in the Contemporary World An Encyclopedia

Eric G. Swedin

Santa Barbara, Denver, Colorado Oxford, © 2005 by Eric G. Swedin

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Swedin, Eric Gottfrid. Science in the contemporary world : an encyclopedia / Eric G. Swedin. p. cm. (ABC-CLIO’s ) Includes bibliographical references and . ISBN 1-85109-524-1 (hardback : acid-free paper)–ISBN 1-85109-529-2 (eBook) 1. Science—Encyclopedias. I.Title. II. Series: ABC-CLIO’s history of science series. Q121.S94 2005 503—dc22 2004026950

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This book is printed on acid-free paper . Manufactured in the of America Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments, xi Introduction, xiii Topic Finder, xxiii

Science in the Contemporary World: An Encyclopedia

A and the , 33 Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, 1 , 36 Agriculture, 3 Birth Control Pill, 37 Alvarez, Luis W.(1911–1988), and Walter Black Holes, 40 Alvarez (1940–), 6 Boyer, Herbert (1936–), 41 Anthropology, 7 Broecker,Wallace S. (1931–), 42 Apollo Project, 9 , 11 C , 13 Carson, Rachel (1907–1964), 45 Asimov, Isaac (1920–1992), 14 Centers for Disease Control and Associations, 16 Prevention, 46 , 17 Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1910–1995), 47 B , 48 Bardeen, John (1908–1991), 21 , 49 Barghoorn, Elso (1915–1984), 22 Chomsky, Noam (1928–), 51 Barton, Derek (1918–1998), 23 Clarke, Arthur C. (1917–), 52 Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (1943–), 23 Cloning, 53 Berners-Lee,Timothy (1955–), 25 , 55 Theory and Steady State Theory, Cohen, Stanley N. (1935–), 56 26 , 57 Big Science, 28 Cold War, 58 Bioethics, 31 , 60

vii viii Contents Cousteau, Jacques (1910–1997), 63 Glashow, Sheldon L. (1932–), 119 Creationism, 64 Global Warming, 119 Crick, Francis (1916–2004), 66 Goodall, Jane (1934–), 121 Crutzen, Paul (1933–), 67 Gould, Stephen Jay (1941–2002), 123 Grand Unified Theory, 123 D Green Revolution, 125 Dawkins, Richard (1941–), 69 Deep- Drilling, 70 H Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents, 70 Harlow, Harry F. (1905–1981), 127 Dobzhansky,Theodosius (1900–1975), 72 Hawking, Stephen (1942–), 128 Dyson, Freeman (1923–), 73 Hess, Harry (1906–1969), 129 History of Science, 130 E Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot Earthquakes, 75 (1910–1994), 132 Ecology, 76 Hoyle, Fred (1915–2001), 134 , 79 Human Project, 135 Edelman, Gerald M. (1929–), 81 Bomb, 137 Edwards, Robert (1925–), 83 Ehrlich, Paul R. (1932–), 84 I El Niño, 85 In Vitro Fertilization, 141 Elion, Gertrude B. (1918–1999), 86 Integrated Circuits, 142 Enders, John (1897–1985), 87 International Geophysical Year Engelbart, Douglas (1925–), 88 (1957–1958), 144 Environmental Movement, 89 , 146 Ethics, 93 European Agency, 94 J , 95 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 149 Extrasolar , 98 K F Kinsey,Alfred C. (1894–1956), 151 Feminism, 101 Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth (1926–2004), 152 Feynman, Richard (1918–1988), 102 Kuhn,Thomas S. (1922–1996), 154 Fossey, Dian (1932–1985), 103 Kuno, Hisashi (1910–1969), 155 Foundations, 105 Franklin, Rosiland (1920–1958), 106 L , 157 Fuller, Buckminster (1895–1983), 107 Leakey Family, 159 Levi-Montalcini, Rita (1909–), 161 G Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1908–), 162 Gamow, George (1904–1968), 111 Libby,Willard F. (1908–1980), 164 Gell-Mann, Murray (1929–), 112 Lorenz, Edward N. (1917–), 164 , 113 Lorenz, Konrad (1903–1989), 165 , 115 Lovelock, James (1919–), 166 Gilbert,Walter (1932–), 117 Lysenko,Trofim (1898–1976), 167 Contents ix M Organ Transplants, 216 Mandelbrot, Benoit (1924–), 169 Ozone Layer and Chlorofluorocarbons, Margulis, Lynn (1938–), 176 218 Masters,William H. (1915–2001), and P Virginia Johnson (1925–), 172 Particle Accelerators, 221 , 173 Particle , 223 Mayer, Maria Goeppert (1906–1972), Pauling, Linus (1901–1994), 225 175 Penrose, Roger (1931–), 226 Mayr, Ernst (1904–), 176 Pharmacology, 227 McClintock, Barbara (1902–1992), , 230 177 Physics, 231 Medawar, Peter (1915–1987), 178 , 233 Media and Popular Culture, 179 Popper, Karl (1902–1994), 234 Medicine, 180 Population Studies, 235 , 182 Prions, 237 Microbiology, 185 Psychology, 238 Miller, Stanley L.(1930–), 187 , 242 Minsky, Marvin (1927–), 188 Molina, Mario (1943–), 188 Q Monod, Jacques (1910–1976), 189 , 245 Müller, K. Alex (1927–), 191 R N Religion, 247 Nambu,Yoichiro (1921–), 193 Rogers, Carl R. (1902–1987), 249 , 194 Rowland, F. Sherwood (1927–), 250 Nash, John F. (1928–), 195 National Aeronautics and Space S Administration (NASA), 196 Sabin, Albert (1906–1993), 253 National Geographic Society, 198 Sagan, Carl (1934–1996), 254 National Institutes of , 199 Sakharov,Andrei (1921–1989), 256 National Science Foundation, 200 Salk, Jonas (1914–1995), 257 Neumann, John von (1903–1957), 201 Sanger, Frederick (1918–), 259 Neuroscience, 203 Satellites, 260 , 205 Schwinger, Julian (1918–1994), 263 Nobel Prizes, 206 Science Fiction, 263 , 208 Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane (1942–), 265 211 Selye, Hans (1907–1982), 268 Shoemaker, Eugene (1928–1997), 269 O Shoemaker-Levy Comet Impact, 270 , 213 Skinner, B. F. (1904–1990), 271 Oppenheimer, J. Robert (1904–1967), Smallpox Campaign, 215 273 xContents , 274 V Sociobiology and Evolutionary Volcanoes, 301 Psychology, 275 Voyager Spacecraft, 303 Sociology of Science, 277 Soviet Academy of Sciences, 278 Soviet , 279 W Space Exploration and Space Science, War, 305 281 Watson, James D. (1928–), 306 Steptoe, Patrick (1913–1988), 285 Wheeler, John A. (1911–), 308 Symbiosis, 286 Wiles, Andrew (1953–), 309 Wilson, Edward O. (1929–), 310 T Wilson, John Tuzo (1908–1993), 312 , 289 World Health Organization, 313 Teller, Edward (1908–2003), 291 Wu, Chien-Shiung (1912–1997), 314 Third World Science, 293 Tsui, Daniel C. (1939–), 294 Tsui, Lap-Chee (1950–), 295 Y Yalow, Rosalyn (1921–), 317 U Undersea Exploration, 297 Universities, 299

Chronology, 319 Selected Bibliography, 327 Index, 337 About the Author, 382 Preface and Acknowledgments

This encyclopedia is organized so that A book this substantial is not done in isola- approximately half of the entries are biogra- tion. I want to thank all the and his- phies of people and the other half cover top- torians who have created the research that ics. Alas, I could not include everything. My this book draws upon. I also want to thank goals have been both breadth and selected the series editor, William E. Burns; my edi- depth. Individual scientists have been select- tors at ABC-CLIO, Simon Mason and Carla ed for inclusion both based on how important Roberts; and my copy editor, Silvine Farnell. their discoveries were and in an attempt to My family also supported me with their have a broad representation of the different enthusiasm for science and allowing me too scientific disciplines.Topics are examined in a much squirreled away in my study. depth in proportion to how much change has Eric G. Swedin occurred in that scientific area since 1950. Weber State University

xii Introduction

World War II neatly divides the twentieth cen- The United States became scientifically tury in every historical way imaginable. assertive during the postwar years. Many sci- Few people on were unaffected by that entists, especially Jewish scientists from titanic struggle. Old empires ended, ideolo- , had fled to the United States and gies gained fresh , and science and tech- continued their in their new home.The nology gained a sharp boost.World War II has electrical (1890– also been called the ’ war because 1974) directed the American Office of scientists and developed many Scientific Research and Development during important weapons that fundamentally World War II. As the war drew to an end, changed the course of the war, including rock- Bush wrote an influential report arguing for ets, , proximity fuses, the electronic continued federal spending to develop new , and the mightiest weapon of all, the science and . His report led atomic bomb. (See Nuclear Physics; Physics.) Congress to create the National Science The American economy boomed during Foundation (NSF) in 1950. (See National World War II for many reasons, including a Science Foundation.) sense of shared purpose, the expansion of mil- The destruction of the war in Europe and itary that solved prob- retarded the practice of science in lems, and massive armaments spending that those areas for at least a decade after the kept factories running at full capacity. war. After economic recovery, the practice Significant scientific and technological inno- of science was revitalized in Europe and vation occurred during the war, and that Japan. The United States, the , innovation, combined with prudent govern- the other developed nations in Europe, ment economic policies, helped fuel the post- China, and Japan—all engaged in big science war economic boom. Multiple economic projects, mostly related to developing studies have found that scientific and techno- nuclear weapons or nuclear . (See Big logical research lead to greater productivity Science.) Despite the continuing prestige of and . At the end of the war, the U.S. graduate education system, by the the United States dominated the world, its end of the century, thirteen other countries, gross national product making up half of the including Canada, Japan, South Korea, world economy. This enabled Americans to Taiwan, and a number of European nations, expand their extensive higher education sys- produced more college graduates with sci- tem and to pour into scientific and ence, engineering, or technology degrees on technological research. (See National a per capita basis than the United States. (See Institutes of Health; Universities.) Third World Science.)

xiv xv Introduction

In the United States and other nations, the Science since World War II has been domi- number of women and minorities going into nated by nine themes: the cold war, space science blossomed after World War II,as prej- exploration, undersea exploration, physics, udices within the scientific community new tools, the life sciences, earth science, declined and the social movements of the medicine, studying humans, and environmen- 1960s and 1970s opened up opportunities for talism. women and minorities. Nevertheless, at the end of the century, women and minorities The Cold War were not represented in any of the scientific The cold war pitted the ideology of democra- disciplines in proportion to their numbers in cy and free markets, supported by the United the general population, even though more States and its allies, against communism and women than men were going to college, and Marxist economics, supported by the Soviet more minorities than ever before were going Union and its allies.The conflict led directly to college. In physics, only 10 percent of doc- to the hydrogen bomb in 1952 and the con- torates went to women in 2000, and less than tinuing . (See Cold War; 2 percent went to minorities. Economics; Hydrogen Bomb; Oppenheimer, Scientific and technological research J. Robert; Sakharov, Andrei; Soviet Academy requires funding. Some funding comes from of Sciences; Soviet Union; Teller, Edward; their own pockets, but most scientists must War.) Both the superpowers poured funding turn to other resources: a commercial enter- and talent into scientific and technological prise, an educational institution, a private research, seeking strategic military advantage foundation, local government, national gov- and each striving to show that its political ide- ernment, or international organizations. (See ology was best suited to the goal of scientific Foundations.) The history of science is more progress. The launch of Sputnik I, the first than just the work of scientists; it includes the artificial satellite, in 1957 opened a new fron- work of science popularizers, attitudes tier in the cold war ideological struggle. (See toward science held by the lay public, and the Satellites.) scholarly examination of science. Science popularizers use books, science museums, Space Exploration the media, and education to translate com- Earth is a very small part of the universe. In plex scientific concepts for the lay audience. 1950, only science fiction writers and a few They also try to convey the wonder of sci- far-sighted scientists recognized the of ence. (See Asimov, Isaac; Clarke, Arthur C.; artificial satellites or dreamed of sending Cousteau, Jacques; Gould, Stephen Jay; human explorers beyond the atmosphere. Hawking, Stephen; Hoyle, Fred; Media and The International Geophysical Year of Popular Culture; National Geographic 1957–1958 provided an opportunity for mil- Society; Sagan, Carl; Wilson, Edward O.) itary ballistic programs in the United Science fiction also partially serves this func- States and Soviet Union to turn their atten- tion. (See Science Fiction.) Historians, tion briefly to placing an artificial satellite in philosophers, and sociologists have also stud- . (See International Geophysical Year.) ied the actual practice of science. (See Big The Soviets succeeded first in 1957 with Science; History of Science; Kuhn, Thomas Sputnik I, which shocked the Americans and S.; Philosophy of Science; Popper, Karl; launched a space race, fueled by the ideolog- Social Constructionism; Sociology of ical of the cold war. (See Science.) Feminist scholars have critiqued Satellites.) The United States founded the both the practice and conclusions of science. National Aeronautics and Space Admin- (See Feminism.) istration (NASA) in 1958 and transferred the Introduction xvi

