Track and Field

Pre-Meet Notes

Officials to Inspect Starting Blocks

Cross Country Finish Corral Recommended with Tran- sponder Usage National Federation of State High School Associations IN THIS ISSUE: Review of 2016-17 Rule Changes 2. Review of New Rules The head starter now inspects the starting where in existing rules and adds language 3. Points of Emphasis blocks. Placing the responsibility of inspect- regarding when the order of competition 5. Starting Blocks-Who ing all starting blocks is more appropriate may be changed for consistency in all field Has the Responsibility with the starter, who has this expertise, ra- to Inspect them? event rules. (7-6-10, 6-2-5) ther than with the implement inspector who Allowing the use of the double painted 6. Terminology for Offici- has expertise with throwing implements. (3- ating Field Events— boundary lines marking both the inside and 6-4, 3-19-3) The Basics outside boundaries of the cross country 8. Shot Put Size—Indoor Head event judges may use white and red course. This method provides additional vs Outdoor flags to signal fair or foul for a field event guidance to the runners, better defines the 9. Order of Competition trial. The use of flags will assist with efficient race course for spectators, and allows for in Field Events administration of the field events. Communi- natural barriers (grasses, hedges, etc.) which cation between officials, coaches and fans is 10. The Javelin—A Con- appear many of the newer courses. (9-1- structive enhanced by the visual signal, similar to the 3b) use of flags by umpires. (3-10-7) 11. Cross Country Finish Recommending the use of a video/ Area– Chute or Corral? The definitions of trial/attempt, flight, photograph back-up system when order of 12. Appropriate Use of round, pass, foul and what determines the finish in cross country is determined using a Flags in Field Events initiation of purposeful action of completing transponder system. The review using the 13. Vertical Jumps Bar Dis- the specific throwing or jumping event are back-up is activated when the timing system placement—Is it Al- expanded for clarity. The changes update the indicates a one-tenth second or less differen- ways a Failed Attempt? rules to accepted current sport terminology. tial. Transponders can read early or late, 14. Appropriate Number (6-1-1, 7-1-1) come off the runner etc. The video back-up can confirm close finishes and also assist if of Competitors in To account for the thickness of the synthetic Track & Field Distance other problems arise using the transponder covering of an indoor shot, which is not pre- Races system at the finish line. (9-3-3a, b) sent on the outdoor implement, a maximum 15. Double Boundary diameter is added to the rules in the specifi- A finish corral is recommended at cross Lines for Cross Coun- try cations for the implement. (6-5-2) country meets in which the transponder sys- tem is used for the order of finish. The finish 15. RIO Injury Survey Updates to the current javelin specifications line is opened to its full width allowing com- eliminate reference to wood, which is no 16. Horizontal Jumps Take petitors to race through the line. The use of longer a commonly used material. The jave- -off Board a chute may restrict running space. The cor- lin shall be constructed of metal or other 16. Correct Height & Place- ral enhances competitors’ ability to perform suitable material, which could be wood or ment of Hurdles— administrative tasks as directed by meet Who is Responsible? newer materials, with a metal point or rub- management and then progress in an order- ber tip. The change will permit use of newer 17. Video/Photographic ly out of the corral culminating all Back Up System in materials, such as carbon fiber, in the con- race activity. (9-3-4, 5 & 9-4-6, 7) Cross Country struction of the javelin. (6-6-1) 18. Coaches, Don’t Miss Updates the size of the takeoff board to ac- Your Mark-Pro-Active cepted sport specifications by recommend- MEDICAL ALERTS Preparation ing it be 8 inches wide, but permits up to 24 SHOULD BE WORN WITH 18. Participation Results inches. Existing boards will not become non- 19. Coaches Education compliant. (7-6-3) ALERT VISIBLE Opportunities Removes duplicate language contained else-

Page 2 © 2016 by NFHS and USATF the white flag and red if the attempt is ille- Officials Training Subcommit- Points of Emphasis gal. Actions by a competitor cannot be a foul tee. All rights reserved. Per- after the official has ruled fair except when mission is granted to copy and 1. Role of officials inspecting duties, a gen- the official makes an immediate correction use in its entirety by an indi- eral review – A well-run meet begins when of a mistaken action, such as raising red flag vidual or non-profit organiza- each official competently performs each of his/ when it should have been white and imme- tion solely for the purpose of her pre-meet responsibilities. These responsi- diately correcting . training track and field offi- bilities include not only those covered by the cials. Any other use, or use of 3. Number of competitors in sections of rules but include the “common sense” ap- any portions of this document, distance races – The rules permit the size proach to making sure your event is ready to is prohibited without written of sections to be determined site by site go for the competition. Prior to the beginning permission from the NFHS and unless state association policy would deter- of inspecting duties, the officials should discuss USATF Officials Training Sub- mine otherwise. When determining the the method of clearly marking implements that committee. number of competitors to be placed in each pass inspection as well as those not passing section, it is important to consider the size inspection and their being removed from Edited and written by Becky of the field, the quality of the performances warmups and competition. This should be done Oakes, NFHS Track and Field of the competitors involved and the rela- in a fashion that makes it easy for the event Rules Editor, Robert Kern, tionship to risk minimization. A section USATF Officials Committee and judges to quickly determine the legality of the should not be so large as to create an envi- Rob Buzaitis, Chair for Train- implements once at each specific event venue. ronment that increases the risk for injury ing, USATF Officials Commit- The referee, field referee or head field judge due to the competitors being too crowded tee. has the responsibility to oversee all implement and not able to freely run. Acknowledgments to authors and apparatus inspectors. The weighing, meas- and editors who contributed to uring and inspecting of all implements in 4. Forces disassociated with competi- the 2016 NFHS Track and Field throwing events are responsibilities of the im- tor’s actions in high jump and pole vault Pre-Meet Notes: plement inspector(s). It is important that only – When a competitor has legally and is legal implements are permitted for use in clearly over the crossbar and a force not Larry Able (Lenexa, KS); warmups and competition. This season, by rule, associated with the competitor causes the George Adams, (Dallas, TX); Mike Armstrong (Springdale, the starter has the responsibility to inspect all crossbar to be displaced, it shall not be con- AR); Roger Burbage (Raleigh, starting blocks to be used in the running sidered a foul. Examples of a disassociated NC); Jennifer Burks (Gilbert, events. Each pole to be used in the pole vault force would include such situations as the AZ); John Deardorff (Wichita, competition shall be inspected by the field ref- wind blowing the crossbar off the pins or KS); Stan Druckrey (South Milwaukee, WI); Carolyn eree or head field judge and meet the require- the pole contacting and rebounding off the Griggs(Philadelphia, PA); Mark ments in Rule 7-5-3. Once at each field event plant box padding. It is NOT considered a Heckel (Hughesville, PA); Glo- venue, to be certain the venue is ready for com- disassociated force if the vaulter, for exam- ria Louis (Lafayette, LA); Mi- petition, the head event judge and accompany- ple, releases the pole and it falls into the chael McCoy (Largo, MD); Richard Messenger (Weston, ing crew should observe the equipment, layout crossbar without that cause being from WV); David Nickels and marking, necessary areas are cordoned off wind or rebound. It is the responsibility of (Sheboygan, WI); Raymond for risk minimization and all necessary equip- the competitor to have a clean jump or Pierre (Waco, TX); Michael ment for the conducting the event is present. vault. In the case of vaulting, the competitor Powers (Batavia, IL); Jay Pres- ton (Waukesha, WI); Patrick Any problems should be reported to the field must have a clean release of the pole so that Pretty (Cedarburg, WI); referee or referee who in turn may need to it does not fall into the crossbar. Jamero Rainey (Bloomington, work directly with the meet director and host 5. Multiple logos on uniform bottoms IL); Jim Smyth (Raleigh, NC); administration to bring the venue into compli- Robert Springer, (Seattle, are non-compliant – There continues to be ance for competition. WA;) Bob Tice (Whispering emphasis placed on coaches and athletes Pines, NC); Annette White (Philadelphia, PA) 2. Use of flags by officials – With the change selecting and wearing uniforms that are in in the rules to no longer call “mark” in the field full compliance with the rules. When an Graphic Designer: Angela Hays events, the high school meet will run much item is selected as a uniform bottom, it NFHS more efficiently when the field event judges shall not be in compliance if the waist- use flags to signal fair or foul on a trial. The use band has more than one logo or refer- of the flags will assist with efficient event ad- ence to a specific and/or a refer- ministration and enhance the communication ence elsewhere. Many of the items with between officials, coaches and fans. The head multiple references of the manufacturer on event judge will be equipped with both a white the waistband are not actually uniforms but and red flag. When a trial is completed, if the rather an undergarment or base layer. Thus, competitor fouls at the ring or arc the judge the item is not made to be a uniform. Coach- immediately raises the red flag. If everything is es and athletes should be aware of this legal at the ring or arc, the event judge checks problem and avoid selecting non-compliant with the sector judge to make sure the attempt items and try to “get by” with wearing as a is legal or illegal. If legal, the event judge raises uniform.

