US $30

The Global Journal of Prints and Ideas May – June 2019 Volume 9, Number 1

Ivan Albright • Interview: at the Louvre • ’s Dirty Dog • Francis Seymour Haden • Spanish Modern Jacob Lawrence • Christiane Baumgartner • Chinn Wang • Mary Schina • Eric & Adam DelMarcelle • News FeaturingFeaturing exquisite exquisite color color photographs, photographs, The The Life Life ’sRembrandt’s Religious Religious Prints Prints brings brings together together andand Art of ofFelrath Felrath Hines Hines explores explores the the life, life, work, work, and and stunningstunning and and virtually virtually unknown unknown religious religious etchings artisticartistic signi signi cance cance of of Felrath Felrath Hines, Hines, one one of of the the most most fromfrom the the Dutch Dutch master master that that reveal reveal fresh fresh insights insights and and noteworthynoteworthy art art conservators conservators of of the the 20th 20th century. century. discoveriesdiscoveries with with each each new new encounter. encounter.

ProvidingProviding the the  rst  rst book-length book-length biography biography ofof Lucius Lucius Beebe Beebe and and Charles Charles Clegg, Clegg, Reevy’sReevy’s new new book book is isan an indispensable indispensable Ubuntutu:Ubuntutu: Life Life Legacies Legacies of ofLove Love and and QuiltsQuilts and and Health Health speaks speaks to to the the healing healing historyhistory of of the the work work of of two two photographers photographers ActionAction features features quilts quilts that that pay pay tribute tribute powerpower of of quilts quilts and and quiltmaking quiltmaking and and whowho forever forever changed changed the the way way we we see see and and toto the the indelible indelible contributions contributions that that toto the the deep deep connections connections between between art art experienceexperience American American railroads. railroads. ArchbishopArchbishop Desmond Desmond Tutu, Tutu, the the  rst  rst andand health. health. It bringsIt brings together together over over a a blackblack Archbishop Archbishop of ofCape Cape Town, Town, and and hundredhundred gorgeous gorgeous health-related health-related quilts quilts hishis wife wife Leah, Leah, have have made made in inaddressing addressing withwith the the stories stories behind behind the the art, art, as as humanhuman rights, rights, advancing advancing social social justice justice toldtold by by makers, makers, recipients, recipients, healthcare healthcare issues,issues, and and advocating advocating for for peace peace in in professionals,professionals, and and many many others. others. SouthSouth Africa Africa and and around around the the world. world.

ExploreExplore Your Your World World iupress.indiana.eduiupress.indiana.edu May – June 2019 In This Issue Volume 9, Number 1

Editor-in-Chief Susan Tallman 2 Susan Tallman On the Bounce

Associate Publisher John P. Murphy 3 Design Director Ivan Albright: Wrinkles in Time Julie Bernatz Séverine Lepape Interviewed 9 Production Editor by Catherine Bindman Kevin Weil Gravure en Clair-Obscur: Cranach, Raphaël, Rubens Advertising Manager Lydia Mullin Matthias Wivel 14 Of Dogs and Men: Administrative & Titian and the Print Vernacular Editorial Assistant Percy Stogdon Mary Davis MacNaughton 20 Aegean Odes by Mary Schina

Manuscript Editor Prudence Crowther Susan Tallman 23 Eric Avery and Adam DelMarcelle Editor-at-Large on the Opioid Crisis Catherine Bindman Exhibition Reviews Sarah Kirk Hanley 26 Reading Christiane Baumgartner’s Lines Massouras 30 Etched in Arcadia Ego: Francis Seymour Haden in Cambridge Armin Kunz 34 Grandeur Translated Re’al Christian 38 Lives Mattered: Jacob Lawrence and Toussaint L’Ouverture Megan N. Liberty 42 Ruptured Histories: Chinn Wang at The Print Center Elisa Germán 44 Postwar Abstraction in On the Cover: Chinn Wang, detail of Prix de Print, No. 35 48 OCT 66 (Two Towers) (2018), screenprint, Juried by Diane Villani tape. Sunny Garden in Blue: Stories from the Caribbean to Brooklyn This Page: Jacob Lawrence, detail of (2018) Toussaint at Ennery (1989), screenprint by Bundith Phunsombatlert on paper. ©2019 The Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation, Seattle / Artists News of the Print World 50 Rights Society (ARS), New York.

Art in Print 3500 N. Lake Shore Drive Suite 10A , IL 60657-1927 www.artinprint.org [email protected] 1.844.ARTINPR (1.844.278.4677) No part of this periodical may be published without the written consent of the publisher. On the Bounce By Susan Tallman

he present is always cocky—we are Spanish artists in Elisa Germán’s review T too aware of knowing things the past melded the 20th-century language of ab- Art in Print missed, and too oblivious to all we have straction to an atavistic understanding forgotten (until the moment such things of place. In Chinn Wang’s screenprints, Art in Print is a not-for-profit are rediscovered, when we get to shout, reviewed by Megan Liberty, the history 501(c)(3) corporation, founded “hooray for us” again). of loss and recovery is a private one: the in 2010. At the time of his death in 1910, the here-and-not-here experience of the im- British surgeon and artist Francis Sey- migrant. Board Members mour Haden was one of the most cele- Ivan Albright was famously fascinated brated printmakers on the planet, his by aging, entropy and dissolution, and as Julie Bernatz etchings discussed in the same breath John Murphy explains, used Catherine Bindman (and breaching the same price bracket) to build recursive loops of time into his Renée Bott as those of Rembrandt. The recent exhi- own production. The recurrence of hor- Nicolas Collins bition of Haden prints at the Fitzwil- ror occurs in a much more pressing way Thomas Cvikota liam Museum drew attention to both in Eric Avery and Adam DelMarcelle’s David Dean the beauty of Haden’s work, and to its project, Epidemic, which, some three de- Bel Needles Robert Ross century-long slide onto the art historical cades after Avery’s first works on AIDS, B list—a product, Alexander Massouras addresses the American opioid crisis in Antoine Rouillé-d’Orfeuil argues in this issue, of changing taste and terms both heartbreaking and pragmatic. Marc Schwartz increasing discomfort with the idea of Christiane Baumgartner’s solo exhibi- Susan Tallman the “amateur.” tion at Wellesley College, reviewed here Meanwhile, in an interview with by Sarah Kirk Hanley, was titled after Editorial Board Catherine Bindman, curator Séverine her print Another Country, a monumen- Richard Axsom Lepape explains how chiaroscuro wood- tal of New York Harbor derived Jay A. Clarke cuts were initially perceived as spectacu- from a snapshot. It is a momentary image Paul Coldwell lar, then as old-fashioned, then simply of flux, recast as something solid and last- Stephen Coppel forgotten, before rebounding into pub- ing. For those with an eye on history, its Faye Hirsch lic favor. And it seems safe to guess that heroic sweep of carved water and small Jane Kent modernists probably found little of inter- bits of human infrastructure on the ho- David Kiehl est in prints of monumental rizon may recall Titian’s great monumen- Evelyn Lincoln architectural (recently surveyed tal woodcut The Submersion of Pharaoh’s Andrew Raftery in Munich, and reviewed here by Armin Army in the Red Sea, the subject of Mat- Christian Rümelin Kunz) that 21st-century viewers can see thias Wivel’s essay here. Gillian Saunders as forerunners of prints by artists such as Wivel’s interest, however, is not in the Christo, connecting the power of ephem- churning water, or in the dramatically For further information visit eral, site-specific experience to that of a drowning Egyptians or happy Hebrews, artinprint.org/about-art-in-print/. distributable paper record. but in the small dog that Titian placed How artworks connect with people at front and nearly center, defecating on a a given moment, how they are valued or rock. It is an eccentric detail, a rude po- dismissed, is a persistent theme in the es- litical joke and a reminder of plain truths. says presented in this issue of Art in Print. Oceans rise, etchers fall, dogs go on In some, writers chart the untidy wave- doing what they must. forms of how reputations intersect time. In others, they consider artists who have Susan Tallman is Editor-in-Chief chosen to take on history directly. Jacob of Art in Print. Lawrence, for example, destabilized cen- turies of Eurocentric history painting by placing black actors in the leading roles of pictorial cycles such as The Life of Tous- saint L’Ouverture, reviewed here by Re’al Christian. Mary Schina’s 2016 Aegean Odes, examined by Mary MacNaughton, picture the physical and conceptual re- covery of salvaged ancient artifacts. The

2 Art in Print May – June 2019 Ivan Albright: Wrinkles in Time By John P. Murphy

ith their perverse relish in time- W ravaged bodies and haunted, mold- ering doors, Ivan Albright’s continue to shock, dismay and fascinate audiences. In iconic works such as Into the World There Came a Soul Called Ida (1929–30) and That Which I Should Have Done I Did Not Do (The Door) (1931/41), both at the , Albright’s meticulous style and macabre subjects make a jarring combination. A critic in 1931 summarized this unsettling effect: “With a technical equipment sec- ond to none, a way of working that is so distinctly his own that no one can suc- cessfully own it, a rare feeling for model- ing and textures, [Albright] has produced paintings that are positively loathsome in the feeling of horror that it gives the spectator.”1 Albright’s reputation as a painter has overshadowed his experiments in print- making. This is unsurprising given the scant number of prints Albright produced over his six-decade career: fewer than 20 lithographs, along with a handful of dry- points and etchings.2 Michael Croydon, Albright’s friend and biographer, sus- pected the artist “always relegated print- making to an adjunct role of his pictorial genius.”3 While it is true that nearly all his prints have a source in his paintings, they occupied an important place in his oeuvre, having afforded him the oppor- tunity to reimagine earlier composi- tions. For an artist so concerned with the effects of time, such temporal circularity has meaning: a painting unfinished in 1930, for example, becomes a lithograph in 1940 and a drypoint in 1972. Albright, the poet laureate of mortality, reani- mated aged paintings as new prints, often making telling alterations. During , before he had resolved to become a painter, Albright served as a medical draftsman at a base hospital in France, document- ing wounded soldiers. This experience Fig. 1. became part of the Albright mythos, the Ivan Albright, Heavy the Oar to Him Who is Tired, Heavy the Coat, Heavy the Sea (1939), lithograph on off-white wove paper, image 429 x 269 mm; sheet 505 x 307 mm. Art Institute of Chicago, origin of his obsession with death and the Gift of Mr. Norman L. Rice. 1940.79. grotesque.4 When he returned from the war, after brief stints in advertising and the School of the Art Institute of Chicago He did not undertake printmaking until architecture, he embarked on a peripa- (SAIC), the Pennsylvania Academy of Art, 1931, when he began making lithographs tetic career as an art student, attending and the National Academy of Design. under the supervision of his close friend,

Art in Print May – June 2019 3 Fig. 2. Ivan Albright, Into the World There Came a Soul Called Ida (1940), lithograph on cream wove paper, image 412 x 352 mm; sheet 500 x 417 mm. Art Institute of Chicago, Gift of Earle Ludgin, 1963.122.

Francis Chapin, an accomplished print- veys little of the carefully worked surfaces the intensity of the wide-eyed expression. maker and respected teacher at SAIC. of his paintings. Executed in lithographic His carrion-like features and the swarm- Albright’s first print, Self-Portrait with crayon on a zinc plate, the summary ing flies (smudges on the plate) evoke Flies Buzzing around My Head (1931), con- treatment is vivid, even frantic, matching his recurring theme of decay, even if the

4 Art in Print May – June 2019 print’s spontaneity and hint of humor are atypical.5 Albright continued to work with Chapin throughout the 1930s, making lithographic studies of Chapin’s wife, Hilda (1932), the gallerist Increase Rob- inson (1932), and the surrealist painter Gertrude Abercrombie (1935). Each por- trait is relatively loose and freely handled by Albright’s standards, and not carried to the level of finish typical of his paint- ings. His first serious lithographic proj- ect in terms of ambition and complexity was Heavy the Oar to Him Who Is Tired, Heavy the Coat, Heavy the Sea (1939) (Fig. 1). It is a largely faithful transcription of his eponymous painting—a portrait of a fisherman completed over a decade ear- lier in Laguna Beach, . Albright employed a sharp lithographic crayon to approximate the meticulous details of the painting, achieving richer tones and greater details than in his previous lithographs, with an expressive play of light and shade in the transition from the exterior landscape to the interior space. Chapin pulled ten prints before the stone broke, and pulled five more prints of the fisherman’s head from the partial stone. Albright followed this with a 1940 litho- graph based on his 1929–30 painting Into the World There Came a Soul Called Ida (Fig. 2). The painting of a young woman seated before a vanity table gazing into a handheld mirror had sparked controversy when first exhibited in Chicago in 1931. One critic asked, “Why should he paint a woman with flesh the color of a corpse drowned six weeks?”6 In the print, as in the painting, Ida appears as a wrinkled and puckered colossus, her body too large for her cane seat. The table is strewn with vani- Fig. 3. Ivan Albright, Fleeting Time, Thou Hast Left Me Old (1945), lithograph on ivory wove paper, tas symbols—a burning cigarette, dollar image 350 x 245 mm; sheet 437 x 312 mm. Art Institute of Chicago, Gift of Earle Ludgin, 1963.120. bill and fading flowers—while the skewed perspective renders the space precarious Vogue, Life and Newsweek, and his work suddenly, too painfully. I knew every- and uncertain. In translating the painting entered the pop cultural imagination. In thing I had forgotten . . . And I went to print, Albright converted the original Margaret Marble’s lurid 1947 novel, The in time until there was noth- black background into an ethereal haze Lady Forgot, a fictional print of Albright’s ing hidden any longer, so that I was of chalky white. By lessening the contrast cryptic painting That Which I Should Have a child again, coming home from between Ida’s body and the background, he Done I Did Not Do (The Door)—which he the cemetery with my father, holding diluted the uncanny impact of the paint- spent a decade working on from 1931 to tightly to his hand, looking at the large ing, in which Ida appears almost phos- 1941—catalyzes the protagonist’s sudden black bow on the front door of our phorescent, her glowing skin surrounded confrontation with a repressed memory: house and hearing him say, over and by shadow. Chapin again managed to pull over, “Everyone must die, Andrea.”7 just ten prints before the stone broke on the She went over to some built-in shelves eleventh pass through the press. and started rifling through the papers Though Albright never translated The Albright’s commission to paint the on them. She came back with the print Door into print, Marble may have been title object for The Picture of Dorian Gray, and handed it to me. I looked at it aware of the publication of Albright litho- MGM’s 1945 adaptation of Oscar Wilde’s and then I remembered. The memory graphs courtesy of the Associated Ameri- novel, briefly turned Albright into a came crashing back and I screamed, can Artists (AAA) Galleries in New York. national celebrity. He was featured in knowing too much at once, too Owing to the success of a traveling exhi-

Art in Print May – June 2019 5 Left: Fig. 4. Ivan Albright, Follow Me (1948), lithograph on cream wove paper, image 350 x 226 mm; sheet 405 x 304 mm. Art Institute of Chicago, Mary and Earle Ludgin Collection. 1981.1159. Right: Fig. 5. Ivan Albright, Self-Portrait at 55 East Division Street (1947), lithograph on ivory wove paper, image 358 x 257 mm; sheet 430 x 326 mm. Art Institute of Chicago, Mary and Earle Ludgin Collection, 1981.1165. bition in 1945–46 of works by Ivan and his (1945) (Fig. 3). The lithograph, based on a missioned by his friend and patron, Earle twin brother, Malvin, AAA commissioned 1928–29 painting, is a portrait of Byron Ludgin.8 The artist, wearing a tuxedo, lithographs from both Albrights, to be McCain, a neighbor in Warrenville, Illi- sits at a table holding a cigarette and wine printed in editions of 250 by master printer nois, the small town outside Chicago glass. His forehead is furrowed and his George C. Miller. Malvin was better where Ivan had shared a studio with his eyes heavy-lidded with wrinkled pouches known as a sculptor—often listed simply father and brother since 1927. A horse and crow’s feet. He rests his elbow on a as “Zsissly” in exhibition catalogues to set trainer by trade, McCain had posed in the table teeming with reflective surfaces and him apart from Ivan—but he also painted, loft of Albright’s studio wearing a skull- intricate patterns: a mirrored cigarette and had accompanied Ivan to Hollywood cap, denim shirt, horsehide jacket, fur vest box, crystal vase of flowers, ashtray, bucket to paint the younger portrait of Dorian and fingerless leather gloves. His distant of champagne and lacy tablecloth. As in Gray for the film adaptation (though the gaze registers stoic resolve in the face of Ida, these objects appear to tilt precipi- picture was not ultimately used in the “fleeting time.” Albright’s 1948 lithograph tously, as if ready to slide off the table and film). Malvin based his lithograph Victo- Follow Me (Fig. 4), meanwhile, is based on out of the composition. While the painting ria, on a 1943 painting of the same name. his 1927 portrait of a Franciscan monk, featured a dark background, in the litho- The result is a curious if somewhat ane- absorbed in thought. Albright made a few graph Albright has placed himself in his mic twin of Ivan’s work, incorporating subtle modifications to the original: inten- new house (a hallway, chest of drawers and elements from Ivan’s paintings: the young sifying the glowing penumbra surround- cracked door are visible) at 55 East Division woman recalls Ida, while the elaborate still ing the monk, and also adding glimpses of Street in Chicago, shared with his recent life on the table is reminiscent of Ivan’s a landscape through the window, perhaps bride, Josephine Medill Patterson, jour- painting Wherefore Now Ariseth the Illu- to add a visual counterpoint to the figure’s nalist and heiress to the Medill newspaper sion of a Third Dimension (1931). profound interiority. fortune. The lithograph, which received Ivan used the AAA commission to con- In Self Portrait at 55 East Division Street an award from the AAA, was reproduced tinue revisiting earlier work, beginning (1947) (Fig. 5) Albright reimagined a self- in the organization’s publication Ameri- with Fleeting Time Thou Has Left Me Old portrait from 1935 that had been com- can Prize Prints of the 20th Century (1949),

6 Art in Print May – June 2019 Fig. 6. Ivan Albright, Show Case Doll (1954), lithograph on off-white wove paper, image 425 x 623 mm; sheet 510 x 709 mm. Art Institute of Chicago, Gift of Earle Ludgin, 1963.123. where Albright is described as the “high- experiments in intaglio departed from someone saw it and said the eyes of the priest of decadence in art.”9 the mode of his earlier lithographs. As girl were blind. So I looked closely and, In 1954 George Miller privately printed artist-in-residence at Dartmouth Col- by George, the eyes were blind. I couldn’t Show Case Doll (Fig. 6), based on an unfin- lege in 1971, he had access to the school’s help it. I was getting a blind feeling. I was ished painting by Albright begun in the printmaking facilities, and began work- making a blind woman.”11 In August 1977 early 1930s. (Albright had abandoned ing in drypoint and . These prints Albright underwent a corneal transplant the picture to concentrate on The Door, offer freer, more dramatic reinterpre- that restored his vision. The artist, who which took ten years to complete.) Art tations of previous work. In Three Love had long explored spiritual themes, saw it historian Sarah Burns has identified the Birds (1972), for example, he revisited in as an almost biblical miracle. central prop as a “boudoir doll” used as a drypoint the subject of an abandoned In 1980 Albright embarked on his decorative accent in bedrooms or sitting painting (1930–31) and lithograph (1939) final artistic campaign, a series of over 20 rooms.10 Wearing an outfit of satin and of the same name, but with a surreal and self-portraits, which he worked on until lace, with high heels placed at an angle, disturbing transformation: the young his death in 1983 (he completed the final the doll reclines on a satin pillow. It is woman in the painting has become a self-portrait in his hospital bed three days trapped inside an oblong, coffin-like glass strange, almost animalistic creature with before he died). Mostly painted in oil on case that warps and undulates with eerie fur and heavy feet and hands. Her face is hardboard, the series bears a relation- animation. Light ripples over the surface, a black cavity, and the background spins ship to Rembrandt’s late self-portraits dappled against a sooty, atmospheric in a nightmarish whirl. (etchings Albright made after Rembrandt backdrop. It is the most sumptuously In the 1970s, as his vision began to confirm his close looking at the Dutch realized of Albright’s lithographs, with a be affected by cataracts, Albright pro- during this period).12 In a richness of tone and texture surpassing duced Hail to the Pure (1976) (Fig. 7), a journal entry dated 29 February 1982, he his previous efforts. lithographic portrait of a young woman recorded his thoughts on the process of Show Case Doll represents Albright’s who posed in his studio. “I did making an etching after one of these self- last “faithful” transcription of one of it in five weeks from an earlier ,” portraits: “All curves of etching tool have his paintings into print. His subsequent Albright remembered. “The last two days, to follow curvature of lips, of chin, of