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, hints that flowing water once shaped the California, from army control to NASA. (See Martian landscape, raising hopes that while National Aeronautics and Space Admin- life may not currently exist on Mars, bacterial istration.) JPL runs all of NASA’s lunar and life might once have existed millions or bil- interplanetary unmanned scientific missions. lions of years in the past. A meteorite recov- (See Jet Propulsion Laboratory.) ered from Antarctica shows possible evidence In response to the Soviets placing the first of microfossils from bacteria, but the evi- person in orbit in 1961, the United States dence is hotly contested. created the Apollo project to put the first The gas planets have been visited by multi- person on the by the end of the ple spacecraft, including the twin Voyager decade. Apollo 11 succeeded in 1969. (See spacecraft in the late 1970s and 1980s. Apollo Project.) In 1969, men walked on the Photographs transmitted back from the Moon, the highlight of the manned space pro- spacecraft show numerous new , gram. Only twelve astronauts visited the erupting volcanoes on Jupiter’s moon Io, and Moon before the Apollo project foundered possible frozen oceans on the larger moons, on budget cuts and the lack of planned and revealed that all the gas giants have sys- sequels that could sufficiently motivate the tems of rings girdling the . (SeeVoyager country to continue the effort. Spacecraft.) The search for possible life has Although the manned space program provided a major motivation for all the inter- remained the priority for both superpowers, planetary exploration by robotic spacecraft, enough money has been aside for though no expects to find anything unmanned spacecraft programs that these more advanced than bacterial life. Scientists ventures have been able to revolutionize plan- do hope to find evidence of intelligent extra- etary astronomy. (See Space Exploration and terrestrial life around other , and in 1960 Space Science.) By the end of the century, they began to search in earnest for sig- NASA had sent spacecraft to every planet nals from other stars or galaxies as part of except Pluto. The Soviets sent landers or SETI, or the search for extraterrestrial intel- spacecraft to the Moon,, and Mars.The ligence. (See Search for Extraterrestrial Europeans became involved after the found- Intelligence.) So far their efforts have found ing of the European Space Agency (ESA) in nothing. 1975, sending spacecraft on solar exploration The geologist Eugene Shoemaker spent a missions and on joint ESA-NASA efforts. (See lifetime identifying meteor impact craters on European Space Agency.) the surface of Earth and searching the solar These spacecraft have discovered that system via a for or comets Venus is a hellish place with melting surface that might hit Earth. His effort resulted in the caused by a runaway green- 1993 discovery of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 house effect. Mercury is covered with craters comet, which then collided with Jupiter in a like Earth’s Moon. Mars also has numerous spectacular display watched by astronomers craters, along with a massive extinct from around the world. (See Shoemaker, higher than anything on Earth and a canyon Eugene; Shoemaker-Levy Comet Impact.) stretching partway around the planet that The father-son team of Luis W.Alvarez and puts the in to shame. , a and a geologist, The thin atmosphere of Mars has failed to advanced the theory that an or large quickly erode these natural wonders, unlike comet had hit Earth 65 million years ago, the thick atmosphere of Earth. Although causing climatic change and the of Mars now contains small amounts of water the .The evidence for this collision vapor and ice, scientists have found intriguing is found in a worldwide layer of at the xvii Introduction

same stratigraphic level, a layer of iridium Physics that comes from extraterrestrial sources; the The explosion of the atomic bomb in 1945 actual crater was later identified in Mexico. symbolized the new discoveries of relativity (See Alvarez, Luis W.,and Walter Alvarez.) In and . Catapulted to 1908 a comet or asteroid exploded in the air prominence by nuclear weapons, physicists over Tunguska, Siberia, devastating a large also continued trying to find the fundamental expanse of forest. Scientists now realize that building blocks of , as well as reaching catastrophic events happen more often than out into the farthest regions of space, pro- previously suspected, with dramatic impact ducing theories about the beginning of time, on the natural environment. using computers to create sophisticated mod- els of chaotic , and seeking a grand Undersea Exploration unified theory to explain all physics. (See Outer space has revealed new wonders, and Chaos Theory; Grand Unified Theory; the oceans, covering two-thirds of the plan- Mathematics; Physics.) There were occasion- et, also hide their own wonders, now being al disappointments, including the failed effort revealed. (See Undersea Exploration.) The to develop commercial fusion reactors, and French naval officer Jacques Cousteau the cold fusion debacle of 1989 showed that invented the Aqua-Lung in 1943 and opened scientists should verify their experimental up the near-surface environment to ready results and follow the normal process of scientific exploration. Cousteau later trav- announcing their breakthroughs at confer- eled the world in his research ship, the ences and publishing in peer-reviewed jour- Calypso, making documentaries while nals. (See Cold Fusion; Nuclear Physics.) engaged in oceanographic research. (See Since World War II, nuclear physicists have Cousteau, Jacques; Oceanography.) In 1960, used cloud chambers and then particle accel- the bathyscaphe Tr ieste descended to the erators to smash particles into ever smaller deepest point in any of the oceans at the particles, tracking the subatomic particles Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench in that persist briefly before decaying. (See the Pacific Ocean. In 1977, the deep-sea sub- Particle Accelerators; ). In mersible Alvin discovered, in the Galapagos 1953, the physicist Murray Gell-Mann pro- Rift near the Galapagos Islands at about posed the property of strangeness to organ- 2,700 meters, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, ize the numerous subatomic particles that geological marvels that sustain a unique new had been discovered. In 1964, Gell-Mann ecology not based on photosynthesis. Some proposed a new type of fundamental matter, scientists argue that life on Earth first called and anti-quarks, as forming emerged at such sites. (See Deep-Sea subatomic particles. theory is now Hydrothermal Vents; Geology.) The part of the that attempts to International Geophysical Year also provided combine the four basic forces (weak nuclear an opportunity for oceanographic studies, , strong , electromagne- especially of the role of the oceans in mete- tism, and ). (See Gell-Mann, Murray; orology (See International Geophysical Year; Neutrinos). Another foundation of the stan- Meteorology.) Studies of the ocean floor, dard model came in the 1950s through the finding rifts and magnetic patterns in cooled work of Richard P. Feynman, Julian magma, directly led to the theory of plate Schwinger, Shinichiro Tomonaga, and tectonics. (See Plate Tectonics.) Despite to reform the theory of tremendous advances in technology and our (QED). (See growing understanding of the oceans, much Dyson, Freeman; Feynman, Richard; beneath the waves remains a mystery. Schwinger, Julian.) began Introduction xviii the development of in 1970 the development of integrated circuits in the when he proposed that quarks act as if they late 1950s. (See Bardeen, John; Integrated were connected by strings. Developed Circuits.) Integrated circuits led to micro- extensively during the 1980s, string theory processors, which are complete computers deals with multidimensional mathematics on a single chip. and hypothetical strings that are near the Engineers developed networks in the late Planck length in size, and thus too small for 1960s to enable computers to communicate instruments to detect them. (See Nambu, with other computers, with ARPAnet coming Yoichiro.) online with four nodes in 1969. Founded by Since 1950, physicists have continued to the United States defense department, discover phenomena that no one had sus- ARPAnet grew into the Internet, a worldwide pected: not only quarks and other funda- network of networks. The programmer Tim mental building blocks of matter, but Berners-Lee developed the World Wide Web quasars, pulsars, and black holes. in 1991, an easy way to use the Internet. (See Astronomers have even found direct evi- Berners-Lee, Timothy; Internet.) Computers dence of planets orbiting other stars. (See and networks made it easier for scientists to Astronomy; Black Holes; Extrasolar Planets; communicate with each other, as well as to Pulsars; Quasars.) The theorists who devel- delve into new fields where computers made oped asserted that the the onerous burden of repetitive mathematics universe had been created from a primordial manageable. Chaos theory and the theories of concentration of and energy in a single could not have arisen without point, a singularity. The astronomer Fred computers. (See Chaos Theory.) Hoyle developed the steady state theory, Another important new tool for scientists which argued that matter was being continu- is deep-core drilling to retrieve samples from ously created as the universe expanded. deep in the earth, under the seabed, or from During the 1950s, debate raged between ice sheets. Ice cores can reveal past climatic supporters of the two theories, but the dis- conditions and help scientists understand the covery in 1964 of a constant background current phenomenon of global warming. (See radiation to the universe fit the Big Bang the- Deep-Core Drilling; Global Warming.) ory, and most astronomers came to support Lasers have made long-distance communica- that theory. (See Big Bang Theory and Steady tions easier and helped scientists understand State Theory; Gamow,George; Hoyle, Fred.) chemical reactions through spec- troscopy. (See Lasers.) Particle accelerators New Tools are the basis of advances in particle physics, The most important technological advances where various forms of accelerators acceler- since 1950 have been computers and space ate particles and smash them against target travel. Digital electronic computers came , creating smaller particles, whose into being as a result of projects in World short , less than a fraction of a second, War II to create machines to help in code are recorded and analyzed, allowing physi- breaking and to create artillery ballistic cists to identify ever smaller particles. (See tables. The mathematical John von Particle Accelerators.) Advanced ground- Neumann took this early work and laid the based telescopes and space-based telescopes theoretical basis for modern . (See have extended what astronomers can see. Computers; Neumann, John von.) John Optical telescopes have been joined by tele- Bardeen, , and Walter H. scopes looking at other bands in the electro- Brattain invented the in 1947 at magnetic spectrum, including , Bell Laboratories, which led to , x-ray, and radio. Orbiting satellites xix Introduction

have contributed to understanding the Miller-Urey experiment showed that organic oceans, assessing environmental damage and molecules could have emerged spontaneous- land use, finding archaeological sites, and ly from the early primeval atmosphere. Later providing precise locations through expanded on the theory of evolu- Global Positioning System (GPS). (See tion, arguing that evolution may occur in Satellites;Telescopes.) bursts rather than gradually, and that species should be classified by genetic and evolution- The Life Sciences ary relationships rather than the classical One of the most important scientific discov- physiological differences. (See Evolution; eries since World War II occurred in 1953, Gould, Stephen Jay; Miller, Stanley L.) when James D.Watson and dis- Scientists such as Elso Barghoorn found covered the double helix molecular structure microfossils of ancient bacteria, pushing back of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The x-ray the first known life on Earth into the billions photographs of DNA molecules of years. (See Barghoorn, Elso.) Anthro- by Rosiland Franklin provided a key pologists such as those in the Leakey family of Watson and Crick’s discovery.The science sought the elusive missing link connecting of genetics leapt forward and molecular biol- extinct primate species with modern human ogy came to rapidly dominate the other fields beings, and showed that humans evolved in in the life sciences. (See Biology and the Life Africa first. (See Anthropology; Leakey Sciences; Crick, Francis; Franklin, Rosiland; Family.) Genetics;Watson, James D.) revived the older theory of The biochemists and symbiosis to create her serial endosymbiosis Stanley Cohen developed the techniques of theory, which posited that eukaryotic cells, genetic engineering in the early 1970s, which contain nuclei, evolved when non- spawning the biotechnology industry. (See nucleated bacteria fused together billions of Biotechnology; Boyer, Herbert; Cohen, years ago. She also showed that microbes Stanley N.) The , could transmit induced characteristics, a running from 1990 to 2003, found that the Lamarckian notion that came to be accepted final human genome contained 3.1 billion as part of the mechanism of pairs, making up 35,000 to 40,000 genes. within bacteria. (See Margulis, Lynn; (See Human Genome Project). In 1996, Dolly Microbiology; Symbiosis.) the sheep was born, the successful result of developed the Gaia hypothesis in the late cloning a mammalian adult somatic cell. (See 1960s, which proposes that Earth functions Cloning.) Genetic engineering and cloning like a living organism, maintaining surface raised ethical and bioethical questions about and atmospheric conditions so that the the ecological effects of new species, as well chemistry and will sustain life. as whether species developed in the laborato- (See Lovelock, James.) The theory is still con- ry can be owned, whether people should be troversial. able to choose the genetic characteristics of Some evolutionists applied natural selection their children as if ordering from a catalogue, to not just biology, but to human behavior and and the like. (See Bioethics; Ethics.) psychology. Edward O. Wilson, the world’s Scientists like the ornithologist foremost authority on ants, caused a storm of and the controversy when his influential Sociobiology:A created the theory of evolution known as the New Synthesis was published in 1975. Richard modern synthesis by combining Mendelian Dawkins went even further by promoting evo- genetics with the Darwinian theory of natural lutionary psychology. (See Dawkins, Richard; selection. (See Dobzhansky, Theodosius; Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology; Evolution; Mayr, Ernst.) The famous 1953 Wilson, Edward O.) Introduction xx