Page 3 Page 4 Starting Blocks - Who Has The Responsibility To Inspect Them?

Rules 3-6-4(NEW) and 3-19-3 change presses down on the rear of the spine tool set with sockets. the responsibility of inspecting all and the front elevates slightly, or vice starting blocks from the Implement versa. Blocks with this defect should be • Carry with you a supply of various Inspector to the head starter. In doing replaced. If that is not possible, enlist sizes of spikes, to fill in missing so, it is recognized that the expertise of block holders to ensure no slippage. spikes on starting blocks. the Implement Inspector lies with the • Check for loose nuts or bolts on the • Starters should make sure there are throwing events. It is more appropriate more blocks than lanes in the event to assign the duty to the starter, who of a block malfunction. has that expertise and is the frontline official who handles the starting blocks • Starting blocks are durable, but not the most. indestructible. Treat them with care. As you move them between When inspecting starting blocks, start- races never throw them. Lay them ers should pay attention to the follow- gently. ing: • For your safety, handle very care- 1. Spikes underneath the blocks fully! It’s very easy to forget about • No spikes are worn or missing. those spikes underneath the blocks until one scrapes/punctures an • Spike length is appropriate for the individual’s hand, arm, leg, and track surface. clothes. • Spike length is sufficient to prevent spine. Every starter should add the above slippage. (3/8” spikes are regarded starting block inspection to his/her as practically “slip proof” assuming 4. Other notes regarding starting blocks checklist of pre-meet duties and con- all other conditions are correct.) and their handling: tinue to monitor the starting blocks 2. Pedals • Starters should keep a small tool kit throughout the competition. to include a small adjustable • Most pedals contain hinges allow- wrench, screwdriver(s), lock Properly inspected and maintained ing competitors to adjust the an- wrench or vise grip, allen wrench starting blocks play a major role in the gle. Make sure the pins, nuts, and set, and hex wrench or mechanics safety of the competitors. bolts have not come loose due to constant use.

• Make sure the rubberized surface where the foot makes contact is not loose or worn. • Sometimes meets will supply mix- matched sets of blocks. Make sure www.nfhsofficials.com all pedals fit properly.

• Keeping extra pedals handy is a wise precaution to keep the meet going smoothly. 3. Spine • With time, heat, and constant use, the block’s spine can warp and become bowed or u-shaped. This is evident when a competitor

Page 5 Terminology for Officiating Field Events - The Basics

Field events present their own unique lan- needs to be excused for another event guage, in and out of competition. Use of the (not for his/her convenience). In the correct terminology not only allows a field vertical jumps, this often occurs as the event to run smoothly but can also help the competition ends. In this case, the rules coach and competitor better understand the allow for longer time limits between event as well as aid in safety all around a jumps. venue. While most field events have some 3. Electronic devices – May be used in common language, there are some events unrestricted areas and coaching boxes, that possess a different set of terms unique providing the location does not interfere to the event(s). These events can be divided with the progress of the meet as deter- into three distinct categories: mined by the meet referee. Shall not be 1. horizontal jumps (long jump & triple used to transmit information to a com- jump) petitor during a trial or for any review of 2. vertical jumps (high jump & pole vault) an official’s decision. 3. throws (discus, shot, & javelin) 4. Fair – A term used in the horizontal jumps and throwing events for an at- As the track season begins with often some tempt that is measured. “Fair” is used new and inexperienced coaches and athletes, interchangeably with the term “legal.” it is helpful to cover the language at the pre- event meeting. While it is the coach’s respon- 5. Flight – A round of trials for a group of sibility to ensure his/her athletes under- competitors in a field event or a group of stand the language and rules, it is the prima- competitors competing at the same time ry duty of the official(s) to enforce the rules in a field event. and use the proper language to do so. Meet 6. Foul – All field events: This term refers management, the field event referee and the to an unsuccessful attempt that is count- coaches must all work together with a com- ed as a trial but is not measured mon goal of conducting a smooth and effi- (recorded) because the competitor has cient meet that is both fair and safe for all not followed one or more of the rules of competitors. the competition.