Art in Print May – June 2019 7 Left: Fig. 7. Ivan Albright, Hail to the Pure (Portrait of Maria Piedra) (1977), lithograph on white wove paper, image 457 x 330 mm; sheet 610 x 461 mm. Art Institute of Chicago, Gift of Ivan Albright, 1978.284. Right: Fig. 8. Ivan Albright, Self-Portrait (Ancient Eyes) (1983), etching on wove paper, plate 123 x 99 mm; sheet 178 x 174 mm. Art Institute of Chicago, Gift of Philip and Suzanne Schiller, 1997.875.

cheek bones—make it as strong as granite 3. Michael Croydon, “Introduction,” in Gael tion on a 1934 self-portrait painted as part of the sculpture. Work, pray, worship, love it.”13 Grayson, ed. Graven Image: The Prints of Ivan PWAP federal art program. Among the self-portraits is a poignant Albright, 1931-1977 (Lake Forest, IL: Lake For- 9. Reese, American Prize Prints of the etching, posthumously printed, that con- est College, 1978), n.p. This catalogue was pub- 20th Century (New York: American Artists Group, lished to accompany a small exhibition of Albright 1949), 4. centrates on Albright’s eyes, the prover- prints at Lake Forest College. Earlier exhibitions 10. Sarah Burns, “Opening Albright’s Door,” in bial windows to the soul (Fig. 8). of Albright prints included “Ivan Albright: Prints Flesh: Ivan Albright, digital catalogue published Throughout his career, Albright had been and ” (Roosevelt University, 1964) and by the Art Institute of Chicago (forthcoming May driven to realize on canvas and paper “Ivan Albright Lithographs” (Whitney Museum of 2019). what could not be seen or experienced in American Art, 1973). 11. Alan G. Artner, “At 81, Ivan Albright enjoys his 4. Sterling North, “The Man Who Drew Wounds: gift of second sight,” Chicago Tribune, Oct 22, the phenomenal world. For Albright, the Portrait of a Painter,” Chicago Daily News, August 1978, f8. work of looking and understanding was 5, 1931. See also Courtney Graham Donnell, “A 12. Albright’s 1983 etchings after Rembrandt— ongoing, never finished, subject to flux Painter Am I: Ivan Albright,” in Ivan Albright (The Copy of Rembrandt’s Bearded Man in a Velvet and transformation. His lithographs, Art Institute of Chicago, 1997): 13-52. The 1997 Cap of 1637 and Copy of Rembrandt’s Sheet of etchings and drypoints thus engage with catalogue accompanying the traveling exhibition Studies with the Head of the Artist, a Beggar Man, remains the best available source on Albright’s Woman and Child—are reproduced on plate 27 of his deepest artistic concerns and preoc- life and career. See also Robert Cozzolino, “Every The Late Self-Portraits, 65. cupations, and merit the same attention Picture Should Be a Prayer: The Art of Ivan 13. Ibid., 42. as his indelible paintings. Albright” (Ph.D. diss, University of Wisconsin– Madison, 2006). 5. In an interview with print dealer Susan Teller, John P. Murphy is the Hoehn Curatorial Fellow Albright connected the fly motif to the work of for Prints at the University of . Lucas Cranach, one of Albright’s favorite artists. See Teller, “Prints of Ivan Albright,” 24. 6. Irwin St. John Tucker, “‘Horror’ Features Notes: Exhibit,” Chicago Herald Examiner, Aug. 31, 1. Charles Fabens Kelley, “Chicago Annual Exhi- 1930, clipping in Ivan Albright Collection, Ryerson bition,” Christian Science Monitor (Feb. 1932), 8. and Libraries. 2. Susan Teller, “The Prints of Ivan Albright,” Print 7. Margaret S. Marble, The Lady Forgot (New Review 10 (1980): 21–35. Peter Pollack, “The York and : Harper & Brothers, 1947), 208- Lithographs of Ivan Albright,” The American Art 209. Journal 8, no. 1 (May 1976): 99-104. 8. The 1935 self-portrait had itself been a varia-

8 Art in Print May – June 2019 Gravure en Clair-Obscur: Cranach, Raphaël, Rubens Séverine Lepape Interviewed by Catherine Bindman

éverine Lepape is curator of the S Edmond de Rothschild collection in the department of graphic at the Louvre, and organizer of the recent exhi- bition “Gravure en Clair-Obscur: Cra- nach, Raphaël, Rubens,” which united, for the first time, chiaroscuro from the holdings of three great Parisian collections: the Rothschild Collection, the Fondation Custodia and the print department of the Bibliothèque natio- nale de France, where Lepape was cura- tor of 15th- and 16th-century prints from 2005 to 2014. With 130 works, extending across two galleries in the Louvre’s Sully Rotunda, the exhibition was a further reflection of revived international inter- est in the chiaroscuro woodcut, but it departs from other recent exhibitions in its focus on collaborative practices between designers and printmakers. It was accompanied by a 224-page cata- logue (Louvre éditions, 2018) with contri- butions by 16 art historians, curators and conservators. Catherine Bindman spoke with Lepape about the development of these prints both north and south of the Alps, and about fresh discoveries in the field.

Catherine Bindman Since 2011 there have been at least five exhibitions of vari- ous sizes on the subject of chiaroscuro prints, including the ambitious “Renais- sance Impressions” show in London and Vienna, drawn from the collections of contemporary artist Georg Baselitz and the Albertina, and Naoko Takahatake’s revelatory “Chiaroscuro Woodcut in Renaissance ” [see Art in Print, Nov– Dec 2018] at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. What did you want to do differently? , St. George and the Dragon (1508), chiaroscuro woodcut in black and Séverine Lepape When I was still at the gold on blue prepared paper, 23.4 x 16 cm. ©The Trustees of the . Bibliothèque nationale, I was already looking for a way to present this mate- so excludes chiaroscuro); the Fondation tury, only a few of the chiaroscuro wood- rial to an audience in Paris, where it is Custodia, which does very good things, cuts had ever been shown in exhibitions. largely unknown. The last significant but their last chiaroscuro show, in 2000, Meanwhile, the Bibliothèque nationale chiaroscuro show here was in 1965. In was only seen in Japan; and while the has a comprehensive collection amassed Paris there are four main collections that Rothschild Collection comprises 40,000 over centuries, but does not have enough show prints: the Petit Palais (which spe- very high-quality prints dating from the space to show prints and, in any case, it is cializes in the 18th- and 19th-centuries, 15th century to the end of the 18th cen- a library and has a different mission. All

Art in Print May – June 2019 9 St. George and the Dragon (1507), printed in black and gold on blue prepared paper (British Museum), and ’s response, The Emperor Maximilian (1508), in black and gold on red prepared paper with silver applied à la poupée (Ash- molean). What was the impetus for this kind of work?

SL There was competition between the courts of Saxony, where Cranach was a court artist, and Augsburg, where Burg- kmair was. A year after the Cranach, Burgkmair was commissioned to pro- duce two color woodcuts using the same materials and also showing figures on horseback—the Emperor Maximilian and another St. George. The Emperor Maxi- milian print was so well received that it continued to be printed for a decade, in alternate versions based on the initial black-line block, but with the silver and gold replaced by a tone block.2

CB The technical research for the show produced several new discoveries about some prints, among them the four woodcuts by —a 16th- century painter and a prolific designer of book illustrations as well as of a dozen color prints. Can you tell us about this?

SL Yes. We looked at the watermarks in those four woodcuts and found that they were all the same, suggesting that all the prints were produced within a very short time. Wechtlin was not a Formschneider (blockcutter) but was very involved in the work and was helped by a printer of books. The watermarks on his two Pyra- mus and Thisbe woodcuts (ca. 1510–13) were both the same, but using Photoshop Hans Burgkmair, The Emperor Maximilian on Horseback (1508), chiaroscuro woodcut in black, gold and silver on red prepared paper, 35.2 x 24.5 cm. Image ©Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford. to digitally superimpose the two impres- sions, we were able to prove that what four have great holdings of chiaroscuro blocks. I really wanted to do some- had traditionally been considered the woodcuts that weren’t being seen. thing on the collaboration between the first state was the second, and vice-versa, designer and the printmaker, and also and that the original block had been CB How did your approach to this mate- to give greater attention to the physi- retouched in the second state, but not rial differ from that of the big London/ cal making of these prints. We benefited entirely recut. The technology allowed Vienna show? from Naoko Takahatake’s close technical us to see precisely what the Formschneider examination of the Italian chiaroscuro had reworked. Of course, we also used SL I saw the show in London in 2014 woodcuts, as well as from work done traditional stylistic analyses to make with Huigen Leeflang, curator of early by Marie-Noël Gayral (with Gisèle Lam- attributions, as in the case of Wechtlin’s prints at the Rijksmuseum, and he said bert and Maxime Préaud), analyzing the Adam and Eve in Paradise (ca. 1510–20), “hard to compete.” But when I read the inks and watermarks in ’s which had been attributed variously catalogue, I realized that it was focused .1 in the past to such artists as Hans Baldung on the prints’ designers and inventors— Grien and Hans Burgkmair—a beauti- in most cases one artist originated the CB Among the unexpected inclusions in ful drawing that shows him practicing composition, while others translated your show were two very early, extraordi- chiaroscuro techniques in pen and wash that design into woodcut line and tone narily luxurious prints: Lucas Cranach’s with white highlighting.

10 Art in Print May – June 2019 CB You’ve said that Naoko Takahatake’s work on anonymous Italian woodcuts informed your approach, not least her analysis of inks that allowed her to recon- struct the oeuvre of Niccolò Vicentino. You also presented some of this material in the show.

SL Yes. A lot of Italian chiaroscuro wood- cuts were anonymous, and have been lumped together and attributed to Ugo da Carpi, the best known chiaroscuro artist. A good example of this is La Pêche miraculeuse (The miraculous fishing trip, 1540s), a woodcut and related drawing at Windsor traditionally attributed to Ugo da Carpi on stylistic grounds, and because of his association with . Naoko’s technical investigations of the print showed it is more likely to be the work of Vicentino. She noticed that the method of mixing pigments is very dif- ferent from Ugo’s subtle use of three and four blocks, and that the colors are more similar to Vicentino’s than to Ugo’s. This three-block impression in black, yellow and green also shows a way of working that is typical of signed prints by Vicentino: the first tone block defines the background and the second estab- lishes the main contours of the com- position, while the third emphasizes the most darkly shaded areas. Naoko really provided new instruments for looking at anonymous Italian chiaro- scuro prints.

CB How important was the role of exper- imentation in the development of these prints?

SL Far more important than commonly Ugo da Carpi, Diogenes (1527–1530), chiaroscuro woodcut in gray and green, 48 x 34.9 cm. explained. In the show, I wanted to Fondation Custodia, Collection Frits Lugt, Paris. demonstrate experimental relationships between different iterations of an idea— undated trial proof of an of a in Italy, artists like Ugo da Carpi signed for example, how Ugo da Carpi’s color group of eight reclining figures, which we their names, alongside that of the image’s woodcut Venus et Amours (Venus and showed along with a chiaroscuro wood- designer. I came to understand that, both Cupids, early 1520s) and a drawing by cut of the same image with two tone north and south of the Alps, the limited Giulio Romano showing cupids playing blocks. I wanted to show how he explored use of one or two colors was the essence with a (ca. 1520) belong to the same the same aesthetic ideas, issues of light, of the chiaroscuro-woodcut process, but cycle and are of the same size with the shade and the modelling of form using that that were also more sophisticated composition in the same direction, while different techniques. forms of chiaroscuro, in which the domi- also showing clear differences between nant line block was left out altogether, them. I think viewers in the 16th century CB Why did you choose to organize the and the image created from three or more were able to distinguish them. There is exhibition by geography? integrated blocks. We were lucky to get a relationship between the drawing and a beautiful impression of Ugo’s famous the print, but it is not a case of one merely SL This makes comparisons simpler, and Diogenes (1527–30) in this technique from reproducing the other. We included a it is easier to draw broad conclusions the Fondation Custodia. big selection of work by Beccafumi in about technique and aesthetic issues. In the exhibition, with wash drawings and , for example, the Formschneider CB What did your technical examination chiaroscuro woodcuts, as well as an was usually completely anonymous, but of these woodcuts reveal?

Art in Print May – June 2019 11 Domenico Beccafumi, Group of Eight Reclining Figures (n.d.), chiaroscuro woodcut in gray, 15.5 x 23.4 cm. Fondation Custodia, Collection Frits Lugt, Paris.

SL It allowed us to establish a much closer ments in northern Europe. Using image after which the chiaroscuro woodcut fell chronology of the printing; it becomes analysis and spectroscopy, we examined out of favor. What were the most signifi- clear that this transition between the 45 prints dating from 1508 to 1650 origi- cant changes during this time? limited use of a few colors, and the more nating in Augsburg, Wittenberg, Fon- sophisticated, integrated style of wood- tainebleau, Antwerp, Haarlem, Paris and SL The range of colors became more cut does not represent a linear develop- Utrecht. We discovered that Northern homogeneous, more muted, typically ment, but rather the individual choice of and Italian chiaroscuro printmakers or ocher, and thus more tradition- each artist. And even within the chiar- used basically the same ingredients (blue ally “clair-obscur” than the more color- oscuro woodcuts of a single artist like is always from indigo, for example), with ful iterations of the style. They were also Ugo, there is no consistent evolution in some interesting exceptions. The North- interested in creating chiaroscuro wood- his use of technique. ern artists rarely used orpiment (a deep- cuts that more closely resembled draw- yellow arsenic sulfide)—we detected just ings, a goal that had not been so central CB The exhibition included a showcase one example of it. And we found one in the 16th century. This is really clear in of pigment samples, representing the green pigment, verdigris, but no green Utrecht, when you study the drawings of collaborative research project you are earth or malachite, and in most cases Abraham Bloemaert and the chiaroscuro leading with the Bibliothèque nationale the green was devised from a mixture of prints made after them: the use of etching and the Centre de recherche des musées blue and yellow. This raises an interest- for the lines is clearly intended to imitate de France to analyze the pigments and ing question: was this due to problems the pen-and-ink outlines of the original colors on some 40 northern chiaroscuro with sourcing certain pigments, or does drawing. This anticipates the way chiar- woodcuts. Why did you decide to do this it point to a cultural difference? These oscuro prints would be used in the 18th and what did the research reveal? results on a small number of prints repre- century to reproduce such famous draw- sent just a start, but hopefully it is a basis ings collections as the Recueil Crozat. SL Thanks to surveys by Beth A. Price in for broader investigation. And there is another significant change: Philadelphia and Linda Stiber Morenus in woodcut in the first half of the 17th cen- Washington, D.C., we have a good idea of CB You dedicated a room to the first half tury is no longer a fashionable technique. the kinds of pigments used by the Italians. of the 17th century, one of the least exam- You find examples in Paris in the 1630s of But nothing was known about the pig- ined periods of production in this field, artists such as François Perrier and Abra-

12 Art in Print May – June 2019 ham Bosse making chiaroscuros using Catherine Bindman is a New York-based editor two etching plates in an effort at innova- and art critic who has written extensively on both tion that also indicates an awareness that Old Master and contemporary prints. woodcut was now out of style.

CB Could you tell us more about the Séverine Lepape is curator of the Edmond Purchase de Rothschild Collection in the department of notion you assert in the catalogue of the graphic arts at the Louvre. chiaroscuro woodcut as a sort of fiction— Back Issues remaking something that already exists, but in a new way—drawing on the con- Notes: of Art in Print. temporary appreciation of wash draw- 1. This work was done with the assistance of the ings, paintings on fabric, Roman frescoes Centre de recherche des musées de France, but and medals among collectors, art lovers the results remained unknown because Gayral’s PhD thesis, submitted in 2012, was never pub- and intellectuals? lished. 2. Thanks to recent research by Elizabeth SL Ugo da Carpi explained chiaroscuro Savage and Ad Stijnman, we now know that woodcut as a nice technique that would these two artistic centers were both able to create give the drawings enthusiast a lot of plea- special gold ink for those prints, quite an achieve- sure, and Vasari described it as a clever ment. See Art in Print, Jul–Aug 2015. 3. “Mediale Fiktionen: die Chiaroscuro Holz- way to reproduce drawings. But in 2015 art schnitte von Hans Burgkmair und Jost de Negker” historian Magdalene Bushart observed in Magdalena Bushart and Henrike Haug, eds., that German artists were using it in play Technische Innovationen und künstlerisches Wis- with other kinds of art—sculpture and sen in der frühen Neuzeit (Cologne, Weimar, and medals, for example—and that this was Vienna: Böhlau Verlag, 2015), 169–187 key to understanding why they invested so much time in the process.3 Collectors saw in these woodcuts references to other artistic genres, and making these connec- tions was a special pleasure for humanist intellectuals. Curiosity about the tech- nique also made these prints seductive. The artists were not just reproducing works in other media, they were doing something else, something new, just as a writer might reinvent reality to create Did you know you can literature, to create an equally compel- purchase any issue of ling version of it. This is really interest- Art in Print? ing to me, as it goes beyond the question of reproduction, which is inherent to the status of printmaking, and opens up a Miss the New Editions issue? new way of looking at this issue. Need the Stanley William CB Do you think this exhibition will Hayter issue for your inspire more collaborations between these library? three great Parisian print collections? Want to give the Details issue SL I hope so. The various scholars and curators in these institutions collaborate to a friend? frequently, but exhibitions with such important contributions from all three All issues of Art in Print are rare. It is absolutely crucial in Paris are available on MagCloud and France more broadly to make it pos- at www.magcloud.com/user/ sible for people to see and study Old established-2011. Master prints. If the Louvre can help with this, we will do our best! If you have any questions, please contact us at [email protected].

