by IAS and the international programme on biodiversity bodies to give priority to the development wider knowledge base and experiences science. and implementation of IAS strategies and with IAS in these commercial sectors. The *Wittenberg, R.; Cock, M.J.W. (eds) action plans. It called for case studies by 102 case studies presented span the globe (2001) Invasive alien species: a toolkit of countries, particularly focusing on thematic and cover most regions, although islands best prevention and management practices. assessments. It called for information are particularly stressed because they are Wallingford, Oxon, UK; CABI Publishing, sharing and harmonization of approaches. especially vulnerable to the impact of IAS. 228 pp. Pbk. ISBN 0851995691 It suggested priority issues to address, Theimmensescopeoftheissueprohibitsa including mechanisms for transboundary comprehensive description of detailed The GISP Toolkit is available free of cooperation and regional and multilateral approaches. Hence, an essential feature of charge to all developing countries while cooperation, and including exchange of the toolkit is to provide an overview, advice supplies last. Contact: Laurie E. Neville, News 101N

Coordinator, help reduce the vulnerability of many the short and medium term is drawn Global Invasive Species Programme, agricultural producers in such countries, together for each importer country in a Department of Biological Sciences, especially the small-scale resource-poor discussion that identifies market opportun- 385 Serra Mall/Herrin Labs 477, farmers. However, owing to a lack of ities for developing countries. Stanford University, Stanford, distinction between organic and con- CA 94305-5020, USA ventional food products, little information The book then looks at seven case studies, Email: [email protected] has been available on organic horticultural countries that have established, or are Fax: +1 650 723 9253 market development and internationally developing, organic sectors (Argentina, Internet: traded volumes, on which private and Cameroon, Chile, the Dominican Republic, public sector decision-makers in devel- Madagascar, Papua New Guinea and The GISP Toolkit is also available for pur- oping countries could base decisions about Zambia). For each, the history of organic chase at UK£27.50 / US$50.00 (+ p&p). conversion to organic production. development is outlined, active institutions Contact: CABI Publishing, are identified, and national standards and CAB International, Wallingford, This publication* presents the findings of a regulations noted. Current organic pro- Oxfordshire OX10 8DE, UK recent joint study by the Food and duction and growth are described, focusing Email: [email protected] Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), on fruit and vegetables, and types of Fax: +44 1491 829292 the International Trade Centre (ITC) and producers are identified. An economic Internet: the Technical Centre for Agricultural and analysis of organic vs. conventional pro- or link directly to the title at Rural Cooperation (CTA) on international duction is presented, and production trade in certified organic fresh tropical and supports and constraints are considered. In- book_detail.asp?isbn=0851995691 temperate fruit and vegetables. It fills the country and export markets and marketing information gap with details of organic  chains are described. Lessons to be drawn market development and global trade in from each case study are summarized in a these products. Organic Opportunities discussion that highlights the strengths, Identified The study analysed the major global weaknesses, opportunities and threats to the organic markets in Europe (Austria, country's organic sector, and points out The world market for organic foods, and Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, areas for future growth together with any particularly for fruit and vegetables, has Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, constraints. been expanding strongly and steadily since Switzerland and the UK), Japan and the the mid-1990s. This has created a viable USA. For each country, it summarizes the The main findings of both the developed and sometimes value-added niche in the development of the organic sector, and market surveys and developing country market. Organic production in developed gives current production figures for organic case studies are synthesized to identify countries is likely to be outstripped by fruit and vegetables. It provides data on the opportunities for developing countries, by demand, at the very least in the short and organic market, focusing on fruit and highlighting product categories likely to medium term, opening the way for the vegetables, and covers distribution provide market opportunities to them. At significant organic imports. Tropical and channels, market trends and market access. the same time, the book gives guidance on off-season produce, for which many It discusses constraints to market devel- requirements for producing and exporting developing countries have comparative opment (supplies, price premiums, organic products to major markets, and advantages, will also continue to provide consumer attitudes). The import market is warns of pitfalls and likely constraints. growth opportunities. equally fully analysed, with regulations The economies of many developing outlined, and data on current imports of *Anon (2001) World markets for organic countries depend on the export of a small organic fruit and vegetables summarized. fruits and vegetables. Opportunities for number of mostly agricultural com- Main importers are identified. Import developing countries in the production and modities. Diversification has been made trends and constraints to growth are also export of organic horticultural products. more crucial than ever by the prospect of considered. This qualitative and quantita- Rome; FAO/ITC/CTA, 312 pp. further market liberalization in the near tiveinformationondemandintheworld's future. Expansion into high-value crops can largest markets and prospects for growth in  Proceedings