With proper language and communication, 7. Pass (an attempt/trial) – To forgo ei- this can easily be accomplished. ther one or all remaining attempts either A. General Field Event Terms at a height (in vertical jumps) or for the competition (for all field events) - A pass 1. Attempt/Trial – Refers to all of a com- must be communicated to the event offi- petitor’s action when time starts to his/ cial prior to the clock being started. her single purposeful action to complete the challenge of the particular event - 8. Point of contact (throws and horizontal Each competitor must initiate his/her jumps) – The first mark or indentation respective trial within a specific time in the landing surface made by the im- limit. plement (throws) or by the competitor himself/herself ( horizontal jumps). 2. Consecutive attempts/successive tri- als – All field events: A competitor may, 9. Preliminary/Final - In the throwing at the discretion of the event head, take and horizontal events, flights consist of a one attempt after another attempt (i.e., group of competitors taking a maximum successive or consecutive trials, or “back of three preliminary attempts. One or to back”) in an event if the competitor more competitors greater than the num-

Page 6 Terminology for Officiating Field Events - The Basics (cont.)

ber of scoring places will then qual- tain a better grip with the imple- the competitor from accelerating ify for the final flight, where they ment. into the sector and otherwise foul- will take an additional maximum of ing his/her attempt. 2. Back Half – Throwing Circle – three attempts. This area is defined as outside the D. Vertical Jumps 10. Qualify – To achieve the right to throwing circle and behind lines 1. Approach (HJ) – The actions of compete at the next level (either eight inches in length and two the competitor in making an at- preliminaries or finals) of an event inches wide that separate the tempt. - The number to qualify for the fi- front and back halves of the cir- nals in an event is set by the games cle. 2. Apron (HJ) – The area from the committee. plane of the bar extending away 3. Cage – A portable or permanent from the landing area 11. Runway – The area of the venue structure used in the discus that where competitors accelerate prior provides risk minimization for 3. Crossbar – (VJ): A circular bar to vaulting, jumping (both long and athletes, officials and spectators. that sits on the pegs and defines triple) and releasing the javelin - the height to be cleared - See the 4. Circle – The area where the shot See the NFHS Rule Book for specifi- NFHS Rule Book for specifications. and discus are released. The cir- cations. cle is often referred to as a ring. 4. Front buns (PV) – The smaller 12. Second best performance - In See the NFHS Rule Book for speci- mats on either side of the planting the final placing for the horizontal fications. box that extend away from the and throwing events, any best per- back of the planting box in the di- 5. Foul line arc – In a javelin at- formance mark that is identical for rection of the runway. tempt, should the competitor two competitors shall be broken by touch with any part of his/her 5. Jump-off – (VJ). In high school looking at the second best perfor- body this curved line, or arc, or competitions, a jump-off occurs mance of those competitors. beyond this arc, the attempt will when two or more athletes are tied 13. Time foul – all field events: not be measured. for first place even after consider- Called when a competitor does not ing the fewest attempts at the last 6. Implement – A shot, discus or initiate the purposeful action of the cleared height and total failures up javelin. event within the specified time to and including the tied height. after the competitor’s name has 7. Put – To legally throw the shot Competitors take one more at- been called. If a competitor has (verb) or also may refer to the tempt at the height at which they been excused for another event, actual attempt (noun) - “A legal failed. If no one clears, the bar is his/her name shall not be called for put shall be made from the shoul- lowered one inch (HJ) or three a trial. der, with one hand only, so that inches (PV). If the bar is cleared by during the attempt, the shot does more than one athlete, then the bar B. Horizontal Jumps not drop behind or below the is raised one inch (HJ) or three 1. Foul line – In the long and triple shoulder.” inches (PV). jumps, should a competitor break 8. Sector or Landing Sector – In 6. Landing pit – (VJ) Refers to the the plane of this line with his/her the throwing events, this is area padded landing area in and around , the attempt will not be meas- of the venue where the imple- the high jump and pole vault area ured. ment is to land and an attempt is that aids in protecting athletes 2. Horizontal Jumps – Term that measured. See the NFHS Rule from injury - The sections must be collectively refers to both the long Book for specifications. connected and tied together with a and triple jumps. top landing pad cover. 9. Stop Board or Toe Board (shot C. Throws put) – A fixed and constructed 7. Landing system or pit (PV) – The section of the throwing circle collection of mats, including the 1. Adherents – Any substance ap- used in the shot put to prevent front buns and the cover where the plied to the hands in order to main-

Page 7 The Basic (cont.) yond the zero-point) during an attempt with the pole or any part of the body vaulter lands after the attempt. The sec- tions must be connected and tied togeth- Shot Put Size – er with a top landing pad cover. Indoor vs Outdoor 8. Limit of travel (PV) – The minimum and maximum distance from the zero Rule 6-5-2(NEW) defines the maximum size point that the vaulting standards may be specification for the indoor shot. For many moved. years there has been a maximum size speci- 9. Make – (VJ) - A successful or cleared fication for both the boys and girls outdoor attempt at a particular height. A make is shots. The new addition adds 20mm to the recorded as an “O”. maximum diameters for both the boys and girls indoor shots. As more schools add field 10. Miss – (VJ) Defines a failed attempt. A houses with all purpose floors, more schools miss is recorded as an “X”. are able to host and provide opportunities 11. Planting box (PV) – The box, mounted for other schools to participate in indoor flush with the surface of the runway, track & field meets. The addition to the pre- where the vaulter places or plants the vious rule is to allow for synthetic materials end of the vaulting pole. to be used to cover the indoor shots and indicates the size of shot due to additional 12. Standards – (VJ) Movable uprights covering. that raise or lower the crossbar in both the high jump and pole vault. Defining a maximum size specification for the indoor shots will: 13. Stop Board (PV) – The back plane (surface) of the planting box where the 1. Assist in the reduction of injuries, by pole strikes. controlling the use of overweight shots.;

14. ”Tapping”(PV) – A technique, illegal 2. Facilitate the identification of legal during warm-up or competition, where a shots; coach or assistant taps his/her hand on 3. Create a more efficient process of the back of the vaulter during the course checking in at weights and measures; of the vault to assist in getting through the swing and land in the landing system 4. Aid in the smooth and efficient admin- (pit). istration of the event; and

15. Top hand-hold band (PV) – A clear 5. Create consistency in the pool of shots mark on the vaulting pole which limits available for competition. how high along the pole a competitor Officials, coaches, and competitors should may place his/her hand. be reminded that outdoor shots are not per- 16. Vertical Jumps (VJ) – Refers both to mitted to be used during the indoor season. the high jump (HJ) or the pole vault (PV). Competitors vault or jump over a crossbar set at a particular height.