Art in Print May – June 2019 13 Of Dogs and Men: Titian and the Print Vernacular By Matthias Wivel

Fig. 1. Anonymous woodcutter (after design by Titian), Submersion of the Pharaoh’s Army in the Red Sea (ca. 1517), woodcut on twelve blocks, state II/II, ca. 123 x 223 cm. The , Washington, DC.

itian’s woodcut Submersion of the sions: the Frari Assunta, executed between ings. The one known drawing that relates TPharaoh’s Army in the Red Sea is a 1516 and 1518, and the lost Ducal Palace directly to the composition is of the meditation on man’s place in nature. Battle of Spoleto, for which he obtained mangy dog that appears, tensed up in Confluent with the Biblical narrative the commission in 1513.2 Although he defecation, near the locus of the action, it represents, its figures are enveloped only finished the latter in 1538(Fig. 2), the beneath Moses’ outstretched arm (Figs. in a raging storm, which swallows the Red Sea demonstrates that he was work- 3–4).4 Too soft and pliable in its linework advancing army at left while it lulls and ing on an initial design during the years disperses toward the right, allowing the in which the woodcut was produced. Israelites to clamber safely to the rocky Indeed, the Red Sea can be seen as an shore. Sunlight illuminates the sky from initial manifestation of his thoughts for behind the craggy rock above them, sug- the Battle, which he planned in dialogue gesting a God’s-eye perspective on dra- (and indirect competition) with the two matic human events (Fig. 1). most famous battle pictures of the time, Titian’s greatest achievement as a Leonardo’s Battle of Anghiari (1503–1506) print designer, the 12-block Red Sea was and Michelangelo’s Battle of Cascina designed, cut and probably published in (1504–1505). Although neither was com- 1517.1 It stands with his grand painted pleted, copies of their designs were cir- compositions of the time as a prime culated widely. Their innovations are example of his heroic conception of story- assimilated into the Red Sea, along with telling and landscape. It is rendered with elements borrowed from Raphael, to cre- a sweeping, slashing line, in large part ate a work that connects to the highest likely drawn directly onto the woodblocks level of contemporary artistic discourse.3 for the anonymous cutter to carve in a While the seascape was probably remarkably rough, expressive manner. drawn directly on the blocks, it is likely Fig. 2. Anonymous after Titian, detail of The It shares figural detail and imagery that Titian used separate preparatory Battle of Spoleto (1550s–early 1560s), etching, with two of Titian’s greatest commis- drawings for individual figures or group- 214 x 220 mm. Albertina, Vienna.

14 Art in Print May – June 2019 Above Left: Fig. 3. Detail of Fig. 1. Below Left: Fig. 4. Studio of Titian, Defecating Dog (late 1510s–early 1520s), pen and brown ink over charcoal pouncing, 93/99 x 129 mm. (irregularly cut). Uffizi, . Right: Fig. 5. Detail of Fig. 1. to match Titian’s confirmed drawings, more straightforwardly idealized one of way Titian captures so precisely the ten- it appears to be a workshop production. his Central Italian peers. The dog then, sion and slight unease running through a The figure is the same size as it appears would merely be the most concrete mani- dog’s body as it moves its bowels. And our in the woodcut and is drawn in pen and festation—a kind of figural exponent—of impulse to anthropomorphize secures ink on the basis of a pounced charcoal an artistic sensibility that favors expres- for this scene of grand pathos a delightful outline. It was probably taken from an sion over elevation, and which is amply tinge of the pathetic. original design, such as an isolated con- on display in the broad rendering and When Titian designed the Red Sea, ceptual—likely autograph—drawing. rough cutting of the entire print.5 Venice had just survived one of the most The animal has fascinated and dis- Derived from literary aesthetics, this traumatic experiences in its history. In turbed some scholars, but has mostly theory posits an intellectual motivation 1508 and 1509, most of the major Euro- been ignored. It is an early instance of that, while not exactly alien to Titian, is pean powers united in the so-called Titian subverting the elevated visual dis- at odds with his ongoing and very direct League of Cambrai specifically to neu- course in which he was trained as an art- engagement with observed, profane real- tralize the Venetian Republic. Venice was ist, using an element from the vernacular ity. This canine breach of decorum seems saved from this existential threat by its medium in which he was working—the less an intellectual challenge than an end unique geographical location; the city print. in itself, for the simple reason that it is proved unconquerable to the redoubtable It has been proposed that Titian funny. It is funny in part because it sub- enemy armies who marched directly on included the dog as a breach of conven- verts the grandeur of the composition, but the lagoon in 1513.6 tional decorum in order to assert his just as importantly because it aligns itself It is hard not to see the woodcut as a creative genius, establishing an unre- with the work’s basic, naturalist tenor. response to these events. The story of the fined heroic mode as an alternative to the There is a hilarious truthfulness to the Israelite Exodus fed into the foundational

Art in Print May – June 2019 15 Left: Fig. 6. Detail of Fig. 1. Right: Fig. 7. Anonymous Venetian, La victoriosa Gata da Padua (1509), woodcut illustration on title page of anonymous leaflet. Royal Library, Munich. myth of Venice as a kind of New Jerusa- fires of sacked villages were clearly visible to that of modern satirical cartoons into lem, and found additional consolidation from the city’s -towers, and refugees a composition conceived in the elevated through official history writing after the fled to the lagoon, bringing their animals style of narrative painting. And this wars.7 The publisher of the Red Sea, Ber- and salvaged possessions.10 The wood- impulse was surely facilitated by the fact nardino Benalio (ca. 1458/70–after 1543), cut’s Israelite refugees evoke these events; that Titian was designing a print. The was probably responding to an increased the woman suckling her child in the right dog would hardly have been imaginable demand for this subject.8 foreground is a particularly novel inclu- in an Italian painting of a similar subject The woodcut reflects the impression sion, as one of the earliest instances of at this time, but prints, with their more made by these historical events on the the subject not associated with the Virgin general audience and broader range, pro- visually sensitive artist. Despite its heroic and Child. The scene is a singularly real- vided a forum in which he could effort- register, it is the most realistic large-scale ist moment in Titian’s oeuvre (Fig. 5). lessly merge high and low. composition of Titian’s career. Although It is not unreasonable to see this as at A medium birthed in books and a Gothic German spire dominates Pha- least partly the product of the medium applied to a wide variety of objects and raoh’s city in the background, and one in which he was working. In the Italian uses, from playing cards to maps, the of the soldiers is clearly dressed like a Renaissance, printmaking was less exclu- print had only recently gained traction German lansquenet, the soldiers are not sively tied to religious subject matter than as a creative outlet for artists. The young uniformly styled as a recognizable army, painting, and encompassed a broader Titian was attracted to it as an alternate, and the only insignia they carry is Titian’s range of profane subjects.11 Seen in this timely and in some ways freer means family emblem, which appears on a context, the dog can be interpreted not of expression. Although he dabbled in shield, presumably as a kind of signature as an arbitrary inclusion, but as a gesture engraving, he clearly preferred the wood- (Fig. 6).9 The artist’s experiences of the of contempt for the encroaching army. cut, presumably for its greater expres- crisis seem more firmly encoded in the It has been suggested that it refers to an sive potential and because the print runs figures along the shore. Contemporary anecdote of how people in the mountain were higher, enabling wider distribution. writers vividly describe the onslaught villages of Valsugana bared their buttocks Trained as a mosaicist and painter, Titian of League forces in August–September at the retreating Imperial troops.12 approached printmaking as an outsider, 1509, when they conquered almost all of In other words, the Red Sea fairly dis- and brought to his woodcut designs a Venice’s territories on the mainland. The creetly integrates a mordant tone similar sensibility unfettered by the existing

16 Art in Print May – June 2019 Above: Fig. 8. Nicolò Boldrini (after design by Titian), Landscape with a Milkmaid (ca. 1523), woodcut, 370 x 524 mm. British Museum, London. Below: Fig. 9. Titian, Landscape with a Milkmaid (ca. 1523), pen and brown ink, 367 x 518 mm. Paris, Louvre. conventions of the medium. His wood- pamphlet was adorned by a woodcut symbolic of the defense, in which Paduan cuts thus explore themes similar to his depicting an incident that reportedly soldiers dangled a live cat on a lance over painted work, but simultaneously draw took place during the siege, and became the ramparts of the city to taunt their upon the medium’s vernacular pictorial tradition. In the case of the dog, it has been pointed out that its woodcut ancestors are most likely Northern.13 Such beasts, often comical in type, populate German prints in particular, during the preceding decades—but Titian may also have been drawing on the popular woodcut flyers that circulated news stories and propa- ganda during the wars of the League of Cambrai. Ephemeral by format and func- tion, few of these pamphlets survive, but the ones we do have suggest their discur- sive purpose, combining text and crudely cut images to communicate in a manner that was often satirical or mocking.14 One example is a leaflet entitled La victoriosa Gata da Padua (“the victorious cat of Padua”), which reproduced a song coarsely mocking the League of Camb- rai’s failed siege of Padua in 1509.15 The

Art in Print May – June 2019 17 the attackers.17 This gesture of derision by sexual innuendo might be seen as a pendant in intent to Titian’s derision by scatology. Further kinship is suggested by the Gata woodcut’s remarkable truthful- ness to life. Although crude, and far from the visceral realism of Titian’s woodcut design, its accuracy of detail is remark- able. From the depiction of the Paduan bastion as extending over the moat encir- cling the city, and the damage incurred to it by the German artillery, to the woven baskets filled with rocks protecting the cannon, authenticity was evidently a con- cern for its designer.18 A connection between this popular image and Titian’s more heroic composi- tion would hardly be surprising. His early woodcuts were primarily tied to book illustration, and it was chiefly from book printers and sellers that he learned the ropes of printmaking. Indeed, the four- block Sacrifice of Abraham (ca. 1514–15), Titian’s first monumental woodcut for Benalio, derived its basic pictorial ele- ments from a small woodcut illustra- tion in the Cologne Bible (ca. 1480), and he appears to have provided sketches to one of the illustrators of Alessandro Paganini’s Apocalypsus Ihesu Christi (1515– 16).19 Also, Titian maintained a subtle penchant for the humorous through- out his career. Doodled caricatures dot the versos of some of his works,20 and subtle moments of visual—often animal- related—humor appear intermittently in his work. In his woodcut Landscape with a Milkmaid of the early 1520s, the lamb with its anthropomorphically knowing expression, sniffing at the feet of the young farmhand, seems deliber- ately witty. The cutter, probably Nicolò Boldrini, even accentuated the humor by giving the lamb an anthropomorphic- ally knowing expression, not present in Titian’s preparatory drawing in the Louvre (Figs. 8–9).21 The defecating dog is merely the first of several comical or badly behaved canines in Titian’s oeuvre: there is the dog urinating gaily against a post in his 1550s design of the Adoration of the Kings (Fig. 9) and, most famously, the little Maltese Above: Fig. 10. Titian, Adoration of the Kings (1550s), oil on canvas, 138.5 x 219 cm. Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial. Below: Fig. 11. Titian, The Flaying of Marsyas (ca. 1570–76), oil on insolently sneaking in to lap up the blood canvas, 220 x 204 cm. Archbishopric of Olomouc, Palace of Kroměříž. dripping from the dying Marsyas in the late, grisly masterpiece in Kroměříž (Figs. powerful aggressors (Fig. 7).16 The implied gato (male cat); the mention in the song 10, 11).22 Both are instances of low comedy insult derives from a play on words: from of a gata (female cat), bound at the end of not so much subverting as supplementing medieval times, the largest siege engine a lance for the enemy to take, therefore the solemn or the tragic—in the former used for breaching walls was called a posed a sexually charged challenge to by accentuating the profane locus of the

18 Art in Print May – June 2019 divine birth, in the latter by enhancing 7. For history writing and the myth of Venice after the sublime cruelty of the scene. the wars, see Felix Gilbert, “Biondo, Sabellico, and The dog in the Red Sea, then, is an the Beginnings of Venetian Official Historiography,” early instance of Titian channeling a pro- Florilegium Historiae: Essays Presented to Wallace K. Ferguson, ed. William H. Stockdale and John fane sensibility he would only later apply Gordon Rowe, Toronto (1971), 275–293 and Lester to his painting. On a more basic level, the J. Libby, “Venetian History and Political Thought print anticipates the gestural approach after 1509,” Studies in the Renaissance 22 (1973): he would bring to mark-making in paint- 7–45; for the increased interest in the crossing of ing in the following decades. Only in his the Red Sea as a subject at the time, see Loredana Olivato, “La Submersione di Pharaone,” Tiziano e mature painted work do we see as open and Venezia: Convegno internazionale di studi, Venezia expressive a grasp of form as we do in this 1976, ed. Feliciano Benvenuti et. al., (Vicenza: Neri woodcut. Comparison has been made with Pozza Editore, 1980), 529–37. Titian’s early pen drawings, most potently 8. Benalio’s 9 February 1515 petition for privilege to the Frankfurt sketch of St. Sebastian (ca. print the Red Sea is preserved in the Venetian State 1519–20), in order to approximate what his Archive, Collegio Notatorio reg. 17, fol. 103r (105r n.n.); see Rosand and Muraro, Titian and the Vene- design for the Red Sea must have looked like tian Woodcut, 71, note 4. (Fig. 12).23 This suggests that a foundational 9. First pointed out by Michelangelo Muraro, “Tiziano aspect of Titian’s expressive revolution in pittore ufficiale della Serenissima,” Tiziano – nel painting started in his drawing. quarto centenario della sua morte, ed. Giuseppe La The open brushstroke of Titian’s Monaca (Venice: Edizioni dell’Ateneo Veneto, 1977), 88, no. 11. mature years makes acutely physical his 10. Cf. Girolamo Priuli, “I Diarii di Girolamo Priuli,” spirituality through sensuality. It is a pro- Raccolta degli Storici Italiani dal al found attempt at reconciling the sacred millecinquecento 4, ed. Roberto Cessi (Bologna: and the profane—an endeavor central to Nicola Zanichelli, 1938), 308–10, 315–16, 327–32; Fig. 12.Titian, Study of St Sebastian (ca. , and one that had occu- Marin Sanudo, I Diarii di Marino Sanudo, ed Fed- 1519–20), pen and brown ink on blue paper, pied Titian since his early years. It seems erico Stefani, Guglielmo Berchet and Nicolò Barozzi 180 x 115 mm. Städel, Frankfurt. (Venice: A Spese degli editori, 1879–1903), vol. 9, poignant that he acquired some of his 15, 152, 154, 167; see also Jonathan Unglaub, “The first insights into this synthesis through Concert Champêtre: The Crises of History and the Muraro, Titian and the Venetian Woodcut, no. 3. his engagement with a medium so closely Limits of Pastoral,” Arion 5, 1 (1997), 73–74. About the Cologne bible connection: Benalio had tied to the profane, and a composition as 11. Burke’s survey of 2,229 dated paintings from copied several illustrations from it for his publication between 1420 and 1539 established that 87 percent of Foresti’s Supplementum Chronicorum in 1486; original and resonant as the Red Sea. were of religious subjects, and the majority of those see d’Essling, Les Livres à figures vénitiens, vol.

remaining were portraits; Peter Burke, Culture and II.1, p. 27, no. 1307. This was first pointed out by Feli- Society in Renaissance Italy 1420–1540, ed. John ciano Benvenuti, “Il ‘Sacrificio del Patriarca Abramo’ Matthias Wivel is curator of 16th-century Rigby Hale (London: B. T. Batsford Ltd, 1972), 145– di Tiziano (Xilografia incisa da Ugo da Carpi 1515),” Italian Paintings at the National Gallery in 46. A similar survey of the prints published between Titianus Cadorinus: Celebrazioni in honore di Tiz- London. 1450 and 1500 in Arthur Mayger Hind, Early Italian iano, Pieve di Cadore 1576–1976, ed. Ugo Fasolo Engraving (London: Quaritch/Knoedler, 1938–40) (Verona: Cassa di Risparmio, 1982), 27. On the shows a percentage in the mid-60s for religious sub- Paganini illustration, see Rosand and Muraro, Titian Notes: ject matter, which is even more remarkable given and the Venetian Woodcut, no. 7. 1. David Rosand and Michelangelo Muraro, Titian that portraiture was virtually unknown in printmaking 20. See Bert Meijer, “Titian Sketches on Canvas and and the Venetian Woodcut (Washington DC: Inter- in this period; Landau and Parshall, The Renais- Panel,” Master Drawings XIX, 3 (1981): 276–89. They national Exhibitions Foundation, 1976), no. 4. For sance Print, 89. include the so-called Gozzi Altarpiece in Ancona more on the date, see Matthias Wivel in Bastian 12. Rosand and Muraro, Titian and the Venetian (1520) and the verso of the Uffizi Study of Legs Eclercy and Hans Aurenhammer, Titian and the Woodcut, 72. (late 1550s); see Wethey, Titian and His Drawings, Renaissance in Venice (New York: Prestel, 2019), 13. Paul Joannides, Titian to 1518 (New Haven: Yale nos. [?]8, 17. And the recently discovered Portrait of 104–7, no. 31. University Press, 2001), 279. Girolamo Cornaro (ca. 1512, private collection) has a 2. Harold E. Wethey, The Paintings of Titian, Com- 14. See Krystina Karen Stermole, Venetian Art and caricatured male profile on its verso; see M. Wivel, “A plete Edition (London: Phaidon, 1969–75), vol. 1, no. the War of the League of Cambrai (1509–17), Ph. D. Comical Reverse. Titian’s Doodles in Context,” Arti- 14 and vol. 3, no. L-3. dissertation, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, bus et Historiae 34, no. 68 (2013): 237–55. 3. Several of the horses and riders are directly 2007, chapter 2: qspace.library.queensu.ca/han- 21. Rosand and Muraro, Titian and the Venetian derived from Leonardo’s work; an Israelite pulling dle/1974/5292. Woodcut, no. 21. Wethey, op. cit., 1987, no. X-20, M. on his garter is taken from Michelangelo’s Bathers, 15. The song probably originated as a battle chant A. Chiari Moretto Wiel, ‘Per un catalogo ragionato which was part of his Cascina composition; and one during the defense of the city and was, according dei disegni di Tiziano,’ Saggi e Memorie di Storia of Pharaoh’s horsemen is borrowed from Raphael’s to Priuli’s contemporary diary, widely popular, “sung dell’arte, 16 (1988), 21–99, 211–271, this reference Repulse of Attila (1511–14) in the Vatican Stanza by young boys and others all day and night.” It was no. A-11. d’Eliodoro; see Wivel in Titian and the Renaissance available in print on 25 September, more than a 22. Wethey, The Paintings of Titian, vol. I, nos. 3–5 in Venice, 104. week before the siege had ended; Priuli “I Diarii,” 359 and vol. 3, no. 16. Roman d’Elia, “The Decorum of 4. Florence, Uffizi, inv. 776 ORN; Bert Meijer, Omag- (25 September 1509). a Defecating Dog,” includes these in her argument gio a Tiziano: Mostra disegni, lettere e stampe di 16. Reproduced in Prince Victor Masséna d’Essling, too. Tiziano e artisti nordici (Florence: Istituto Universita- Les Livres à figures vénitiens de la fin du XVe. siècle 23. Rosand and Muraro, Titian and the Venetian rio Olandese di Storia dell’Arte, 1976), 12–13, no. 6d. et du commencement du XVIe (Florence: Olschki, Woodcut, 18. 5. Una Roman d’Elia, “The Decorum of a Defecating 1907–14), vol. 2, no. 2, 646, no. 2580. Dog,” Print Quarterly 22, 2 (2005): 119–32. 17. Stermole, Venetian Art and the War of the 6. This context was first discussed at some length League of Cambrai, 39–44. in relation to the woodcut by Rosand and Muraro, 18. Ibid., 45–46. Titian and the Venetian Woodcut, 72–73. 19. On the Sacrifice of Abraham, see Rosand and

Art in Print May – June 2019 19 Aegean Odes by Mary Schina By Mary Davis MacNaughton

Mary Schina, The Antikythera Mechanism (2016), woodcut and digital inkjet print, 27 1/2 x 35 3/4 inches. Edition of 10. Printed by the artist and Graphicon, Athens.

reek artist Mary Schina has fre- off the Little Cyclades. In dark translu- analogue computer, in effect—the mech- G quently addressed the beauty and cent ink, the woodcuts picture broken anism’s discovery altered assumptions power of ocean waters: her 2011 series statuary, amphorae and other ancient about the nature and sophistication of of 29 photoetchings, Sparkling Dark, artifacts. Though printed atop the digi- ancient Greek technology. Yet it was only derived from her photographs of the tal water, the objects appear submerged, one of the astonishing objects recovered sea at night in ambient light. Reworked which is apt, as each represents an item in 1900–01. There were statues in marble with fine-grained aquatint, these velvety recovered from the remains of a mer- and bronze, along with pottery, jewelry black-and-white prints evoke the myste- chant ship that sank in the first century and coins. A subsequent exploration by rious surfaces of moonlit waters that she BCE off the coast of the tiny Aegean Jacques Cousteau in 1976, in conjunc- remembered from childhood.1 Her 2016 island of Antikythera.3 tion with the Greek Institute of Marine series of 13 digital/woodcut prints, Aegean That shipwreck, first explored by Archaeology, uncovered another 300 Odes, dazzle with sunlight and look not Greek sponge divers in the spring of items. The extraordinary cargo has led only at the water’s glittering surface but 1900, is famous as the source of the com- to speculation that when it sank, the ship also beneath it.2 Schina again combined plex geared device known as the Anti- had been en route to laden with digital and manual processes, this time kythera Mechanism. Now understood spoils from Asia Minor, either for a tri- printing woodcuts over digital photo- as an instrument for predicting astro- umphal parade or for the enjoyment of graphs taken in the crystalline waters nomical and calendrical events—an early wealthy collectors.