Augmentative Biocontrol some major crop pests, and addresses ments, quality control, storage, shipment/ issues such as quality control, regulation transport, marketing, release/application of The proceedings* have been published of a and registration, and commercial produc- augmentative agents, and evaluation of workshop held in June 2000 at the Project tion of natural enemies. important natural enemies or biotic agents Directorate of Biological Control (PDBC) In the opening dedication, Jeff Waage in India. Chapter 2, Predators and in Bangalore, India to discuss actual and discusses past and future use of parasitoids in augmentative biological potential uses of augmentative biocontrol augmentative biocontrol in IPM systems. control – an overview (S. T. Murphy), and the factors that constrain its use and Chapter 1, Augmentative biocontrol in discusses the genesis of the use of these adoption. The publication gives the latest India (S. P. Singh), examines the feasibility agents. Hundreds of commercial com- information on feasible augmentative bio- of selection, development of superior panies worldwide produce more than 20 control practices for the management of strains, mass production, safety require- species of natural enemies for the control of 102N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4 many pest species in covered cropping regulatory procedures in the USA and EU book summarizes the experience and situations alone. Augmentative biological (European Union) are discussed along with identifies the technical, economic and control has also been used extensively in a breakdown of the cost of registering a social challenges facing the development of the USA and in centrally planned microbial product in these two regulatory better and cheaper products. economies (e.g. Cuba, China). This chapter environments. Chapter 9, Regulatory issues also provides a review of the history and and augmentative control (S. T. Murphy), *Singh, S.P.; Murphy, S.T.; Ballal, C.R. current state of the subject on a global basis, deals with regulatory issues, which are now (eds) (2001) some technical and socioeconomic issues becoming very prominent in biological Augmentative biocontrol. Proceedings of that have been prominent in recent years, control using macrobial agents, with the ICAR-CABI Workshop on and some processes relating to the additional information on concerns about Augmentative Biocontrol. development of standards and harmon- the safety of biological control Bangalore, India; ization and their implementation. Chapter introductions and the need for standardized Project Directorate of Biological Control, 3, Microbial biopesticides in augmentative procedures in the context of inundative 250 pp. biocontrol (David Dent & Nina E. Jenkins), releases. Chapter 10, Procedures for Copies can be obtained from: details recent advances in the development registration of biopesticides – Indian Dr R. D. Sharma, of biopesticides for inclusion in IPM perspective (A. D. Pawar), looks at CAB International – India Office, programmes, and highlights the advantages regulatory requirements and framing of National Agricultural Science Centre and value to be obtained through develop- rules for manufacture, sale, transport, (NASC),CGBlock,Pusa, ment, exploitation and use of biopesticides distribution and utilization of microbials New Delhi 110012, India in developing countries. and botanicals. The need for simple Email: [email protected] registration procedures is highlighted, with Chapter 4, Augmentative biological control emphasis on quality control of bio-  within cotton IPM – Indian scenario (S. pesticides. Lingappa,K.S.Brar&D.N.Yadav), reflects that continuous use of pesticides in Chapter 11, Commercial production of Biocontrol-Based Pest cotton ecosystems has led to the destruction biocontrol agents (K. P. Jayanth & T. M. Management of natural enemies, development of Manjunath), discusses a number of To meet the future challenges of increased resistance in pests and environmental constraints commercial biocontrol labor- food production for the growing human pollution. The natural enemy fauna in the atories face in taking biocontrol technology population, there is an urgent requirement cotton ecosystem is depicted with the IPM to the farmers and the available methods for for proven technologies, which when modules for rainfed and irrigated situations tackling these problems. Chapter 12, adopted will result in sustainable food at different locations in India. Chapter 5, Implementation of augmentative bio- production. A national symposium, Augmentation biocontrol within paddy control in support of IPM – NGO 'Biocontrol Based Pest Management for IPM – Indian scenario (S. Pathummal perspective (M. S. Chari, P. Humayun, Ch. Quality Crop Protection in the Current Beevi, L. K. Hazarika & G. S. Katti), gives Anitha & M. Venkateswar Reddy), Millennium' was jointly organized by the a picture of the feasibility of augmentative identifies non-availability of resource Indian Society for the Advancement of biocontrol in (rice) paddy in India. The material to NGOs and extension agencies Insect Science, Punjab Agricultural insects