Earth Science example of transplanting a hand. Efforts to Geologists in 1950 were certain of two use xenotransplants from pigs and baboons things: that gradualism explained the strati- have begun amid much opposition on ethical graphical geological layers found on Earth and moral grounds. (See Organ Transplants.) and that continents were fixed in place.Then, Institutions such as the American Centers in the 1960s, scientists like Harry Hess, John for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Tuzo Wilson, and others used evidence from and National Institutes of Health (NIH) fund the ocean floor to create the theory of plate multibillion-dollar efforts in continued tectonics. (See Geology; Hess, Harry; Plate research and prevention. (See Centers for Tectonics; Wilson, John Tuzo.) According to Disease Control and Prevention; National this now generally accepted theory,which has Institutes of Health.) The World Health transformed the practice of geology, the con- Organization successfully led a worldwide tinents actually move around on a mantle of effort to completely eradicate the disease of magma, pushing up mountain ranges where smallpox, declaring victory in 1979. (See the plates meet and forming rift valleys Smallpox Vaccination Campaign; World where plates pull apart. Earthquakes and vol- Health Organization.) Even in the midst of so canic activity cluster around plate bound- many advances in industrialized countries, aries. (See Earthquakes;Volcanoes.) The foun- leading to ever higher life expectancy rates, dations of the prejudice against gradualism, new threats have emerged.The excess use of originally developed partially as a reaction to antibiotics has led, through the process of biblical creation theories that argued that natural selection, to drug-resistant strains of Earth was a scant six thousand years old, bacteria. In 1981, gay-related immunodefi- were shaken with the discovery that ciency disease (GRID), later renamed dinosaurs had been driven into extinction by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome the collision of an asteroid with Earth in (AIDS), was found in California, and it has Mexico 65 million years ago. (See Alvarez, grown into a major health threat, especially in Luis W.,and Walter Alvarez; Creationism.) sub-Saharan Africa. (See Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.) Medicine Proteinaceous infectious particles were dis- Medical research has regularly introduced covered in the 1970s and are now thought to new wonders in the last century. (See be the cause of bovine spongiform Medicine.) Some of the accomplishments encephalopathy (BSE), or mad cow disease, since 1950 have included the scrapie in sheep, and the rare kuru and introduced in the 1950s by and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases in humans. (See and new wonder drugs to treat Medicine; Prions.) ever more obscure diseases. (See Phar- macology; Sabin, Albert; Salk, Jonas.) Robert Studying Humans Edwards and Patrick Steptoe applied in vitro and psychologists have made fertilization to create the first human test- enormous strides in understanding how peo- tube” baby in 1978. (See Edwards, Robert; In ple think and behave, though much still Vitro Fertilization; Steptoe; Patrick.) The oral remains unknown. Neuroscientists now contraceptive, introduced for general use in understand more fully the of neurons, 1960, helped usher in a sexual revolution in how neurotransmitters work, and the loca- the 1960s and 1970s. (See Birth Control Pill.) tions within the of certain cognitive Organ transplants begin in 1954 with a kidney functions. Neuroscientists have contributed transplant and by the end of the century to the study of cognitive science, which is the included successful transplants of numerous study of how humans think. (See Cognitive different organs, and even a single (failed) Science; Neuroscience.) These studies have xxi Introduction

also contributed to the effort to achieve arti- (See Kinsey,Alfred C.) The team of William H. ficial intelligence, an effort begun in the Masters and Virginia Johnson used both phys- 1950s that has shown only incremental iological and psychological studies to examine progress. (See Artificial Intelligence.) sex in a more rigorously scientific way. (See Psychology grew as a discipline after Masters,William H., and Virginia Johnson.) World War II, vigorously expanding into clin- ical psychology, challenging psychiatry for the privilege of treating patients. (See Human population increased from 2.53 bil- Psychology.) The psychologist B. F. Skinner lion in 1950 to 6 billion in 1999. (See promoted a theory of strict that Population Studies.) Only the Green was later rejected by mainstream psychology. Revolution allowed farmers to feed such a (See Skinner, B. F.) The psychiatrist Elisabeth dramatic increase in people. (See Agriculture; Kübler-Ross developed a theory explaining Green Revolution.) Increased population also the five stages of grief and acceptance that the combined with increasing industrialization to terminally ill and bereaved go through. (See strain the planet’s resources. In 1962, the Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth.) The psychologist biologist published Silent Carl R. Rogers promoted client-centered Spring, warning of the dangers from over- therapy, helping to break the dogmatic para- using pesticides. Carson’s book became a digms of behaviorism and Freudian psycho- major impetus, reviving the conservation analysis, and helping to create humanistic movement as a vigorous environmental psychology and the subsequent growth of movement. (See Carson, Rachel; Environ- eclecticism in the techniques used by psy- mental Movement.) Environmental activists chotherapists. (See Rogers, Carl R.) The drew on the growing science of ecology to experimental psychologist Harry F. Harlow understand the among the used studies of affection deprivation in pri- different elements of the environment. (See mates to show that love is a primary motiva- Ecology.) More support for environmental- tor in both primates and humans. (See ism emerged with the publication in 1968 of Harlow, Harry F.) The study of primates in The Population Bomb by Paul R. Ehrlich. the wild has also illuminated behaviors that Movements to limit growth and attain zero are shared with our closest cousins in the ani- population growth emerged, which helped mal kingdom, showing that many behaviors slow population growth in the industrialized are not unique to humans. (See Fossey, Dian; countries and China, but had less impact on Goodall, Jane; Sociobiology and Evolutionary poorer countries. (See Ehrlich, Paul R.) Psychology.) The study of past humans and In 1974, the and F. other cultures by anthropologists and archae- Sherwood Rowland, drawing on the earlier ologists has flourished, assisted by the devel- work of Paul Crutzen, found that man-made opment of carbon-14 dating by Willard F. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were eroding Libby, and helped to date artifacts at archaeo- the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere. (See logical sites. (SeeAnthropology;Archaeology; Chemistry; Crutzen, Paul; Molina, Mario; Libby,Willard F.) Ozone Layer and Chlorofluorocarbons; Sexologists in Europe and the United Rowland, F. Sherwood.) In one of the most States struggled with the sensitive nature of significant successes of the environmental their topic, persisting in the face of those who movement, international agreements banned thought their studies unseemly.The sociologi- the manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons. cal work of Alfred Kinsey, published in the Global warming, species depletion, pollu- 1940s and 1950s, changed how Americans tion, and loss of wilderness and open thought about sexuality, though his studies are —all are continuing issues for the envi- now seen as flawed by methodology and bias. ronmental movement. (See Global Warming.) Introduction xxii

The Future Secrets of the Universe, the Origins of Life, and the The practice of science has expanded with Future of the Human Race. Maddox boldly pre- unprecedented vigor since 1950. At least 80 dicted exciting new discoveries in particle percent of all the scientists in history were physics, genetics, molecular biology,and arti- alive in the last half of the twentieth century. ficial intelligence. (See Artificial Intelligence; By the end of the century, as measured by Biology and the Life Sciences; Biotechnology; total pages in scientific journals, scientific Genetics.) Around 1900, ironically enough, knowledge was doubling every ten to fifteen many pundits feared that physics had years.That is a crude , since a single explained everything. Even physicists groundbreaking scientific article can have an believed this, at encouraging their impact outweighing thousands of other arti- brightest students to find other fields of cles, but at least it gives us a way to measure study.Within a few years came the discover- scientific output. Most of the published out- ies about the nature of the and put is confined to an elite of scientists that eventually led to . concentrated at an elite set of well-funded Einstein’s relativity also completely changed institutions—universities, government re- the landscape of physics. In truth, in 1900, search labs, and corporate research labs.The physics was on the verge of exciting changes, vast majority of scientists publish only a hand- not faced with the stagnation of scientific ful of articles in their lifetime, while a few innovation. It is possible that the same is true publish hundreds of articles. Big Science— today. that is, large government-funded efforts like So what other scientific advances does the the Human Genome Project, the building of future hold? Undoubtedly, nanotechnology particle accelerators, large-scale oceanic will continue to make strides, giving us a research, space exploration, the creation of greater degree of control on the molecular large telescopes, and well-funded medical level that will yield new scientific instru- research—has come to dominate much sci- ments and industrial advances. (See entific output. Nanotechnology.) The twentieth century can In his 1996 book, The End of Science: Facing be characterized as the century of the physi- the Limits of Knowledge in the Twilight of the cal sciences, with the revolutions in relativity, Scientific Age, the journalist John Horgan quantum mechanics, chemistry, and particle described the heroic age of science as ending, physics, but it seems likely that the twenty- with all the important discoveries already first century will be the century of the life made. All that remained for scientists, he sciences, bringing to fruit the sometimes argued, was filling in the details of a frame- frightening promises of genetics and biotech- work already discovered. Sir John Maddox, nology. Some future wonders may be gleaned who retired in 1995 after twenty-three years from the pages of science fiction, a literature as editor of the journal Nature, published a of wonder,just as science often evokes a sense book in 1998 that answered Horgan, calling it of wonder in scientists and students. (See What Remains to Be Discovered: Mapping the Science Fiction.) Topic Finder

Scientific Disciplines Grand Unified Theory Agriculture Plate Tectonics Anthropology Social Constructionism Archaeology Sociobiology and Evolutionary Artificial Intelligence Psychology Astronomy Symbiosis Biology and the Life Sciences Biotechnology New Vistas Chemistry Apollo Project Cognitive Science Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Ecology (SETI) Economics Space Exploration and Space Science Evolution Undersea Exploration Genetics Voyager Spacecraft Geology Mathematics Tools of Science Medicine Computers Meteorology Deep-Core Drilling Microbiology Integrated Circuits Nanotechnology Internet Neuroscience Lasers Nuclear Physics Particle Accelerators Oceanography Satellites Particle Physics Telescopes Pharmacology Physics Institutions and Projects Psychology Associations Centers for Disease Control and Theories and Ideologies Prevention Big Bang Theory and Steady State Theory European Space Agency Chaos Theory Foundations Creationism

xxiv xxv Topic Finder

Human Genome Project Feminism International Geophysical Year Green Revolution (1957–1958) Media and Popular Culture Jet Propulsion Laboratory Population Studies National Aeronautics and Space Religion Administration (NASA) Soviet Union National Geographic Society Third World Science National Institutes of Health War National Science Foundation Nobel Prizes Studying Science Smallpox Vaccination Campaign Big Science Soviet Academy of Sciences History of Science Universities Philosophy of Science World Health Organization Science Fiction Sociology of Science Natural Phenomena Black Holes People Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents Alvarez, Luis W.,and Walter Alvarez Earthquakes (physicist and geologist) El Niño Asimov, Isaac (science and science fiction Extrasolar Planets writer) Global Warming Bardeen, John (physicist) Neutrinos Barghoorn, Elso (paleobotanist) Ozone Layer and Chlorofluorocarbons Barton, Derek () Prions Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (astrophysicist) Pulsars Berners-Lee,Timothy (computer Quasars programmer) Shoemaker-Levy Comet Impact Boyer, Herbert (biochemist) Volcanoes Broecker,Wallace S. (geologist) Carson, Rachel (biologist) Scientific Discoveries Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (astrophysicist) (AIDS) Chomsky, Noam (linguist) Birth Control Pill Clarke, Arthur C. (science and science Cloning fiction writer) Cold Fusion Cohen, Stanley N. (biochemist) Hydrogen Bomb Cousteau, Jacques (oceanographer) In Vitro Fertilization Crick, Francis (biophysicist) Organ Transplants Crutzen, Paul (chemist) Dawkins, Richard (zoologist) Science and Society Dobzhansky,Theodosius (biologist) Bioethics Dyson, Freeman (physicist) Cold War Edelman, Gerald M. (biochemist) Environmental Movement Edwards, Robert (physiologist) Ethics Ehrlich, Paul R. (entomologist) Topic Finder xxvi

Elion, Gertrude B. (chemist) McClintock, Barbara (geneticist) Enders, John (microbiologist) Medawar, Peter (immunologist) Engelbart, Douglas () Miller, Stanley L. (chemist) Feynman, Richard (physicist) Minsky, Marvin () Fossey, Dian (primatologist) Molina, Mario (chemist) Franklin, Rosiland (chemist) Monod, Jacques (microbiologist) Fuller, Buckminster (designer) Müller, K. Alex (physicist) Gamow, George (physicist) Nambu,Yoichiro (physicist) Gell-Mann, Murray (physicist) Nash, John F. (mathematician) Gilbert,Walter (molecular biologist) Neumann, John von (mathematician) Glashow, Sheldon L. (physicist) Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane (geneticist) Goodall, Jane (primatologist) Oppenheimer, J. Robert (physicist) Gould, Stephen Jay (paleontologist) Pauling, Linus (chemist) Harlow, Harry F. (psychologist) Penrose, Roger (mathematician) Hawking, Stephen (astrophysicist) Popper, Karl (philosopher) Hess, Harry (geologist) Rogers, Carl R. (psychologist) Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot (chemist) Rowland, F. Sherwood (chemist) Hoyle, Fred (astrophysicist) Sabin, Albert (virologist) Kinsey,Alfred C. (sexologist) Sagan, Carl (astronomer) Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth (psychiatrist) Sakharov,Andrei (physicist) Kuhn,Thomas S. (philosopher) Salk, Jonas (virologist) Kuno, Hisashi (geologist) Sanger, Frederick (geneticist) Leakey Family (anthropologists) Schwinger, Julian (physicist) Levi-Montalcini, Rita Selye, Hans (endocrinologist) (neuroembryologist) Shoemaker, Eugene (geologist) Lévi-Strauss, Claude (anthropologist) Skinner, B. F. (psychologist) Libby,Willard F. (physicist) Steptoe, Patrick (physician) Lorenz, Edward N. (meteorologist) Teller, Edward (physicist) Lorenz, Konrad (zoologist) Tsui, Daniel C. (physicist) Lovelock, James (physicist) Tsui, Lap-Chee (molecular biologist) Lysenko,Trofim (geneticist) Watson, James D. (zoologist) Mandelbrot, Benoit (mathematician) Wheeler, John A. (physicist) Margulis, Lynn (microbiologist) Wiles, Andrew (mathematician) Masters,William H., and Virginia Johnson Wilson, Edward O. (zoologist) (physician and psychologist) Wilson, John Tuzo (geologist) Mayer, Maria Goeppert (physicist) Wu, Chien-Shiung (physicist) Mayr, Ernst (ornithologist) Yalow, Rosalyn (medical physicist) A