20 Art in Print May – June 2019 Mary Schina, Marble Statue of Odysseus and Amphorae (2016), digital inkjet print and woodcut, 27 1/2 x 35 1/2 inches. Edition of 10. Printed by the artist and Graphicon, Athens.

Antikythera was one of the first sig- jars; in another print, the head of a late two sides of a coin enlarged to the size nificant Greek underwater excavations Hellenistic Hermes rises from the bot- of manhole covers. (The cargo’s hoard in the Aegean, and its rich aggregation tom edge amid a jumble of amphorae and of coins minted in the Anatolian Greek of treasures is now held by the National crockery, recalling the god’s role as guide city of Pergamon suggests the ship had Archaeological Museum in Athens, where to the underworld. Yet another features stopped on the Ionian coast of modern- Schina first encountered them. the looming silhouette of the life-size day Turkey.)5 The Anitkythera prints build on a bronze Youth of Antikythera (ca. 340–330 The heart of Schina’s series, however, decade of earlier works by Schina, all BCE), which was found in fragments near are four prints devoted to the Antiky- investigating the surface effects, expan- the Antikythera shipwreck and restored thera Mechanism. When first found, the siveness and visual spectacle of Aegean by the museum. The woodcut lies like mechanism was a mass of corroded frag- waters. Her 2006 Aegean Sea Odes con- a shadow on the surface of the water, ments, and while it was almost immedi- sisted of monumental panels of sun- emphasizing the raised arm and hand, ately recognized as some kind of geared dappled blue and green—woodcut images whose distinctive open grip has led the instrument, archaeologists, physicists phototransfered onto white silk—in dip- figure to be variously identified as Hera- and historians of science have spent a tych and triptych arrangments. Aegean cles (minus the apple of the Hesperides), century teasing out its function and deci- Sea—Light and Colors (2007) included 33 as Paris (minus the Apple of Discord), or phering the enigmatic Greek inscriptions digital prints on silk, again derived from as Perseus (no longer holding the head of on its dials. One of Schina’s prints shows woodcuts of water, each 2.5 meters long.4 Gorgon). Whoever he may be, he is a rare a fragment of text glimmering beneath Aegean Odes takes this light-filled aquatic survivor, given the propensity of humans an undulating current. Magnified, as if domain and refills it with the salvaged for melting down metal. by the lensing effect of water, are two sets artifacts it once held: in Marble Statue of Schina also pays homage to less majes- of letters: Σ ωρ Θ and Η ωρ Θ. Scientists Odysseus and Amphorae, Homer’s seafar- tic finds: Silver Coin of Pergamon, obverse now believe the sigma refers to the ing hero lies prone amid broken storage and Silver Coin of Pergamon, reverse show (ΣελΗνΗ / selene) and eta refers to the

Art in Print May – June 2019 21 Mary Schina, Bronze Statue of the Youth of Antikythera (2016), digital inkjet print and woodcut, 27 1/2 x 35 1/2 inches. Printed by the artist and Graphicon, Athens.

sun (ἭλιοΣ / helios), while the remaining century earthquake. Schina’s Aegean Odes edition of seven; the digital phototransfers were inscription gives the hour of particular take us into a sea unbroken by any hori- printed by Anestis and Nikos Kyriakidis at Graphi- eclipses.6 zon, where treasure awaits discovery. con, Athens. In the Aegean, the artist explains, 5. Seán Hemingway, “Seafaring, Shipwrecks, and the Art Market in the Hellenistic Age,” in Carlos A. “shipwrecks have preserved centuries of Picón and Seán Hemingway, Pergamon and the cultural history in silence, as burial Mary Davis MacNaughton is professor of Hellenistic Kingdoms of the Ancient World (New grounds on the sea bed that hold an , Gabrielle Jungels-Winkler director York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2016), 89. otherworldly beauty in their protective of the Ruth Chandler Williams Gallery at Scripps 6. This information was offered to the artist in College. 2017 by astrophysicist Xenophon Moussas, embrace.”7 Indeed, the Antikythera site National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, continues to provide new discoveries: and founding member of the Antikythera Mecha- over the past three years, teams from Notes: nism Research Project. The hypothesis was first the Hellenic Ephorate of Underwater 1. See Margaret Mathews-Berenson, “Nature and published in T. Freeth, Y. Bitsakis, X. Moussas, Antiquities, working with marine archae- the Environment: Preserving Experience in Hy- et al., “Decoding the ancient Greek astronomical ologist Brendan Foley (formerly of Woods brid Prints,” Women and Print: A Contemporary calculator known as the Antikythera Mechanism,” View (Claremont, CA: Ruth Chandler William- Nature 444:587–591 (2006), https://www.nature. Hole Oceanographic Institution and now com/articles/nature05357. with Lund University) have discovered son Gallery, Scripps College, 2014), 23–24. 2. The Aegean Odes woodcuts were printed in an 7. Mary Schina in Xenakis, Mary Schina, 23. the bronze arm of a male figure, a silver edition of ten by the artist on digital inkjet prints vessel, a red marble slab, a bronze disk, produced by Graphicon. See Alexandros Xenakis, wooden ship remnants, and human bone. Mary Schina: Aegean Odes Honour the Ancient Metal detectors indicate the presence of Treasures of Antikythera (Athens: Bath House of seven to nine more statues buried under the Winds, 2016). 3. Conversation with the artist, 15 Oct 2017, and sediment and massive boulders that email, 2 Jan 2018. may have landed there during a fourth- 4. The woodcuts were printed by the artist in an

22 Art in Print May – June 2019 REVIEW Art Triage: Eric Avery and Adam DelMarcelle Take On the Opioid Crisis By Susan Tallman

Adam DelMarcelle, Tools for Breathing (2018), series of six screenprints, 20 x 16 inches, and Eric Avery, Emergency Response (2018), six linocuts with stenciled spraypaint, 16 x 20 inches. Editions of 30. Printed and published by the artists.

he night is beautiful, the sky a deep we have national statistics—more tin, which is the drug most blamed for the T crepuscular blue, the lights in the Americans died of opioid drug overdoses spike in addictions.3 Artists have recently farm building glow a homey yellow, but (47,600) than were killed in automobile been exerting their clout to dissuade art on the silo a bright white image looms accidents.2 This is both tragic and out- institutions from helping to polish the beautiful and awful: a forearm, tourni- rageous, as revelations of deception by Sackler name. While holding institutions queted and dangling a syringe. The pro- drug manufacturers have made it clear and individuals accountable for malfea- jection, part of an ongoing collaboration that this is a manufactured catastrophe. sance is critically important, it is a long between print artists Adam DelMarcelle The art world has been drawn into aware- game. At the other, more immediate end and Eric Avery, took place in the bucolic ness largely through its relations with of the spectrum, there is the existential Amish country of Lancaster County, the Sackler family, whose members have question: what can one person do to save Pennsylvania, where 167 people died of donated millions to museums in the U.S. another person’s life? opiate overdoses in 2017.1 and U.K., and whose wealth derives from “Quite a lot, in fact,” is the message That same year—the last for which Purdue Pharma, the makers of OxyCon- of “Epidemic,” DelMarcelle and Avery’s

Art in Print May – June 2019 23 Above: Adam DelMarcelle and Eric Avery, "Epidemic" at Cora Miller Gallery, York College of Pennsylvania, 2018. Installation view including active harm reduction space at center. Below: Adam DelMarcelle and Eric Avery, Farmland Epidemic (2018), digital projection of woodcut montage on a Mennonite grain silo in Manheim, Pennsylvania. Photograph: Dan Lobdell. multipart installation project, first shown at York College of Pennsylvania last fall, and now on view at East Tennessee State University.4 In addition to prints, wallpa- per and projections, “Epidemic” includes medical cabinets filled with “harm reduc- tion” supplies (Naloxone, clean needles, wound-care kits, sterile arm tourniquets, fentanyl testing strips, etc.). Heartbreak is inescapable—a repeated wallpaper pat- tern shows the body of a woman slumped over a steering wheel, an adjacent gallery is fitted with bedroom furniture and a photographic projection of a man’s body, face down on the floor—but “Epidemic” avoids the usual empathy-induction mode of socially engaged art, emphasiz- ing instead pragmatic action. Relief prints by Avery and screenprints by DelMarcelle offer advice on the administration of Nal- oxone and other emergency measures; in both locations, the exhibition functions as a space for workshops and provides local health workers with “a new platform to educate the public and tear away fear and stigma,” DelMarcelle explains. For DelMarcelle, who made national news when he projected “American Car- tel” on the façade of Purdue Pharma’s corporate headquarters, this is personal. The bedroom in the “Epidemic” instal- lation is that of his brother Joe. In 2014

24 Art in Print May – June 2019 Left: Adam DelMarcelle, War on Drugs (2018), screenprint, 30 x 22 inches. Edition of 10. Printed and published by the artist. Right: Eric Avery, Big Sick Liver (2005), three-panel linocut, 72 x 108 inches. Edition of 3. Printed and published by the artist.

DelMarcelle found Joe dead, the result what the word “addict” made her think of, us-news/2018/feb/13/meet-the-sacklers-the- of a heroin addiction his family did not one student replied “my husband.” Some family-feuding-over-blame-for-the-opioid-crisis. know he had. On the second anniversary days later, Avery received a text from 4. Cora Miller Gallery, York College of Penn- of his brother’s death, DelMarcelle plas- DelMarcelle: sylvania, 25 Oct–19 Dec 2018; and the Reese Museum, East Tennessee State University, 15 tered his hometown, in nearby Lebanon, Apr–31 May 2019. with posters provocatively critical of offi- The girl that shared with us that her 5. Projection as a vehicle of art and protest has cial lack of response to the addiction cri- husband was currently struggling gained traction in recent years as the technology sis. The mayor ordered them destroyed. with addiction sent me a message and has become more accessible. See: https://www. The artist reposted them, and again they told me that the night she visited us pbs.org/newshour/arts/projection-light-artists- protest. were destroyed. DelMarcelle then shifted she went home to find out her hus- strategy, recasting the images as build- band overdosed while she was with us ing-sized projections—elusive, mobile, that night. He was saved by Narcan and highly visible.5 by a police officer. She brought him to Avery is best known for having worked our talk last night and said she thinks the frontlines of the AIDS crisis as an that we may be the first people that MD, psychiatrist and visual artist. [see have ever gotten through to him. Art in Print Mar–April 2017], and several of the prints included in “Epidemic” have seen earlier duty in that struggle. Among Susan Tallman is Editor-in-Chief of Art in Print. them is the arm that was projected on the silo. It comes from Avery’s woodcut Blood Test, a block he cut while waiting Notes: for the results of his first HIV test in the 1. Lancaster County has since implemented mid-1980s—a time when “positive” was new measures across multiple services, which appears to have reduced overdose numbers a death sentence. DelMarcelle added the in 2018. Lancaster County Coroner’s Office, syringe, drawing a link between two dev- reported through OverdoseFreePA: www.over- astated generations. Both artists, how- dosefreepa.pitt.edu/know-the-facts/view-over- ever, remain adamant in their conviction dose-death-data/. that art, if used in the right context and 2. National Safety Council and Center for Dis- ease Control statistics: injuryfacts.nsc.org/ with accompanying outreach, has the motor-vehicle/historical-fatality-trends/deaths- ability to save lives. and-rates/; injuryfacts.nsc.org/all-injuries/pre- Installing the show with students ventable-death-overview/odds-of-dying/;www. in Pennsylvania, the artists asked how cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db329.htm; many were dealing with opioid addiction www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db329_ tables-508.pdf#page=4. among their families and friends. Out of 3. Not all family members have benefited from 39 students, 23 raised their hands. Asked OxyContin. See: https://www.theguardian.com/

Art in Print May – June 2019 25 EXHIBITION REVIEW Reading Christiane Baumgartner’s Lines By Sarah Kirk Hanley

Installation view of “Christiane Baumgartner: Another Country.” Courtesy Davis Museum at Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA.

“Christiane Baumgartner: Another Country” work through the various monographs and eventually landed on her signature Davis Museum at Wellesley College available for perusal).2 Its attendant cata- melding of woodcut and video in her Wellesley, MA logue supplies a salient English-language breakthrough woodcut quartet, Lisbon 21 September – 16 December 2018 reference for critical study of her oeuvre, (2001). Baumgartner discusses her inter- including an extensive interview between est in woodcut as both a foil and comple- Christiane Baumgartner: Another Country the artist and curator Lisa Fischman, an ment to her contemporary technological By Lisa Fischman, Claire C. Whitner essay by Claire C. Whitner, and a close source imagery: its simple, handmade and Richard S. Field discussion by Richard S. Field of the exhi- marks slow the viewer’s perception, call- Hirmer Verlag, Munich, and Davis bition’s headline print. These are accom- ing attention to the image and the imper- Museum at Wellesley College, 2018 panied by color plates of the artist’s prints fection of the line; while its delineated 142 pages, with color illustrations covering the years 2009–18 (some not on contrast of inked surface and blank paper $34.95 / €29.90 view in the exhibition), along with a biog- is related, in her view, to the binary lan- raphy, CV and bibliography. guage of computers.5 ptly named, “Christiane Baumgart- Baumgartner does not identify as a Often monumental in scale, A ner: Another Country” was the first printmaker, preferring to be understood Baumgartner’s woodcuts derive from substantial survey of this influential Ger- as an artist whose chosen medium is photographs or video stills (usually man artist’s work in the United States.1 relief printing.3 This places her among her own) that she transforms through Including 79 individual prints, many of a handful of major contemporary art- a process that involves reducing their monumental scale, it provided American ists who work primarily in printmaking resolution, expanding their scale, and viewers an overview of her techniques and for conceptual reasons.4 After study- laboriously handcutting the result into motifs from the past decade (dedicated ing printmaking as an undergraduate, wood. They employ only horizontal lines, visitors could find out about the earlier she focused on video in graduate school deftly varied for optical effect. Originally,

26 Art in Print May – June 2019 the lines replicated the video scan lines Anchoring one end of the room was they also embody the German concept of of her early source material, but they the ominous 26-foot-long triptych Luft- Sehnsucht, a compound word that bridges remained as a visual device even after bild (Triptychon) (triptych, 2009–10),6 in both seeing and searching, and denotes she transitioned to photographic sources. which panels of cloudy skies in grayish a longed-for ideal that is out of reach.8 She prints the blocks herself in small edi- purple and pale blue flank a central black- The elegiac Luftbild (Triptychon) and the tions. Altogether the physical produc- and-white image of military aircraft in ebullient Happy Hour series neatly book- tion of a single print can take months, formation. Derived from a video the art- end the stylistic and thematic trajectories though Baumgartner has said the most ist shot of a television broadcast about articulated in this exhibition. important moments in her work occur WWII, the image is disrupted by arcs of The earliest works reflected the art- while she is working on the computer moiré-like interference patterns—acci- ist’s ruminations on human sources of and conceiving the image: the execution dental artifacts of the passage through “distortion or menace, to weapons, to war is simply a necessary step in realizing the various technologies, painstakingly pre- and destruction.”9 The 15 blue-and-black idea. (While she makes her woodcuts on served by hand as the artist cut the block. woodcuts of Totentanz (Dance of Death, her own, Baumgartner has also worked in Luftbild (Triptychon) was balanced on 2013), whose fascinating tendrils of cloudy screenprint, photoengraving and etching the opposite side of the gallery by a quar- light come from the same WWII documen- on a smaller scale, usually in collabora- tet of six-foot-high monoprints (described tary as Luftbild, shows a frame-by-frame tion with master printers.) as “woodcut/paintings” in the catalogue) depiction of the smoke trail of a downed The Davis Museum’s expansive main from Baumgartner’s 2018 series Happy fighter plane with an eerie bluish glow. gallery accommodated over 15 major Hour. Each pictures the same hazy seaside The aqua tonal block behind the black ras- woodcuts, providing an overview of sunset in a riot of hues, blended together ter lines preserves the feel of the television Baumgartner’s subject matter and an in chromatic concoctions like the cock- screen. In its haunting beauty, Totentanz opportunity to view these oversized works tails for which they are named: Kir Royale, both acknowledges the appeal of gawking at various focal distances: up close, the London Fog, Tropical Orange and Sex at scenes of destruction from a position of lines stand apart as individual abstract on the Beach. Acknowledging that this safety, and encourages the viewer to slow forms; from further back they cohere into subject matter is “almost on the edge of down and absorb their import. objects, scenes or events; at midrange, they kitsch,” Baumgartner has explained the Baumgartner’s canny aesthetic choices flicker between these two modalities and prints as a meditation on perception: how were similarly apparent in the nearby confound the eye. We become conscious the setting sun burns into the retina, and juxtaposition of the menacing Manhat- of viewing as a physical and mental task, gets distorted while swimming, going tan Transfer (2010) with the sparkling sea- as well as a form of play. into or coming out of the water.7 For her, scape Another Country (2016).10 Both are

Installation view of “Christiane Baumgartner: Another Country.” Courtesy Davis Museum at Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA.