17. Zero-point (PV) – The point at the top rear of the planting box that sets the reference point for measuring the limit of travel of the vaulting standards. A vaulter who breaks the plane of the zero -point (touching the mat or ground be-

Page 8 Order of Competition in Field Events

Rules of competition order in field order of the preliminary round authority to alter both the number of events can be categorized into two performances, with the best mark attempts and the format for attempting distinct groupings: Horizontal Jumps competing last and the worst mark them. However, the rules for excusing & Throws and Vertical Jumps. competing first. athletes to compete in other events ap- ply to this altered competition format Horizontal Jumps and Throws Competitors who are simultaneously also. competing in field events and running (Rule 6-2 & Rule 7-2) events are governed by rules which 4) “Four-Attempt” competitions – The Competition order is determined and allow them to be excused from one games committee may allow all competi- defined by where in the competition event to compete in another. When a tors just four total trials, replacing the the attempts are being taken. competitor is excused from the Hori- preliminaries and finals format. (See 1) Preliminary rounds: zontal Jumps & Throws, Rule 6-2-5 & 7 Rule 3-2-) -2-2, defines the options and the proce- a. The initial competition order may a. The initial competition order for dures the event official follows. the preliminary rounds is deter- be determined by the Games Com- mined by the Games Committee. 3) Excused competitors: mittee. b. Often, when more than one flight a. To accommodate competitors par- b. Often, an “Open Pit” format, where is necessary, flights will be seeded ticipating in other events, the head the competitor takes his/her at- based on season-best perfor- event judge may change the order tempt in the order that the competi- mances. Typically, these flights of competition by any method dur- tor determines is conducted in the will have no less than five com- ing either the preliminary or final Horizontal Jumps. When this “Open petitors. However, some state rounds. Options include, but are Pit” format is utilized, competitors associations may make adjust- not limited to are given a predetermined time framework in which all attempts ments to flight size for their sanc- i. Allowing the competitor to have must be completed. tioned state series. successive trials; Vertical Jumps c. These flights may compete in any ii. Allowing the competitors to order – worst to best, best to jump or throw out of order; and (Rule –7-2) worst, or random. iii. Allowing the competitors to Due to the unique format of their incre- 2) Finals: have more than one attempt in a mental competition, Vertical Jumps re- a. One or more competitors than round. quire their own set of defined order of competition procedures. there are scoring positions shall b. Competitors who wish to be ex- advance to the finals, with all cused to participate in another 1) Each competitor is allowed a trial in competitors tying for the last po- event must inform the head event order in which the names are drawn sition advancing. judge when they leave and when or assigned by the games commit- b. To be eligible to compete in the they return. tee. finals, a competitor must have at c. It is up to the Games Committee to 2) When the number of entries dic- least one legal attempt during the determine how long a competitor tates, the games committee may preliminary rounds. may be excused. assign competitors to flights of no less than five for preliminary com- c. If a qualifying competitor with- d. Competitors excused to participate petition or may conduct the event in draws from competition in the in another event must return by continuing flights. finals, there shall be no substitute. the time the round of competition d. The competition order for the is completed. Failure to do so will a. Using continuing flights means us- finals is determined by perfor- result in the loss of remaining at- ing an officiating technique called mances in the preliminary tempts. “Five-Alive” or “Five-Active”, though some states through policy specify rounds. The competition order for In smaller meets or meets with limited using “Three-Alive” or “Four-Alive”. the finals will be the reverse- entries the games committee has the (Cont. page 10).

Page 9 The Javelin - A Constructive Look

Up until 2016, the high school javelin eo https:// www.youtube.com/ illegal.) could only be constructed of wood or watch?v=bujFq-9Pu04 . The video 3. Another problem that does show metal. Since few of us are old enough to makes reference to specifications us- up from time to time is older jave- remember wooden javelins and there ing Imperial Units. lins that the school has had for are now carbon fiber javelins, a rule From a construction standpoint, there many years. The latest change to change was necessary to reflect com- are many things that can go wrong the javelin specification was in monly held construction and practices. with a javelin to cause it to be disqual- 1999 and that was the 600-gram Rule 6-6-1, updates the materials spec- ified at a meet. javelin thrown by the girls. (Older ifications of javelin construction to not javelins will have the distance from only reference wood, but newer mate- 1. The most common problem with the balance point to the tip be rials as well. Eliminating the reference the high school javelin is the grip. much too long.) to wood, which is no longer a common- The cording will wear and break ly used material and stating that, to free from the shaft. (That is not For schools using the optional rubber allow metal or other suitable materials allowed and must be repaired.) tip, do not just put the rubber tip over a steel tipped javelin. The weight of to be used in the construction of jave- 2. The other most common problem the rubber tip will cause balance prob- lins is addressing current trends. is wear on the point. That will lems in addition to violating Rule 7-6- Note that wood is still a suitable mate- cause weight to be lost and the 1-Note. The reason for that note is rial, but you won’t find any on the mar- balance point will shift. (Since the safety. Steel points will eventually ket. distance from the balance point wear through the rubber and become has to fall within a range allowed For those interested in how a metal dangerous, as the metal tip protrudes. by rule, the javelin could become javelin is made, take a look at this vid-

Order of Competition in Field Events (cont.)

b. In “Five-Alive”, a competitor clears tors who may be excused to par- alter a plan for successive trials by pre- a bar, passes a turn at a height, or ticipate in other events, the head scribing single trials in the preliminar- is eliminated, the next competitor event judge may change the order ies and in the finals if weather or other in the competition order will be of competition. conditions might result in unfairness to moved up. The number of compet- any competitor. c. Time limits for competitors ex- itors in the active flight remains cused to compete in another All individuals involved with field constant. event shall be determined by the events competitions officials, coaches, c. When the number of competitors games committee. volunteers, and athletes must be aware remaining at a given height is few- of the various rules which govern the d. Competitors excused to compete er than nine, all competitors will order of competition. This knowledge in another event must return by then become part of a single con- of the governing rules will facilitate the the time the round of competition tinuous flight. smooth and efficient administration of is completed. Failure to do so will each field event at a track & field meet. 3) Competitors who wish to be ex- result in competitors having a “P” cused to compete in another event for a passed attempt be recorded must inform the head event judge on the event sheet. The competi- when they leave and when they return. tors would then be advanced to the next bar height. a. Competitors excused to participate in another event shall not be called In all field events the Referee, under for a trial. Rules 6-2-6 (throwing events) and 7-2 -13 (all jumping events), may alter any b. To accommodate those competi- established order of trials and shall

Page 10 Cross Country Finish Area - Chute or Corral?

