Paramita:Paramita: Historical Historical Studies Studies Journal, Journal, 30(1), 30(1), 2020, 2020 23-35 ISSN: 0854-0039, E-ISSN: 2407-5825 DOI:


Susanto T. Handoko¹, Wasino² ¹History Education Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Cenderawasih Jayapura ²Department of History, Faculty of Social Sciences, Universitas Negeri


This research is motivated by the existence of Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh adanya a national identity crisis in Indonesian society, krisis identitas nasional di masyarakat Indone- especially in young people or students. This sia, terutama pada kaum muda atau pelajar. research aims to analyze the discourse on rela- Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis tions between Indonesia and Papua found in a wacana tentang hubungan Indonesia dan Pa- history textbook for senior high school of 2013 pua yang ditemukan dalam buku teks sejarah curriculum. Through this research, an under- untuk kurikulum SMA 2013. Melalui standing of how the state reconstructs national penelitian ini, pemahaman tentang bagaimana identity (Indonesian-ness) and local identity negara merekonstruksi identitas nasional dan (Papuan-ness) in a history textbook for senior identitas lokal dalam buku teks sejarah untuk high school used by senior high school stu- SMA yang digunakan oleh siswa SMA di Ko- dents in Jayapura City. The research method ta Jayapura. Metode penelitian yang used is the qualitative method, which focuses digunakan adalah metode kualitatif, yang ber- on the content analysis of the history textbook. fokus pada analisis isi buku teks sejarah. Ana- This analysis will focus on the relations be- lisis ini akan fokus pada hubungan antara In- tween Indonesia and Papua. The meaning donesia dan Papua. Proses pemaknaan dil- process was conducted using two concepts, akukan dengan menggunakan dua konsep, namely Indonesian-ness and Papuan-ness. yaitu keindonesiaan dan ke-Papua-an. Then, those two concepts were represented in Kemudian, kedua konsep tersebut diwakili three themes: ethnic nationalism, nationalism, dalam tiga tema: nasionalisme etnis, nasional- and national integration. The results of the isme, dan integrasi nasional. Hasil penelitian research showed that the discourse on national menunjukkan bahwa wacana tentang identitas identity (Indonesian-ness) and local identity nasional dan identitas lokal adalah produk (Papuan-ness) was a product of the govern- kebijakan politik pemerintah dalam pendidi- ment’s political policies in education, namely kan, yaitu ideologi dan identitas negara. ideology and state identity. Kata kunci: wacana, relasi Indonesia dan Pa- Keywords: Discourse, Relations between In- pua, analisis isi, buku teks sejarah SMA, Ku- donesia and Papua, Content Analysis, History rikulum 2013 Textbook for Senior High School, 2013 Cur- riculum

Author correspondence Email: [email protected] 23 Available online at Paramita: Historical Studies Journal, 30(1), 2020

INTRODUCTION strengthened by the research conducted by The understanding and meaning ability of Mulyana (2013), which interestingly re- Senior High School students in Jayapura views the themes of nationalism and mili- City (Papua) towards the relations be- tarism that dominated the writing of the tween Indonesia and Papua are obtained Indonesian National History textbook from learning processes. One of them is (SNI). The discourse on nationalism is through studying history (history books). considered very dominant in a history History textbook for senior high school is textbook, especially in the narratives con- one of many sources that are dominant in cerning the formation of the nation-state. school because it provides historical While the discussion on militarism is very events (stories). History textbook for sen- assertive in the narratives concerning the ior high school has a vital contribution struggle in Indonesian National History. because it involves the formation of cogni- Furthermore, Utami & Widiadi's research tive and affective aspects of students. (2016) concerning the value of Unity in Therefore, in writing a history textbook Diversity (Bhinneka Tunggal Ika) in the his- for senior high school, synchronization tory textbook of the 2006 curriculum was between academic history and history for represented in various themes. The themes educational purposes is needed. It means are acculturation, multiculturalism, dis- the integration between values internaliza- crimination, and unity. The political poli- tion as representations of certain ideolo- cies of education strongly influenced the gies and critical studies that the inculca- practice of discourse in the history text- tion of values (ideologies) is not indoctri- book carried out by the government nated. Discourse is a construction of reali- (Mulyana, 2013). ty so that the subjectivity and interests of Various research of Indonesia's fore- discourse constructor also play a role in it. most history education academics above History can be considered as a system of has interestingly discussed the various dis- discourse (history) that is bound by its courses in the textbook for senior high context (time). Thus, the discourse must school concerning Indonesian History be viewed critically because discourse is from 1975, 1984, 1994 to 2006 Curricula. not neutral. History textbook is a part of However, none has specifically addressed the practice of discourse (Utami & Widi- the discourse on relations between Indo- adi, 2016, pp. 107-109) nesia and Papua. Whereas, the relations The research on the Indonesian his- between Indonesia () and Papua tory textbook was carried out by several (Jayapura) often lead to a conflict of inter- academics from various universities in est and controversy in the dynamics of the Indonesia. The research concerning the struggle of Indonesian people to uphold Indonesian history textbook in the two national integration. Issues or various decades of the reform era was conducted problems in Papua have local, national, by Wirasti (2001), who examines various and international dimensions. Papua has themes of a state ideology that appeared in an essential and strategic meaning in the a history textbook in the period of 1975- dynamics of Indonesia’s development in 2001. One of them is the nationalism / the past, present, and future. unity theme. The next researcher is Pur- Various research on history text- wanta (2012), who critically reviews the book that has been conducted by research- national ideology discourse contained in ers above shows that history education has the history textbook in the period of 1975- a major contribution in the formation of 2008, which is constructed as a substitute the dignified character and civilization of for local identity. Purwanta (2013) also the nation as well as in the formation of suggests that the ideology of militarism is Indonesian people who have a sense of very dominant in writing a history text- nationality and love for the country book in Indonesia in the period of 1975- (Hasan, 2012, p. 87). History education 1994. Purwanta's research results were has great potential in developing character