Acquired Immunodeficiency the basis of the discovery.Although a few sci- Syndrome entists still dispute that AIDS is caused by In 1981, physicians in the United States iden- HIV, the consensus is that HIV causes AIDS. tified a new disease, which they initially Later studies of stored blood showed that named gay-related immunodeficiency disease AIDS had probably entered the U.S. popula- (GRID). Homosexual men were developing tion in the mid-1970s and had its origin in the rare diseases, such as Pneumocystis carinii vicinity of Lake Victoria in Africa. pneumonia and Kaposi’s sarcoma, as a result As a blood-borne disease, HIV spread of suffering severely depressed immune sys- fastest among high-risk populations such as in- tems.Two years later, once it became obvious travenous drug users, hemophiliacs, and to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in promiscuous homosexuals.These populations Atlanta that the disease had nothing to do were also recognized as being vulnerable to with homosexuality, the CDC officially other blood-borne and diseases, such changed the name of the disease to acquired as hepatitis B. Sexually transmitted diseases in immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The general reached epidemic proportions in the disease took years to run its course in an in- United States after the sexual revolution of dividual. The disease particularly devastated the 1960s, but effective antibiotics muted the the American homosexual community, and consequences of those diseases. (The number gay activists mobilized to demand govern- of syphilis reported to public health ment funding for scientific research, funding authorities in America quadrupled from 1965 for medical care, and respect for the civil to 1975, and the number of reports of gonor- rights of AIDS patients. rhea tripled during the same period.) The teams of Robert Gallo (1937–) at the HIV/AIDS appeared nearly simultane- National Institutes of Health in the United ously in at least twenty nations in North States and (1932–) at the America, Europe, and Africa. Most virulent Pasteur Institute in both discovered in diseases burn themselves out, as they kill 1984 the retrovirus, human immunodefi- their carriers faster than the disease can be ciency (HIV), that caused AIDS. A bit- transmitted. HIV, however, lingers in the ter dispute over priority ensued, not only for lymph nodes for up to a decade, spreading to scientific glory, but also for patent rights to other carriers, before finally causing AIDS the blood test developed two years later on and killing the host. As with other viruses,

1 2Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

Scanning electron micrograph of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus believed to be responsible for AIDS (CDC/Public Health Information ) there is not one kind of HIV, but many Education programs promoting safer sex strains, increasing in number as HIV mutates. with condom use and the use of clean needles A related family of viruses called the Simian by drug users have helped calm the AIDS epi- Immunodeficiency Viruses (SIVs) has been demic in developed nations. Although the found in other primates. that many researchers have sought Because of its method of transmission, has not emerged, drug therapies have AIDS attacks social networks in a particularly emerged to slow the progress of the disease insidious manner.Various scientists and polit- in an individual.These drugs have also proved ical groups have suggested over the years that successful in preventing transmission of HIV AIDS is not caused by HIV,but is a natural re- to a fetus by an infected mother. Used by sult of lifestyle choices that result in high-risk themselves, azidothymidine (AZT) and other behavior. Conspiracy theorists have proposed drugs select for drug-resistant strains of HIV that AIDS emerged from the smallpox vacci- as the virus mutates. Cocktails of drugs, com- nation campaign or a contaminated batch of bining several at a time, have been more suc- , or as the result of a deliberate cessful in slowing the viral mutation rate in plot by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. individual patients. Agriculture 3

The World Health Organization (WHO) world have rarely benefited from tractors or ignored the disease until 1986, then stepped other large machines. By 1980, every Ameri- into its natural role of trying to coordinate can farmer fed around eighty people, and the struggle against AIDS/HIV.AIDS became Australian farmers fed even more. By 1985, a demographic disaster in sub-Saharan Africa Western agriculture was thirty-six times in the 1990s, spreading primarily through more labor efficient than Third World agri- heterosexual contact, ravaging adults in what culture (McNeill, 225). Except where gov- should have been the productive prime of ernment regulation has prevented it, the tra- their lives. Orphans became a chronic prob- ditional family-owned farm has rapidly lem. By the end of 2003, the Joint United disappeared in the West in favor of larger Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS estimated commercial enterprises. Meat production— that 20 million worldwide had died of AIDS, the raising of cattle, hogs, chickens, and and more than 38 million people were in- turkeys—became industrialized, creating fected with HIV.The majority of the cases meat factories where heavy use of antibiotics were in sub-Saharan Africa, though rates in keeps infections at bay. Scientific research has Russia, China, and Southeast Asia were all also contributed better methods for preserv- quickly rising. ing foods during storage and transportation. See also Centers for Disease Control and More land has been put under cultivation Prevention; Medicine; Pharmacology; through the construction of large hydrologi- Smallpox Vaccination Campaign;World Health cal projects. In the first half of the twentieth Organization century, such projects in the U.S. West cre- References ated dams and waterworks to control flood- Gallo, Robert C. Virus Hunting: ,AIDS, and ing and open up new lands to irrigation. Since the Human Retrovirus.A Story of Scientific Discovery. New : Basic, 1991. 1950, projects in Egypt, the Soviet Union, Garrett, Laurie. The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging and India have emulated these American suc- Diseases in a World out of Balance. : cesses. Poor farming practices and erratic cli- Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1994. mate patterns have also dramatically in- Schoub, Barry D. AIDS and HIV in Perspective:A creased the amount of land lost to Guide to Understanding the Virus and Its Consequences. Second edition. Cambridge: desertification and increased silt runoff into Cambridge University Press, 1999. rivers. Desertification has been so bad in Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On: Politics, People Africa that, with accompanying population and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: St. Martin’s, increases, Africa actually grew less food per 1987. person at the end of the century than the con- Thomas, Patricia. Big Shot: Passion, Politics, and the tinent produced in 1960. Struggle for an AIDS Vaccine. New York: Public Affairs, 2001. Developing Third World nations experi- enced even more dramatic increases in popu- lation than developed nations during the twentieth century. During the 1960s and Agriculture 1970s, some prognosticators feared a coming The rapid increase in world population dur- worldwide shortage of food, especially within ing the twentieth century required more developing nations. Their salvation has come food. In the industrialized world, increased from increasing the amount of land under mechanization, herbicide use, and pesticide cultivation and developing new strains of sta- use have yielded increases in food produc- ple crops. By the end of the century,however, tion.At the same time, machinery and larger- most land capable of cultivation with current scale operations have reduced the labor nec- was already being used. essary to work a modern Western farm, while An American plant specialist, Norman E. smaller subsistence operations around the Borlaug (1914–), went to Mexico in 1944 to 4Agriculture work for the on a come from the surge in dam building and ir- project to create new strains of wheat. Bor- rigation projects. Total irrigated hectares laug’s work and the efforts of the Interna- worldwide increased from 94 million in 1950 tional Rice Research Institute in the Philip- to 255 million in 1995 (McNeill, 180). By the pines created what became known as the end of the century, about 30 percent of the Green Revolution. The new strains of wheat world’s food production came from irrigated and rice produced higher yields and resisted fields. The most ambitious of all these proj- diseases better, though they also required ects, the Three Gorges Dam project on the more water and depleted the soil more Yangtze River, is still under construction, and quickly, requiring fertilizers to help them will displace over 1 million people to make grow.Borlaug did not believe that the Green way for a large lake. The consequences of Revolution had solved the population crisis; Three Gorges are expected to be similar to rather, the increased food production had the results of other like projects: flood con- bought time to find more permanent solu- trol, stable water levels for navigation, hydro- tions to the problem. Largely as a result of electric power, irrigation water, the Green Revolution, worldwide grain pro- changes, and increased salinity in the soil. duction increased from 692 million tons in The Soviet biologist Trofim Lysenko 1950 to 1.9 billion tons in 1992, outpacing (1898–1976) promoted a theory of non- the growth in population (http://www. Mendelian genetics that found favor in the actionbioscience.org/biotech/borlaug.html). Stalinist Soviet Union and distorted the sci- Average production of food grew from less ence of biology and practice of agriculture in than two tons per hectare in 1900 to over that country for decades. Some Soviet scien- four tons per hectare in the 1990s, on an an- tists who disagreed with Lysenko were ar- nual basis. rested and died from either execution or It is estimated that the use of artificial fer- starvation. In 1964, after changes in Soviet tilizers creates enough extra food to directly leadership, Lysenko was finally discredited, feed a quarter to a third of the world’s cur- though it took more time for the effects of rent population. The cost of artificial fertil- Lysenko’s regime to disappear. izers favors large farms raising cash crops As large farms have turned to producing over smaller subsistence farming, and the single crops, this monoculture has encour- Third World has experienced in the last half- aged pests, but discouraged the pest preda- century a steady increase in larger corporate tors that like more varied environments.This farming. The phenomenon forces subsis- development has led to heavier use of pesti- tence farmers onto more marginal lands or cides, which has led to the selection of more into urban centers to serve as industrial resistant pests, which have required greater workers or join the ranks of the impover- amounts of pesticides. The overuse of syn- ished in vast shantytowns that surround thetic pesticides, an issue effectively raised by many Third World cities. The larger farms the publication in 1962 of Rachel Carson’s using artificial fertilizers also tend to grow Silent Spring, created the political environ- crops that respond more readily to fertiliz- mental movement. Environmentalists have ers and to increase their yield, thus two- tried to understand the ecological impact of thirds of all grain production worldwide new crop strains, and many have begun to now comes from just three plants: rice, emphasize the negative ecological conse- wheat, and maize. Farmers have found that quences of the monoculture nature of the increasing the use of artificial fertilizers will Green Revolution. Borlaug has responded by not increase food production any more un- arguing that the first step toward social jus- less new crop strains are developed. tice and environmental progress is having Other increases in crop production have enough food. In 1970, American corn grow- Agriculture 5

Norman E. Borlaug, 87, awarded the for his contributions to the Green Revolution, visiting Sharanjit Singh, a progressive Indian farmer, in 2001 (Pallava Bagla/Corbis) ers lost 15 percent of their harvest to a fun- nology will be necessary to engineer trans- gus outbreak, and they promptly diversified genic cereal crops that are pest-resistant, fun- their crop with different varieties of corn the gus-resistant, and virus-resistant; can grow in next year (McNeill, 224). marginal soils, and can yield ever larger re- Recent efforts to improve crop yields have turns for each acre. In a talk given in 2000, moved from crossbreeding to more direct ge- Borlaug warned that though current technol- netic manipulation by using the techniques of ogy and technology already under develop- biotechnology. These efforts are aimed at ment could feed ten billion people, humanity making the crops more resistant to insects must get its population growth problem and other pests. Many of these new strains under control. have been developed by private corporations for profit, raising important issues about See also Biology and the Life Sciences; Biotechnology; Carson, Rachel; Ecology; patents and commercial control. The envi- Environmental Movement; Foundations; ronmental activists who have decried the lack Genetics; Lysenko,Trofim; Population Studies of genetic diversity that comes with mono- References culture and overuse of the new strains, which Beeman, Randal S., and James A. Pritchard. A mean loss of genetic diversity, fear that ge- Green and Permanent Land: Ecology and Agriculture netically engineered crops, dubbed Franken- in the Twentieth Century. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2001. foods, will present health dangers. Unfortu- CAST:The Science Source for Food, Agricultural, nately, in order to meet the growing need for and Environmental Issues. http://www. food, more refined techniques from biotech- cast-science.org/ (accessed February 13, 2004). 6Alvarez, Luis W., and Walter Alvarez