The finish of a cross-country race can the race. There should be a finish line when timing and placement of runners be a chaotic experience for both run- judge who would establish the finish is achieved by the use of computerized ners and officials. It is important that order if the finish is close. Competi- transponders. A transponder would the finish area be designed to: tors must remain in that finish order, either be attached to the competitors’ front bib (one transponder), or to both 1. Handle a large volume of compet- as they move through the chute, until (two transponders). The use of itors; their identification tag is handed in. the transponder method results in re- The chute(s) should be a minimum of 2. Provide for accuracy in time and cording both the time and place of the 100 feet in length, about two to three place finish; runners as they cross the finish line. No feet wide, and controlled by one offi- other involvement with the runners is 3. Enhance risk minimization; cial opening and closing the chute to necessary except for the removal of the keep everyone moving in the order of 4. Provide fairness to each competi- transponder(s), which should be re- finish. See the current "NFHS Track tor; and turned to the timing staff/company and Field Rules” (page 69) for a dia- responsible for the race. This method is 5. Minimize the time competitors gram of a single and double chute, the spend in the area. particularly effective when many run- recommended dimensions of those ners are expected to finish very close to Two different and distinct methods chutes, number of officials and volun- each other and within a short period of for the set-up of the finish line area teers, and their placement. time. may be utilized. How meet manage- Other officials are placed along the ment plans to time and place each When transponders are used, one tim- chutes to keep the competitors mov- competitor determines which finish ing/sensor mat is typically placed on ing forward toward the end of chute the finish, with a second mat slightly line method to utilize. where their placement will be deter- behind the finish line. Placement of the Finish Area Chute mined. At the end of the chutes, emp- mats is very much determined by the tying one chute at a time, the order of A finish line chute is necessary if the type of transponder chip and its sensi- finish is established by the removal of method of timing and placing cross- tivity, and placement should be left to an identification tag from each ath- country competitors is to record the the timing company hired for the meet. lete's bib (race number) and placing time as the runner crosses the finish It is important that there be barriers that tag in order on a device that will line, and then later record the place of next to the finish line so no runner may keep the tags in order. Often this is a that runner. The timing staff then finish without actually crossing the string, spindle, coat hanger, or thin matches up the time and place of each timing/sensor mats. Just past the finish stick. runner for the development of the line, there should be an open area a results and team scoring. If hand tim- When chutes are used, it is very im- minimum of 100 feet in length and 20- ing is used the meet officials do this portant to have sufficient volunteers 30 feet in width, fenced off from spec- manually. (non-officials) placed along the length tators, where competitors may quickly of the chute. Their role is to encour- gain their composure and receive wa- When this method is used, it is critical age and assist exhausted finishers ter or other assistance as is needed. A that the runners be kept in order as through the chute and to assist with diagram with specifications and per- they finish the race until their final the removal of the tags, so that they sonnel recommendations can be found placement has been established. This can be handed to the designated per- on page 70 of the NFHS Rule Book. is done by the construction of chutes. son, as they exit the chute. If a com- Unless the meet is very small, at least This area, commonly called a "corral" petitor were so tired that he/she can- two chutes should be constructed. For should open up to an area wider than not move through the chute, the vol- larger meets, at least three and maybe the width of the finish line where run- unteer would remove the tag from the four chutes will likely be necessary. ners needing special assistance can be runner and take her/his place in the Meet officials are much more active handled to the side without interfering chute as a filler. when this method is used, as they with other finishers. The area should must place each runner in the chute Finish Area Corral then narrow down to facilitate the es- in the order that the runner finished The finish line corral is employed corting of competitors (Cont. page 12)

Page 11 The Appropriate Use of Flags in Field Events

The appropriate use of flags in the field events 5) A red flag should be raised when a vio- allows the events to be conducted in an order- lation has occurred that makes the at- ly and efficient manner, with as little distrac- tempt a foul, including exceeding the tion for officials and competitor as possible. allowable time for a trial. Here are some basic guidelines for using flags 6) Red and white flags should also be used to officiate field events. These guidelines re- to control access to the jumping or flect current NFHS Rules. throwing area during both warm-ups 3-10-7(NEW). This new rule updates to the and competition. This will help to pro- accepted procedural standard of the sport. vide a safe competition area. A red flag Want to become an indicates that the venue is closed while 1) Red and white flags are used to indicate official? measurements are made, sand is raked, whether an attempt was foul (red flag) or and implements are retrieved. A white fair (white flag). Start your training flag is then shown to indicate that the today! 2) Only one official at an event should have venue is clear and prepared for the next red and white flags to avoid confusion. competitor. This official should be posted at the take- The NFHS Track and Though the NFHS rule book does not ad- off board (for the horizontal jumps), at Field Rules Committee dress using a timer, the accepted procedural and the USA Track & the bar (for the vertical jumps), or at the standard of the sport is the use of a yellow Field Officials Training circle/foul line (for the throws). flag, used by the timer in many meets to indi- Subcommittee are 3) Though only one official has the flags, combining efforts and cate when the athlete has 15 seconds in officials should work together (typically experience to provide which to initiate his/her attempt. The timer the NFHS Pre-Meet through hand signals) to ensure that all raises the yellow flag overhead and holds it Notes, an online track sides of a throwing circle are observed. there until the time expires or the athlete and field education 4) A white flag (indicating a fair attempt) makes his/her attempt. If the competitor publication. It is our should be raised only when the attempt fails to initiate the attempt in the allowed goal to encourage is completed. This means: time, the timer drops the yellow flag and the more individuals to red flag is raised by the official with it. become track and field a. For horizontal jumps – when the com- officials. Another way petitor has left the landing area in a to ENJOY the sport! legal fashion and did not cross the foul line on take-off. High School - Contact Cross Country Finish Area - your state high school b. For vertical jumps – when the official Chute or Corral? (Cont.) athletic/activities as- is sure that the crossbar has not been sociation at dislodged by the competitor. The offi- out of the finish area by meet officials. At www.nfhs.org >State cial should make sure that the com- least eight officials should be available for Association Listing petitor has exited the landing area this effort. Runners need to be encouraged >NFHS Member State without dislodging the crossbar. If the to keep moving and exit the area. Marshals Associations crossbar is shaking, the official should should be placed at the end of the corral to pause long enough to be certain that USATF - Contact USA keep coaches, parents, non-running team- the crossbar will not fall because of Track & Field at mates, and spectators out of the corral. In an action of the competitor during the www.usatfofficials.co both methods, particularly in qualifying and attempt. m >Certification championship meets, it is strongly recom- c. For throwing events – when the mended that a second or back-up system be Start Your Career throw has landed in the sector and employed to both time and record place- Today the competitor has legally exited the ment in the race. (Rule 9-3-3) circle or runway.

Page 12 Vertical Jumps Bar Displacement- Is It Always A Failed Attempt?