on paddy and their natural enemies as a major bottleneck. Frequently farmers University (PAU), Ludhiana and the are listed. Chapter 6, Augmentative are eliminated from field studies with Society for Biocontrol Advancement, biocontrol within vegetable IPM – Indian natural enemies on crop pests by Bangalore. [See also Conference Reports, scenario (M. Mani, C. Krishnamoorthy, C. researchers leading to poor perception of this issue] The meeting, held on 18-19 July Gopalakrishnan & R.J. Rabindra), biological control. The NGOs have 2001 at PAU, comprised three technical describes the classical biocontrol obtained identified that there is a knowledge gap in sessions during which lead papers were with natural enemies. For control of the effective use of biological control in presented by invited speakers in the field of vegetable pests, indigenous natural IPM. Farmer Participatory Development, biological control from India and other enemies such as Trichogramma spp., which gives emphasis to the process rather countries including Australia, the UK, nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), Bacillus than product to improve the farmers' Kenya, the Philippines and Thailand. More thuringiensis (Bt), Nomuraea rileyi and analytical and management skills in than 170 research papers were presented as Paecilomyces farinosis has given more biological control is suggested. Chapter 13, posters. promising results. Extension-related problems in augmentative biological control – Indian Lead Papers Chapter 7, Quality control parameters in perspective (S. C. V. Reddy, S. mass produced bio-agents (Chandish R. Balasubramanian & R. V. Usha), details the The lead papers from this symposium have 1 Ballal,SunilJoshi,S.K.Jalali&N.S. problems encountered in adopting been published . Chapter 1, Innovations in Rao), describes desirable physiological and augmentative biological control at farmer, mass rearing technology and techniques for behavioural traits in bio-agents. Major extension personnel and industry levels. mass releases, transportation and storage of components of quality, the methods to be Suggestions are put forward for natural enemies (S. P. Singh, Sunil Joshi & adopted to measure quality, the factors improvements and reforms, which would C. R. Ballal), examines various issues which affect quality, the problems lead to popularization of augmentative relating to the infrastructure required for encountered in quality control and possible biocontrol as an integral part of IPM. establishing colonies of natural enemies solutions are detailed. Chapter 8, Regis- initially in the laboratory, later leading to tration and quality control of microbial This book is expected to be instrumental in successful mass multiplication. Techniques biopesticides (Nina E. Jenkins, David Dent expanding the sphere of knowledge on standardized for the production of host & David Grzywacz), emphasizes the need augmentative biocontrol and in inspiring insects and natural enemies including para- for clear registration procedures for researchers to delve into problems sitoids, plant disease antagonists, predators, microbial pest control agents. The addressed in the different chapters. The pathogens, entomopathogenic nematodes News 103N and nematophagous fungi have been improvement of entomopathogenic fungi Australia, Chromolaena odorata in included. are detailed. Indonesia, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula complex) in the USA, and the water fern Chapter 8, Biological control of plant Chapter 2, Biointensive management of Azolla filiculoides in South Africa. cereal stemborers in Africa: exploiting pathogens – an application of natural chemical ecology and natural enemies in a control (A. N. Mukhopadhyay), reviews Chapter 15, Role of cultural practices in 'push-pull' strategy (Z. R. Khan), presents a the various strategies of plant disease improving the abundance and efficiency of case study of lepidopteran stemborers in suppression through antagonists including natural enemies (M. V. Potdar & A. K. subsistence maize production in eastern the methods of application, mass Kakkar), reviews the role of diverse Africa. Studies have led to the development production, mode of action, etc. cultural practices on the abundance and efficiency of natural enemies in various of a biointensive push-pull' strategy for Chapter 9, Integration of biological with agroecosystems. The authors stress the minimizing stem borer damage in maize- chemical and non-chemical methods of need to promote potential cultural practices based farming systems in Kenya. pest management (Banpot Napompeth), using appropriate policy and legislative deals with the integration of non-chemical Chapter 3, New approaches in maximising measures. methods with biotic agents, which is effectiveness of natural enemies (D. N. ecologically, economically and socially 1 Singh, S.P.; Bhumannavar, B.S.; Poorani, Yadav), discusses the various methods acceptable. Stress has been laid upon the J.; Singh, D. (eds) (2001) Biological such as habitat manipulation, use of need to make the existing IPM system more Control (Lead Papers) – Symposium on behavioural chemicals, improvement in practical and practicable. Biocontrol Based Pest Management for biological traits, use of insecticide resistant Quality Crop Protection in the Current strains, use of feeding and ovipositional Chapter 10, Transgenics in insect pest Millennium (July 18-19, 2001). attractants, relay cropping and establish- management (D. S. Brar & G. S. Khush), Bangalore, India; ment of entomophage parks, which could discusses the usefulness of strategies Project Directorate