Fowler, Cary, and Pat Mooney. Shattering: Food, Physics for this work. Later in life, he in- Politics, and the Loss of Genetic Diversity. Tucson: dulged in other , including an effort Press, 1991. to use cosmic rays to see if there were any McHughen, Alan. Pandora’s Picnic Basket:The hidden chambers in a pyramid at Giza. He Potential and Hazards of Genetically Modified Foods. New York: , found that the pyramid was made of 2000. rock. McNeill, John Robert. Something New under the Walter Alvarez was born in Berkeley, Cal- Sun:An Environmental History of the Twentieth- ifornia, to Luis and his wife, Geraldine Smith- Century World. New York: Norton, 2000. wick. Luis and Geraldine later divorced.Wal- Winston, Mark L. Travels in the Genetically Modified Zone. Cambridge: Press, ter gained an enthusiasm for rocks and 2002. geology from his mother. He earned a B.A. in 1962 in geology from , lo- cated in Northfield, , and a Ph.D. AIDS in geology from in See Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome 1967. After working in South America, Eu- rope, and , Walter joined the geology department at the University of California at Alvarez, Luis W. (1911–1988), and Berkeley in 1977. Walter Alvarez (1940–) Walter and his colleagues first went to The father-son team of Gubbio, , to examine the rocks of the and Walter Alvarez discovered high concen- area for evidence of magnetic polarity rever- trations of iridium in a 65-million-year-old sals. They found such evidence, reinforcing layer of clay,leading them to propose the the- support for plate tectonics, but also noticed a ory that the dinosaurs were driven to extinc- one-centimeter layer of clay between two tion by the impact of an asteroid or comet. beds of limestone.The layer below contained Luis was of Spanish descent, born in San microfossils of the Cretaceous era and the Francisco, where his father was a physician. layer above contained microfossils of the Ter- Luis earned all his degrees in physics at the tiary era.This stratigraphical boundary, called : his B.S. in 1932, M.S. the K-T boundary, is associated with the ex- in 1934, and Ph.D. in 1936. After his educa- tinction of the dinosaurs. Walter wanted to tion, he moved to the University of Califor- know why this clay layer showed such a dra- nia at Berkeley, where he used an early cy- matic break between two major geologic clotron to discover several new of eras. How long had it taken for this layer of mercury, hydrogen, and helium. During clay to form? World War II, Luis worked on the Manhattan Walter worked on the problem of the clay Project; he invented the detonators on the with his father; they first tried to measure the first atomic bomb. Unlike some of the other amount of beryllium-10 in the clay, scientists, he did not regret the building of but found that the half-life of the isotope was the bomb or its use, arguing that using the too short to give them good results. Luis sug- bomb had actually saved lives by an gested that they measure the iridium in the end to the war. After the war, Luis returned clay bed. Iridium is deposited on Earth from to Berkeley to work on the linear accelerator. extraterrestrial sources through meteorites His team developed a new way to photograph and micrometeorites.They expected to find a the tracks of transitory atomic particles in a small amount of iridium if the clay bed had cloud chamber, allowing them to discover ad- formed slowly and none if it had formed ditional fundamental particles, many of them quickly; instead, they found ninety times existing only in short-lived resonance states. more iridium than expected. In 1968 he received the in After ruling out other possible causes, the Anthropology 7 father and son and their colleagues published world in the nineteenth century, which was their findings, with the conclusion that a large justified by a sense of moral superiority, as comet or asteroid had hit Earth at the time of well as a reaction to Social , which the K-T boundary and deposited the iridium. justified social classes as a consequence of in- This impact could also have altered the nate genetic endowment. In Britain, Alfred planet’s climate enough to drive the di- Reginald Radcliffe-Brown (1881–1955) and nosaurs into extinction. This proposal, rely- Bronislaw Malinowski (1884–1942) had cre- ing on a catastrophe, met resistance from ge- ated a form of social anthropology called ologists inclined to look for gradualist functionalism. The two men disagreed about explanations. reminded them what functionalism was, but drew their ideas too much of creationism and pseudoscientific from biology, seeing human culture as an or- theories, like the proposal by the Russian- ganism. In France, Émile Durkheim born writer Immanuel Velikovsky (1895– (1881–1955) saw human behavior as purely 1979) that events of the Old Testament were social. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) was not caused by the of the planets. Later an anthropologist, but he felt that his psycho- discovery of high levels of iridium around the logical theory of was applica- world, all at the K-T boundary, showed that ble to all problems of human behavior. Freud the cause of the iridium was not a local event. discussed native customs and behavior as in- Other scientists in the 1980s identified an im- stances of the Oedipus complex in several pact crater in Chicxulub,Yucatán, Mexico, as books. He argued that civilization was a nec- the source of the K-T boundary iridium, and essary construct to restrain the primitive a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission in 2000 emotions of the id in people. confirmed the existence of the crater. Geolo- Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908–) published his gists have become convinced that, although Elementary Structures of Kinship in 1949 and his most geological change is gradual, occa- Structural Anthropology in 1961, which estab- sional, catastrophic geologic events have oc- lished him as a major thinker in French soci- curred in the past. ety.Translations of his books spread his influ- See also Creationism; Geology; Hess, Harry; ence in other nations. In these books and Nobel Prizes; Plate Tectonics; Shoemaker, others, all written in challenging and com- Eugene; Shoemaker-Levy Comet Impact; plex prose, Lévi-Strauss tried to reduce Wilson, John Tuzo human behavior and culture to their essen- References tials and illustrate the structured relation- Alvarez, Luis W. Alvarez:Adventures of a Physicist. ships between those essentials. His greatest New York: Basic, 1987. Alvarez,Walter. T. Rex and the Crater of Doom. success came from describing the incest Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997. taboo and kinship systems as a foundation for culture. In religion, he argued that myths are attempts to resolve contradictions in human Anthropology behavior, rather than to create justifications Anthropology became an established and re- for human behavior, as others had argued. spected academic discipline in the first half of Lévi-Strauss sought to explain human behav- the twentieth century. In the United States, ior and culture in a way unbounded by the the cultural relativism of Franz Boas historical flow of time, to find truths that ap- (1858–1942) held sway; Boas emphasized the plied to all people at all times. His “struc- collection of details about native cultures and turalism” was not applied only to anthropol- argued that no group or race was any better, ogy; it was just as influential in philosophy, in a moral sense, than any other group or literary criticism, and the study of religions. race.This stance emerged as a reaction to the A challenge to social anthropology came brutal treatment of native peoples around the from Edward O. Wilson in 1975, with his 8Anthropology influential Sociobiology:A New Synthesis.Wilson The paleoanthropologist Louis S. B. argued that human behavior is dictated by bi- Leakey (1903–1972) argued that Africa was ology and natural selection, with culture and the birthplace of humanity and intended to society providing only a veneer over the prove it. Leakey and his wife, struggle for reproduction. Many anthropolo- (1913–1996), worked in northern gists condemned sociobiology and its intel- at . In 1959, Mary found hun- lectual child, evolutionary psychology, as a dreds of fragments of a hominid skull in new form of Social Darwinism. They feared Olduvai Gorge within strata dated to 1.75 that dominant industrial cultures would use million years ago; these fragments she recon- sociobiological arguments to justify destroy- structed into a primate that Louis called Zin- ing native cultures.With the encroachment of janthropus boisei.This primate was thought for industrial society on traditional native a time to be a direct ancestor of modern hu- groups, many anthropologists had become mans, but further discoveries led even Louis advocates for the peoples they studied. to agree that it represented a separate line of (1901–1978), a disciple of hominids, and the skull was reclassified as Boas, made her reputation with a study of boisei. Leakey also thought adolescent girls in Samoa, published in 1928 that the study of the great apes might lead to as Coming of Age in Samoa. A particularly vi- insights into the behavior of humanity’s an- cious attack on her methodology and conclu- cestors. He recruited Jane Goodall (1934–) sions by the anthropologist Derek Freeman to study chimpanzees, Dian Fossey (1916–2001) in the late 1980s and early (1932–1985) to study mountain gorillas, and 1990s was partially inspired by the renewed Biruté Galdikas (1946–) to study orangutans emphasis on nature as opposed to nurture, a in Borneo. shift partially inspired by the rise of sociobi- In 1978 at Laetoli, Mary Leakey found the ology.The rise of feminism in the 1960s and fossilized footprints of three hominids dated its sensitivity to issues of gender and social at 3.6 million years old. The three are roles also influenced anthropology. Some thought to be the footprints of a man, feminists have argued that prehistoric cul- woman or smaller man, and a child, and the tures were egalitarian matriarchies. This ar- gait of the footprints clearly shows that these gument has foundered on the fact that no ma- hominids walked upright, much sooner than triarchies have been found in any of the anyone had suspected. An expedition led hundreds of separate cultures documented by Richard Leakey (1944–), the son of Mary anthropologists in the last two centuries. and Louis, to the shores of , While cultural anthropology studies where he excavated from perhaps 200 human behavior and social practices, physical individual hominids, including the 1.6-mil- anthropology studies the physical nature of lion-year-old Turkana Boy, an almost com- humans. A major emphasis in this has plete skeleton of . The discover- been the continuing effort to apply Charles ies at Lake Turkana showed that at least three Darwin’s (1809–1882) theory of natural se- different species of hominids lived together lection to human beings and find precursors in close proximity millions of years ago, to modern humans. The Piltdown Man, dis- though controversy remains over which line covered in 1912, was conclusively shown to of hominids led to modern humans. In 1974, be a hoax in 1953. This finding meant that (1943–) found the first England was not the birthplace of humanity. nearly complete skeleton of Australopithecus The discoveries of Peking Man and Java Man afarensis, which was named “.” Despite pointed to East Asia as the birthplace of hu- these extraordinary finds in the second half manity and the best place to look for fossils of of the twentieth century, the meaning of earlier hominids. these discoveries is still elusive, and the so- Apollo Project 9 called missing link between apes and humans to landing a man on the Moon and returning has not been found. The continuing profu- him safely to Earth before the end of the sion of extinct hominid species simply cre- decade. Kennedy was primarily motivated by ates confusion, making more difficult the cold war competition.The United States had continuing efforts to construct a solid line of been embarrassed by the Soviet Union evolution to modern humans. launching Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite, Numerous skeletons of have in 1957, and putting the first man into space been found ever since the nineteenth century. just a month earlier, on April 12, 1961. As a Scientists argued over whether Neanderthals struggle of competing ideologies, the cold were a precursor to modern humans or a sep- war conflict between the superpowers de- arate species.A consensus gradually grew that pended as much on prestige as on military Neanderthals were a separate sapient species, power, and the United States wanted to re- with their own ability to make tools, art, and gain its prestige as the preeminent scientific graves for their dead. Neanderthals must also and technological power on the planet. have coexisted with modern humans during The Mercury project put the first Ameri- the last ice age. Recent finds of can astronaut into space on May 5, 1961. skeletons in the late 1990s have allowed sci- Other Mercury flights followed, sending as- entists to extract mitochondrial DNA. The tronauts into orbit in small capsules. A flight current conclusions are that the DNA to the Moon and landing there required a demonstrates that Neanderthals were a sepa- much more sophisticated effort.The National rate species, but that crossbreeding with Aeronautics and Space Administration modern humans was possible and may even (NASA) decided on an elaborate Moon effort have occurred. that required the world’s most powerful See also Archaeology; Feminism; Fossey, Dian; booster, a crew of three, the ability to twice Goodall, Jane; Leakey Family; Lévi-Strauss, rendezvous in space, and a stay in space of Claude; Sociobiology and Evolutionary over a week. The Gemini project followed, Psychology;Wilson, Edward O. with two-person capsules and practice that References included rendezvousing two spacecraft while Eriksen,Thomas Hylland, and Finn Sivert Nielsen. in orbit. A massive three-stage rocket, the A History of Anthropology. London: Pluto, 2001. Guldin, Gregory Eliyu. The Saga of Anthropology in Saturn V, provided enough thrust to push a China: From Malinowski to Moscow to Mao. three-man command capsule and a lunar lan- Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994. der into Earth’s orbit. McGee, R. Jon, and Richard L.Warms. The Ranger, Surveyor, and Lunar Orbiter Anthropological Theory:An Introductory History. projects sent unmanned robotic craft to the Second edition. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield, 2000. Moon to scout out the way for the Apollo as- Spencer, Frank. A History of American Physical tronauts. Ranger probes smashed into the Anthropology, 1930–1980. New York:Academic, Moon while sending back pic- 1982. tures; Surveyor probes actually landed; and Tattersall, Ian. The Trail: How We Know What We the Lunar Orbiters used radar and photog- Think We Know about . New raphy to chart the surface of the Moon, York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Tattersall, Ian, and Jeffrey H. Schwartz. Extinct searching for safe landing sites for the Humans. Boulder, CO:Westview, 2000. Apollo astronauts. The Apollo project faced a tragic setback in 1967 when a test of the command capsule Apollo Project atop an unfueled rocket on the pad resulted On May 25, 1961, in his first State of the in a flash fire. Fed by the pure oxygen atmo- Union address, President John F. Kennedy sphere of the capsule and by poor design, the urged Congress to commit the United States fire killed three astronauts.The project halted 10 Apollo Project

Apollo 11 astronaut on the surface of the Moon at Tranquility Base, , 1969 (Original image courtesy of /NASA/Corbis)