As a coach or spectator at the vertical tailwind, clears the bar and re- and the vaulter has an additional jumps of a Track & Field Meet, a quick leases the pole properly. The attempt. visual observation or glance at the bar, wind takes the pole into the SITUATION #7: A competitor, in after an attempt, provides you with a crossbar and dislodges it. the pole vault, requests that the quick acknowledgment of the attempt. SITUATION #4: In the pole vault , standards be set at a particular If the cross bar remains up, it is a fair a competitor clears the crossbar mark. The competitor does not attempt. Seeing the bar down indicates when the designated pole catch- clear the bar. After the failed at- a failed attempt. But are these two out- er, in an attempt to grab the tempt, it is discovered by the comes always true? properly released pole, inad- officials that the standards were Its is a foul/miss if the competitor dis- vertently knocks it into the not set at the requested mark. places the crossbar from the pins, on crossbar causing it to fall into The standards were placed in- which it originally rested, with the the pit. correctly by the official. body or pole. However, there are times SITUATION #5: In the high jump, 5. RULE 7-6-27f- It is a foul if the in the vertical jumps when a crossbar the competitor clears the cross- competitor after clearing the cross- dislodged from the standards will not bar but the force of he/she land- bar, contacts an upright and dis- be a foul/miss. Let us examine the ing on the pit. causes the pit to places the crossbar. rules, situations, and outcomes associ- shift, hitting the standards and ated with them. SITUATION #8: The competitor therefore causing the crossbar clears the crossbar, lands in the 1. RULE 7-3-17- If improperly fas- to become dislodged. pit and while exiting the pit, rolls tened supports slip downward Note: If the head event judge is against the standard causing the when a jumper contacts the cross- certain that the landing pad crossbar to fall. bar, the head event judge shall rule caused the bar to be dislodged, no jump and allow the competitor Note: If the head event judge the jump should be ruled as a another trial. made the determination that the successful jump. competitor was attempting to SITUATION #1: The competitor Comment: It is important that exit the pit after completing the attempts the jump and fails the the event official visually inspect attempt as opposed to leaving attempt. The official then notices the landing pit before each at- the pit as part of the continuous that one of the standards slipped tempt to proactively maintain motion of landing in the pit, it is down when the vaulter contact- proper placement and ensure not a foul. ed the crossbar. that the pit will not dislodge the Comment: If the event official is 2. RULE 7-3-18 - A crossbar dis- standards or crossbar. not sure of what caused the placed by a force disassociated 3. RULE 7-5-27a- It is a foul if the crossbar to be dislodged, the with the competitor after he/she is competitor, displaces the crossbar event official shall rule no jump legally and clearly over the bar from the pins on which it original- and allow the competitor another shall not be a fault and is consid- ly rested, with the body or the trial. ered a successful attempt. pole. The position of the crossbar at the con- SITUATION #2: In the pole vault, a SITUATION #6: A vaulter jumps clusion of the jump is not always a true competitor clears the bar and and contacts the crossbar. The indicator of the validity of the attempt. releases the pole properly. The crossbar comes to rest on top of A well trained and knowledgeable pole gets caught up in the box the pole vault standards. event official utilizes proper applica- padding with wings and the pole tion of the rules in the vertical jumps is bounced towards the stand- 4. RULE 7-5-27a-Note - If the cross- and ensures that each competitor is ard, causing the crossbar to be- bar and/or uprights are placed treated fairly and receives the correct come dislodged. incorrectly by the contest official, mark. the trial is not recorded as a foul SITUATION #3: A vaulter, with a

Page 13 Appropriate Number of Competitors in Track & Field Distance Races

Even in distance races (1600 meters and maximum number of runners starting on above) athlete safety and equity of competi- the waterfall start should be 16 runners. tion is of primary concern. This would assign two competitors for each lane on the track. Too many competitors in a single section of a distance race may result in a fall, injury, an Some high school tracks have a separate unfair start, or unfair competition. When arced staggered starting line marked determining the number of competitors to across the outer half of the track, creating a be placed in each section, it is important to double waterfall start area. This second consider the size of the field, the quality of start line would be configured as a one the performances of the competitors in- turn stagger. For entries greater than 16, volved and the relationship to risk minimi- but less than 25, a double-waterfall start zation. A section should not be so large as to should be used. In the double waterfall, create an environment that increases the two-thirds of the full field should start on risk for injury due to the competitors being the main waterfall, across the entire width too crowded and not able to freely run. of the track, and the remainder on the one- turn staggered waterfall across the outer Other specific factors to consider when set- half of the track. The maximum number of ting up a distance race are: runners starting on the outside waterfall 1. Indoor or outdoor race; start would be 8 runners. Therefore the 2. Number of lanes on the track (6, 8 or 9 maximum number of runners competing lanes); with the double waterfall start of a race would be 24. 3. Is a separate arced staggered starting line marked across the outer half of the Time constraints, to the meet schedule, track (typically a one turn stagger) often times eliminate the potential or op- available; portunity for multiple sections in distance races. When this occurs and the race, with 4. Is the race run as a qualifying, single a large number of entries, is limited to one final, or timed final (several sections); and only one section, then multiple rows of 5. Method of timing and placing (fully au- runners would be utilized for the race. Un- tomatic timing or hand timing/finish- der this situation, the 16 fastest seeded line judges); runners would be on the first or front row of an outdoor race. 6. Overall meet time-period allocated in the schedule of the meet; and For distance races conducted on indoor tracks, typically a six-lane facility, the ap- 7. Conference or state association regula- propriate reduction in the number of run- tions and bylaws; ners assigned to run in a race should be Most outdoor high school tracks are built applied. The two-third and one-third pro- with eight lanes around the track, and a sin- cedure, and the assignment of the faster gle waterfall start line, for distance races. seeded runners on the first row should be Only one row of competitors would be as- followed. To reduce the chance of athlete signed for the start of any given race. injury, and allow for a more orderly start Should there be 16 or fewer runners com- and transition, if possible, a two-turn stag- peting in the race then the entire field gered start should be used for indoor dis- should start from the waterfall starting line, tance races. across the entire width of the track. The