Art in Print May – June 2019 27 Installation view of “Christiane Baumgartner: Another Country.” Courtesy Davis Museum at Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA. based on photographs she took within Wald (German Woods, 2007) as both her Weisse Sonne marked Baumgartner’s first minutes of one another while walking first landscape and use of color.12 These application of unique painterly color to along the West Side of on her elements appeared sporadically thereafter the matrix during the printing process, first visit to —a proxim- and now dominate. The Wave (2017) and an approach she pushed further in the ity of time and place that is striking in Phoenix (2018) are indicative of this full turn: Cosmic Fruits suite (2016).14 Each of these consideration of the two pictures’ dia- the first, an image of inexorable aquatic nine, nearly abstract woodcuts features metrically opposed gestalts. Manhattan momentum caught mid-churn; the second, a trio of indecipherable glowing orbs, in Transfer, which shows a helicopter behind an ambitious, seven-foot-long woodcut of a different array of zesty hues. This new a chain-link fence, is a chilling composi- a volcano erupting in black, scarlet, crim- monoprint approach dominates more tion evocative of military surveillance or son and indigo. Speaking with the artist in recent works, such as the aforementioned mobilization. (Were it not for the title, 2018, Jonathan Watkins calls attention to Happy Hour suite and Phoenix (2018), one might not guess the location is the an oblique reference to the great German which was printed from a single block 30th Street heliport in Chelsea.) Several Romantic painter Caspar David Friedrich and inked à la poupée in dabs and gradient years later, as her focus shifted away from in Baumgartner’s four Nordlicht (North blends that tumble and expand over the machines and weaponry and toward nat- Light) woodcuts (2018): the source photos surface. The image offers both mini and ural phenomena, Baumgartner returned were shot on the Baltic island of Rügen, macro explosions—the small chromatic to this batch of pictures. Another Country, across the Strela Sound from Friedrich’s blasts of ink and the titanic plume of dust a depiction of New York Harbor, is domi- hometown of Griefswald, whose environs and ash pictured by the matrix. nated by scintillating open water; barely he often painted.13 The rapid dissolution of In her smaller work, Baumgartner perceptible human constructions—the light at sunset, pictured through the trees explores the power of downscaling, inti- Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and the in these four woodcuts, is the kind of cre- mate acquaintance and freely drawn line. Statue of Liberty—emerge on the horizon puscular, evanescent atmosphere Friedrich These were hung in an adjoining hall-like only after extended viewing. so often invoked. A concise, black-and- space. One thoughtfully assembled wall Another Country is indicative of white memento mori, Nordlicht pictures the showed five small unrelated woodcuts of the Romanticism that has dominated fleeting nature of time and of life. nondescript high-rise buildings viewed Baumgartner’s work in the past few years,11 In the 2016 diptych Weisse Sonne (white from a distance. Their salon-style pre- as she has become increasingly occupied sun) and Schwarze Sonne (black sun), our sentation allowed the viewer to compare with the might of natural forces, attended home star first glows bright against an monochrome to color and to note how by a deepening exploration of color inking. obscure dark landscape, and then in choices of paper, inks, image resolution In the catalogue interview with Fischman, black, as if in eclipse—an all-powerful and line thickness affect similar subject she cites the nine red woodcuts of Deutscher entity that both creates and destroys. matter. The cinematic suites Strip (14

28 Art in Print May – June 2019 photoengravings, 2011) and Medway (9 together produce an image in the mind. ticism in Baumgartner’s work in an essay in photogravures, 2013) provided a glimpse Viewers are, he writes, led to “question Christiane Baumgartner: Out of the Blue (Haar- into Baumgartner’s work with sequen- the very trust we put in all forms of rep- lem: Johan Deumens Gallery, 2010). German tial imagery—a strong focus in her early resentation, especially . . . high-resolution text online at: oberender.de/578_deutsch/3_ text/19_2010/118_im_inneren_der_systeme_ career in works such as 1 Sekunde (25 digital images, which are so vulnerable to spuren_der_romantik_in_den_holzschnitten_ woodcuts, 2004), Final Cut (portfolio of 12 manipulation.”19 christiane_baumgartners_in_out_oft_he_blue_ screenprints and 4 woodcuts, 2006) and These are prints that resonate with christiane_baumgartner_johan_deumens_gal- Solaris I–IV (4 woodcuts, 2008).15 They various anxieties of our digital age: the lery_haarlem_nl. mark what is perhaps the single most degree to which we can trust images, the 12. Fischman and Baumgartner, Christiane Baumgartner, 21. consistent concern of her career—the rapid dissemination and dissolution of 13. Jonathan Watkins and Christiane Baumgart- freezing of time-based images. With and information, the ubiquity of media, and ner, “Baumgartner in conversation with Jonathan Without Thinking—Ultramarine (6 color the impact of all these things on how we Watkins at Alan Cristea Gallery,” in connection aquatints, 2018) was the sole representa- view the world. From themes of man- with “Christiane Baumgartner: Liquid Light,” tion of the investigations into automatist made destruction to the power of nature, 21 Mar-21 Apr 2018, Alan Cristea Gallery, London; online: alancristea.com/artists/54- mark-making she began in 2009 (though Baumgartner’s work cautions against christiane-baumgartner (“Films”) and vimeo. many of these are drawings, she cre- hubris and encourages us to consider how com/272321777. ated a similar suite of color aquatints in images shape our reality. Yet for her, all 14. Fischman and Baumgartner, Christiane 2013, With and Without Thinking—NYC matters have two sides: in works such as Baumgartner, 22. 1–4). She has described these as a form of Another Country and Happy Hour, she 15. For images of some earlier works, see the escape from the discipline of the wood- points the way toward hope and “the artist’s official website: christiane-baumgartner. com/work.html. cuts, as well as her entrée into color,16 but promise of a better future.”20 16. Watkins and Baumgartner. the installation provided little to assist 17. Christian Rümelin, “The Woodcuts of Chris- the casual viewer in making sense of this tiane Baumgartner,” Journal of Visual Art Prac- distinctly different imagery. Sarah Kirk Hanley is an independent tice 14, no. 3 (2015), 226-227; as quoted by In the catalogue’s main essay, Whitner print specialist and critic based in the Whitner, 36. 18. Ibid., 38. takes issue with earlier writers who have New York area. 19. Richard S. Field, “Another Country: Ambigui- seen in Baumgartner’s work a link to the ties Present and Past” in Christiane Baumgart- ner: Another Country, 50. German woodcut tradition, concurring Notes: 20. Fischman and Baumgartner, 18. with Christian Rümelin, curator of the 1. Her one previous solo exhibition in the US was 2014 Baumgartner retrospective “White “The German Woodcut: Christiane Baumgartner” Noise,” who wrote that the artist “broke at the Museum of Fine Arts, , 30 Sept with . . . every tradition and every . . . con- 2017–19 Mar 2018, which focused on a group of works drawn from the collection. notation of woodcut.”17 In place of Dürer 2. In addition to small gallery publications going or German as influences, back to 2003, there have been two important cat- Whitner posits that the rich printing alogues: Christiane Baumgartner – White Noise, and publishing history of Leipzig, where published in conjunction with her 2014 European Baumgartner has lived and worked most traveling retrospective (see review in Art in Print of her life, has informed the artist’s focus Sep-Oct 2014) and the present catalogue. 3. Claire C. Whitner, “Among the Engravers, on information transmission. She iden- Etchers, and Gougers: Christiane Baumgart- tifies Baumgartner’s early artist’s book ner and the German Printmaking Tradition,” in Goethe, Faust (1997), in which legible text Christiane Baumgartner: Another Country, 32. from the play is juxtaposed with the art- See also Thomas Marks, “’I don’t call myself ist’s abstracted, letter-like forms, as pre- a printmaker’—an interview with Christiane Baumgartner,” online, 26 Mar 2018, dictive of her later interests in seriality, apollo-magazine.com/interview-with-christiane- the passage of time and, most signifi- baumgartner/. cantly, “the pivot between abstract forms 4. For further discussion, see Sarah Kirk Hanley, and those that convey meaning and how “The Lexicon of Tomorrow: Print Based Instal- the viewer imposes order and meaning on lation,” Art21 Magazine, 8 Apr 2011, magazine. art21.org/2011/04/08/ink-the-lexicon-of-tomor- these images.”18 row-print-based-installation. Writing on Another Country, Field dis- 5. Lisa Fischman and Christiane Baumgartner, cusses Baumgartner’s concern with per- “Interview with the Artist: Christiane Baumgart- ception and visual information, as well ner in Conversation with Lisa Fischman, April as the work’s position in the long trajec- 7–8, 2018,” in Christiane Baumgartner, 13. tory of woodcuts of the sea, from Jacopo 6. The artist also made a version with the central panel only titled simply Luftbild (2009). de’ Barbari’s View of Venice (1500) to Vija 7. Artist’s talk at Wellesley College, 20 Sept Celmins’s Ocean Surface Woodcut (1992). 2018. See youtu.be/z42A7oyOdz8. Field delves into ambiguities between 8. Fischman and Baumgartner, Christiane Baumgartner’s digital source and hand- Baumgartner, 18. made matrix, and carefully analyzes 9. Ibid., 16. 10. See Benjamin Levy’s review “Another Coun- the confounding interplay of printed try” in Art in Print 6, no. 6 (March–April, 2017): 4. black and negative white that somehow 11. Thomas Oberender first noted the Roman-

Art in Print May – June 2019 29 EXHIBITION REVIEW Etched in Arcadia Ego: Francis Seymour Haden in Cambridge By Alexander Massouras

Francis Seymour Haden, Hands Folded (1865), etching, image 13.8 x 21.4 cm., sheet 21.2 x 29.5 cm. Private collection. Image ©The , Cambridge.

“Amateur Etcher of Distinction: ames McNeill Whistler once pushed productive friendship. In 1858 Whistler Prints by Seymour Haden” J his brother-in-law Francis Seymour had dedicated the title print of his French Charington Print Room, Fitzwilliam Haden through a window. The shove Set of etchings (in which the portrait of Museum followed a personal dispute after the Haden’s daughter appeared) “À Mon viel Cambridge, UK death of a mutual friend, but they had Ami Seymour Haden.” In keeping with 9 October 2018 – 6 January 2019. artistic spats too: Haden once altered Whistler’s original approbation, Haden’s the plate of Whistler’s portrait etching of prints once fetched astonishing prices: Amateur Etcher of Distinction: Haden’s daughter, an impression of which in 1922, twelve years after his death, one Prints by Seymour Hadenn Whistler annotated with, “Legs not by me, sold at auction for $2,500, placing him Edited by Elenor Ling but a fatuous addition by a general prac- in the same price category as Dürer and 132 page PDF catalogue, downloadable titioner.”1 Whistler’s comment—which Rembrandt, an artist with whom Haden from the Fitzwilliam Museum’s Digital pointed both to Haden’s medical career was frequently compared as a print- Publications site: https://www.fitzmuseum. and his implicit artistic amateurism— maker.2 In 1879 the Fine Art Society paid cam.ac.uk/digitalpublications. marked the unhappy end of a creatively Haden £750—an amount that could have

30 Art in Print May – June 2019 purchased 2,250 days of skilled labor or his prints participate in critical art histori- Engravers. Elenor Ling’s catalogue essay 80 cows, the British National Archives cal developments, both formally, through makes clear how significant organiza- assures us—for a two-plate commission.3 the , and stylistically, tions like these were at a time when print- Without even getting to the work itself, through his thematic and stylistic links making was still tainted by associations one might expect that tantalizing anec- with Impressionism. Haden advocated with craft and with copying: the Royal dotes like these would have made Haden the “continuing” etching process, carrying Academy of Art in London didn’t allow much better known than he is today, plates and acid with him as he wandered printmakers to be full academicians until when his work has a modest market through the landscape in a way that brings 1853.4 This was also a moment of techno- and is seldom exhibited. This historical him close to Impressionist painters of the logical flux, when printmaking debates blind spot is something the Fitzwilliam time. He also treated his prints in a paint- were being thrown into relief by photog- Museum in Cambridge has taken steps erly way, often overpainting impressions raphy. Haden was quick to use this new toward fixing, with an outstanding exhi- by hand and experimenting with differ- tool; Virginia Dodier has demonstrated bition of Haden’s prints to mark the 200 ent inks, mark-making and papers. The that Haden used photographs by Lady years since Haden’s birth. paper choices on display at the Fitzwil- Hawarden as source material for his etch- Given that the Etching Revival spanned liam are occasionally terrifying: Turkish ings. His early uptake of as the second half of the 19th century and the bath with one figure (1865) is on a Japanese well as his apparent ambivalence toward first decades of the 20th, the Fitzwilliam’s paper so thin that the ink seems virtually it (he never publically acknowledged Charrington Print Room is a perfect loca- suspended in air like a cobweb—getting it these photographic debts) make Haden tion for looking at Haden’s etchings. The through the pressure of a press intact was an intriguing and conflicted printmaker, room dates from 1936—its dark wood a remarkable feat. There is an impression open to the possibilities of mechanized, paneling and elegant coved ceiling take of The Four Cows (1882) displayed with its quasi-objective image-making while visitors back aesthetically to the apogee full sheet to show the annotations and manipulating prints in ways that made of Haden’s reputation, making the exhibi- retouching in graphite and wash; similarly, them distinctly singular. tion unexpectedly immersive. in a trial proof of the large etching Green- Haden’s work provides no obvious Haden’s former exalted reputation is wich (1878), a flamboyant gray-brown wash reason for his reputational drift into the vindicated by the work on view, and the has been added to the sky. shadows; his forms and subjects are not, arguments advanced at the Fitzwilliam Haden’s practical assault on the dis- for instance, far enough from Whistler’s demonstrate his historical significance on tinction between painting and etching to account for the current obscurity of many levels. Haden’s profile as an artist had an institutional side, too: he was a one and the enduring fame of the other. If exemplifies the socially rarified quality of founding member of what became the an explanation can be found for Haden’s Victorian-Edwardian art in Britain, while Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and fall from art world grace, it might have

Francis Seymour Haden, Shere Mill Pond no. 2 (1860), etching, image 17.8 x 33.3, sheet 20.7 x 35.7 cm. Private collection. Image ©The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.

Art in Print May – June 2019 31 Francis Seymour Haden, Hand O Laborum (1864), etching and drypoint, image 14 x 21.2 cm., sheet 23.2 x 33 cm. Private collection. Image ©The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. something to do with his socioeconomic An Amateur Etcher of Distinction. The horse, a nude woman or any anecdote, is status. Haden was an independently specter of the Amateur has long haunted essentially a plane surface covered with wealthy surgeon who led a privileged British art—periodically idealized for colours assembled in a certain order.”6 life; he was a professional, but a medical its supposed purity of motivation and Haden was also a significant collec- rather than an artistic one. From a 21st- Romantic isolation from such base things tor of prints, and a respected authority, century perspective, he appears aristo- as the market, it also carries a lot of bag- especially on Rembrandt. This exhibition cratic—although again, that image is gage in terms of class and exclusion. We comes from a private collection that has complicated by his professional status, might think of Haden as an important made full use of the extensive catalogues more conventionally associated with the precursor to the likes of the Bloomsbury and records of Haden’s collection and middle class. Either way, Haden didn’t Group or even Winston Churchill. inventory. One of the merits of his work’s need printmaking to pay, and his imagery Regardless of his social and insti- having been so prized is that the prints frequently drew from a particular kind tutional status, Haden’s often self-ref- are well-documented and therefore of leisure: the landscapes often show erential work seems paradigmatically traceable, something this collector has friends’ estates or the gardens of grand modern. Visually, this reflexivity can be done with a forensic meticulousness. The country houses. This iconography of seen in two prints of hands, Hands O notion of the “artist’s artist” is a famil- leisure wasn’t distinctive to Haden, and Laborum (1864) and Hands folded (1865), iar one; Haden can be more specifically many artists benefited from financial images that show their means of pro- framed in the etcher’s etcher niche, but independence, including pillars of Mod- duction in process and at rest. Concep- he could equally be a collector’s collector. ernism such as Cézanne and Manet. But tually, a parallel reflexivity is manifest Intersections between painting and this privilege may simply have worked in Haden’s sentiments about his work: etching, distinctions between amateur- better for painters than printmakers, not he described Thames Fishermen (1859) as ism and professionalism, and the vicis- least because of the ways in which print being not “from nature, but a composi- situdes of fashion in art are all topics is entangled with craft, even machinery. tion in drypoint improvised on copper,”5 illuminated by this exhibition. Although The Fitzwilliam’s exhibition points to the an account that anticipates Maurice the spotlight may have drifted away from complicated “unprofessional” aspect of Denis’s famous formalist proclamation Haden in the last hundred years, debates Haden with its playfully provocative title: that a painting “before being a battle around medium, status and taste are very

32 Art in Print May – June 2019 Above: Francis Seymour Haden, detail of Hands Folded (1865), etching, image 13.8 x 21.4 cm, sheet 21.2 x 29.5 cm. Private collection. Image ©The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Below: Francis Seymour Haden, detail of Hand O Laborum (1864), etching and drypoint, image 14 x 21.2 cm, sheet 23.2 x 33 cm. Private collection. Image © The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.

much still with us. Shere Mill Pond no.2 (1860) is a remark- Notes: 1. Elenor Ling, “Haden—In Context,” in Amateur able landscape that encompasses deep Etcher of Distinction (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam, velvety drypointed blacks and lightly bit- 2018), 17. ten, delicate etched lines in the back- 2. Richard Schneiderman, A Catalogue Rai- sonné of the Prints of Sir Francis Seymour ground. In 1868 a critic wrote that, with the sole exception of a plate by Claude, it Haden (London: Robin Garton Ltd, year tk), 30. 3. www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/currency-converter. was the “finest etching of a landscape 4. Ling, 18. subject that has ever been executed in the 5. Ibid., 34. world.”7 The Fitzwilliam’s is a melan- 6. Maurice Denis, Théories; 1890–1910, 4th ed. (Paris: Rouart et Watelin, 1920), 1. choly exhibition now that these superla- tives have been detached from Haden’s 7. Philip Gilbert Hamerton, Etching and Etchers (London: Macmillan, 1880), 375. work for so long: the assembly of strong work, once so admired and eloquently praised, is a reminder that paper and ink may be structurally stable but susceptible to time in other ways. By presenting the etching within this critical context, this exhibition describes an important epi- sode in printmaking and its reception, and shows some very beautiful prints in the process.

Alexander Massouras is an artist and writer.

Art in Print May – June 2019 33 EXHIBITION / BOOK REVIEW Grandeur Translated By Armin Kunz

Pietro Santo Bartoli (after Giulio Romano), The Giants Struck by the Ruins of a Temple (1680), engraving, 7 1/2 x 11 in. Staatliche Graphische Sammlung München. Photo: Gunnar Gustafsson.