for over a year while the capsule was re- turned to Earth. The astronauts of designed to be safer and a nitrogen-oxygen orbited the Moon on Christmas Eve, 1968, atmosphere was introduced for use while the read passages from the biblical Book of Gen- spacecraft was on the ground. esis on the radio, and took a famous picture When the project resumed, the first flights of Earth rising over the lunar landscape.The were proof of concept efforts.The astronauts Soviets launched their own spacecraft, Zond 5 of Apollo 7 and Apollo 9 only orbited Earth, and Zond 6, in 1968, into orbits around the while the astronauts of Apollo 8 and Apollo 10 Moon, successfully returning them to Earth. traveled to the Moon, orbited it, and re- These modified Soyuz capsules, though orig- Archaeology 11 inally designed to carry cosmonauts, carried The Soviet program to beat the Americans only turtles, mealworms, bacteria, plants, to the Moon suffered a crippling setback and seeds. when a rocket exploded on the pad and killed The astronauts of Apollo 11 were Neil dozens of key engineers and technical per- Armstrong (1930–), Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. sonnel. After Apollo 11 reached the Moon’s (1930–), and Michael Collins (1930–).While surface first, the Soviets announced that they Collins stayed behind in the orbiting com- were not interested in following suit and kept mand capsule, Armstrong and Aldrin de- their own failed effort secret. Surplus Apollo scended to the Moon in the lunar lander. hardware was used in the three Skylab mis- Using rocket thrust to slow their descent, sions of 1973–1974, during which American they landed on the four legs of the lander on astronauts lived in space aboard a small space July 21, 1969. As Armstrong stepped from station, and in the Apollo-Soyuz mission of the last rung of the ladder to the Moon’s sur- 1975, during which American astronauts and face, he said: “That’s one small step for man, Soviet cosmonauts rendezvoused in orbit and one giant leap for mankind.”The record was shook hands inside a temporary tunnel con- later altered to reflect what he meant: “That’s necting the two spacecraft. one small step for a man, one giant leap for See also Big Science; Cold War; Integrated mankind.” Armstrong and Aldrin spent less Circuits; National Aeronautics and Space than a day on the lunar surface before using Administration; Shoemaker, Eugene; Space the bottom half of their lunar lander as a Exploration and Space Science launching pad and returning to orbit in the References upper half of their lunar lander. Armstrong, Neil, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. First on the Moon:A Voyage with Neil From 1969 to 1972, a total of twelve as- Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin E.Aldrin, Jr. tronauts walked on the Moon, the only hu- : Little, Brown, 1970. mans ever to do so. Apollo 13 suffered the ex- Chaikin, Andrew. A Man on the Moon:The Voyages of plosion of an oxygen tank aboard the the Apollo Astronauts. New York:Viking, 1994. command module while on the way to the Collins, Michael. Carrying the Fire:An Astronaut’s Journeys. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Moon, forcing the astronauts to cancel their 1974. Moon landing and desperately improvise to Compton,William David. Where No Man Has Gone get home safely. Before:A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration In terms of science, the Apollo astronauts Missions.Washington, DC: National Aeronautics brought back 838 pounds (380 kilograms) of and Space Administration, 1989. lunar rocks and spent a total of 296 hours ex- Crouch,Tom D. Aiming for the Stars:The Dreamers and Doers of the Space Age.Washington, DC: ploring the lunar surface. Later missions even , 1999. included a lunar rover to allow the astronauts Shepard, Alan, and Deke Slayton. Moon Shot:The to range across the lunar surface. The astro- Inside Story of America’s Race to the Moon. nauts left scientific instruments on the Moon Atlanta:Turner, 1994. to monitor seismic activity and reflect back lasers from Earth to accurately measure the distance between Earth and the Moon. The Archaeology Apollo project cost $25 billion, a consider- Other changed the prac- able for that time; the project be- tice of archaeology during the twentieth came the first big customer of integrated cir- century. In 1948, Willard F. Libby of the cuits and played a key role in accelerating the University of Chicago developed the tech- growth of the industry. Public nique of radioactive carbon dating. This al- declined after the first landing, and lowed archaeologists to measure the amount three later scheduled landings were cancelled of naturally occurring radioactive isotope due to federal funding cuts. carbon-14 in wood, ashes, or bones from 12 Archaeology archaeological sites and date them, based on ity of the Native American Graves Protection the decay of the carbon-14. Ground-imaging and Repatriation Act, passed by the United radar, global positioning systems, remote States Congress in 1990. sensing, computers, and trace-element Historical archaeology emerged as a sub- analysis are some of the many other scien- discipline of its own in the 1970s, concen- tific and technological advances that offered trating on archaeological sites of recent ori- new tools to archaeology. gin. Environmental archaeology also In the 1960s, archaeologists embraced emerged in the 1970s, drawing on the skills processional archaeology,also called New Ar- of geologists, botanists, and to chaeology.This movement started in America more thoroughly understand the environ- and rapidly found adherents in Britain and ment of the past through seed remains, pollen Scandinavia, spreading later to other devel- samples, soil analysis, and other such tech- oped countries. Processional archaeology niques.The subdiscipline of salvage archaeol- draws more upon the discipline of anthropol- ogy emerged to preserve sites or conduct ogy, and those who practice it strive to be- quick excavations in the face of new con- come more than just collectors of artifacts struction. The most famous example of sal- and recorders of stratigraphic layers. They vage archaeology occurred in 1960s, when an recognize that the context of an artifact is international effort moved important ancient more important than the artifact itself. The Egyptian monuments to higher ground to new tools allow archaeologists to examine avoid their being submerged by the rising wa- how individuals actually lived their lives in ters behind the Aswan Dam on the Nile the past. In common with similar movements River. in other social sciences and the humanities, The invention of scuba gear by Jacques the New Archaeology seeks to understand Cousteau (1910–1997) allowed him to un- the world of the common people, not just the dertake an undersea archaeological excava- elite. In the 1980s, a loosely defined post- tion. The first professional archaeologist to processual archaeology movement developed take up scuba was George F. Bass of the Uni- in Britain, urging even more emphasis on in- versity of in 1960, pioneering dividuals as active agents in their world and many of the techniques for working under- arguing even more strongly for context. water. Other archaeologists adopted the Archaeologists as a community increased technology, recovering artifacts from an- in numbers and importance during the sec- cient shipwrecks, and later excavating the ond half of the twentieth century, as the af- sites of prehistoric lake settlements in Eu- fluence of developed countries sustained rope. Scuba also permitted the raising of their activities. Laws to promote preservation shipwrecks, for example the Swedish war- of archaeological sites were passed in many ship Vasa, sunk in 1628 in harbor, developed countries. Activism by descen- raised in 1961. dants of native peoples also led to laws com- Many notable finds excited the interest of pelling museums and archaeologists to return laypeople in archaeology. The royal tomb of artifacts, and especially human remains, for the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, burial according to native customs.The Ken- was unearthed in 1974. Other chambers were newick Man, discovered on the bank of the later discovered, including a large vault con- Columbia River in 1996, illustrated the ten- taining 6,000 terra-cotta statues of warriors sions involved, in this case between scientific and horses. The life-sized army wore real investigation of a 9,000-year-old skeleton and clothes, boots, and armor, and bore weapons. five Native American nations who demanded The bogs of northern Europe preserved possession of the skeleton under the author- bodies cast into them by ancient people.The Artificial Intelligence 13

References Cotterell, Arthur. The First Emperor of China:The Greatest Archeological Find of Our Time. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1981. Fagan, Brian M. Time Detectives: How Archaeologists Use Technology to Recapture the Past. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995. Fowler, Benda. Iceman: Uncovering the Life and Times of a Prehistoric Man Found in an Alpine Glacier. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001. Silberman, Neil. Between Past and Present:Archaeology, Ideology, and Nationalism in the Modern Middle East. New York: Henry Holt, 1989. Thomas, David Hurst. Skull Wars:Kennewick Man, Archaeology, and the Battle for Native American Identity. New York: Basic, 2000. Trigger, Bruce G. A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence research involves the effort to create and soft- ware that behave as humans do and actually Terra-cotta soldiers from the mausoleum of China’s first think. Early computer pioneers, such as the emperor in Xian, China, unearthed in the 1970s (1912–1954) and (Bettmann/Corbis) (1903–1957), intention- ally developed electronic computers as the Lindow Man, from an English bog, was scien- first step toward the creation of genuine tifically excavated in 1984, revealing consid- thinking machines. In 1950, Turing created erable detail. A receding glacier on the Ital- the Turing Test, a way of testing an intelligent ian-Austrian border in 1991 revealed machine. If a person could interrogate an in- Similuan Man (popularly called the “Ice- telligent machine via a teletype and at the end man”), the 5,000-year-old body of a man re- of the conversation not tell whether or not markably preserved by the ice.The preserva- there was another person or a machine at the tion was so good that police were initially other end of the teletype, then that machine summoned, on the assumption that the was intelligent. Although contemporary re- corpse came from a contemporary crime. In searchers no longer commonly accept the the Andes Mountains, children left as sacri- Turing Test as an absolute criterion, it serves fices were preserved by the high-altitude air. as a good indicator of the goals of these early The first to be found, a young woman in pioneers. 1995, was dubbed the Ice Maiden. The The term artificial intelligence (AI) was preservation of DNA, and even the contents first coined in a two-month summer work- of stomachs left from final meals, added to shop at in 1956, orga- the importance of these finds. nized by the mathematicians Marvin Minsky (1927–) and John McCarthy (1927–). The See also Anthropology; Cousteau, Jacques; Libby, first two decades of AI research were domi- Willard F. nated by researchers at the 14 Asimov, Isaac

Institute of Technology (MIT), Carnegie different bottom-up approach to robotics, Tech (later renamed Carnegie Mellon Uni- using simple to create machines versity), Stanford, and International Busi- that move like insects. ness Machines (IBM). European efforts and Vision is a form of , Japanese efforts later became important. and AI research eventually led to pattern The second high-level computer language, recognition of optical characters, which be- called Lisp (from list processor), was cre- came common by the 1990s. Effectively rec- ated specifically in 1958 by McCarthy at ognizing handwriting patterns also became MIT for AI research. possible in the 1990s.The solution of the re- The history of AI has been characterized by lated problem of voice recognition has re- a series of theories that showed initial prom- sulted in simple commercial applications. ise when applied to limited cases, leading to In 1997, an IBM called Big optimistic declarations that intelligent ma- Blue defeated Garry Kasparov (1963–), the chines were just around the corner, and dis- world chess champion, in a chess tourna- appointment as the theories failed when ap- ment. Kasparov later complained that Big plied to more difficult problems. In the early Blue had been programmed to specifically 1980s, expert systems showed promise. An defeat him, though all grand masters train to expert system is created as a series of rules, defeat specific opponents. Many commercial with an inference engine, covering a narrow computer games and video games have rudi- field of expertise. The first successful com- mentary AI algorithms to provide an artificial mercial expert system configured orders for opponent for the human player. Digital Computer Corporation computer See also Cognitive Science; Computers; Minsky, systems.The promise of expert systems cre- Marvin; Neumann, John von; Penrose, Roger ated a commercial expansion of the field, References only to end in disappointment by the end of Crevier, Daniel. AI:The Tumultuous History of the the 1980s as the expense and limitations of Search for Artificial Intelligence. New York: Basic, expert systems became apparent. 1993. Hogan, James P. Mind : Exploring the World of AI researchers developed a close relation- Artificial Intelligence. New York: Ballantine, ship with cognitive science, the study of how 1997. humans think. One result of this relationship Hsu, Feng-hsiung. Behind Deep Blue: Building the was the creation of neural networks, imple- Computer That Defeated the World Chess Champion. mented in either hardware or ; these Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002. Kurzweil, Raymond. In the Age of the Intelligent networks simulate the way the human brain Machine. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990. uses neurons to form patterns and change the Minsky, Marvin. The Society of Mind. New York: relationships within those patterns.The con- Simon and Schuster, 1988. cept of fuzzy also grew out of this rela- Newborn, Monty. Kasparov versus Deep Blue: tionship, allowing software to make decisions Computer Chess Comes of Age. New York: when input data remain uncertain and in- Springer Verlag, 1996. complete. Robotics is related to AI, in that many of the difficult problems in each field are simi- Asimov, Isaac (1920–1992) lar. Industrial that perform limited As one of the leading science fiction authors tasks have become common, though general- and science writers of the twentieth century, purpose robots that can correctly perceive brought his knowledge of science the natural world, through sight or other sen- and his fascination with the wonder of science sory means, and react to that sensory data re- to a mass audience. He was born in Petrovichi, main visions of the future. Significant work at Russia, and his family emigrated to New York MIT’s AI Lab in the 1990s has developed a City when he was only three years old. He Asimov, Isaac 15 graduated from high school at age fifteen and entered . He received a B.S. in chemistry in 1939, and an M.A. in the same field in 1941. During World War II, he worked at the U.S. Naval Air Experimental Station in . After the war and a short tour in the army, he returned to Colum- bia, earning a doctorate in 1948. He taught biochemistry at Boston University until 1958, when he became a full-time writer. Father to two children by his first wife, Asimov died of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 1992, the result of an HIV he contracted when undergoing triple-bypass heart surgery in 1983. Asimov is considered one of the three grand old masters of the science fiction field (Arthur C. Clarke [1917–] and Robert A. Heinlein [1907–1988] being the other two). Asimov’s 1941 short story,“Nightfall,” is con- sidered by many to be the finest science fic- tion short story ever written. The story de- scribes a world with six suns whose complex orbits allow night to come only briefly every Isaac Asimov, science fiction author and prolific science 2,000 years.The sight of the stars, heretofore populizer (Douglas Kirkland/Corbis) hidden by daylight, drives many people in- sane, destroying their civilization. His series of Foundation novels, first published in the complex scientific ideas while remaining ac- early 1950s and resumed in the 1980s, is con- curate. Examples of his books include The In- sidered by many critics to be the finest sci- telligent Man’s Guide to Science (1960), Great ence fiction series ever written. His Ideas of Science (1969), The series of short stories and novels developed a (1984), and Asimov’s Chronology of Science and set of three robotic laws that is often quoted: Discovery (1989). His work reflected concerns with over- 1. A robot may not injure a human being, or, population, the environment, the role of sci- through inaction, allow a human being to ence in people’s lives, and revealed a skepti- come to harm. 2. A robot must obey orders given it by cal, humanist outlook toward religion and human beings except where such orders claims of the paranormal. Considering the would conflict with the First Law. complex content of his books,Asimov is cer- 3. A robot must protect its own existence as tainly the most prolific writer of all time, long as such protection does not conflict with some four hundred books, hundreds of with the First or Second Law. (I, Robot, 6) short stories, and thousands of articles to his credit. His prodigious memory and compul- His nonfiction writing, including regular sive work habits helped him generate mil- essays on science for numerous magazines, lions of words. put him in the position of being the leading See also Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; science popularizer of his time. His straight- Clarke, Arthur C.; Media and Popular Culture; forward writing style enabled him to explain Sagan, Carl; Science Fiction 16 Associations

References ciety inherited institutes from the Kaiser Wil- Asimov, Isaac. I,Asimov. New York: Doubleday, helm Society and founded more as Germany 1994. recovered from World War II. The institutes ———. I, Robot. New York: Doubleday, 1950. Asimov, Janet Jeppson, editor. Isaac Asimov: It’s Been have devoted themselves to basic research, a Good Life. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2002. producing numerous Nobel prize winners. The society promotes research in its own in- stitutes and at universities, and supports the Associations career development of junior scientists. Scientific academies and associations played a Every scientific discipline has an associa- key role in the development of science prior tion. One of the best ways for historians to to the twentieth century, providing a way for see that a scientific subdiscipline has been scientists to meet with each other and spon- successfully created is to look for the found- soring publications in journals and books as a ing of the accompanying association. Exam- way to disseminate scientific knowledge. ples of associations in America include the These roles have continued through the American Psychological Association, Ameri- twentieth century and into the twenty-first. can Astronomical Society, American Medical Scientific associations are usually found or- Association, and the Geological Society of ganized along national lines or within scien- America. Comparable associations exist in tific disciplines. The Royal Society in the other countries. , founded in 1660, is the National associations often function as a premier example of a national society; it has method to promote interdisciplinary re- remained vigorous, publishing journals, fund- search, as do the broader international associ- ing research, and electing distinguished scien- ations. The International Geophysical Year tists to be fellows of the society. (IGY) of 1957–1958 was organized and run Other prominent national societies have by the International Council of Scientific played important roles.The American Associ- Unions (ICSU), an association founded in ation for the Advancement of Science 1931 to foster international cooperation in (AAAS), founded in 1848, grew out of an science.Associations also engage in media re- earlier association of geologists. The weekly lations, campaigns for funding, political ac- journal of the AAAS, Science, founded in tivism, and promotion of science as a way to 1880, eventually became one of the most im- knowledge. portant scientific journals in the world. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences selects See also International Geophysical Year; Nobel Prizes; Soviet Academy of Sciences; the winners of the scientific Nobel prizes. Universities The Soviet Academy of Sciences played a References much stronger role than is normally true of American Association for the Advancement of national societies, directing the practice of Science. http://www.aaas.org/ (accessed science in the Soviet Union through a cen- February 13, 2004). Dael,Wolfle. Renewing a Scientific Society:The tralized system of control not seen in other American Association for the Advancement of Science countries, except for similar national organi- from World War II to 1970.Washington, DC: zations in other communist countries. American Association for the Advancement of The German Society, founded Science, 1989. in 1948 as a successor to the Kaiser Wilhelm Pyenson, Lewis, and Susan Sheets-Pyenson. Society for the Advancement of Science, re- Servants of Nature:A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises, and Sensibilities. New ceived significant funding from the federal York: Norton, 1999. and state governments of and Royal Society. http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/ has continued to receive state support from (accessed February 13, 2004). the new united German government.The so- Astronomy 17