24 Paramita: Historical Studies Journal, 30(1), 2020 education, especially nationalism. tained in the Indonesia history textbook Through education, community, nation, for senior high school students. Therefore, or country seeks to build resilience so that the data source of this research is the In- the entity and its values remain and devel- donesian history textbook of 2013 Curric- op. In this context, education has a mean- ulum for Grade X, XI, and XII of the sen- ing as an effort to transmit and transform ior high school published by the Ministry the values upheld and identity of the com- of Education and Culture of the Republic munity. By instilling national identity and of Indonesia. The selection or the reason spirit, it is expected that students will be- why this textbook is chosen to be the come good and responsible citizens source of the data is that this textbook is (Suryadi., Hayat., Rustana. & Abduhzen, an official book (Hasan, 2012, p. 29) pub- 2014, p. 5) lished by the Indonesian government so This research aims to analyze the that government or state policies in inter- discourse on the relations between Indo- preting historical narratives are obvious nesia, and Papua found in the history text- and easily analyzed (Mulyana, 2013, p. book for senior high school of 2013 Cur- 80). riculum. Through this research, an under- The analysis technique used by the standing of how the state reconstructs na- researchers in this analysis method was tional identity (Indonesian-ness) and local meaning to the narratives contained in the identity (Papuan-ness) in the history text- Indonesian history textbook for grade X, book used by senior high school students XI, and XII of senior high school. The in Jayapura City (Papua) will be obtained. meaning process was carried out using The textbook is one of the learning re- two main concepts, namely Indonesian- sources used in learning history in school. ness and Papuan-ness. Researchers con- History learning functions to preserve col- sidered these two concepts to contain ide- lective memory and values that are consid- ologization in providing meaning to his- ered essential, such as the value of Indone- torical events narrated in the history text- sian-ness (national identity) and Papuan- book. Furthermore, the two main con- ness (local identity). cepts were then represented in three themes, namely: ethnic nationalism, na- RESEARCH METHOD tionalism, and national integration. This research is a qualitative study that examines the discourse of the relations RESULTS AND DISCUSSION between Indonesia and Papua (the recon- Historical Review of The Relations Be- struction of national and local identity) tween Indonesia and Papua through the content of the Indonesian his- The relations between Indonesia and Pa- tory textbook for senior high school of pua have been traced historically since the 2013 Curriculum. In this context, the text- Dutch colonization in Papua from 1896 to book is placed as a historical document 1962. Even in the , the containing the author's "subjective expres- of Maluku had instilled their influence in sion" related to interest (power) as a con- the western region of the island of Nieuw text in the production and reproduction of Guinea (Papua), known as the Am- discourses, assumptions, ideologies, and pat Islands, namely Waigeo, Salawati, messages delivered (and discussed) by the Misool, and Waigama Islands. The King author to students as the readers of Waigama and Misool were under the (Purwanta, 2012, p. 111). influence of Bacan. Waigeo and The research method used in this Salawati Islands became the object con- research was the content analysis method. tested by the Sultan of and the The content analysis method is a method Sultan of Tidore. The competition be- used for collecting and analyzing the con- tween the two empires had an impact on tents of a text. The text in question in this the efforts to expand the domains of those research is the historical narratives con- two empires. Sultan of Ternate expanded