Page 14 Double Boundary Lines For Cross Country Courses

At nearly every Cross Country Meet, doned the race. one question is sure to be asked, “How Remember that direction flags in red, close do I have to run to the course yellow, and blue are still required (Rules line?” Often times the official’s answer 9-1-1, and 9-1-3a). Flags should be: leads to more questions and interrup- tions from coaches, trying to gain an 1. One foot square; advantage by determining the shortest 2. At least 6 feet above the ground; and distance between two points on the course, determined by the course line. 3. Visible for 100 feet. NEW in 2016, Rule 9-1-3b permits the use of double boundary lines marking both the inside and outside bounda- ries of the cross country course. The National High School use of the double boundary lines, to Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study mark the course will: 1. Clearly define the running path; in track and field representing 41.9% of A s high school sports participation all boys’ and 36.5% of all girls’ injuries. 2. Provide better guidance to the continues to increase in the United Injury patterns differ by event. For ex- runners; States, the number of sports injuries ample, pole vaulting accounted for have the potential to increase. The 5.1% of all track and field injuries. 3. Establish defined spectator areas NFHS Sports Medi- However, 2 of the 6 for course viewing; and cine Advisory Com- (33.3%) concussions mittee (SMAC) and sustained in track and 4. Allow for natural barriers (grass, the NFHS Sport field occurred while trees, hedges, large rocks, etc.) Rules Committees pole vaulting. Under- which appear on many of the new- use information standing such pat- er courses. from the National terns of injury is one High School Sports- important tool when The competitors in cross country races Related Injury Sur- considering injury will benefit by: veillance Study prevention efforts (High School RIO™) such as a new rule 1. Being kept on course by a more to monitor rates and change to keep track visible representation of the patterns of sports injuries among high and field athletes as safe as possible course and school athletes. During the 2014/15 while they enjoy participating in their academic year, High School RIO™ col- sport. 2. Providing a visual aide to prevent lected its 7th year of track and field If you are interested in more infor- coaches and spectators from inter- exposure and injury data. mation on the High School RIO™ Study ference. High School RIO™ data shows that or a certified athletic trainer is interest- both boys’ and girls’ track and field ed in becoming a reporter for boys’ In addition, course officials will be able have among the lowest injury rates of and/or girls’ track and field, please visit to utilize the double boundary lines as the 22 sports under surveillance. http://www.ucdenver.edu/academics/ a visual indicator to: Boys’ and girls’ track and field injuries colleges/PublicHealth/research/ have remained relatively stable over ResearchProjects/piper/projects/RIO/ 1. Determine if a competitor is run- time. During the 2013/14 academic Pages/Study-Reports.aspx for sum- ning off of the course, to gain an year, hip/thigh/upper leg sprains/ mary reports. advantage; strains were the most common injury 2. Establish if a competitor is run- ning outside of the legal bounda- Interested in More Information or Becoming a Reporter? ries; and To become a reporter for boys’ and/or girls’ track and field, please visit http://injuryresearch.net/rioreports.aspx for summary reports or send an 3. Verify that a competitor has aban- email to [email protected]

Page 15

The Horizontal Jumps Take- Correct Height & Placement of Hurdles off Board Who is Responsible?

The takeoff board in the horizontal Hurdle events present a unique chal- If this is the case, the umpires serve to jumps governs the start of the meas- lenge as the competitors not only com- double check the placement and set-up. urement for the distance jumped. The pete against each other, but against up to The umpires then signal the referee, board is rectangular shaped, fitting ten obstacles between the starting and when the hurdles are ready for competi- firmly in position on the ground, level finish lines. Hurdles also present a chal- tion, and the referee in turn indicates to with the runway and the surface of the lenge to meet management and officials, the starters that they may begin the landing area. It is positioned so that it as their heights and placement varies for race. is perpendicular to the running direc- the different length races and also for In the absence of a crew or specific meet tion of the event. Rule 7-6-3 has been girls and boys races. undated to recommend a width of 8 personnel to set-up the hurdles for each inches for the takeoff board, even No coach of a hurdle competitor, official, appropriate race, then it is the umpires though the size may vary up to 24 inch- or referee wants to hear these words responsibility to set-up the hurdles. Alt- es in width. This places the size of the from a competitor who has just finished hough the rules book is silent on this board in alignment with the accepted a hurdle race: matter, the accepted procedural stand- ard of the sport recommends their assis- current specifications of the sport. “There was a hurdle at the wrong height tance in the set-up of hurdle races. If an in my lane” or “There was a hurdle not The rule also states the takeoff board adequate number of umpires are not placed in the right location in my lane” may be manufactured from wood or available, it then falls under the jurisdic- synthetic substances. Tracks made of To ensure hurdle races are set up cor- tion of the referee to ensure proper set- an artificial surface often have takeoff rectly, the appropriate hurdle marking up. boards that are removable, being in- must be clearly indicated on the track. serted only for competition. Also per- A good practice is the use of 3x5 cards, These marks should be inspected and mitted, on a hard surface runway, is a prepared by the referee or meet man- determined on a walk-a-round by the painted foul line of a contrasting color agement given to the primary parties referee prior to the start of competition. and with the same size specifications, involved in the proper set-up - hurdle in lieu of an inserted takeoff board. The following rules assist in the proper crew members and umpires. On each placement of hurdles: card is listed the following: Some coaches believe that the size, of the takeoff board, does matter when it 1. Rule 5-2 describes the specific color 1. Gender; comes to the inexperienced or begin- markings; 2. Event distance; ning jumpers. They advocate for takeoff 2. Rule 5-4 defines the required 3. Color for hurdle placement; boards up to 24 inches in width for be- heights; and ginning jumpers. When placing multi- 4. Hurdle height; and ple takeoff boards on the same runway, 3. Rule 5-4-6 specifies the weight set- 5. Weight measurement. to accommodate different events and ting for each corresponding height Meet directors and meet managers skill levels, all takeoff boards should be However, who is responsible to ensure should take into account the importance of an identical width, as specified by that the correct marks, heights, and of running events by ensuring knowl- Rule 7-6-3. weight settings are utilized for a given edgeable and competent umpires are The horizontal jumps takeoff board is hurdle race? Rule 3-11 describes um- assigned, just as knowledgeable and often one of the most neglected pieces pires as being responsible to oversee the competent officials are assigned to the of field equipment. track races. Remember, umpires are the other track & field events. Knowledgea- eyes and ears of the referee. Depending It is installed when the track is built ble umpires and hurdles crews will en- upon the type of meet and the availabil- and seldom replaced. For safety, the sure hurdle races are executed as ity of meet personnel, there may be a board should be kept firm, maintained smoothly and efficiently as possible by crew assigned to ensure the proper with a contrasting color (for visibility), ensuring the correct positioning and placement, set-up, and removal of the and replaced or repainted when it is placement of the hurdles on the track. hurdles. worn or deteriorated.