Astronomy only astronomical body ever visited by hu- The first half of the twentieth century revolu- mans. American spacecraft built by the Jet tionized astronomy and . Giant tel- Propulsion Laboratory of the National Aero- escopes in America, endowed mostly by pri- nautics and Space Administration (NASA) vate foundations, pushed out the limits of the visited every planet in the solar system ex- known universe.The Milky Way became only cept for Pluto. Soviet spacecraft visited Mars one galaxy among many when other galaxies and Venus. European spacecraft, sponsored by were discovered. In 1929 the American as- the European Space Agency, visited comets tronomer Edwin Powell Hubble (1889–1953) and observed the Sun. Among the most im- found that all galaxies are receding from each pressive efforts were the twin American Voy- other, and that the faster a galaxy is receding, ager spacecraft, which explored the outer gas the farther away it is, and the more its spectra giants, finding erupting volcanoes on shift toward the longer wavelengths of the red Jupiter’s moon Io, and possible giant oceans end of the electromagnetic spectrum. Albert covered with ice on other large moons of Einstein’s (1879–1955) theory of relativity Jupiter and Saturn. The 1994 impact of the and the emergence of quantum mechanics comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 demonstrated that offered a new foundation for understanding the impact craters found on Earth, other the stars. The years since 1950 have revealed planets, and various moons were not just a that the cosmos is much stranger and much relic of the past, but indicated a present dan- larger than expected, populated with ger. The geologist Eugene Shoemaker stars, quasars, pulsars, black holes, colliding (1928–1997) devoted his life to finding and galaxies, interstellar dust, and the elusive dark understanding such dangers. Such an impact matter. on Earth would be catastrophic for human New techniques of telescope construction civilization and maybe even for all higher life- have made ever more powerful telescopes. forms on the planet. The governments of the United States, Japan, In the 1940s, and others ad- Europe, and the Soviet Union became impor- vanced steady state theories to explain the tant sponsors of astronomical research, re- origin of the universe. According to this hy- flecting an emphasis on big science projects, pothesis, matter was continually being cre- though funds from private foundations have ated as the universe expanded.The opposing remained important. Radio, x-ray, and in- theory proposed that the universe began in a frared astronomy emerged to contribute single event, which Fred Hoyle ironically la- knowledge from their shares of the electro- beled the “Big Bang.” Both theories sought to magnetic spectrum.The opening of the space explain why the universe was expanding.The age in 1957 has enabled various satellite tele- discovery of distant, intense sources of en- scopes and other satellites to observe the uni- ergy called quasars (quasi-stellar radio verse unhindered by the atmosphere. Com- sources) in 1963 and the discovery in 1964 of puters have allowed astronomers to harness a background radiation tempera- these major advances in observation by mak- ture near the level the Big Bang theorists had ing more sensitive images, enhancing com- predicted shifted scientific support to favor munication among scientists, and enabling the Big Bang theory. Cosmology became an the creation of sophisticated models of physi- exciting field, as scientists used relativity the- cal processes. ory and quantum mechanics to strive to un- American and Soviet unmanned and derstand how the universe was created in the manned space exploration completely first few minutes after the Big Bang.Advances changed human understanding of the solar in particle physics came to bear directly on system. From 1969 to 1972, the Apollo proj- cosmology through the study of the Big Bang. ect sent twelve astronauts to the Moon, the Searching for a way to explain why heavier 18 Astronomy

Stephen Hawking (1942–), and Roger Pen- rose (1931–) are important theorists on black holes. In 1971 an orbiting satellite ob- servatory detected intense x-rays from a bi- nary system in the constellation Cygnus. Many astronomers believe that a (called Cygnus X-1) is in orbit around a blue supergiant some 6,000 -years away in our own galaxy, sucking material away from its companion and causing a lot of x-ray noise in the process. Black holes are now thought to exist at the center of galaxies, con- suming stars and growing ever more massive as billions of years pass. In 1994, the found what many consider to be evidence of a large black hole in the heart of the M87 galaxy. In 1995, (1942–) and Di- dier Queloz (1966–), Swiss astronomers at the Observatory, found strong evi- The Saturn V rocket lifts off on the way to the Moon on July 16, 1969, beginning the Apollo 11 mission. dence through measuring Doppler shifts that (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) a planet of at least half the mass of Jupiter or- bited 51 Pegasi, a star similar to the Sun about forty-five light-years away. Since 1995, elements were created in a steady-state uni- numerous other extrasolar planets have been verse, Hoyle and his associates showed that a discovered by observations of subtle Doppler nuclear process in stars called nucleosynthe- shifts.The planets discovered so far are all the sis turned lighter chemical elements into size of gas giants, but smaller than brown heavier elements. Scientists developed a dwarfs. more sophisticated understanding of stellar The discovery of extrasolar planets has evolution: how stars were created, the nature added impetus to the existing efforts in the of their life cycle, and the process of their de- search for extraterrestrial intelligence mise.The equations of relativity and quantum (SETI). In 1960, Frank D. Drake (1930–) lis- mechanics predicted that some stars might tened for possible extraterrestrial radio collapse into neutron stars, where matter was transmissions from two nearby stars, Ceti packed so tightly by gravity that atoms col- and Epsilon Eridani. Each star is similar to lapsed into their constituent parts.The grad- our own Sun. Drake did not find success, nor uate student (1943–) did other American and Soviet scientists in discovered a in 1967, a rapidly rotating the following decades, but SETI efforts that broadcast rapid bursts of in- gained considerable in the 1990s tense radio waves like a manic lighthouse.The from the development of new technologies discovery of pulsars inclined scientists to sus- and the infusion of private funding. The as- pect that black holes might also exist. Black tronomer (1934–1996) often pro- holes are formed when a star contains enough moted efforts in SETI, as well as popularizing mass to collapse past the neutron star stage science and planetary astronomy. into a singularity, from which not even light Archaeoastronomy, the study of how past can escape. John A. Wheeler (1911–), Sub- cultures understood astronomy, also grew rahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910–1995), during the later part of the twentieth century. Astronomy 19

The orientation of Egyptian monuments and References Stonehenge to various types of stellar axis Aveni, Anthony. World Archaeoastronomy. had already been recognized, but now ar- Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. chaeoastronomers found similar alignments Dick, Steven J. The Biological Universe:The of prominent ancient buildings to stellar Twentieth-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate and events, such as the summer and winter sol- the Limits of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge stices and the fall and spring equinoxes, University Press, 1996. among Mesoamerican cultures, in Europe (in Hirsh, Richard F. Glimpsing an Invisible Universe:The its megalithic monuments), among the Emergence of X-Ray Astronomy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Anasazi of the desert in the southwestern Hoskin, Michael, editor. The Cambridge Illustrated United States, and in China. History of Astronomy. New York: Cambridge See also Apollo Project; Bell Burnell, Jocelyn; University Press, 1997. Big Bang Theory and Steady State Theory; Big North, John. The Norton History of Astronomy and Science; Black Holes; Chandrasekhar, Cosmology. New York: Norton, 1995. Subrahmanyan; European Space Agency; Overbye, Dennis. Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos:The Extrasolar Planets; Foundations; Hawking, Story of the Scientific Quest for the Secret of the Stephen; Hoyle, Fred; Jet Propulsion Universe. New York: HarperCollins, 1991. Laboratory; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Penrose, Roger; Particle Physics; Physics; Pulsars; Quasars; Sagan, Carl; Satellites; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence; Shoemaker, Eugene; Shoemaker- Levy Comet Impact; Space Exploration and Space Science;Telescopes;Voyager Spacecraft; Wheeler, John A. B

Bardeen, John (1908–1991) shared two Nobel Prizes in Physics for his work on the invention of the transistor and research on . Bardeen was born in Madison, , where his father was dean of the medical school. He attended an experimental ele- mentary school that allowed him to skip grades and he graduated from high school at the age of fifteen. He earned a B.S. in 1928 and an M.S. in 1929 from the University of Wisconsin, both in . In 1936, he earned a Ph.D. in from Princeton University. During World War II, he served as a civilian physicist with the U.S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory. After the war, Bardeen joined Bell Tele- phone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jer- sey,the premier industrial research laboratory in the world. He worked with William Shock- ley (1910–1989) and Walter H. Brattain (1902–1987) to invent the transistor in 1947, a replacement for technology. led to smaller and cheaper elec- John Bardeen, physicist and two-time Nobel Prize winner. tronics, making possible the space program, (Bettmann/Corbis) more advanced computers, and integrated circuits. Bardeen shared the 1956 with Shockley and Brattain. In 1951, Bardeen joined the University of physics, where he returned to an earlier in- Illinois at Urbana-Champaign as a terest in superconductivity. Superconductiv- of electrical engineering and a professor of ity had been discovered in 1911 when the

21 22 Barghoorn, Elso

Dutch physicist In 1953, a geologist from the University of (1853–1926) found that some metals lost all Wisconsin, Stanley A. Tyler (1906–1963), resistance to the flow of at temper- brought photographs of microscopic chert atures near absolute zero. Onnes received the that he had found in the Gunflint Formation Nobel Prize in Physics for this discovery only in Ontario, Canada, to a conference at Har- two years later.Bardeen worked on this prob- vard.There he was introduced to Barghoorn, lem, later joined in his efforts by two re- and the paleobotanist decided that the photo- search assistants, Leon J. Cooper (1930–) and graphs showed fossils of microscopic algae J. Robert Schrieffer (1931–). In 1957, and fungi. Tyler and Barghoorn published Bardeen published with his two assistants the their conclusions in the journal Science the BCS (an acronym from the initials of their following year. three last names) theory of superconductiv- Ever since (1809–1882) ity, offering a theoretical foundation for su- convinced scientists that life had existed for a perconductivity. For this achievement, long period of time on Earth and evolved Bardeen shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in through a process of natural selection, scien- Physics with Cooper and Schrieffer. Their tists had been creating a tree of life.The tree theory eventually led to the development of began in the Cambrian period, about 550 superconducting materials that operated at million years ago, when an explosion of life more normal temperatures, enabling the de- left a profusion of fossils. The Precambrian velopment of powerful electromagnets of era lacked any known fossils. Many thought smaller size that consumed less energy than that the boundary between the Cambrian and previous electromagnets. the Precambrian marked the point when sin- See also Computers; Integrated Circuits; Müller, gle-celled life evolved into more complex K. Alex; Nobel Prizes; Physics forms of multicellular life. In the past, some References geologists had identified microfossils in Pre- Hoddeson, Lillian. True Genius:The Life and Science cambrian deposits, but these bits of evidence of John Bardeen:The Only Winner of Two Nobel were dismissed as geological artifacts. Tyler Prizes in Physics.Washington, DC: Joseph and Barghoorn’s article began to change this Henry, 2002. “John Bardeen.” Special Issue of Physics Today 45 perception. (April 1992). In the Soviet Union, Boris Vasil’evich Tim- ofeev (1916–1982) also identified Precam- brian microfossils.The Soviet scientists at the Barghoorn, Elso (1915–1984) Institute of Precambrian Geochronology in The paleobotanist Elso Barghoorn discovered Leningrad developed a technique of dissolv- microfossils, eventually pushing back the ing rocks in acid, allowing the microfossils in known age of life on Earth to 3.4 billion them to be collected. This technique was years. Barghoorn was born in , prone to contamination, which, combined raised in Dayton, Ohio, and went to graduate with cold war suspicions, prevented Timo- school at Harvard University in 1937. His in- feev’s finds from being commonly accepted terests centered on paleobotany, and four in the West. Nevertheless, other scientists, years later he earned a doctorate in botany. such as Preston Cloud (1912–1991) and the During World War II, Barghoorn served on Australian Martin F. Glaessner (1906–1989), Barro Colorado Island in the Panama Canal began to get involved in the exciting new Zone, where he studied the filamentous fungi field. that rotted the clothing of soldiers in the Tyler and Barghoorn continued to collect tropical regions of the Pacific Ocean. After samples and photographs from the Gunflint the war, he returned to Harvard and eventu- Formation, though Tyler’s death in 1963 left ally became a professor of botany. Barghoorn and his graduate students to carry Bell Burnell, Jocelyn 23 on. Cloud was able to figure out where they mater, where he taught inorganic chemistry had collected their samples in Ontario and and earned a second doctorate in chemistry. worked on the problem on his own. When In 1949, Barton accepted a visiting profes- Cloud was ready to publish his research, sorship at Harvard for a year, where he stud- Barghoorn hurried to complete his own ied . Building upon the little-known paper, and both were published in Science in work of (1897–1981), a Ger- 1965, with the Barghoorn and Tyler paper man-trained Norwegian chemist, Barton cre- appearing first. That paper prompted media ated conformational analysis, showing how interviews of Barghoorn and further interest the shapes of organic carbon rings dictated in the field. their chemical and biological properties. Bar- In subsequent years, Barghoorn remained ton and Hassel shared the 1969 Nobel Prize an active leader in the field of microfossils, in Chemistry for their work. Returning to and the field is now well established. Eventu- the United Kingdom, Barton worked at the ally, microfossil finds from around the world University of London and University of Glas- pushed back the earliest known life on Earth gow,before settling down at Imperial College to 3.5 billion years ago. Barghoorn also in 1957. He was knighted in 1972. worked on lunar samples brought back by the Barton did not rest as he grew older and Apollo astronauts, seeking in vain any evi- always remained vigorously engaged in re- dence of microfossils.After his death, the saga search.When a mandatory retirement age ap- of microfossils continued with the announce- proached in England, he moved to France in ment in 1996 that a meteorite from Mars, re- 1978 to assume a position as director of the covered from the surface of Antarctica, con- Institute for the Chemistry of Natural Sub- tained microfossils. This evidence of stances in Gif-sur-Yvette, France. His first extraterrestrial unicellular life is still dis- marriage resulted in a son and ended in di- puted within the scientific community. vorce. His second marriage was to a French See also Cold War; Evolution; Geology professor.When retirement again threatened, References Barton moved to the United States in 1986, Knoll, Andrew H. “Elso Sterrenberg Barghoorn, where A&M University offered him a Jr.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical distinguished professorship and the opportu- Society 135, no. 1 (1991): 87–90. nity to continue his research activities. The Schopf, J.William. Cradle of Life:The Discovery of death of his second wife led to a third mar- Earth’s Earliest Fossils. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999. riage in Texas before his own death in 1998. See also Chemistry; Nobel Prizes References Barton, Derek H. R. Some Recollections of Gap Barton, Derek (1918–1998) Jumping.Washington, DC: American Chemical Sir Derek Harold Richard Barton revolution- Society, 1991. ized organic chemistry with his development Nobel e-Museum. “Derek Barton—Biography.” http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/ (accessed of conformational analysis. He was born in February 12, 2004). , Kent, England; his father’s car- pentry business allowed Barton to attend a private school. He received a B.S. in chem- istry from the Imperial College of Science Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (1943–) and Technology in 1940, and a Ph.D. in or- Jocelyn Bell Burnell discovered pulsars in ganic chemistry two years later. Recruited 1967 as a graduate student. Susan Jocelyn Bell into the war effort during World War II, he was born in , Northern , where investigated the properties of invisible inks. her father was an architect. One of his jobs in- With the war over, he returned to his alma cluded work at the Armagh Observatory, and 24 Bell Burnell, Jocelyn