25 Paramita: Historical Studies Journal, 30(1), 2020 his power to and the islands in Widjojo (Ed.) (2009, pp. 227-228), if the the west of Halmahera. Sultan Tidore ex- Papuan problem is portrayed in an ideo- tended his power to East Seram, western logical perspective, then the basis of all Nieuw Guinea, and all islands between problems or issues is the "Problems Concern- Nieuw Guinea and Halmahera (Sinaga, ing the Relationship in the Meaning of Indone- 2013, p. 3; Widjojo (Ed), 2009, pp. 95- sian-ness and Papuan-ness." 113). Historical review of the dynamics of The proclamation of Indonesia's the relations between Indonesia and Pa- Independence on August 17th, 1945, had pua since the integration of Papua into the an impact on the relations between Indo- Republic of Indonesia revealed "two faces" nesia and Papua. According to the decla- which are dominant (Aditjondro, 2000, ration on August 17th, 1945, the territory pp. 5-32; Meteray, 2012, pp. 53-112 & 169 of the Republic of Indonesia was the en- -258; Kaisiepo, 1999, pp. 167-187; Rahab, tire territory of the former Dutch East In- 2006, pp. 3-23; Widjojo (Ed.), 2009, pp. 1- dies. According to the decision of the Pre- 42), namely Papuan Nationalism (Free paratory Committee for Indonesian Inde- Papua) and Indonesian Nationalism (pro- pendence (PPKI) meeting on August 18th, NKRI). These two faces of nationalism in 1945, the area covered , , Ka- Papua will undoubtedly weaken the build- limantan, Sulawesi, West Nusa Tenggara, ing process of Indonesian-ness in the Land East Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku - in this of Papua if not appropriately managed by context Papua was included in Maluku. the Central Government. Papua has been integrated into the The contestation of Papuan-ness Republic of Indonesia since May 1st, and Indonesian-ness identities certainly 1963, and has built a unique relationship affected young people in Papua to under- with the central government (Jakarta) un- stand and interpret the relationship be- til now. Generally, political issues in Pa- tween Papua and Indonesia. The ability of pua are limited to the independence of young people (high school students) to Papua or the discussion, whether it re- understand and interpret can be construct- mains integrated into the Unitary State of ed through history learning. To overcome the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI). The various conflicts, violence, and eroded issue of conflict concerning national inte- national indicators that have threatened gration in Papua can be traced from vari- national integration, especially in the ous interrelated aspects such as politics, Land of Papua. The root of the problems economy, social culture, and defense and that must be explored and restructured, security. According to Widjojo (Ed.) namely, the awareness of Indonesian-ness (2009), the complexity of the Papua issue needs to be improved, especially among at local, national, and in the context of the younger generations (high school stu- conflict in Papua, focuses on four main dents). Therefore, history education will topics or problems. Firstly, the marginali- have essential contributions in fostering zation problem and discriminatory effects national awareness among young people, towards indigenous Papuans due to eco- especially in the current era. In the context nomic development, political conflicts, of this research, history education is repre- and mass migration to Papua since 1970. sented from the Indonesian history text- Secondly, the failure of development, es- book of 2013 Curriculum for senior high pecially in the fields of education, health, school students. and empowerment of the people's econo- my. Thirdly, there is a historical contra- The Approach Used In The Textbook diction in the construction of political The textbook is a source and medium identity between Papua and Jakarta. used to deliver subject materials to stu- Fourthly, the accountability for past vio- dents. History textbook is a source and lence against Indonesian citizens in Papua medium for teachers to provide articles conducted by the state. In the view of related to events that have occurred in the