“Grande Decorazione: Italienische Riesenholzschnitte und Papiertapeten der Giovanni Lanfranco’s paintings in the Monumentalmalerei in der Druckgraphik” Renaissance (Giant Woodcuts and Wall- cupola of S. Andrea della Valle (1625–28; Staatliche Graphische Sammlung papers of the Renaissance) or the exhibi- cat. no. 31). The focus chosen by cura- München tion “Grand Scale: Monumental Prints tor Kurt Zeitler, however, is quite dif- 13 October 2018 – 6 January 2019 in the Age of Dürer and Titian” that was ferent and conceptually innovative: the shown in Wellesley, New Haven and Phil- grandness referred to in the title is not Grande Decorazione: Italienische adelphia in 2008–09.1 Both had explored quantitative but qualitative. The Italian Monumentalmalerei in der Druckgraphik plus-sized prints of the 16th century, prints assembled here are not necessar- By Kurt Zeitler usually compositions made up from two, ily large, yet all share the monumental- Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin/Munich, twelve or—in the most daring and com- ity of their subject matter: architectural 2018 plex example, Albrecht Dürer’s The Trium- decorations, façade frescos as well as 352 pages, 230 illustrations, €58 phal Arch of Emperor Maximilian (1515–18)— interiors. Drawn from the impressive 195 blocks.2 Some composite prints were holdings of Munich’s Staatliche Gra- hen I learned about the exhibition indeed shown in Munich, among them phische Sammlung, the exhibition and W “Grande Decorazione,” my first Andrea Andreani’s nine woodcuts from its well-researched and abundantly illus- thought—judging from the title—was 1598–99 after ’s paint- trated catalogue add a new chapter to the that it might simply be covering the same ing cycle depicting The Triumph of Cesar history of the reproductive print. Long ground as earlier scholarly projects such (1484–1505; cat. no. 20)3 and Carlo Cesio’s dismissed as non-original, reproduc- as the groundbreaking 1976 monograph eight etchings from 1680 reproducing tive prints have recently seen a revival of

34 Art in Print May – June 2019 interest, as witnessed by the publication excelled at producing astonishing copies of comprehensive overviews of the French of prints by Dürer). Wierix’s Last Judg- and Italian schools initiated by Norberto ment from the late 1570s became in turn Gramaccini.4 Within this wider field, a model for further copies, including one Zeitler concentrates on prints after large- by Matthäus Greuter (ca. 1615), presented scale, site-specific architectural paint- in the exhibition and catalogue. ings. The 120 individual works selected There are occasions, however, when for the show are grouped into 38 detailed the architectural setting of the model catalogue entries, followed by a compete is indeed reflected in its printed repro- checklist of all 1,032 prints within the duction. In perhaps the most amusing Munich collection that fall into this cat- example, Pietro Santo Bartoli has placed egory. Indices for the painters and drafts- a small and clearly frightened figure in men that provided the models for the the doorway of a wall in Giulio Romano’s prints as well as for the print publishers Sala dei Giganti in the Palazzo Te in Man- and the places of publication ensure that tua, painted in 1532–35 (cat. 34). Hands the catalogue will remain a highly usable raised, the little man seems worried that reference guide beyond the scope of the the painted giants and the tumbling col- exhibition. umns are going to fall upon him. It’s an While the prints show architectural ingenious way for the engraver to evoke decorations, the actual architecture the overwhelming effect the fresco itself underlying them was often of secondary has on the viewer who enters the room— concern. The images are not architec- what has been repeatedly described as tural designs but interpretations of those “aesthetic horror.” Giulio’s extraordinary designs, remade in recognition of the decoration posed another challenge for specific qualities and requirements of the the interpretative printmaker: its lack print. In some instances the printed com- of any subdivisions made it difficult to positions appear more concentrated and transfer the composition to individual succinct than the painted models. Some- sheets. To translate Giulio’s wrap-around times the architectural context is com- fresco into print required breaks that pletely suppressed, as in the print after would split the uninterrupted flow of fig- Raphael’s Fire in the Borgo in the Vatican ures into compartments confined to indi- Stanze (1514–17), possibly engraved dur- vidual plates. Probably as a result of those ing the 1540s by Marco Dente (cat. no. challenges, these frescos were not repro- 8). While the fresco is arched at the top, duced in their entirety until 1680, when the print shows the scene within a rect- Nicolas Beatrizet, The Prophet Aaron (ca. Bartoli’s prints were published. 1540), engraving, 12 7/8 × 5 5/16 in. Staatliche angular composition. It is not concerned Graphische Sammlung München. Photo: The ways in which printmakers would with the specific site and shape of Rapha- Gunnar Gustafsson. transcend the role of subservient copy- el’s painting but with its iconographic ist to become an active and even criti- contents. Similarly, when Nicolas Beat- cal interpreter of prior art was already rizet engraved the prophet Aaron soon made prints such as these much sought- recorded by Vasari. Pope Clemens VII after decorated the vault after model sheets in artists’ workshops. commissioned Baccio Bandinelli to paint of Santa Maria della Steccata in Parma The exact identity of the figures thereby The Martyrdom of St. Laurence for San with this emaciated figura serpentinata became less relevant since the motifs Lorenzo in Florence, the family church (ca. 1534–36; cat. no. 6), the printmaker could be reinterpreted and adapted to of the Medici. The project was never exe- was not documenting the architectural new contexts. cuted, but was situation of Parmigianino’s decoration Astonishing in their visual condensa- asked to make an engraving after Bandi- but recreating an exemplary model of the tion are the various depictions of Michel- nelli’s design drawing (cat. no. 4). This led master’s distinctive style. The figure of angelo’s Last Judgment (1534–41) on a to a dispute between Raimondi and Ban- the prophet is shown from below to above single printing plate. One, engraved by dinelli since the latter claimed the plate (di sotto in sù is the Italian phrase for such Martino Rota, measures merely 32 x 32 to be faulty and insufficiently faithful foreshortening), a perspective that lends cm, while the original occupies 45 x 40 to his design. The pope ultimately sided itself naturally to wall paintings situ- feet; the details had therefore to be cap- with Raimondi, pointing out that the ated high above the viewer as well as for tured at an almost microscopic scale. engraving corrected and improved on the vaults and ceilings. Even more dramatic Giulio Bonasone was the first to repro- mistakes in the drawing and was there- is Matthäus Greuter’s engraving showing duce this wall of the Sistine Chapel in a fore superior to its model. the Ascension of Elijah from 1589 (cat. no. single plate (possibly as early as 1545; cat. As a whole, the works assembled by 18) after a lost model by Wendel Dietter- no. 7), but with a height of 58 cm, his print Zeitler in this thoughtful show illustrate lin. It offers another example of di sotto is nearly double the size of Rota’s. The lat- a wide spectrum of modes through which in sù with the prophet and the two horses ter’s technical feat was clearly recognized prints can relate to their full-sized archi- pulling his carriage. The difficulty of ren- and admired, thereby challenging other tectural models. The exhibition and cata- dering this kind of unusual perspectives artists, such as Jan Wierix (who already logue constitute yet another strong

Art in Print May – June 2019 35 argument for rethinking the often dis- missive term “reproductive print.” As an alternative, Antony Griffiths, in his recent book The Print Before Photography, has reintroduced the term “translational print.” The term was part of the 18th- century French critical discourse on the role of the print, perhaps best summa- rized by Diderot in his review of the Salon of 1765: “The engraver is strictly a prose writer who undertakes to translate a poet from one language into another. Colour disappears; truth, design, composition, character and expression remain . . . an excellent author who falls into the hands of a bad translator is lost. A mediocre author who has the good fortune to meet a good translator has everything to gain.”5 But Griffiths also reminds us that this concept of “translation” has been inherent in printmaking from the begin- ning. While “reproduction” suggests a somewhat mechanical process, “transla- tion” acknowledges the active role the makers of prints play in transferring and adjusting to a new medium, occasionally even improving their chosen models. Only their ingenuity can enable prints— inherently limited in size, color6 and their formal language (webs of lines instead of planes of tones)—to emulate the effects of the “grande decorazione.”

Armin Kunz is an art historian and the owner of C.G. Boerner, a dealership for Old Master prints and drawings with galleries in Düsseldorf and New York.

Notes: 1. See Horst Appuhn and Christian von Heus- inger, Riesenholzschnitte und Papiertapeten der Renaissance (Unterschneidheim: Verlag Dr. Alfons Uhl, 1976) and Larry Silver and Elizabeth Wyckoff, Grand Scale: Monumental Prints in the Age of Dürer and Titian (New Haven: Yale Univer- sity Press, 2008). 2. For example: Lucas Cranach the Elder, Stag Hunt (ca. 1506), woodcut printed from two blocks on two sheets; or the woodcut after Titian, The

36 Art in Print May – June 2019 Page Spread: Andrea Andreani, The Triumph of Julius Cesar (after Andrea Mantegna), (1598–99), nine chiaroscuro woodcuts with the dividing pilasters printed on a separate sheet, cut out, and attached, overall measurements 14 3/16 × 12 ft. 5 5/8 in. Staatliche Graphische Sammlung München. Far Left: Details from The Triumph of Julius Cesar. This Page, Left: Installation view of “Grande Decorazione: Italienische Monumen-almalerei in der Druckgraphik” (2018–2019). This Page, Right: Detail of The Glory of Paradise (after Giovanni Lanfranco) (1680), etching enlargement. Staatliche Graphische Sammlung München Staatliche Graphische Sammlung München. Photos: Gunnar Gustafsson.

Submersion of Pharaoh’s Army in the Red Sea (ca. 1514–15) printed from twelve blocks on twelve sheets. 3. The cycle also contained a title page and a sheet depicting six pilasters; added to the set in two copies, those decorative elements were meant to be cut out and collaged between the individual scenes. 4. Norberto Gramaccini and Hans Jakob Meier, Die Kunst der Interpretation: Französische Reproduktionsgraphik 1648–1792 (Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2003) and Die Kunst der Interpretation: Italienische Reproduktionsgraphik 1485–1600 (ibid., 2009); a third volume, authored by Hans Jakob Meier, is forthcoming: Die Kunst der Interpretation: Rubens und die Druckgraphik. 5. Antony Griffiths,The Print Before Photography: An Introduction to European Printmaking 1550– 1820 (London: The British Museum, 2016), 464. 6. The exception here would be chiaroscuro prints—represented within the scope of this show by Andreani’s Triumph of Cesar (cat. no. 20).

Art in Print May – June 2019 37 EXHIBITION REVIEW Black Lives Mattered: Jacob Lawrence and Toussaint L’Ouverture By Re’al Christian

“Jacob Lawrence: The Life of Toussaint L’Ouverture” DC Moore Gallery, New York 31 January – 2 March 2019

recent exhibition at DC Moore A Gallery in New York reunited an elegant series of 15 screenprints by Jacob Lawrence (1917–2000). The Life of Tous- saint L’Ouverture commemorates the Haitian military leader and statesman (1743–1803) who was instrumental in the nation’s fight for independence from France. Produced over a number of years, the prints deliver a compelling biographi- cal narrative, stretching from childhood slavery to rebellion, military triumphs, betrayal and subsequent legacy. In 1936, when he was not yet 20 years old, Lawrence began working on a suite of tempera-on-paper illustrations about L’Ouverture. Over the course of two years he completed 41 paintings; it was the first of his great narrative cycles, which would eventually include The Life of Frederick Douglass (1939), The Life of Harriet Tubman (1940) and the famous The Migration Series (1941), documenting the saga of African Americans moving north from the Jim Crow South in the early 20th century. In the L’Ouverture paintings we can see the young Lawrence honing what would become his signature form of modern- ism, using silhouetted forms in saturated earth tones to push visually dynamic compositions. In the battle scenes and ruminative vignettes of L’Ouverture, he weaves in elements of geometric abstrac- tion and reductive representation. By 1963, when he began making prints, Lawrence was well-established as a painter (the Brooklyn Museum had hosted a retrospective of his work in 1960). His first print, Two Rebels, is a lithograph derived from an eponymous painting made in response to demonstra- tions in , Alabama, earlier Jacob Lawrence, The Birth of Toussaint L’Ouverture (1986), screenprint on paper, 32 1/8 x 22 that year. Over the next four decades, inches. ©2019 The Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation, Seattle / Artists Rights Society Lawrence collaborated with a number (ARS), New York.

38 Art in Print May – June 2019 Left: Jacob Lawrence, The Coachman (1990), screenprint on paper, 32 1/8 x 22 inches. ©2019 The Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation, Seattle / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Right: Jacob Lawrence, General Toussaint L’Ouverture (1986), screenprint on paper, 32 1/8 x 22 inches. ©2019 The Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation, Seattle / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. of print workshops, producing over 90 characteristic flatness, this powerful nod, in the arrangement of furniture, to screenprints, etchings and lithographs. image usurps the compositional devices Vincent van Gogh’s meditative Bedroom Between 1986 and 1997 Lawrence worked that had been used for centuries to cel- in Arles series from 1888–89). On a nar- with master printer Lou Stovall at Work- ebrate European military leaders, as row bed in a narrow room, the future shop Inc. in Washington DC to translate well as the more recent graphic stylis- general’s mother cradles her newborn 15 paintings from the L’Ouverture group tics of propaganda posters, and upends with an attentive gaze. The umber, pas- into screenprints. The project was co- both by replacing the traditional white tel pinks and purples used to render the published by the Amistad Research Cen- victor with a black one. The concision, scene endow it with a delicacy decidedly ter in New Orleans, which houses the strength and grandeur of the portrait at odds with its setting—the plantation original paintings, and Lawrence’s regu- convey Lawrence’s vision of L’Ouverture slave quarters where L’Ouverture was lar publisher, Spradling-Ames. Including as a heroic figure—the “Black Napoleon” in the mid 18th century. The Coach- only a fraction of the episodes included who “fought and contributed much to man (1990) depicts L’Ouverture on the in the painting series, the screenprint our continuous struggle for liberty.”1 box seat of a carriage, while four figures series offers an abridged, tighter account Apart from two black-and-white pho- in the background wield scythes. Law- of L’Ouverture’s life. tographs of Lawrence with his work, the rence omits shadows, producing spatial Entering the show at DC Moore, view- rest of the show was laid out chronologi- depth by making the background fig- ers were met with Lawrence’s profile por- cally, beginning with The Birth of Tous- ures smaller. L’Ouverture and his horses trait of L’Ouverture in full military dress. saint L’Ouverture (1986). Here Lawrence and carriage dominate the foreground, Gold foliate embroidery and epaulettes borrows from another European icono- creating a hierarchical scale and show- adorn his crimson coat, and his tricorn graphic tradition—the arrangement of ing the future leader both literally and hat is embellished with white plumes mother and infant in a humble enclosure figuratively holding the reins. Like many and gold insignia. Retaining Lawrence’s suggests a nativity scene (with a possible educated slaves, L’Ouverture was not

Art in Print May – June 2019 39 subject to the backbreaking field work warm moment of solidarity between the series’ concluding print, To Preserve Their that occupy the distant figures. The dis- mounted leader and five black women Freedom (1988), are not uniformed sol- parity served slave owners by enforcing who greet him. In The Burning (1997), diers but civilians of both sexes running class divisions within a commonly dis- which depicts Haitian general Henri with rifles—a summary acknowledgment enfranchised group. Lawrence calls our Christoph’s scorched-earth retreat from of the Haitian men, women and children attention to L’Ouverture while visualiz- Cap-Haïtien, the foreground is verdant who took up arms as an alternative to ing the social disunion of black slaves in greenery and only the discrete crowns enslavement. One figure does not run. the French colony. of flame on the still and distant roofli- He stands (or perhaps falls) splay-legged, When the story moves to armed strug- nes give a hint of incumbent destruction. left arm extended skyward, as the gun gle, Lawrence depicts the violence with Toussaint at Ennery (1989), by contrast, is a drops from his right hand and a spatter subtlety and restraint. As a Coast Guard surging, brilliant mass of charging horses of blood erupts from his chest. The posi- artist in World War II, Lawrence had seen and red-and-blue-clad Haitian cavalry tion echoes that of the Spanish partisan war firsthand, an experience reflected in officers, racing toward triumph. Here, fighter in Robert Capa’s iconic photo- his dark, expressionistic 1946 War Series as in other battle scenes from the series, graph of The Falling Soldier (1936). paintings. Unlike the cleanly delineated Lawrence gives us an aestheticized ver- Though Haiti remains among the figures in theL’Ouverture images, the ago- sion of a gruesome situation. Lawrence’s most impoverished countries in the nized figures in Purple Hearts (1947) and images evade ingrained expectations, world, and its centuries of independence Beachhead (1947) are broken up with hec- raising questions rather than supplying have been riddled with instability, foreign tic brushwork. They are not heroes, but the facile answers. exploitation and home-grown corrup- causalities of a war they did not start. In 1802 L’Ouverture was tricked and tion, this does nothing to diminish the Lawrence could have portrayed his captured—an event captured in Law- power of Lawrence’s vision. Speaking Haitian subjects this way—as individuals rence’s Deception (1997)—and deported about the L’Ouverture series in 1940, Law- subjected to forces beyond their control— to France, where he died in prison the rence said, “Having no Negro history but chose to emphasize their assertion of following year. His military successors makes the Negro people feel inferior to power. Dondon (1992) depicts the general’s continued the revolution, sometimes car- the rest of the world . . . I didn’t do [the capture of a central-Haitian commune in rying out atrocities in the name of free- series] just as a historical thing, but 1795. Instead of showing the warfare that dom, but Lawrence chose to end his series because I believe these things tie up with led to this victory, the artist portrayed a on a different note. The five figures in the the Negro today. We don’t have a physical

Jacob Lawrence, Toussaint at Ennery (1989), screenprint on paper, 22 x 32 1/8 inches. ©2019 The Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation, Seattle / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

40 Art in Print May – June 2019 Above: Jacob Lawrence, Deception (1997), screenprint on paper, 22 1/4 x 32 1/4 inches. ©2019 The Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation, Seattle / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Below: Jacob Lawrence, To Preserve Their Freedom (1988), screenprint on paper, 22 x 32 1/8 inches. ©2019 The Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation, Seattle / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

slavery, but an economic slavery. If these people, who were so much worse off than the people today, could conquer their slavery, we certainly can do the same thing.”2 It’s a message that has not lost its resonance.

Re’al Christian is a New York City-based writer and art historian.

Notes: 1. Jacob Lawrence in Walter Dean Myers, Tous- saint L’Ouverture: The Fight for Haiti’s Freedom. Ill. Jacob Lawrence (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1996), np. 2. Jacob Lawrence: The Complete Prints (1963– 2000), A Catalogue Raisonné. Ed. Peter T. Nesbett (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001), 16.

Art in Print May – June 2019 41 EXHIBITION REVIEW Ruptured Histories: Chinn Wang at The Print Center By Megan N. Liberty

Chinn Wang, OCT 66 (Two Towers) (2018), screenprint, tape, 36 1/2 x 29 inches.

“Chinn Wang: Soaking Up Color” colored margins are time-stamped with screenprints onto wooden panels, cut and The Print Center, Philadelphia, PA months and years in the mid-to-late shaped into three-dimensional objects. 18 January – 30 March 2019 1960s, confirming the source material as For “Soaking Up Color,” Wang turned to aged Polaroid photographs. her mother’s Polaroids from her first years s part of its 93rd Annual Interntional Wang, an artist and professor at after arriving in America from Hong A Competition, the Print Center in the University of Denver, works at the Kong. She digitized them and altered the Philadelphia included a solo exhibition intersection of print and digital media, color and contrast before enlarging and of ten screenprints by one of the compe- distorting and altering images to exam- printing them as works of art. tition award winners, Chinn Wang, in a ine the malleability and truthfulness of OCT 66 (Two Towers) (2018) shows a small second-floor gallery. The prints, personal, political and historical narra- sandy foreground with a cloud-dotted each roughly two feet high, are grainy tives. She has manipulated photographs sky in the distance; two small turrets rise depictions of sun-soaked homes, gar- of Olympic medal winners, performers up beside a gazebo-like structure. The dens and mountain ranges. The palette on stage receiving praise, and flowers speckled texture, created by the CMYK is bright but muted, and their cream- in natural settings, often mounting her halftone applied in Photoshop, and the

42 Art in Print May – June 2019 fuzziness characteristic of enlarged images give the picture a dreamy unreal quality—like a mirage wavering on the horizon. Though the gazebo is central to the composition, it is abruptly cut off on one side and abuts a cumulous cloud. Like the other prints in the series, Two Towers is not one coherent scene but two images, visibly taped together down the middle. The two sides are clearly related, however, and a bit of analytic viewing makes it clear that they represent the sides of an image whose central strip has gone missing. Both halves of APR 68 (Parking Lot) (2018) show empty pavement and a low modern office building with windows of reflective glass, but the plantings around the entrance don’t line up—a bush is severed where it meets concrete. But something else is amiss in the rejoining: leading away from the seam is a shadow so thin it might have been cast by a pole, but here it is cast by nothing. Every print in the series bears a similar shadow—a ghost of something unidentified. In Park- ing Lot or APR 68 (Crater) (2019), where the shadow blends into the edge of moun- tain rocks, this marker of absence is easy to overlook, but in others, such as Two Towers, the shadow is unmistakably that of a person. Wang’s surgery has excised her mother from her own ephemera. The exhibition statement explains: “The absence splices the picture plane while referencing the lost sense of lineage, heritage and identity sometimes experienced by immigrants and the following generations.” Her structural conceit makes physical a psy- chological rupture. Though the titles reiterate the dates of the original photos, Wang doesn’t often identify locations. Without the (originally) central figure and without place, these become pictures of something vanished. In the gallery, the vacant scenes evoke a universal sense of loss. Photography fails in its function as a keeper of memories, and the sunny scenes become monuments to evanescence.

Megan N. Liberty is the Art Books section editor at the Brooklyn Rail.

Chinn Wang, GRAD (2018), screenprint, tape, 29 x 13 1/2 inches.

Art in Print May – June 2019 43 EXHIBITION / CATALOGUE REVIEW Postwar Abstraction in Spain By Elisa Germán

Antonio Saura, Cocktail Party (1960), screenprint with collage, 27 x 38 1/2 inches. Colección Fundación Juan March, Museo de Arte Abstracto Español, Cuenca, 1227G.

