st 1 1 Situation Analysis Survey Tharparkar Calamity – 2014
1st Situation Analysis Survey - Tharparkar
Conducted by HANDS &Technically Facilitated by UN-OCHA
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Table of Contents Title 1. Acknowledgement: ...... 3 2. Introduction: ...... 3 3. .... Research Methodology and Sample design: ……………………………………………………………………………….3
4. Demographic Information: ...... 4 Areas with greatest needs ...... 5 Number of Key Informants ...... 5 5. Key Findings ...... 5 5.1.1 Food security ...... 7 Main Livelihood Sources ...... 7 5.1.2 Livelihood source losses ...... 7 51.3 Walking Distance to reach nearest Market (in KMs) ...... 7 5.1.4 Families Food Buying Power ...... 7 5.1.5 House Holds Food Stock ...... 8 5.6 Food Availability in Markets (Percent of villages) ...... 8 5.2 Livestock & Fodder ...... 8 5.2.1 Livestock Losses ...... 8 5.2.2 Villages affected by Diseases ...... 9 5.2.3 Fodder Stock Availability ...... 9 5.3 Nutrition ...... 9 5.3.1 Exclusive Breast Feeding ...... 9 5.3.3 Number of Lactating and Pregnant women ...... 10 5.3.4 Food fed to Infants (Common) ...... 10 5.4 Health ...... 10 5.4.1 Nearest Health Facilities in the Area ...... 10 5.4.2 Villages with Nearest Health Facility and Functional status ...... 10 5.4.4 Prevalence of Diseases ...... 11 5.5 Protection ...... 11 5.6 Water, Sanitation And Hygiene (WASH) ...... 12 5.7 Primary Source of Communication: ...... 12 6. RECOMMENDATIONS: ...... 12
st 3 1 Situation Analysis Survey Tharparkar Calamity – 2014
This report is prepared by HANDS – Pakistan with technical support of UN-OCHA.Special thanks for the valuable inputs from representatives of WHO, Unicef, WFP, FAO and Other Humanitarian Partners
Tharparkar District , is one of the districts of Sindh province in Pakistan. It is headquartered at Mithi. It Tharparkar: Population (estimated) has the lowest Human Development Index of all 1,251,455. districts in Sindh. The total area of the district is 19,638 square kilometers. Dhatki also known as Thari, which is a Number of Taluka /Tehsil 04 Rajasthani language, is common language, Number of union councils 44 which is also the majority language of Number of Villages 2,188 Number of Health Facilities: 37 neighboring Umerkot district. 1 - DHQ, 03 – THQ, 02RHC, 31 BHUs However Sindhi and Urdu are also spoken. The largest tribe in Tharparkar district is Meghwar Scheduled Castes. The population can be divided into three main classes, Rajputs, which include Muslim and Hindu tribes and aboriginal tribes. The large number of aboriginal Bhils are also settled in a huge population in Tharparkar district. Many nomadic Sindhi tribe inhabit the region. Thakurs mostly left Tharparkar and migrated in India after independence of Pakistan. Traditionaly the economy of the district (Fig 1) population depend on livestocks and agriculture. If a family requires cash for essential commodities or services, they trade-in or sell their animals to fulfil their requirements. The current Veternary epidemic has wiped out most of their livestock and ability to sustain.
3. Research Methodology and Sample design: It’s a multi cluster initial assessment using Key Informants Interview technique. Questionnaire adopted from Multi Cluster Initial Rapid Assessment Tool (MIRA) The randomize sample size of 330 villages calculated from the 4 Taluka, to give results within certain reliability limits (5-10% margin of error and 95% confidence interval). As per calculated sample at district level assessment covered 322villages. The data collected through 637 (322 Female & 315 Male) Key Informant Interviews (KIIs).
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During the assessment, data is collected from all 44 UCs of 4 Taluka of Tharparkar district.
(Fig 2) The rapid assessment conducted from 11 to 15 March 2014 in four Taluka of district Tharparkar indicates that 100percent population has been affected by the recent drought to some extent.