26 Paramita: Historical Studies Journal, 30(1), 2020 past (Budiono & Awaludin, 2017, p. 36). space and time dimensions of Indonesian History subject is one of the dominant history dynamics, skills in presenting the means (media), which can instill the dis- experience they master in an abstract and course on state ideology and national concrete manner, as well as an attitude of identity. One of the instruments used in respecting the struggle of heroes so that this practice is the history textbook. Histo- the mindset of students who are aware of ry textbook is arranged according to a cur- history is formed (Abdurakhman, Pra- riculum set by the state and is a part of dono., Sunarti., & Zuhdi, 2018: iii). By official history. The preparation of the cur- studying history, students are expected to riculum is based on political foundations, be able to take the values of every histori- namely, governmental policies of the gov- cal event that occur to strengthen the pat- ernment. One of the many influences giv- riotism and pride as well as to improve en by the textbook is the ideologization their nationalism (Gunawan, Lestarin- and national identity. The textbook repre- ingsih, & Sardiman, 2016, p. iii). sents various state ideologies. The ideolog- ical forms in the national history textbook Indonesian-ness and Papuan-ness in His- are nationalism, constitutionalism, milita- tory Textbook of 2013 Curriculum for rism, anti-communism, anti-, Senior High School Students democracy, stability, development, and The textbook, as a handbook, is used to economic globalization (Mulyana, 2013: facilitate the implementation of learning. 78; Purwanta, 2013, p.88). In connection with the history subject, the One form of the ideologization of textbook is used for providing history edu- the Indonesian National History textbook cation (Mulyana, 2013, pp. 78-79). In this is Nationalism (Indonesian-ness), which is research, the researchers have set the limi- a political concept. According to Gardiner tation that the textbook used was Indone- (in Mulyana, 2013, p. 81), a political ap- sian history learning textbook for grade X, proach (political history) has a dominant XI, and XII students of senior high school characteristic in the study of the power of 2013 Curriculum published by the Min- activity (organization) in society in the istry of Education and Culture of the Re- past. For examples are Hindu-Buddhist public of Indonesia. The selection of the and Islamic-style kingdoms in the pre- textbook was based on the consideration Indonesian independence era. of an official book published by the gov- The 2013 curriculum is designed to ernment so that the government's mission strengthen student’s competencies in as- in interpreting historical narratives is ex- pects of knowledge, skills, and attitudes pected to be visible and easily analyzed. comprehensively. Indonesian history sub- The researchers gave meaning to the ject for senior high school students is de- narratives in the Indonesian history text- signed to follow this formula. Indonesian book used by grade X, XI, and XII stu- history subject is one of the subjects that dents of senior high school. The meaning must be learned by all students. As a com- was carried out by using two main con- pulsory subject, the Indonesian history cepts, namely Indonesian-ness (Indonesia) textbook is prepared with a more popular and Papuan-ness (Papua). Researchers regressive approach (Sardiman & Les- considered that these two concepts con- tariningsih, 2014 & 2017, p. iii). Accord- tain ideologization in providing meaning ing to the textbook, students are invited to to historical events narrated in the history see (observe) historical phenomena in textbook. These two concepts were then their daily lives in the surrounding envi- mapped into three themes represented in ronment, which contain socio-cultural the Indonesian history textbook concern- aspects and historical heritages, then they ing the relations between Indonesia are related to past events with various (Indonesian-ness) and Papua (Papuan- points of view. Indonesian history subject ness), namely the issues of ethnic national- equips students with knowledge about ism, nationalism, and national integration.

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Ethnic Nationalism Theme (Gunawan., Lestariningsih & Sardiman, Ethnic nationalism is defined as the spirit 2016, p. 37) of the formation of ethnic identity aware- ness. Ethnic nationalism in this research Another race in Indonesian Archipela- concerned the narratives or construction go is the Melanesoid race. They are about Papua (Papuan-ness). There were scattered in the Pacific Ocean on the also dynamics in the diversity of ethnic islands located in the east of the Irian and the continent of Australia. In Indo- groups in Papua as well as its cultural sys- nesian Archipelago, they live in West tems. The conflict was considered as a Papua, Ambon, North Maluku and regular thing that appears as a result of East Nusa Tenggara. Together with differences in views or thickening the Papua-New Guinea and Bismarck, Sol- awareness of tribal identity. Ethnic con- omon, New Caledonia and Fiji, and flicts in Papua contained the elements of Vanuatu, they are classified as Melane- ethnic nationalism and indigenous people. soids. Ethnic nationalism, an ethnic unit that lives in a certain area (Papua) and wants What needs to be criticized from the to separate itself from the state (RI), and narrative is the term “Irian,” which is still indigenous people who live in a certain used. It should be replaced by the term area and wants greater autonomy from the “Papua” which is following the develop- ruling state to protect customary land ment of the term in era. Further- (Afwan, 2015, pp. 55-57). more, it is also necessary to add the word The lack of narratives concerning “Papua (region)” to mention the Province ethnic nationalism in the Indonesian Na- of Papua and to clarify the narrative be- tional History learning textbook for senior cause it only mentioned, “West Pa- high school students has been found from pua” (West Papua Province). It seems the 1975 until the reform era. However, it authors aware of the lack of narrative does not mean there are no historical phe- about Papua so that the word “Papua” is nomena concerning ethnic nationalism in included in the section "Observing the En- Indonesia. The authors of the textbook vironment." "... the earthquake and tsuna- placed it as phenomena of nationalism. mi that occurred in , earthquake in According to Purwanto (2006, p. 182), the , in Papua and other regions, dynamics of the formation of Indonesian including several volcanoes that erupt- identity goes hand in hand with ethnic ed" (Gunawan, Lestariningsih, & Sar- identity (ethnic nationalism). Indonesian- diman, 2016, p. 9). ness and ethnic nationalism has under- Moreover, concerning the view of gone a process of transformation in syner- local identity, the people who live in the gy to shape each other's identities without Indonesian archipelago, according to the having to contradict each other. In the textbook, are represented as people who perspective of Purwanta (2012, pp. 119- cannot accept foreign influences easily. 120), history textbook should explain the The local community in the archipelago is dynamics of the transformation without described as people who have local geni- eliminating the diversity aspects of the us. So, they give birth to various forms of identity of each ethnic. assimilation, acculturation, and even syn- Based on the researchers’ analysis cretism. Local genius, according to Wales on the theme of ethnic nationalism in In- (in Utami & Widiadi, 2016, p. 112) is the donesian history textbook for Class X, 3rd ability of local culture to deal with the in- Printing of 2016 (Revised Edition) is as fluence of foreign cultures when the two follows: in Chapter I: "Tracing Early Civi- cultures are related. According to the nar- lizations in Indonesian Archipelago", a rative of a history textbook for grade X, narrative of Papuan-ness appears in the "Acculturation of Indonesian Archipelago Melanesoid race. In connection with the and Hindu-Buddhist Cultures" is in the Melanesoid race, the textbook explains: form of building art, fine art and sculpture,