of Biological Control, be used to maximise the effectiveness of involving gene deployment, pyramiding of 185 pp. natural enemies. genes, targeted expression of transgenes and use of refuges. The need for transgenic Copies can be obtained from: Project Chapter 4, Tritrophic interactions amongst technologytobeintegratedinatotal Director, host plants, insect pests and their natural system approach for ecologically friendly Project Directorate of Biological Control enemies (A. J. Tamhankar & K. and sustainable pest management is (ICAR), Shantharam), explains the basic highlighted. P.B.No.2491,H.A.FarmPost, mechanisms that influence the ecosystem Hebbal, Bellary Road, Chapter 11, Development and use of heat- population dynamics and govern the Bangalore 560 024, Karnataka, India and insecticide-tolerant strains of natural interactions between host plants, insect Email: [email protected] / enemies in IPM (Joginder Singh, K. S. Brar pests and their natural enemies, such as [email protected] & J. P. Singh), is about the need to evolve ecosystem energy/resource flow, trophic Fax: +91 80 3411961 relationships, role of allelo/info-chemicals, strains which are tolerant to unfavourable habitat modifications and apparency. temperature regimes and insecticides. The Extended Abstracts use of these strains can help in developing The extended abstracts of the some 170 Chapter 5, Augmentation biocontrol: recent sustainable bio-intensive strategies in dry research posters presented at the sympo- progress and emerging opportunities (S. tracts of the country. sium have also been published2. Sithanantham & N. K. Maniania), focuses Chapter 12, Biocontrol of weeds using on the methods for enhancing the numbers 2 Singh, D.;Dilawari, V.K.; Mahal, M.S.; pathogens: recent advances (Carol E. and/or activity of natural enemies in agro- Brar, K.S.; Sohi, A.S.; Singh, S.P. (eds) Ellison & Harry C. Evans), places stress on ecosystems. It also describes the strategy of (2001) Biological control (contributed an interdisciplinary approach to biological multiplying the biocontrol agents in large papers). Symposium on Biocontrol Based weed control, whereby introduced agents numbers and deploying them primarily for Pest Management for Quality Crop can also be applied inundatively. short-term impact; selective deployment of Protection in the Current Millennium, Innovative programmes developed in the bio-agents for specific needs and selection Ludhiana, Punjab, India, 18-19 July 2001. use of bioherbicides, such as cut stump and utilization of superior strains. Ludhiana, India; treatments, exploitation of niche markets in Indian Society for the Advancement of the leisure industry, and the use of mixtures Chapter 6, Innovations in mass production Science, 228 pp. of microbial agents for the control of insect of pathogens to control complexes of pests (V. M. Pawar, U. T. Thombre & P. S. weeds are also discussed. Copies can be obtained from: Dr V. K. Dilawari, Borikar), describes the growth of microbial Chapter 13, Bt-cotton to combat boll- Indian Society for the Advancement of Sci- pesticides, their mass multiplication and worms: its development and current status ence, their marketability. (M.Manjunath&K.S.Mohan),presents Department of Entomology, efforts of Monsanto in collaboration with Chapter 7, Biotechnological approaches in Punjab Agricultural University, MAHYCO (Maharashtra Hybrid Seed increasing effectiveness of microbial Ludhiana – 141004, India Company) to develop Bt-cottoninIndia. agents (R. J. Rabindra, J. S. Kennedy, N. Field experiments to collect data on envi- Souvenir Issue Sathiah & B. Rajasekaran), deals with the ronmental safety are described. advances in biotechnology which help in A souvenir issue3 of Advances in making IPM strategies more sustainable Chapter 14, Recent developments in Biological Control was brought out on the through increasing effectiveness of biocontrol of weeds using insects (Rachel occasion of the above symposium. The microbial agents. Approaches such as E. Cruttwell McFadyen), discusses recent souvenir contains messages from important engineering microbials and plants, successes in the control of parthenium dignitaries conveying their wishes for the recombinant DNA technology and genetic weed (Parthenium hysterophorus)in conduct of the symposium, and the text of 104N BiocontrolNews and Information 2001 Vol. 22 No. 4 the address by Dr R. S. Paroda, Secretary, of sugarcane pests (Darshan Singh & K. S. agents (K. P. Jayanth); Status of biological Department of Agricultural Research and Brar); Kairomones' potential in enhancing control of insect pests in Maharashtra (V. Education, and Director General, ICAR: the efficiency of parasitoids and predators M. Pawar, M. B. Sarkate & P. S. Borikar). Relevance of biocontrol in the current in different crop ecosystems (P. L. agricultural scenario in India. Tandon); Scope and potential of microbial 3 Souvenir – Advances in Biological Control, It also includes a valuable series of articles control in India (R. J. Rabindra & N. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, dealing with biocontrol and related Sathiah); Bio-intensive pest management: a Punjab, India, 71 pp. technologies in IPM: Biotechnological promising approach (O. P. Dubey & O. P. approaches to biological control of crop Sharma); Pheromones as a tool for IPM Copies can be obtained from Dr V. K. Dila- pests (V. L. Chopra); Advances in (Kinya Ogawa & Toshima Kobayashi); wari (address above). biological control in India (S. P. Singh); Importance of quality control in Role of natural enemies in the management commercial production of biocontrol