During the assessment, numerators collected information from 637 key informants (322 males & 315 females) in 322 villages. Primary data collection was undertaken using representative sampling. (Fig 3) The sample comprised 61villages of Mithi Taluka, 120 villages of Diplo Taluka, 58 villages of Sample calculation of District Tharparkar Nagarparkar Taluka and 83 villages of Chachro Taluka Total Villages Sample Villages Taluka to achieve results within acceptable reliability Chachro 586 83 limits (5percent margin of error and 95percent confidence interval). The KIs were identified through Diplo 763 120 consultations with local community representatives. Mithi 499 61 Assessment teams were made up of four male Nagarparkar 340 58 enumerators, four female enumerators and one Total supervisor. However, male and female enumerators were involved in data collection from male & female 2188 322 KIs. The attached table illustrate the taluka viz sample distribuition.
4. Demographic Information: (Fig 4) The total number of affected population in the four tehsils of Tharparkar districts is 306,686. The largest numbers of affected population is in Chachro (105,898) followed by Mithi and Diplo. Smallest numbers of affected populations are in Nangarparkar. Population distribution is depicted in Fig.1
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Areas with greatest needs Assessment indicate that the highest number of affected populations were in Chachro. This is large arid and barren area and the population is widely disbursed. Therefore there is greater need for provision of assistance.
Number of Key Informants Total number of Key informants for the Rapid Assessment was 637 (322 Females and 315 Males), Village and Gender wise they were distributed as follows (Figs.2a, 2b, 2c, 2d).
General Observations: This document provides findings of a rapid assessment based on interviews with key informants (KIs) conducted by HANDS, from 11-14 March 2014, across 322 villages in Tharparkar districts.
The metoffice stated the reason of calamity is untimely and low rainfall, have caused domestic crop failure, coupled with outbreak of sheep pox epidemic in small livestock is associated with food insecurity and high number of deaths including children in Tharparkar.
The Provincial Disaster Management Authority reports since 1st Dec 2013 259,947 families are affected. The authority also reported, out of total 167 deathsfrom 06 health facilities of the district, 99 are children, 68 Adults.
The survey identided the average household size found is 07, the male female ratio is 49:51. The survey villages found are 100% effected.
Findings of the rapid assessment indicate the recent drought have affected at least 306,686 people and 303,902 livestock died due to different diseases. The coordinated assessment by humanitarian partners collected data through 637 (male & female) key informant interviews.
The Sindh Provincial Disaster Management Authority reports 259,947 families are affected. Half the population of Tharparkar is non-Muslim, poor and with minimal access to social services including healthcare.
5. Key Findings Findings of the rapid assessment indicate 35 Percent of the 15,077 families that depend on agriculture have been affected and require assistance to restore their livelihoods. Further, 36 Percent of the 15,524 families that depend on livestock production need support, as 10,725 heads of livestock were reportedly lost. Some 55 percent of the communities reported that they have no fodder for their livestock, and another 42 percent reported available fodder sufficient for two to four weeks. A further 88 percent of the 6,433 families
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that depend on daily labour as their primary source of income have lost their livelihood and need immediate assistance.
During assessment, 76 percent Key Informants (KIs) reported that they have no food in their stock, and another 18 percent reported available food in sufficient for two weeks which indicate urgent provision of food to affected families. Only 7 percent (2,974) of affected households have adequate resources to buy food, while 59percent of (KIs) indicate that local markets have plenty of food. Furthermore, 89percent key informant of the 322 villages reported Sheep pox as a foremost cause of small animal loss while other two diseases Perphario & Barkki were also reported by the 78 percent and 49 percent informants respectively.
The findings show that among the 322 villages visited in district Tharparkar during assessment, families in 166 villages have left their homes to seek livelihoods in nearby districts while in 148 villages, families are planning to move to avoid precarious conditions which are endangering their lives.
The main health problems reported by key informants in the drought hit areas are diarrhea 87percent, fever and malaria 82 percent, followed by cough and respiratory tract infections 79 percent, and lastly by skin diseases 41 percent. It can be assumed that given their heightened vulnerability, they will require specific attention and specialized care by the trained healthcare providers. During the assessment, 66 percent respondents reported that nearest health facility is at a distance of more than 5 kilometers and of those 26 percent highlighted basic health unit (BHU) as nearest health facility, 24 percent reported DHQ/THQ as nearest health facility and 19 percent report dispensary as nearest health facility for them while in 32 percent village’s nearest facility was reported not functional which indicate more than one third population has to travel a long distance for availing healthcare services.