28 Paramita: Historical Studies Journal, 30(1), 2020 performing arts, literary and literary arts, dom consisting of Atiati, Sekar, Patipi, belief systems, government systems, and Arguni, and Wertuar Kingdoms; (7) architecture (Gunawan, Lestariningsih & Kowiai Kingdom (Namatota); and (8) Sardiman, 2016, pp. 157-164). Next in Kaimana Kingdom (Gunawan, Lestarin- Chapter III E: "Acculturation and Devel- ingsih, & Sardiman, 2016, pp. 229-231). opment of Islamic Culture" include build- In the context of Islamization in Papua, ing art, sculpture, literacy and literary arts, the narrative, according to the history text- arts, and calendars (Gunawan, Lestarin- book for senior high school students, is as ingsih, & Sardiman, 2016, pp. 239-249). follows (Gunawan, Lestariningsih, & Sar- Next, in Chapter II: "Traders, Au- diman, 2016, pp. 231). thorities and Poets of the Classical Period (Hinduism and Buddhism)," Section B of The process of Islamization in Papua, the Kingdoms in the Hindu-Buddhist Peri- especially on the west coast, occurred in od. Hindus-Buddhist kingdoms based on the middle of the 15th century, which was influenced by Islamic empires in position include Island Maluku (Bacan, Ternate, and Tidore). (); Sumatra (Sriwijaya and Kapur It is supported by its strategic location, City); Java Island (Tarumanegara, Kaling- which was the spice trade route in the ga, Ancient Mataram, , , world. ), Island (Buleleng and Warmadewa Dynasty). The narrative Furthermore, based on the research- about the Land of Papua or the ethnic na- ers’ analysis of the Indonesian history tionalism of Papua does not have an im- textbook for Grade XI students of senior portant (broad) narrative in relation to the high school, 1st Semester, 1st Printing of development of the Hindu-Buddhist king- 2014 is as follows: in Chapter 2 concern- dom. The description related to Papua is ing "War Against Colonialism" - the nar- only briefly discussed, that is, part of Pa- rative of Papuan-ness (Papua) is complete- pua was under the authority of the ly absent. However, local narratives ap- Majapahit Kingdom. The narrative about pear in other regions in the Indonesian the greatness of the Majapahit Kingdom archipelago, such as Aceh, Banjar, Bali, during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk , Batak, Goa, Maluku, Java, Riau, and Patih Gajah Mada, which is related to and Tondano (Sardiman and Lestarin- Papua, is as follows: (Gunawan., Lestarin- ingsih, 2014, pp. 62-137). Then, in Chap- ingsih & Sardiman, 2016, p. 138). ter 3 concerning "Building Indonesian Identity," - the narratives about Papuan- According to Kakawin Nagarakretaga- ness (Papua) are not presented (Sardiman ma, Canto XIII-XV, Majapahit territory and Lestariningsih, 2014, pp. 138-203). includes Sumatra, , Next, based on researchers’ analysis Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara Is- of Indonesian history textbook for Grade lands, Maluku, Papua, Tumasik (Singapore) and most of the islands of XI students of senior high school, 2nd Se- The Philippines. Majapahit also had mester, 2nd Printing of 2017 (Revised Edi- connection with Campa, Cambodia, tion), the narratives include Chapter 5 Siam, Southern Burma, Vietnam. It concerning "The Tyranny of the Rising also had sent its ambassadors to China. Sun," Chapter 6 regarding "Indonesian Independence" and Chapter 7 relating to Meanwhile, in Chapter III: "The Revolution to Uphold the Principles "Islamization in Indonesian Archipelago", of Unitary State of the Republic of Indo- Sub-Chapter C concerning “ Enters nesia". The narratives concerning Papuan- the King's Palace,” according to the narra- ness (Papua) construction only appear in tive, Islamic kingdoms in Papua include: Chapter 7, Sub-Chapter B, 11th point (1) Waigeo Kingdom; (2) Misool King- (Round Table Conference), in the sen- dom; (3) Salawati Kingdom; (4) Sailolof; tence: "West Irian problem will be re- (5) Fatagar Kingdom; (6) Rumbati King- solved a year later, after the recognition of