“Cuenca: City of Spanish Abstraction” celebrates the graphic art collection of the Born and raised in Manila, the son McMullen Museum of Art, first private contemporary art museum in of a prominent Spanish family that held Boston College, Newton, MA Spain, the Museum of Spanish Abstract lucrative business interests in the Philip- 11 February 2019 – 2 June 2019 Art (Museo de Arte Abstracto Español). pines for several generations, Zóbel lived Curated by Elizabeth Thompson Goizu- in Madrid briefly as a child, and moved Cuenca: City of Spanish Abstraction eta, the exhibition showcases the abstract between Asia, Europe and the United By Elizabeth Thompson Goizueta and stylistic experimentations of 14 artists States as a young man. Upon completion Manuel Fontán del Junco through prints and portfolios made over of his undergraduate studies at Harvard, 72 pages, fully illustrated the course of three decades, beginning he returned to the university as a cata- Free e-catalogue available at https://dlib. in 1960, when the nation was entering loguer of prints and rare books under bc.edu/islandora/object/bc-ir:108284 its third decade of military dictatorship curator Philip Hofer, and made his first The Trustees of Boston College, 2019 under Francisco Franco, and continuing attempts at printmaking. Self-taught as through its adoption of democracy after an artist, he pursued painting and print- Franco’s death in 1975. The central figure making in equal measure, turning to rganized by the McMullen Museum in the exhibition’s narrative, however, practitioners such as painter-printmaker O of Art in collaboration with the is the museum’s visionary founder, the Bernard Childs in Paris and printmaker Fundación Juan March in Madrid, artist and collector Fernando Zóbel Dimitri Papagueorguiu in Madrid to “Cuenca: City of Spanish Abstraction” (1924–1984). strengthen his skills.

44 Art in Print May – June 2019 Above: Fernando Zóbel, Triana II (1981), screen- print, 30 x 26 7/8 inches. Colección Fundación Juan March, Museo de Arte Abstracto Español, Cuenca, 1222G. Below: Gustavo Torner, Sin título (1964), screenprint, 10 3/4 x 14 1/2 inches. Colección Fundación Juan March, Museo de Arte Abstracto Español, Cuenca, 0798G.

By the end of the 1950s, Zóbel had developed an artistic network that stretched from New England and Europe to Manila; he had absorbed a variety of aesthetic influences and was exhibiting internationally, but he found himself increasingly drawn to Spain, which he described as “an explosion of light [that] completely fills the void.”1 Immersing himself in the quietly burgeoning Span- ish art scene, he began collecting Spanish contemporary art in depth, and his visits to the country became more prolonged. In 1961 he moved there permanently and was soon consumed with establishing a museum entirely curated and run by an artist for artists. One of the earliest works in the McMullen Museum exhibition is Antonio Saura’s screenprint with collage, Cocktail Party (1960), which was a part of Zóbel’s collection. A member of the artist group El Paso (active 1957–1960), Saura filled his composition with strong color and auto- graphic gestures that come together in a chaotic crowd of fragmented figures and speech bubbles. Cocktail Party can be seen as an investigation of figural degradation and mixed media applications, expanding the formal and technical possibilities of Spanish contemporary printmaking. Zóbel’s own aesthetic leanings are on view in an anteroom, where facsimiles of watercolor landscapes, completed dur- ing his travels, appear alongside a book from 1970 reproducing ink drawings made during his first visits to Cuenca in 1963.2 Though he had originally thought of Toledo as the home for his museum, a visit to Cuenca at the invitation of local artist Gustavo Torner changed his mind. Enamored with the city’s famed medi- eval “hanging houses” (casas colgadas), a group of buildings that emerge from steep stone cliffs, Zóbel knew that he had found the ideal location.3 The visual impact of the city on Zóbel is evident in his ink wash drawings and in the neutral palette and amorphous colorscapes of his screenprints. Departing from the tech- their composition. in metropolitan centers. The rural set- nique’s usual opaque color fields, Zóbel’s At the time, Cuenca was three hours ting allowed Zóbel the space to be more prints favor uneven tones and perceptible from Madrid by train, a comfortable dis- ambitious in his mission, particularly in artistic gestures, which, like his draw- tance from the oppressive oversight of the regards to encouraging and disseminat- ings, are idyllic and uncomplicated in Franco regime, which was more pervasive ing contemporary printmaking. Early

Art in Print May – June 2019 45 affectionate personal dedication to Fer- nando Zóbel “el Grande,” demonstrates another interpretation of the landscape. Set against a black background, bands of razor-thin horizontal lines are arrayed in configurations ranging from slightly askew to strongly diagonal, energiz- ing the visual field while suggesting sky above and landforms below. Such group projects continued after the museum opened, and to compensate for the scar- city of print ateliers in mid-20th century Spain, Zóbel and local printmaker Anto- nio Lorenzo would briefly open their homes as a short-lived print studio and summer workshop in 1968 and 1969. The arrangement of prints in the exhibition, grouped neither by artist nor chronologically, encourages an aware- ness of the fluid aesthetic relationships between this cohort of artists and Zóbel’s expansive eye as a collector. The diversity of approaches is particularly clear in the later works on view. Painter and sculptor Pablo Palazuelo’s aquatint Sigilia IV (1977) is a tour de force of geometric abstraction, in which textured deep burgundy ink intercuts with the white of the paper to produce a form that is both mechanistic and crab-like. Antoni Tàpies’ lithograph Fregoli (1969), on the other hand, is ges- tural and intimate; bold black painterly strokes in the upper and lower registers frame an area of faint beige discolor- ations, highlighting the simultaneous presence and absence of the embossed figural form in the center. Manolo Millares’ 1971 portfolio, Dis- covery in Millares 1671 (Descubrimiento en Millares 1671), created one year before the artist’s untimely death at 46, consists of 12 screenprints that mimic pages of a notebook, with blocks and columns of handwritten text and swiftly scribbled Antoni Tàpies, Fregoli (1969), lithograph, 30 x 22 inches. Colección Fundación Juan March, cruciform objects. Though fluctuating Museo de Arte Abstracto Español, Cuenca, 1002G. in its legibility, the text tells the fictional tale of an archaeological excavation while on, Zóbel recognized the role of works based painter Gerardo Rueda and kinetic providing subtle semi-autobiographical on paper in establishing alternate artistic artist Eusebio Sempere from Alicante to reflections. The completed portfolio modes, and even prior to the museum’s contribute prints to the project. While embodies the museum’s ethos of col- formal opening in 1966, printmaking Saura’s abstraction flirted with dysmor- laboration: Torner and Rueda contrib- was central to its institutional mandate: phic figuration, Torner’s Untitled screen- uted design elements, aided in part by a a dedicated print gallery was included in print is redolent with geological forces; museum carpenter. In the exhibition, the plans and future preparations were small in scale but dramatic in composi- this major work was unfortunately placed being made for commissioning posters tion, the latter work features massed ter- in an overcrowded vitrine. With only the and limited editions. ritories of black and slate gray, punctured wooden portfolio case and title page vis- Four prints in the exhibition were cre- by an irregular yellow crevice and one ible, the viewer is provided only a cursory ated as part of a series organized by Zóbel clean, straight blue line, adding depth impression of the work’s material inno- in 1964 in anticipation of the museum’s and relief. Likewise, Sempere’s screen- vation or the significance of the project opening.4 Alongside Cuenca-based artists print for the series, Untitled (Landscape for the artist and Zóbel, who oversaw the Saura and Torner, he also invited Madrid- for the Cuenca Museum), which bears an publication by the museum.

46 Art in Print May – June 2019 Left: Pablo Palazuelo, Sigilla IV (1977), aquatint with watercolor, 35 3/4 x 24 3/4 inches. Colección Fundación Juan March, Museo de Arte Abstracto Español, Cuenca, 1224G. Right: José María Yturralde, Estructura (Structure) (1989), screenprint, 33 5/8 x 24 3/4 inches. Colección Fundación Juan March, Museo de Arte Abstracto Español, Cuenca, 1571G.

A larger problem of the exhibition is years later, the museum continues to any ties whatsoever to the Francoist party or that Zóbel’s museum and its artists are serve as a significant touchstone for a government. Although there is no mention in the presented in a vacuum, with no reference particular art ideal: as Teixidor explains, exhibition or catalogue of Zóbel’s father, Enrique to the broader resurgence of printmaking the “art has changed, but the museum Zóbel de Ayala (1877–1943), it is possible that the generous show of support by local government in 1960s Spain resulting in a diverse range has not.” officials in Cuenca during the 1960s was at least of styles and ambitions. Visitors may not due in part to his father’s role as vice consul of be aware that, concurrent with the period the Francoist Spanish Falange Foundation (Fun- of the museum’s founding, Spanish artist Elisa Germán is a doctoral candidate at dación Falange Española) in the Philippines dur- groups such as Estampa Popular (founded Boston University specializing in modern ing the Spanish Civil War. It is unclear the degree to which his father’s participation in the National- 1959) and Equipo Crónica (founded 1965) and contemporary works on paper. She is ist party was sincere or strategic, but the fam- were employing printmaking for socio- the Vice President of the Association of Print Scholars. ily’s Philippine connection would nevertheless political commentary, utilizing have constituted part of an important overseas modes and offering realism as an alterna- socioeconomic channel for Franco’s Nationalist army during the war, the legacy of which may tive to abstraction. Notes: have aided in Fernando’s otherwise exceptional Nonetheless, “Cuenca: City of Span- 1. Ángeles Villalba Salvador, “Cronología,” in request. For more information, see Florentino ish Abstraction” provides a critical ser- Zóbel (Madrid: Ediciones Aldeasa, 2003), 214– Rodao, “Spanish Falange in the Philippines,

vice, calling attention to a body of work 215. 1936-1945,” Philippine Studies 43.1 (1995), 5-10.

that is little known outside of Spain. The 2. Fernando Zóbel, Cuenca; Sketchbook of a 4. Rafael Pérez-Madero, “Fernando Zóbel y las Spanish Hill Town, 2nd ed. (New York: Walker impact of Zóbel’s museum is made clear ediciones de obra gráfica del Museo de Arte & Company; Cambridge, MA: Department of in the exhibition’s video interview with Abstracto Español,” in La ciudad abstracta 1966: Printing and Graphic Arts, Harvard College El nacimiento del museo de arte abstracto espa- artists Jordi Teixidor and José María Library, 1970. Reprint, Madrid: Fundación Juan ñol (Cuenca: Museo de Arte Abstracto Español/

Yturralde, whose first-hand accounts of March: Editorial de Arte y Ciencia, 2016). Fundación Juan March, 2006), 141. this “very small but intense museum” 3. The mayor of Cuenca presented Zóbel with show that it forged a unique egalitarian the opportunity to utilize the remarkable hang- ing houses for a nominal fee as part of a broader space where artists worked and exhibited postwar beautification and reconstruction effort, without political interference. Nearly 50 a curious gesture given that the artist never had

Art in Print May – June 2019 47 Prix de Print N0. 35

PRIX Sunny Garden in Blue: de Stories from the Caribbean PRINT to Brooklyn (2018) by Bundith Phunsombatlert Juried by Diane Villani

This iteration of the Art in Print Prix de developed in 1842 by the British scien- of family separation and grief become Print has been judged by Diane Villani. tist John Herschel. The medium’s most almost mundane in the telling. At times The Prix de Print is a bimonthly com- important early application was in Anna such moves are necessitated by poverty petition, open to all subscribers, in Atkins’s 1843 book Photographs of British or fear of violence, but often too they are which a single work is selected by an Algae: Cyanotype Impressions, a scientific the result of an undefined yearning. The outside juror to be the subject of a brief record of marine flora that is also pro- Brooklyn seniors’ experiences are made essay. For further information on entering foundly beautiful. poignant and tender through the botani- the Prix de Print, please go to our website: Phunsombatlert asserts a similar cal inclusions and expressive portraits. A https://artinprint.org/about-art-in-print/. desire to speak two languages simulta- recipe for dal, accompanied by the lotus neously: “I design systems,” he writes, leaves that were used to serve it, sparks “that explore and transform a fact-based a flavor memory that is independent of undith Phunsombatlert’s images orientation into imagination. This trans- time and place. “Yellow roses,” cast in B immediately resonated with me on formation parallels my own migration blue, become more intensely beautiful multiple levels, even before I knew the between traditional and new media, as because they had been the frequent gift identity and biography of the artist.1 As a well as from my native Thailand to the of a husband, now passed away. The fruit print publisher and an ongoing student of US.” And while the standard definition of nutmeg trees growing in a back garden the history of printed art, I like to observe of “new media” is technological, draw- are remembered as the key ingredient in how the often archaic craft of print- ing the border at the arrival of the digi- homemade cosmetics. making informs contemporary ideas; I tal, Phunsombatlert sees it in terms of Phunsombatlert’s project contributes am aware of how poor craftsmanship relationships—the “ability to connect to current discussions about immigra- can detract from the expression of an each individual with their personal back- tion in a gentle and quiet way. It is an idea, and how even the most beautifully ground and cultural identity, allowing addition to printed art that encompasses etched plate will not be able to redeem a them to transform traditional interpreta- the best of two necessary components: banal thought. In Phunsombatlert’s print tions of history.” an intelligent and skilled command of series, I was drawn in by the coolness of Sunny Garden in Blue: Stories from the the craft combined with a poignant and the cyanotype images, the perfect crisp- Caribbean to Brooklyn developed from the often moving narrative. It was a pleasure ness of the type against the lush surface artist’s participation in a workshop pro- to engage with this work, and I thank the of each page, and the delicate impressions gram at a senior center in Brownsville, artist for the opportunity. of portraits, flowers and plants. Once I Brooklyn. The residents were asked to saw the title, I understood I was looking share their migration histories and to at the blueprints of stories framed by con- use flowers and plants as illustrations Diane Villani is a contemporary publisher trast—the work’s frosty blue against the for their stories. As in the Atkins book, and private dealer in prints and works on paper. promise of Caribbean sunshine. botanical specimens are set alongside She is also a consultant to the Hauser & Wirth Gallery in the area of fine art prints. Phunsombatlert’s own story began words and together they are exposed to in Bangkok. After acquiring multiple light. The images are records, and in that degrees in printmaking there, he moved way akin to Atkin’s algae, but records Notes: on to the Rhode Island School of Design, that interlace subjective experience with 1. Jurying for the Prix de Print is done “blind”; where he obtained an additional MFA objective materials. artists are not identified until the selection is made. in Digital+Media. As an artist he is as As I read the text of Sunny Garden in comfortable with with digital and video Blue, I found echoes of my own history as processes as he is with cyanotype, a the daughter of immigrant parents. The direct-exposure photographic medium immigrant story is universal: the tales

48 Art in Print May – June 2019 Above: Bundith Phunsombatlert, Sunny Garden in Blue: Stories from the Caribbean to Brooklyn (2018). Below: Details.

Art in Print May – June 2019 49 Suzanne Caporael, Dancing with Virginia Stella Ebner, Man with Heron Tattoo (2019) News of the (Samba) (2019) Waterbased woodblock, 22x16 in. Edition of 5. Woodcut, collage, linen, 11 1/2 x 10 1/2 inches. Printed and published by the artist, Ossining, Print World Edition of 30. Crownover / Tandem Press, NY. $1500. Madison, WI. $1,500.

Selected New Editions

Ann Aspinwall, Ray I–III (2019) Suite of three linocuts with collagraph and hand coloring, 39 x 27 1/4 in. Edition of 10. Aspinwall Editions, New York. Price on request.

Suzanne Caporael, Dancing with Virginia (Samba) (2019). Stella Ebner, Man with Heron Tattoo (2019).

Mariano Chavez, Leaders of Progress (2019) Lithograph, 36 7/8 x 19 1/8 in. Edition of 20. Mark Graver, Hobart (2016) Printed by Richard Repasky, Chicago, IL. Price on Archival inkjet pigment print, 50 x 90 cm. request. Edition of 20. Printed and published by Wharepuke Print Studio, Kerikeri, New Zealand. $1150 NZ.

Ann Aspinwall, Ray II (2019).

Lynne Avadenka, Empty Cities I (2019) Unique letterpress print from type high rule and photopolymer plates, 14 x 38 1/2 inches. Unique image. Printed and published by the artist, Berkley, Michigan. $3000.

Mark Graver, Hobart (2016).

Christopher Hagen, Troubled Wake / Gust Front (2018) Lynne Avadenka, Empty Cities I (2019). Mariano Chavez, Leaders of Progress (2019). Monoprint Intaglio, 54 x 112 cm. Unique image. Printed and published by the artist, , Queensland. $1200 AUD. Clemens Büntig, Recode VIII (2019) Justin Diggle, Ruinous Consequences (2018) Lino, paint, natural material, 110 x 110 cm. Etching and photo etching, 9 1/4 x 14 inches. Unique image. Printed and published by the Edition of 26. Printed and published by the artist, artist, Mooseurach, Bavaria. €3200. Salt Lake City, UT. $360.

Christopher Hagen, Troubled Wake / Gust Front (2018).

Justin Diggle, Ruinous Consequences (2018).

Clemens Büntig, Recode VIII (2019).

50 Art in Print March – April 2018 Zoey Hart, Not the Moon: Europa and Io (2016) Alix Morel, Architecture #1 (2019) Nikola Radosavljevic, Hyperballad (2019) Image transfer/monoprint on linen, diagnostic Etching and aquatint on zinc, 30 x 40 cm. Edition Linocut, 50 x 70 cm. Edition of 50. Printed and internal imagery from swallow-pill camera, ink, of 12. Printed and published by the artist, Paris, published by the artist, Belgrade, Serbia. Price on rust and lunar maps, 10 x 10 inches each. Unique France. €370. request. image. Printed an published by the artist, Brook- lyn, NY. Price on request.

Zoey Hart, Not the Moon: Europa and Io (2016). Alix Morel, Architecture #1 (2019).

Jim Hodges, Bringing in the Ghosts (2019) Martyna Musiak, Shield (2019) 79-color print with lithographic, relief, screen Drypoint, photolithography, monotype, graph- and pigment printing with hand-cutting, collage ite, 18 x 14 inches. Unique image. Printed and Nikola Radosavljevic, Hyperballad (2019). and metallic foils, 43 x 33 inches. Edition of 28. published by the artist. $200. Printed and published by Highpoint Editions. $14,500. Nicholas Ruth, Just for You (2017) Monoprint and Colored Pencil, 30 x 22 inches. Unique image. Printed and published by the artist, Rochester, NY. NFS.

Martyna Musiak, Shield (2019).

Jim Hodges, Bringing in the Ghosts (2019). Kate Petley, Overture 4 (2018) Intaglio and relief monoprint on paper, 24 1/2 x Alison Judd, Tectonics, Map 3 (2019) 21 inches. Unique image. Printed by Jonathan Nicholas Ruth, Just for You (2017). Woodcut relief on Kozuke with Sumi ink, Higgins. Published by Manneken Press, Bloom- Konnyaku starch, thread, 57 x 57 inches. Unique ington, IL. $2,200. image. Printed and published by the artist, Nomi Silverman, Legs (2018) Toronto, Ontario. NFS. Lithograph, 15 x 22 inches. Edition of 10. James Reed/Milestone Graphics, Bridgeport, CT. $450.

Alison Judd, Tectonics, Map 3 (2019). Kate Petley, Overture 4 (2018). Nomi Silverman, Legs (2018).

Art in Print March – April 2018 51 Hester Stinnett, Care (2019) Muyi Wang, Bodies (2018) Eva Wylie & Jennifer Levonian, Outage (2019) Woodcut, 18x12 in. Unique images. Printed and Frottage on plaster board, 14 x 18 cm. Unique Screenprint and drawing, animation and instal- published by the artist, Philadelphia, PA. $500. image. Printed and published by the artist, lation, 58 x 46 inches. Unique image. Printed and Tokyo, Japan. 100,000 JPY. published by the artists, Philadelphia, PA. Price on request.