Page 16

Video/Photographic Back Up System In Cross Country

Rule 9-3-3a & b (NEW) recommends the produced by a nearby exciter and use of a video/ photographic equipment utilizes that energy to emit a for cross country when transponders are unique code. used for place finish. This equipment In both systems, an antenna is placed would activate a review when the timing at the finish, and in some cases, inter- system indicates a one-tenth second or mediate time points and is connected less differential between finishing com- to a decoder. This decoder identifies petitors. Many timing systems that are in the unique transponder code and cal- Disposable bib with two pas- use at Cross Country meets are now uti- culates the exact time when the tran- lizing video/photograph equipment as a sive timing chips at the back sponder passes a timing point. Some back-up system to determine final place implementations of timing systems positioning. require the use of a mat on the Officials should be aware of the different ground at the timing points while oth- types of equipment being used at the er systems implement the timing finish line when determining how to points with vertically oriented por- properly utilize these systems. As part of tals. their pre-meet duties, officials should be There are several types of systems prepared to discuss the video/ that would be acceptable under this photograph set-up with the timing oper- rule. ator to ensure that it is properly record- ing the finishers and will give an accu- 1) A basic video recorder would be rate picture when necessary. the simplest to use. This would Active chip timing tran- be setup pointing along the fin- Reasons why a back-up system using sponder ish line. video/photograph equipment might be necessary include: 2) A video based photo finish sys- tem, as utilized for track events. 1. Inaccurate reading of the transpond- ers; 3) A computer based system used by some schools for track events 2. Transponders not remaining at- would be the best. tached to the runner; a. Camera aligned to the finish 3. Runners wearing the incorrect tran- line. sponder; and b. Camera viewing runners from 4. To confirm close finishers. the front as they cross the fin- Generically, there are two types of tran- ish line, recording their bib sponder timing systems; active and pas- numbers. sive. c. These cameras would be linked 1. An active transponder consists of a to the computer. battery-powered transceiver, con- A ChronoTrack race control- The recommendations of Rule 9-3-3a nected to the athlete, that emits its ler with RFID antennas for & b (NEW), are made to ensure the unique code when it is interrogated. detecting transponders at- accuracy and validity of the results, of tached to runner's shoes. 2. A passive transponder does not con- the place finishers, in a cross country tain a power source inside the tran- competition. sponder. Instead, the transponder captures electromagnetic energy

Page 17 Coaches, Don’t Miss Your Mark—Pro-active Preparation

Each year the NFHS Track and Field meets. A copy of the NFHS Case Book to check in based on the published or- committee evaluates suggested rules is also a good reference when issues der of events. Finally, let your athletes changes sent in by coaches, officials and arise. Remember to use common know of situations where they could be administrators. Often these suggestions sense when applying them to situa- disqualified or penalized, such as aid- are not really for the officials to enforce tions. Now that athletes are able to ing or impeding another runner, taking but rules that the coaches should take wear jewelry, coaches should still be off the uniform in the competition area, care of with some pro-active prepara- responsible for what is being worn. using an illegal implement, unsporting tion of their athletes and a little pre- Large, dangling earrings or huge me- conduct, or watching video in a re- planning with paperwork. Here are dallions could be distracting and cause stricted area. some suggestions to help the high unnecessary attention for an athlete. Coaches should also become familiar school coach and athletic director make As the coach, you can tell the athlete with current websites for entering ath- the season more enjoyable for their stu- that this is not appropriate for a track letes into meets. The state association dent-athletes. meet. may have a particular website to enter Many state associations and/or coaches When sending relay teams to the check athletes into the state meet. Be sure to associations have pre-season meetings. -in tent, make sure they are all dressed login early so it’s not a scramble at the It is extremely important for coaches to according to the rules. It’s very stress- end of the season. Additionally, when attend these meetings either in person ful for your athletes to be sent away to entering athlete’s performances, al- or via webinar if available. In addition change right before their race. Field ways use the same spelling and version to learning about the latest coaching athletes should know where to check of the athlete’s name. For example, if techniques, information regarding how in, the order of flights, how many at- an athlete’s name is Thomas, don’t use to enter athletes, how to host meets, tempts they get, how much time they Tom or Tommy. Otherwise, this causes knowing the format of the state meet, get per attempt, how and when to multiple entries of the same athlete important timelines, state specific by- check out of their field event for a run- and may change the state rankings, laws, and the most recent NFHS rules ning event, how they qualify for finals causing confusion for other coaches. changes will be discussed. and when finals are to take place. Be Along with using these websites to en- sure to tell your athletes the order of ter athletes into meets, many will keep There are many NFHS rules that coach- events so they can gauge proper warm- a ranking of athletes in your state and es need to know and to share with their up and be at the venue at the correct across the country. Let your athletes athletes. No one expects a coach to have time. Some At-large invitationals pro- know about these websites so they can all of the rules memorized, so keep a vide minimal event calls to be made. keep track of their improvement copy of the Rule Book with you at Athletes should know when and where throughout the season.

NFHS High School Participation Survey Results

Page 18 Coaches Education Opportunities

 Coaching Track and Field, developed by USA Track and Field and the NFHS is hosted by decorated Olympic ath- letes Dan O'Brien and Hyleas Fountain.

 The course presents the Course Objectives fundamentals of running, Units  Types of races – sprint and endurance jumping and throwing, as  Running form – proper posture, arm  Running well as the importance of movement, and leg movement  Jumping sound mechanics and how to  Start and Drive phase – block and standing  Throwing teach these basic skills. start  Types of jumps – horizontal and vertical  After taking this course, you  Jump elements – approach, take off, flight and landing will be able to identify key  Throwing – basic skills for each event type points or stages of a skill,  How to teach skills for correct form and use visual demonstra-  Teaching progressions to combine skills into full movement tions with verbal cues to help athletes execute a par- ticular technique or skill.

 Members of USA Track and Field will receive a $15 discount as an added benefit.

 Course participants have unlimited access to course & resources for one year from date of purchase.

 This course can be used as an elective to fulfill AIC or CIC certification requirements.

 Approved by NFHS for 5 course clock hours.

 This course, developed by USA Track and Field, the NCAA and NFHS has been designed to help both coach- es and athletes.

 Coaches will learn to develop Course Objectives and teach the introductory  Starting a beginner—teaching proper standing grip height, skills of pole vaulting to his/ width of hands on pole and position on pole. her athletes.  How to instruct beginning level pole-vaulters through skill development drills and build confidence  After completing this course,  Maintaining a safe practice and competition environment — each participant will have a proper pad placement and securing vault mat pads better understanding of the fundamentals of pole vault- Units ing, as well as the best prac-  Stating a Beginner  Problem Solving tices and techniques that will  Basic Laws of Physics  Equipment and Facility help educate and promote  Drills and Teaching Tech-  Interactive Exercise safety in the sport. niques

 Course participants have unlimited access to the course & resources for one year from date of course delivery.

 This course can be used as an elective to fulfill CIC certification requirements.

 The course is approved by NFHS for 3 course clock hours.

Page 19 National Federation of State High School Associations PO Box 690 Indianapolis, IN 46206 Phone: 317-972-6900 Fax: 317-822-5700

USA Track and Field We’re on the web! 132 E. Washington St. Suite 800 www.nfhs.org www.usatf.org Indianapolis, IN 46204

The Rules Book, Case Book, Officials Manual and Scorebook can be ordered: Online at www.nfhs.org By calling 1-800-776-3462