29 Paramita: Historical Studies Journal, 30(1), 2020 sovereignty" (Sardiman and Lestarin- sion of nationalism at the beginning of the ingsih, 2017, p. 199). nationalist movement can be focused on the issues of identity awareness, the for- Nationalism Theme mation of solidarity through the process of According to Mulyana (2013, p. 81), na- integration, and organizational mobiliza- tionalism is a political concept. If it is as- tion. The writing of the Indonesian history sociated with the approach of the writing textbook has a connection with the per- of the Indonesian National History text- spective of nationalism. From the stand- book for senior high school students, peri- point of Mulyana (2013, p. 81), the ele- odization uses a more political approach ments of nationalism as an ideology are or political structure (history). The domi- quite coloring the structure of the writing nant characteristic in political history is of the Indonesian history textbook for sen- the study of power activities ior high school students so far. Mean- (organizations) in society in the past, such while, the narrative concerning nationalist as the kingdom. It can be seen in the peri- movement organization in the Indonesian odization used and the description of the history textbook for Grade XI students of material. In the Grade X textbook, Chap- senior high school, 1st Semester, is includ- ter II B discusses the "Hindu-Buddhist ed in Chapter III: "Building Indonesian Kingdoms," with details covering many Identity," Sub-Chapter B: Analyzing the kingdoms such as Kutai, Tarumanegara, Struggle of Nationalist Movement Organi- Kalingga, Sriwijaya, Ancient Mataram, zations. In detail, these organizations in- Kediri, Singhasari, Majapahit, Buleleng, clude Early Movement Organizations, Warmadewa Dynasty in Bali, Tulang Religious Organizations, Youth Organiza- Bawang and Kota Kapur Kingdoms. tions, Women Organizations, Indonesian Then, in Chapter III: "Islamization and Communist Party (PKI), Indonesian Un- Cross-Culture in Indonesian Archipela- ion (Perhimpunan Indonesia): Political go," Sub-Chapter C: Islam Enters the Manifesto, Taman Siswa, and Labor Or- King's Palace narrates Islamic kingdoms ganizations (Sardiman and Lestariningsih, in Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, 2014). The emergence of nationalist move- North Maluku, Papua and Nusa Tenggara ment organizations in the early twentieth (Gunawan, Lestariningsih, & Sardiman, century was spearheaded by educated or 2016). modern Indonesian elite as the products of The description of the kingdoms in western education. Therefore, it can be the Indonesian archipelago implies that said that nationalism in Indonesia could before the formation of the Republic of not be separated from the influence of Indonesia in 1945, there was a fully sover- westernization carried out by the Dutch eign power institution in Indonesia, name- government through education ly kingdom. Many kingdoms had built a for the natives. connection that created a network caused In this context, deterministic con- by communication through sea transporta- struction can be understood as progress in tion and activities such as shipping and presenting the history that culminates in trading. Shipping and trade activities have the triumph of the modernity of the nation made the Indonesian archipelago region -state, namely the western way of thinking as part of the trade network. Even, it was or ideal way of life (culture). This view included as one of the bustling world trade looks at the critical role of intellectuals areas. As a consequence, many kingdoms (modern elites) as the result of western in the Indonesian archipelago turned into education in Indonesia (Purwanta, 2012, busy trade centers. p. 114). According to Kartodirdjo (1994, p. According to Mulyana (2013, p. 3), concerning the concept of nationalism 83), the Indonesian nationalist movement as an ideology (principles of freedom, uni- in the historiography description of a his- ty, equality, and personality), the discus- tory textbook for senior high school shows