Muyi Wang, Bodies (2018).

Ken Wood, Gemelli II (2018) Collograph printed as relief, 42 x 42 inches. Edi- tion of 8. Pele Prints, St. Louis, MO. $2500. Eva Wylie and Jennifer Levonian, Outage (2019). Hester Stinnett, Care (2019).

Terrain de Jeux, Prototype (2018) Seiko Tachibana, fern-21 (2013) Artist book, 27 x 20.5 cm. Edition of 100. Printed Intaglio, 23 x 20 inches. Edition of 25. Printed and by Media Graph, Rennes, and published by Laurel published by the artist, Oakland, CA. $700. Parker Editions, Paris. €25.

Ken Wood, Gemelli II (2018).

Elizabeth Younce, Panoramic Pentaptych: A great Hope fell, You heard no noise, The Ruin was within, Oh cunning wreck Terrain de Jeux, Prototype (2018). that told no tale, And let no Witness in (2018) Seiko Tachibana, fern-21 (2013). Lithography and screenprint, 37 x 137 1/2 inches. Edition of 8. Printed and published the artist, The Sitting Room (diptych) Madison, WI. $600 each / $2,600 set of 5. Patty deGrandpre, (2019) R.L. Tillman, Meme Problem/ Mixed media with inkjet digital addition, 5 x 7 Le Même Problème (2018) inches each. Unique images. Printed and pub- Screenprint installation, 144 x1 44 inches. Edi- lished by the Artist, Beverly, Massachusetts. $800. tion of 10. R.L. Tillman, Baltimore, MD. $750.

R.L. Tillman, detail of Meme Problem/ Le Même Problème (2018). Elizabeth Younce, detail of Panoramic Pentaptych (2018). Patty deGrandpre, The Sitting Room (diptych) (2019).

52 Art in Print March – April 2018 Exhibitions of Note CLEVELAND “Sunrise” BALTIMORE 15 March 2019 – 11 August 2019 “A Golden Anniversary: MOCA Cleveland Celebrating 50 Years of the Print, www.mocacleveland.org Drawing & Photograph Society” 29 August 2018 – 6 October 2019 “A Lasting Impression: Baltimore Museum of Art Gifts of the Print Club of Cleveland” https://artbma.org/ 5 May 2019 – 22 September 2019 The Cleveland Museum of Art BOISE, ID www.clevelandart.org “Crow’s Shadow Institute of the Arts at 25” COBURG, GERMANY 2 March 2019 – 2 June 2019 “Dragon’s Blood & Bold Heroes” Boise Art Museum 27 June 2019 – 22 September 2019 www.boiseartmuseum.org Kunst Sammlungen der Veste Coburg veste.kunstsammlungen-coburg.de BOSTON “Graphic Prose: Illustration Art DALLAS, TX of the 19th & 20th Centuries” “Modernity and the City” 28 February – 24 May 2019 1 December 2018 – 16 June 2019 Childs Gallery https://childsgallery.com https://dma.org/art/exhibitions/modernity-and- city “Toulouse-Lautrec and the Stars of Paris” 7 April 2019 – 4 August 2019 DETROIT Museum of Fine Arts, Boston “From Camelot to Kent State: https://www.mfa.org Pop Art, 1960–1975” 17 February 2019 – 25 August 2019 CAMBRIDGE Detroit Institute of Arts “Kip Gresham: The Art of Collaboration” https://www.dia.org/events/camelot-kent-state- 1 March 2019 – 19 May 2019 pop-art-1960-1975 “Palaces in the Night: The Urban Landscape in Whistler’s Prints” EUGENE, OR 4 June 2019 – 8 September 2019 “Vibrance and Serenity: The Heong Gallery, Art of Japanese NŌ Traditional Theatre” Downing College Cambridge 18 August 2018 – 7 July 2019 www.dow.cam.ac.uk “Saints and Spirits in Early Modern Europe” “Enriching Collections: 30 March 2019 – 10 November 2019 Recent Acquisitions of Prints Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art and Drawings 2009–2019” jsma.uoregon.edu 21 May 2019 – 1 September 2019 The Fitzwilliam Museum FRANKFURT, GERMANY fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk “Picasso: Printmaking as Experiment” 3 April 2019 – 30 June 2019 CHICAGO “The Mysteries of Material: Kirchner, “Solidary & Solitary: Heckel and Schmidt-Rottluff” The Joyner/Giuffrida Collection” 26 June 2019 – 13 October 2019 29 January 2019 – 19 May 2019 Städel Museum Smart Museum of Art www.staedelmuseum.de www.smartmuseum.uchicago.edu GRAVELINES, FRANCE “Eternal Recurrence: New Editions “Marie-Christine Remmery: from Spudnik Press Cooperative” Etchings from Limbo” 5 April 2019 – 25 May 2019 17 March 2019 – 16 June 2019 Spudnik Press Musée du dessin et de spudnikpress.org l’estampe originale de Gravelines https://www.ville-gravelines.fr “Connoisseurship of Japanese Prints” 6 April 2019 – 22 June 2019 ITHACA, NY “The People Shall Govern! Medu Art “Undressed: The Nude in Context, Ensemble and the Anti-Apartheid Poster” 1500–1750” 27 April 2019 – 2 September 2019 9 February 2019 – 16 June 2019 The Art Institute of Chicago Johnson Museum of Art at Cornell University www.artic.edu http://museum.cornell.edu

LIVERPOOL “Op Art in Focus” 21 July 2018 – 16 June 2019 Tate Liverpool https://www.tate.org.uk

Art in Print March – April 2018 53 LONDON “Joan Miró: Birth of the World” “Gillian Ayres: Song Beneath the Stars” 24 February 2019 – 15 June 2019 Albert Belleroche 4 April 2019 – 11 April 2019 “Nancy Spero: Paper Mirror” 31 March 2019 – 23 June 2019 (1864-1944) Alan Cristea Gallery www.alancristea.com “The Legends of Black Girl’s Window” 21 October 2018 – 1 January 2020 “Points of Contact: Printmaking in Britain 1949–2019” https://www.moma.org 2 May 2019 – 15 June 2019 Austin/Desmond NORTHAMPTON, MA www.austindesmond.com “Taj Diffenbaugh Worley” 22 March 2019 – 23 June 2019 “Edvard Munch: Love and Angst” Smith College Museum of Art 11 April 2019 – 21 July 2019 smith.edu/artmuseum “Rembrandt: Thinking on Paper” 7 February 2019 – 4 August 2019 PARIS British Museum “Engraving for the King: The Historical www.britishmuseum.org Collections of the Louvre Chalcographie” 21 February 2019 – 20 May 2019 LOS ANGELES Louvre “Charles White: A Retrospective” www.louvre.fr 17 February 2019 – 9 June 2019 Los Angeles County Museum of Art PHILADELPHIA, PA http://www.lacma.org/art/exhibition/charles- “We the People: American Prints from white-retrospective Between the World Wars” 21 March 2019 – 24 July 2019 “Bauhaus Beginnings” Philadelphia Museum of Art 11 June 2019 – 13 October 2019 philamuseum.org Danseuse (Sahri-Djellie) The Getty Museum www.getty.edu “James Siena: Resonance Under Pressure” and Exhibition: May 3-June 1 MINNEAPOLIS “New Typographics” Typewriter Art opEning: May 2, 6-8 pM “ Before Liquor: Alcohol and Its Pasts” as Print” 2 March 2019 – 23 June 2019 19 April – 27 July, 2019 The Print Center *Catalog published in conjunction “Picasso Cuts the Bull” 6 April 2019 – 19 January 2020 http://printcenter.org/100/siena-and-new- with this exhibition. Minneapolis Institute of Art typographics/ new.artsmia.org SAN FRANCISCO MUNICH “Andy Warhol—From A to B and “Touch: Prints by Kiki Smith” Back Again” 14 February 2019 – 26 May 2019 19 May 2019 – 2 September 2019 Pinakothek der Moderne San Francisco Museum of Modern Art https://www.pinakothek-der-moderne.de sfmoma.org

NEW YORK WASHINGTON, DC “Maybe Maybe Not: Christopher Wool “Venetian Prints in the Time and the Hill Collection” of ” 9 February 2019 – 20 May 2019 24 March 2019 – 9 June 2019 Hill Art Foundation National Gallery of Art www.hillartfoundation.org/ www.nga.gov

“Pulled in Brooklyn” “Votes for Women: 4 April 2019 – 15 June 2019 An American Awakening, 1840–1920” International Print Center New York 31 March 2019 – 5 January 2020 ipcny.org Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery http://npg.si.edu/ “Ann Aspinwall: Spirit of Place” 14 June 2019 – 14 July 2019 WELLESLEY, MA McKenzie Fine Art “Guns Drawn” http://www.mckenziefineart.com 7 February 2019 – 9 June 2019 The Davis Museum at Wellesley College Hollidays, Goodbye “Selections from the Department of https://www.wellesley.edu/davismuseum/ Drawings and Prints: Rembrandt” 30 April 2019 – 28 July 2019 Metropolitan Museum of Art www.metmuseum.org

“Hock E Aye Vi Edgar Geap of Birds: Surviving Active Shooter Custer” 313 Occidental Avenue South 31 March 2019 – 2 September 2019 Seattle, Washington 98104 MoMA PS1 www.davidsongalleries.com momaps1.org OpenTuesday-Saturday11-5:30

54 Art in Print March – April 2018 Other News

The Undervaluation of Work by Female Artists Taylor Whitten Brown, a sociologist who is cur- rently Artsy’s Applied Data Scientist in Resi- dence, has recently generated data-driven study of gender parity in the art market. An abridged version of her findings appears on Artsy’s web- site, titled “Why is Work by Female Artists Still Valued Less than Work by Male Artists?.” Whit- ten Brown has used the wealth of data made available by online platforms such as Artsy, which collects information across the primary market of auctions and gallery sales, and its pro- prietary classification system, the Art Genome Project, to test long-standing hypotheses about gender inequality in the art world. Her find- ings confirm that we have not yet reached a point of gender parity; art media traditionally Camille Pissarro, A Self Portrait (1890–1891), considered female is valued less than that asso- etching, 2nd state of 2, 36 x 25.5 cm. Van Gogh ciated primarily with men, and even within Museum, Amsterdam (purchased with support Joanne Greenbaum a particular mode of making, work by female from the BankGiro Loterij, the Vincent van Gogh Untitled 2018 artists is valued less than similar work by male Foundation and The Yellow House members). artists. This inequality can be seen playing out Softground, sugar lift aquatint in printmaking, which Whitten Brown catego- Image size: 16" x 12" rizes under works on paper, the media division Paper size: 22 ½" x 17 ½" that skews most female: proportional to their Edition of 14 works in other media, women out-produce men by 3.4%. Meanwhile, the median price for works on paper by male artists is $3,500, $800 more than the median price of work by female art- ists. https://www.artsy.net/article/artsy-editorial- work-female-artists-valued-work-male-artists. JENNIFER Van Gogh Museum’s Acquisition of MELBY 91 Prints by Camille Pissarro The Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam has announced the acquisition of 91 prints by EDITIONS Camille Pissarro from the Samuel Josefowitz Collection. Pissarro’s prints provide a particu- larly clear record of artistic experimentation, and the collection includes a variety of tech- niques and multiple states of the same plate. Tom Burckhardt The artist’s experimental approach resulted Camille Pissarro, The Old Cottage (1879), in small number of impressions made of each aquatint, 1st state of 7; etching, aquatint and Joanne Greenbaum print and their present and long-standing rar- soft-ground etching, 2nd state of 7; colour etch- ity. Building on the 14 prints already held by ing, aquatint and soft-ground etching, 6th state Red Grooms the Van Gogh, the new acquisition makes the of 7; etching, aquatint and soft-ground etching, museum’s collection of Pissarro’s prints one Judith Linhares of the most extensive. https://www.vangoghmu- 7th state of 7. Plate 16.6 x 17.2 cm. Van Gogh seum.nl/en/news-and-press/press-releases/new- Museum, Amsterdam (purchased with support acquisition-91-prints-by-camille-pissarro?v=1. from the BankGiro Loterij, the Vincent van Gogh Paul Mogensen Foundation and The Yellow House members). Robert Moskowitz Jackie Saccoccio Andrew Spence Craig Taylor Nicola Tyson

Jennifer Melby 110 Wyckoff Street

Please submit announcements of Brooklyn, NY 11201 exhibitions, publications and www.jennifermelby.com other events to [email protected] [email protected].

Art in Print March – April 2018 55 VISIT OUR WEBSITE TO SEE NEW PRINTS FROM


WWW.TANDEMPRESS.WISC.EDU Robert Cottingham Bar Cabaret [email protected] Lithography, ed. 30 608.263.3437 30 1/2x 30 inches

Salt Freighters on the Piscataqua (1994), reduction woodcut, a/p, image size 45” x 21”, rare woodcut from the artist’s collection.

123 Market St., Portsmouth, NH / 603.436.7278 / [email protected]

56 Art in Print March – April 2018 Surrealist Prints including unique and rare proof impressions from Atelier 17 by Joan Miró, Stanley William Hayter, Fred Becker, GaborFred Peterdi Becker, and Gabor Helen Peterdi,Phillips Helen Phillips and Wolfgang Paalen

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Joan Miró,Joan Petite Miró, FillePetite Sautant Fille Sautant à la Corde, à la Corde,Femmes, Femmes, Oiseaux Oiseaux (Little Girl(Little Jumping Girl Jumping at the Rope,at theWomen, Rope, Birds Women,) 1947 Birds Dupin) 1947 52, Dupinengraving 52, engraving& etching, & trial etching, proof trialprinted proof in printedrelief, AP, in relief, AP, imageimage 1111 15/1615/16 xx 88 13/16”,13/16”, sheet;sheet 18 3/4 x 13 1/8”, signed & dated in recto; annotated, “epreuve d’ essai pour Hayter, New York 24/6/47, enfant”

Crown Point Press


March 14 - May 11, 2019

The Robot, 2018 Spit bite aquatint on gampi paper chine collé 35¼ x 28½", edition 25.


Art in Print March – April 2018 57 Art in Print The Art in Print Prix de Print Advertising Rates 2018 Enter Now! The Prix de Print is a bimonthly, juried competition Art in Print is pleased to offer a open to all Art in Print subscribers. Each issue features variety of affordable advertising options. a full-page reproduction and brief essay about the work of one artist, chosen by an outside juror. Jurors include Print Ads artists, curators, printers, publishers and dealers from Small $105–$150 around the world. 1/3 Page $210–$300 1/2 Page $300–$500 Who can enter? Full Page $480–$800 We can accept one submission per membership per issue. Inside Front Cover $720–$1200 Back Cover $1200–$2000 Discounts apply for How do I submit? multiple print ad packages. Check deadlines and submit your entry through our online form at https://artinprint.org/prix-submit/. Online Ads 2 Months $100 When to Enter: 4 Months $180 6 Months $240 The deadline for the Prix de Print is the 10th of every 12 Weeks $420 even-numbered month (10 February, 10 April, 10 June, 10 August, 10 October and 10 December). Biweekly eBlast Banner Ads Do I have to be a subscriber to submit? 2 Weeks $500 Yes. Art in Print is a not-for-profit organization. 4 Weeks $900 8 Weeks $1,500 We depend on member support for all our programs.

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DURHAM PRESS 892 Durham Road | PO Box 159 | Durham, PA 18039 | 610.346.6133 | www.durhampress.com Contributors to this Issue

JAMES SIENA: Resonance Catherine Bindman is an editor and art critic who has written extensively on both Old Master and contemporary prints. She was Deputy Editor at Art on Paper magazine and lives in New York. Under Pressure Re’al Christian is a New York City-based writer and art historian. Her work has been published by Art Papers, Art in America and the Studio Museum in Harlem. She currently works at the College APRIL 19—JULY 27, 2019 Art Association (CAA), where she assists in the planning of the Annual Conference and conference publications. A graduate of New York University, she is currently pursuing her Master’s degree in Art History at Hunter College.

PRINTCENTER.ORG Elisa Germán is a doctoral candidate at Boston University specializing in modern and contemporary works on paper. She has held positions at the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, Harvard University, the Massachusetts College of Art & Design and NYU, and is the Vice President of the Association of Print Scholars.

Sarah Kirk Hanley is an independent print specialist and critic based in the New York area. She is a Open Gate Press contributor to Art in Print and a consulting expert for 1stdibs.com and Art Peritus Advisors & Appraisers.

Armin Kunz is an art historian and the owner of C.G. Boerner, a dealership for Old Master prints and drawings with galleries in Düsseldorf and New York. His areas of special interest are Northern Art of the early modern period and German Romanticism.

Séverine Lepape is curator of the Edmond de Rothschild Collection in the department of graphic arts at the Louvre.

Megan N. Liberty is the Art Books section editor at the Brooklyn Rail. Her writing on artists’ books, ephemera and the broader landscape of artistic publishing and printmaking also appears in Artforum. com, Art Review, Frieze.com, the Los Angeles Review of Books, the New York Review of Books Daily, Hyperallergic, and elsewhere. She has an MA in Art History from the Courtauld Institute of Art, London.

Alexander Massouras is an artist and writer. He was a member of the Art School Educated research project at Tate, and has since held a postdoctoral fellowship at the Paul Mellon Centre and a Leverhulme fellowship at the Ruskin School of Art, Oxford. His work is in UK and international public collections including the Ashmolean, the British Museum, the Fitzwilliam, the Metropolitan, the New York Public www.opengatepress.com Library, the Rhode Island School of Design Museum and the V&A.

John P. Murphy is the Hoehn Curatorial Fellow for Prints at the University of San Diego.

Mary Davis MacNaughton is professor of art history and Gabrielle Jungels-Winkler director of the Ruth Chandler Williams Gallery at Scripps College.

Bundith Phunsombatlert is an artist exploring media archaeology. He received an MFA in Digital + Media from RISD, and a BFA/MFA in printmaking from Silpakorn University, Thailand. Shown internationally, his work has been recognized by grants and residencies from the Brooklyn Arts Fund (2019); NYSCA (2013); Harpo Foundation (2012); Eyebeam (2011); MacDowell Colony (2011); Pollock- Krasner Foundation (2011/2001); Skowhegan (2009); Asian Cultural Council (2007); and UNESCO Digital Arts Award (ISEA2004).

Diane Villani is a publisher and private dealer in prints and works on paper, working with artists Fine Art Prints such as Ida Applebroog, Mel Bochner, Red Grooms, Jiha Moon, Alison Saar, Sean Scully and Suzanne & McClelland. She has been a member of the IFPDA since 1990, and is currently director of the board of Works on Paper the IFPDA Foundation. She is also a consultant to Hauser & Wirth Gallery in the area of fine art prints.

Matthias Wivel is curator of 16th-century Italian Paintings at the National Gallery, London, where he has organized or co-organized the exhibitions “Michelangelo & Sebastiano” (2017) and “Lorenzo Printer/Publisher & Dealer of Fine Prints Since 1980 Lotto: Portraits” (2018). He was the editor and principal writer of the catalogue for the former, and has www.StewartStewart.com published widely on Venetian Renaissance drawing, painting and printmaking.

Member Susan Tallman is the Editor-in-Chief of Art in Print.

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Art in Print March – April 2018 65 Art in Print in collAborAtion with JSTOR is PleAsed to AnnoUnce thAt sUbscribinG MeMbers now hAVe Access to All issUes of THE PRINT COLLECTOR’S NEWSLETTER (1970–1996) ON PAPER (1996–1998) ART ON PAPER (1998–2009) in Addition to bAcK issUes of ART IN PRINT (2011–Present) SiMPlY clicK on the JSTOR linK on the ART IN PRINT MeMber HoMePAGe PNC Photo: Kevin Weil