During the assessment, key informants of 39 percent villages reported that there are reports of women who have stopped or reduced breastfeeding after the drought, there is also a decrease in exclusive breastfeeding after drought which is 11 percent less than before (39percent), an indicator strongly associated with an increased risk of malnutrition in infants and young children. In addition to that, infants and young children are also given goat milk, wheat flour, rice and biscuits as supplementary food. Water related issues were not of concern during calamity. As reported by 322 village’s key informants, water was accessible in most of the villages but more than 99percent of the households do not treat drinking water as they count dug well water as safe. Women are widely engaged to fetch water from nearby sources, and nearly three quarter women spend one hour to collect the water.
Only 11percent of the KIs identified problems in obtaining assistance in drought situation while 15percent of KIs reported security concern in the community.
Radio and Mobile phones are the main source of communication in visiting villages. Some 63percent informants reported mobile phone as primary source of communication,
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53percent KIs reported radio as mode of primary source of communication and 13percent reported NGO staff is also primary of source of communication.
5.1.1 Food security
Main Livelihood Sources The main livelihood of the people is related to agriculture and livestock rearing. A significant number of populations are daily wage earners and primarily work as laborers. The main livelihoods are distributed as follows (Fig. 1) (Fig.5 – Main Livelihood Sources)
5.1.2 Livelihood source losses It was assessed that very large number of population had suffered from loss of livelihood. For three sectors of the local economy, it is estimated that 88percent of livelihood loss was in daily wage sector where large number of daily laborers worked. This was followed by 79percent livelihood losses in Agricultural based activities and 69 percent livestock based occupations. (Fig.6: Livelihood Sources Losses)
51.3 Walking Distance to reach nearest Market (in KMs) The distance from the village to reach the market was assesses by the team. On an average, for 87percent villages the commuting distances to the nearest market was 5 KM. Only 13percent markets were within 5 KM distance
(Fig.7: Distance to reach nearest market)
5.1.4 Families Food Buying Power Unfortunately 93percent of the affected population did not have any buying power for food. Only 7percent were fortunate enough and could buy their own food.
(Fig.8: Food Buying Power)
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5.1.5 House Holds Food Stock
The affected populations were very severely affected by; low quantity of food stock that were available to them. It was significant to note that 76percent population did not have any food stock. This grave situation was followed by 19percent population who had stock for 2 weeks, 4percent population who had food stocks for 2 to 4 weeks. Only 1percent population had food for more than a month. (Fig.9: Food Stock Availability)
5.6 Food Availability in Markets (Percent of villages) The availability of food was assessed and 59percent villages indicated that food availability in the market was plenty. Data from 11percent villages indicated that food was available but the quantity was inadequate. Nonetheless, for 14percent villages, food was not available in the market and, 12percent villages did not know about the food availability in the market. For 4percent villages, the market was not functional.
(Fig.10: Availability of Food in Markets) 5.2 Livestock & Fodder
5.2.1 Livestock Losses Very large numbers of livestock were lost in the drought affected areas. It is assessed that on a cumulative basis some 40percent livestock had perished. The number of small animals (cows, buffalos, camels etc.) was about 43percent. This was followed by 27percent large animals.
(Fig.11: Livestock Losses)
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5.2.2 Villages affected by Diseases (Fig.12)
It was also assessed that very large numbers of live stocks Fig.12: Effected Villages by Diseases were lost from three dreaded animal diseases. These diseases have occurred widely in the affected areas and these losses occurred in 89percent villages from Sheep Pox, 78percent villages from Pephario (Contagious Pleuropneumonia / Pest des Petits) Ruminants (PPR) and 49percent villages from Barkki (Anthrax).
5.2.3 Fodder Stock Availability
The lives-stocks in the area were also greatly affected by shortages of fodder. The stocks available, it was assessed that 55 percent affected population had no Fodder stocks for their live stocks. This was followed by 33 percent population who had Fodder available for 2 weeks only, while 9 percent population had fodder stocks for 2 to 4 weeks. Only 3percent population had fodder stocks for more than one month. (Fig.13: Availablitity of Fodder)
Nutrition is very important from all aspects of health. During the droughts, malnourished, poor and weak populations easily become victims. The team assessed the number of lactating and pregnant women, number of women exclusively breast feeding and, changes that have occurred from the episode of drought. These are given below.
5.3.1 Exclusive Breast Feeding
From assessesds data it was seen that before the disaster, 39percent women were exclusively breast feeding their babies. After the disaster, this was reduced by 11percent and currently 28percent were exclusively breast feeding their babies. (Fig.14: Breast Feeding Status)
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5.3.2 Changes in Breast Feeding The team assessed the changes that have occurred in Breast Feeding practices in the affected areas. Although no change was reported by 42 percent women, Before the crisis 39% women were exclusively breast feeding their babies, which reduced to 28%
5.3.3 Number of Lactating and Pregnant women In the assessed areas, the number of lactating women was 21870 and the number of pregnant women was 17238.