30 Paramita: Historical Studies Journal, 30(1), 2020 a historical continuity. Nationalism be- a unitary state that was later formed. The came a driving ideology in Indonesian communication network that had been history, especially since the ideology be- developed in the Indonesian archipelago came an idea in the early 20th century un- through shipping and trade activities has til the effort to maintain independence. formed integration. According to the his- The continuity shows figures who have tory textbook for Grade X students of sen- been involved from the very beginning, ior high school, the narrative of "The For- the idea of nationalism was introduced as mation of the Nusantara Network through well as from the birth of the proclamation Trade" is included in Chapter II C of independence to the revolutionary peri- (Gunawan, Lestariningsih, & Sardiman, od. In general, these nationalist figures 2016, pp. 151-156). became the drivers of Indonesian history The formation of the Nusantara net- until the independence revolution period work through trade is narrated as follows: (1945-1949). (Gunawan, Lestariningsih, & Sardiman, 2016, p. 151). National Integration Theme The integration of a nation is essential in Integration centers in Indonesian archi- the life of the nation and state. Integration pelago take place through the mastery has a function to give birth to a powerful of the sea. The integration centers are then determined by expertise and con- national force. Thus, all problems that cern for the sea, so that new develop- arise can be faced together. The Republic ments occur, at least in two ways, of Indonesia is a concrete manifestation of namely: (i) the growth of trade routes the process of national integration. The that pass through strategic locations on idea of Indonesia as a manifestation of a the coast, and (ii) the ability to control nation-state did not appear until the early political and military traditional rulers twentieth century. However, the process (kings) in controlling the main routes towards that idea has been conducted and trade centers in the Indonesian ar- since centuries ago when the Islands of chipelago. Therefore, the preconditions Indonesia were still independent territo- to be able to master the trade routes and centers are determined by two im- ries. The territory of the Republic of Indo- portant things, namely attention or per- nesia is the former Dutch colonial territo- spective and the ability to control the ry. Still, Indonesian-ness is not a colonial sea . gift, but the awareness of the nation's chil- dren forged by the same fate, historical Furthermore, the narrative of the similarity, and shared ideals (Zuhdi, Indonesian archipelago integration pro- 2017). cess is constructed in Chapter III F, which According to Sjamsuddin (in Pur- includes the role of the ulema in the inte- wanta, 2012, p. 119), theoretically, nation- gration process, the role of inter-island al integration contains two main elements, trade, and the role of language. The con- namely vertical integration relating to rela- struction of national integration in the tions between the elite and the people and textbook is narrated as follows: horizontal integration related to regional (Gunawan., Lestariningsih & Sardiman, socio-cultural dynamics and the creation 2016: 250) of cohesive relationships with other re- gions nationally. From a theoretical point ... The process of integration of Indone- of view, the authors of the textbook ex- sia turned out to be going on for quite a plain more about vertical integration and long time and even started from the very less on horizontal integration. beginning of Before Christ era. In the The understanding of the history of 16th century, the process of the integra- shipping and trade networks in the Indo- tion of Indonesian people began to ex- nesian archipelago had an essential key in perience rapid progress since the Islami- zation process. ... Ulemas from understanding the as

31 Paramita: Historical Studies Journal, 30(1), 2020

Minangkabau, for example, have suc- of nation’s disintegration in the period of ceeded in converting our brothers in 1945-1965 in the form of upheaval and Sulawesi, Sulawesi's ulemas have also conflict are divided into three, namely: (1) played a role in Islamizing our brothers incidents of conflict and upheaval related in Bima, Nusa Tenggara, to ideology, such as (a) the PKI rebellion and so on, as well as ulemas in East in in 1948, (b) DI / TII rebellions Java have Islamized Ternate. and Ti- dore ... in from 1948 to 1962, in Cen- tral Java from 1950 to 1951, in South Su- lawesi from 1953 to 1965, in South Kali- According to Kartodirdjo (in Mul- mantan from 1954 to 1963, in Aceh from yana, 2013, p. 82), integration is the key 1950 to 1959/1962, and (c) 30th of Sep- concept in Indonesian history. The myth tember Movement by PKI in 1965; (2) that was built from the dynamics of the conflict and upheaval events related to formation of Indonesia by providing an interests, such as (a) the APRA rebellion interpretation that the idea of Indonesia as in 1949, (b) Andi Aziz incident, and (c) a regional and ideological unity had al- RMS rebellion; and (3) incidents of con- ready existed since a long time ago. In flict and upheaval related to the govern- fact, Indonesia, as a nation, was formed ment system, such as (a) PRRI and since the Proclamation of Independence rebellions, (b) the issues of the on August 17th, 1945. Federal States and BFO (Abdurakhman, The researchers’ analysis concerning Pradono, Sunarti, & Zuhdi, 2018, pp. 2- the theme of national integration in an 29). Indonesian history textbook for Grade XII One function of history is giving students of senior high school, 2nd Semes- educational use, which implies taking wis- ter of 2018 (Revised Edition) is as follows: dom from past experiences and its rele- the importance of awareness of national vance to the present. The construction of integration can be related to the potential national integration in Papua appears in for conflict in several regions in Indonesia the narratives of conflict-prone areas in today. Therefore, the importance of learn- Indonesia. Papua is one of many conflict- ing history that contains learning materi- prone areas, besides West Java, Central als and is designed to sharpen students' Java, DKI Jakarta, North Sumatra, and knowledge competence. Indonesian histo- Central Sulawesi. However, the narrative ry subject equips students with knowledge of the conflict in Papua is not widely de- about the dimensions of space and time of scribed. Furthermore, national integration Indonesian history dynamics, skills in pre- in Papua was also constructed through the senting the knowledge that is mastered in example of unifying figures or national a concrete and abstract manner, as well as heroes from Papua. However, the Grade an attitude of appreciating the services of XII textbook only presents three national heroes so that the mindset of students who heroes from Papua, namely Frans Kai- are aware of history is formed. siepo, Merthen Indey, and Silas Papare Therefore, in the Indonesian history (Abdurakhman, Pradono, Sunarti, & textbook for Grade XII students of senior Zuhdi, 2018, pp. 34-37). One of the na- high school, it is explained that the nation- tional heroes from Papua who is not dis- al integration narrative is constructed from cussed in the textbook is Johanes Abra- the nation's disintegration narrative. In ham Dimara. The role of Johanes Abra- Chapter I: "The Struggle to Face the ham Dimara in the struggle for integration Threat of Disintegration of the Nation", at of Papua into the Republic of Indonesia the beginning the quote "The greatest ene- should also be featured in the Indonesian my of our nation is not from outside, but history textbook (Sukmawati, 2000). the threat of disintegration that comes Another narrative about Papua is from inside" (Abdurakhman, Pradono, the liberation of West Irian (Papua) that Sunarti, & Zuhdi, 2018, p. 1). The threats has become one of the political issues that