5.3.4 Food fed to Infants (Common) The respondents indicated that where it was possible, the infants and young children in the drought affected population were given goat milk, wheat flour, rice and biscuits as supplementary food.
5.4 Health The importance of health cannot be under estimated, in this regard assessment was made by the team as follows:
5.4.1 Nearest Health Facilities in the Area The nearest health facilities were identified by the respondents. These are depicted hereunder.
(Fig.15: Health Facilities in the Area) 5.4.2 Villages with Nearest Health Facility and Functional status There were 315 villages where Health Facilities were available. However, a significant number of the facilities were not functional .
5.4.3 Distance to Nearest Health Facilities (Fig.16: Status of Health Facilities) The travelling distance to the nearest Health facility was assess by the team. Majority of the Facilities were located at more than 5 KM.
(Fig.17: Distance to reach health facility)
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5.4.4 Prevalence of Diseases A number of life threatening diseases were present in the affected areas and the weakened fragile affected populations were exposed to them. Most common was diarrehea, followed by malaria, cough & cold and, skin diseases. The distrubution of the diseases in the affected population is depicted in
(Fig.18: Health Issuse in the Area)
From a protection perspective, the assessment results represent a very basic set of findings, which will need to be validated and expanded through further qualitative monitoring and consultations with the affected population. For protection-related analysis, there were two major findings that (Fig.19: Facing Problems (Fig.20: Security revealed during assessment. in Obtaining Assistance) Concerns)
49percent Female population slightly higher than available statistics (Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Gender Statistics 2009: Balochistan female population = 47percent).
11percent Key Informants (KIs) reporting problems with assistance (299 KIs out of 322 responded to the query).Of positive answers: 11percent reported community faced problem in obtaining assistance.
15percent KIs highlighting security concerns (246 KIs out of 296 responded to the query). Of positive answers 15percent identified possible criminal acts (looting, thefts and robberies) as major security problem.; some situations of harassment that would need additional enquiry.
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5.6 Water, Sanitation And Hygiene (WASH)
According to the assessment more than 95percent of the respondent reported that they do not do any water treatment before drinking. Out of 322 village’s responders, 44percent have access to the water within 15 minutes, 24percent have access to the water between 30-60 minutes while remaining communities can access water in one to three hours respectively.
(Fig.21: Distance to Collect Water)
Mode of N Percent 5.7 Primary Source of Communication Communication: Radio 168 53percent Family and Friends 55 17percent Communication through phone/SMS was NGOs Staff 40 13percent revealed as major primary source in Phone/SMS 199 63percent
assessment which is 63percent followed by (Fig.22) Radio 53percent while communication through friends (17percent) and NGO staff (13percent) ranked third and fourth respectively. Telenor mobile service is widely used in all four talukas of district Tharparkar.
6. RECOMMENDATIONS: Following are the major recommendations of different stake holders in response to findings of survey;
Major Strategies: – Short Term: Considering the allarming siyuation which us expected to be deterioted because of contineous dry spell… till next monsoon…planned rescue and relief activities needed to implement.
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– Long Term: The solution of Thar is in long term development plans at least 10 years plans, address to their livelihood focus that is Livestocks, Agriculture, drinking and irrigation water, in addition to health education and other safety nets. – Ofcourse Public, Private and Non profit partnerships need to be explored. – Livestock: Following are the recommendation of many stake holders; – Immediate cash compensation on livestock mortalities – Ensure smooth Vetneray Services – Ensure Smooth and Cost Effective Supplies of Livestock & Fodder. – Agriculture: Considering the major livelihood that depend on rain water….alternate water accessiblity needed to work out as long term solution but immediate steps need to be taken’ – Compensation for Losses – Seed Distribution – Seed Bank – Drip Irrigation – Fertilizers – Tool Support – Water – Rain water harvesting Interventions – Availability of safe drinking Water – Food / Dry ration assistance till monsoon – Equitable supplies at the door step – Health Services: Needed to ensure 100% Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Level Health Facilities. – Communication: Local mass Media Health Awareness Program with use of Mobile Phone & FM Radio. – Early warning System required to be established. – Social Protection: especially to vulnerable through safety nets programs – Transportation System: Free or subsidized