32 Paramita: Historical Studies Journal, 30(1), 2020 have continued to reverberate since the Baru/Jayapura). Proclamation of Indonesian Independence on August 17th, 1945. During the negotia- As a follow up to the New York Agree- tions of the Round Table Conference ment, the Government of Indonesia (KMB) in 1950, the problem of West Irian carries out the task of implementing the (Papua) submission was suspended a year Act of Free Choice (Pepera). The Indo- nesian government ran in three stages. later. However, until 1960 the problem of These three stages were successfully West Irian could not be resolved by the carried out by the Government of Indo- Netherlands and Indonesia diplomatically nesia, and the results of the act were even though the United Nations had inter- then brought by Ambassador Ortis Sanz vened. Finally, President Sukarno, on 19 to New York to be reported to the UN December 1961, in the middle of a great Security Council General Assembly. meeting in Yogyakarta, issued Tri Koman- On 19 November 1969, the 24th Gen- do Rakyat (Trikora) - a command for a mil- eral Assembly of the United Nations itary confrontation with the Dutch. The accepted the results of the Act of Free contents of the Trikora are: (1) prevent the Choice, which had been conducted by Indonesia because it was following the Dutch from forming a puppet State of contents of the New York Agreement. West Papua; (2) raise the red and white Since then, Indonesia regained West flag (Indonesia’s national flag) in West Irian (de jure and de facto) as part of the Papua; and (3) prepare for mass mobiliza- Unitary Republic of Indonesia tion as an attempt to defend Indonesia’s (Abdurakhman, Pradono., Sunarti. & independence and unity (Abdurakhman, Zuhdi, 2018: 95). Pradono, Sunarti, & Zuhdi, 2018, p. 94). One of the effects of the Trikora was the During the administration of Presi- New York Agreement, which was signed dent Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, one of on August 15th, 1962 by the Netherlands the efforts to resolve internal conflicts was and Indonesia. The main point of the the conflict that occurred in Papua. The New York Agreement is as follows: narrative in the Indonesian history text- book of Grade XII is as follows. ... the submission of government in Iri- an from the Dutch to the United Na- ... the efforts to resolve conflicts in Pa- tions. For this purpose, the United Na- pua also prioritize aspects of dialogue tions Temporary Executive Authority and efforts to improve people's welfare. (UNTEA) was formed, which would The lack of justice for the people of Pa- then submit West Irian to the Indone- pua has led to resistance and the desire sian government before May 1st, 1963. of some people to separate themselves Under the New York Agreement, the from the Republic of Indonesia. The Indonesian government had an obliga- attention of the government should nat- tion to hold the Act of Free Choice urally be given more to increase the (Pepera) or referendum in West Irian economic side and empower the human before the end of 1969 with the provi- resources of the people who live in this sions that both parties must accept region through the provision of training whatever results from the Act of Free to improve their skills in agriculture and Choice. (Abdurakhman., Pradono., understanding of the bureaucracy. Be- Sunarti. & Zuhdi, 2018: 95). sides, it is also because Papua Province has large natural resources, especially in The next step is to restore Dutch - the mining sector. Related to that, Pres- Indonesian relations by reopening the em- ident Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono also bassies of each country. Subsequently, the issued a special autonomy policy for transfer of power of the Government of Papua. Special autonomy is expected to provide partisanship, protection, and West Irian from UNTEA was formally empowerment to indigenous Papuans. submitted to the Government of the Re- The government supports the policy public of Indonesia in Hollandia (Kota through the flow of funds which was

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