The astronomers Jocelyn Bell and among the wires of the , with which she discovered the first pulsar, in East Anglia, England, in 1967 (Hencoup Enterprises Ltd. /Photo Researchers, Inc.) when she accompanied him to work, Bell be- sand nine-foot posts and stringing numerous came fascinated by astronomy through her cables from pole to pole. Bell became adept conversations with observatory staff. Her at the manual labor of working cable and early schooling was academically disappoint- . ing, but the Mount School, a private Quaker When the telescope began operation in boarding school, allowed her to recover and July 1967, Hewish assigned Bell the job of learn to excel. Raised as a member of the So- going through the printouts of data.This de- ciety of Friends (), Bell remained ac- manding task required attention to detail and tive in religious work her entire life. developing a sense of which signals came In 1965 she earned a B.Sc. degree in from terrestrial origins and which came from physics from the . As the stars. Within six months the telescope the only woman physics student, she at times generated 3.5 miles of squiggles on paper. In experienced teasing and cruel comments. She October, Bell noticed a half-inch of “scruff ” learned not to blush and to laugh about the that intrigued her. Working backward, she difficulty of being a pioneering woman in a found that the small signal always corre- field dominated by males. She entered Cam- sponded to a specific sidereal time, 23 hours bridge University in 1965 as a graduate stu- and 56 minutes, indicating that it always came dent in astronomy. Her advisor,Antony from the same spot in the sky.A more sensi- Hewish (1924–), had found the funds to tive recorder installed in November allowed build a radio telescope to study quasars. His Bell and Hewish to look at the scruff in more graduate students built the 4.5-acre telescope detail.They found that the signal pulsed in in- themselves, placing instruments atop a thou- tensity every 1.33 seconds. This was much Berners-Lee, Timothy 25 too fast for a variable star, and its eerie regu- References lar intensity made some on the research team Greenstein, George. Frozen Star: Of Pulsars, Black wonder if they had actually stumbled across a Holes, and the Fate of Stars. New York: Freundlich, 1983. transmission from an extraterrestrial intelli- McGrayne, Sharon Bertsch. “Jocelyn Bell Burnell,” gence.A second signal, discovered in Decem- 359–379. Nobel Prize . Second ber in a different part of the sky, pulsed at a edition. Secaucus, NJ: Carol, 1998. rate of 1.2 seconds. With the signals so far Woolgar, S.W.“Writing an Intellectual History of apart from each other, thoughts of extrater- Scientific Achievement:The Use of Discovery restrial intelligence were laid to rest. Bell and Accounts.” Social Studies of Science 6 (1976): 395–422. the team had discovered a new phenomenon. When Hewish announced the discoveries in February, Bell had already found another two pulsars. The discovery electrified as- tronomers. Berners-Lee, Timothy (1955–) In 1968, Bell received her Ph.D. and mar- Timothy Berners-Lee invented the World ried Martin Burnell. Her husband’s employ- Wide Web, the technology that made the In- ment as a government official demanded oc- ternet accessible to the . Berners-Lee casional relocations, forcing her to move with was born in London to parents who were him. She left the intellectual mainstream of both mathematicians and who had worked as and joined the faculty of the programmers on one of the earliest comput- University of Southampton. In 1973, she re- ers, the Mark I at Manchester University. He signed from the university to take care of her graduated with honors and a bachelor’s de- newborn son. A year later, she joined the gree in physics from Oxford University in Mullard Space Science Laboratory at Univer- 1976. In 1980, he went to work at the Con- sity College in London, where she worked in seil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire x-ray astronomy.In 1974, Hewish and Martin (CERN), a nuclear research facility on the Ryle (1918–1984) shared the Nobel Prize in French-Swiss border, as a software developer. Physics for their work in radio astronomy. The physics community at CERN used The noted astronomer Fred Hoyle (1915– computers extensively, with data and docu- 2001) publicly objected to the injustice of not ments scattered across a variety of different also awarding Bell Burnell the Nobel Prize. computer models, often created by different Hoyle pointed out that she had made the ac- manufacturers. Communication between the tual discovery of pulsars, a difficult feat, and different computer systems was difficult. A that the prizes were supposed to be for dis- lifelong ambition to make computers easier coveries. Bell Burnell herself disagreed, not- to use encouraged Berners-Lee to create a ing that she was just a graduate student at the system to allow easy access to information. time. She eventually received a variety of He built his system on two existing technolo- other prestigious awards in astronomy for her gies: computer networking and . discovery of pulsars. Computer networks had been invented in the Bell Burnell worked at the Royal Observa- 1960s and were difficult to use, though a tory in Edinburgh, Scotland, from 1982 to worldwide Internet—a network of - 1991 and became a full professor of physics at works—had emerged. Hypertext was devel- the in Milton Keynes in oped in the 1960s by the development team 1991. Her marriage ended in divorce in at Stanford Research Institute led by the 1989. computer scientist See also Astronomy; Hoyle, Fred; Nobel Prizes; (1925–), based on the idea that documents Pulsars; Quasars; Search for Extraterrestrial should have in them connecting to Intelligence;Telescopes other relevant documents. 26 Big Bang Theory and Steady State Theory

Berners-Lee created a system that deliv- See also Computers; Internet ered hypertext over computer networks References using a set of rules called the hypertext trans- Berners-Lee,Tim. Weaving the Web:The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web fer protocol (HTTP). He simplified the tech- by Its Inventor. : nology of hypertext to create a display lan- HarperSanFrancisco, 1999. guage that he called hypertext markup Gillies, James. How the Web Was Born:The Story of the language (HTML). The final innovation was World Wide Web. New York: Oxford University to create a method of uniquely identifying Press, 2000. any particular document in the world. He used the term universal resource identifier (URI), which became universal resource location Berson, Solomon A. (1919–1972) (URL). In March 1991, Berners-Lee gave See Yalow, Rosalyn (1921–) copies of his new WorldWideWeb programs, a web server and text-based web browser, to colleagues at CERN. By that time, Internet Big Bang Theory and Steady State connections at universities around the world Theory were common, and the World Wide Web During the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, two sci- (WWW) caught on quickly, as other people entific theories of the origin of the universe readily converted the programs to different competed for dominance. In 1929, Edwin computer systems. A team of staff and stu- Powell Hubble (1889–1953) discovered that dents at the National Center for Supercom- all galaxies were receding from each other as puting Applications at the University of Illi- part of an expanding universe. Hubble also nois at Urbana-Champaign released a found that the faster a galaxy was receding, graphical web browser in February 1993, the farther away it was, and the more its spec- making the WWW even easier to use. The tra shifted toward the longer wavelengths of WWW made it easy to transfer text, pic- the red end of the electromagnetic spectrum. tures, and multimedia content from com- The obvious conclusion was that the universe puter to computer. Berners-Lee’s original vi- was expanding. Earlier theorists, notably the sion of the WWW included the ability for Russian physicist Alexander Friedmann in consumers to interactively modify the infor- 1922, had already proposed that the universe mation they received, though this proved began as a primordial egg or in some other technically difficult and has never been fully form of initial creation, rather than that the implemented. universe had always existed. An Internet economy based on the WWW In the 1940s, nuclear physicists began to emerged in the mid-1990s, dramatically examine the problem. They approached this changing many categories of industries central issue of cosmology by asking where within a matter of only a few years. A major the chemical elements came from. In 1942, key to the success of the WWW was the gen- proposed that the elements erosity on the part of CERN and Berners-Lee found today and the proportions in which in not claiming any financial royalties for the they are found came about as the result of the invention. Berners-Lee moved to the Massa- breakdown of the heavy elements that com- chusetts Institute of Technology in 1994, posed the initial universe. Gamow later re- where he became director of the World Wide versed himself in 1946 and concluded that Web Consortium. This organization, under the universe initially consisted of light ele- the guidance of Berners-Lee, has continued ments only, which later combined to form to coordinate the creation of new technical the heavier elements. In 1948, Gamow and standards to enable the WWW to grow in his student Ralph Alpher wrote a paper on ability and power. “The Origin of Chemical Elements,” one of Big Bang Theory and Steady State Theory 27

Arno Penzias (left) and Bob Wilson standing before the horn that they used to discover background radiation.The antenna provided the first strong evidence supporting the Big Bang theory. (Roger Ressmeyer/Corbis) many contributions to the Big Bang theory The discovery in 1963 of quasars, intense that Gamow made and a key step to the mod- energy sources on the outer edge of the ern understanding of nucleosynthesis, the known universe, lent credence to the Big name given to the way the nuclear processes Bang, since the steady state theory could not within stars create heavier elements out of explain them, while Big Bang theorists ar- lighter elements. gued that quasars were glimpses of the earlier Fred Hoyle (1915–2001), state of the universe. In June 1964,Arno Pen- (1919–), and (1920–) pub- zias (1933–) and Robert Wilson (1936–), lished an alternate theory, also in 1948, the working at Bell Labs in ,took over steady state theory of cosmology. Hoyle be- an abandoned horn antenna originally created came the leading proponent of the steady to communicate with an early Telstar com- state theory and vigorously defended the idea munications satellite.They wanted to use the that the universe had always existed, with antenna for radio astronomy, and after modi- matter being constantly created to fuel its ex- fying the antenna, pointed the cone to the sky pansion.The opposing theory proposed a mo- as a test. The antenna happened to be set to ment of creation, a primordial egg that ex- the 7.35-centimeter wavelength and they ex- ploded to create the universe. Hoyle dubbed pected to hear nothing, since our galaxy does the opposing theory the Big Bang, and the not emit anything at that spectrum.They in- name stuck. During the 1950s, debate over stead picked up a signal that corresponded to the two competing theories raged among as- 3.5 kelvins, just above absolute zero. Ten tronomers, with Gamow and Hoyle repre- months of tests showed that this microwave senting the opposing sides. signal came from all directions in the sky. 28 Big Science

Contact with a group working at Princeton References alerted the bewildered duo of Penzias and Alpher, Ralph A., and Robert Herman. Genesis of Wilson that the Big Bang theory predicted a the Big Bang. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. background radiation temperature near what Fox, Karen G. The Big Bang Theory: What It Is,Where they had found.This became the pivotal piece It Came from, and Why It Works. New York:, of evidence that the steady state theory had 2002. not predicted and could not explain. In 1978 Gribbon, John. In Search of the Big Bang: Quantum Penzias and Wilson received the Nobel Prize Physics and Cosmology. New York: Bantam, 1986. in Physics for their accidental discovery. Hawking, Stephen W. A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. New York: Bantam, By the end of the 1960s, especially bol- 1988. stered by the evidence of background radia- Kragh, Helge. Cosmology and Controversy:The tion in the universe, the Big Bang theory had Historical Development of Two Theories of the gained preeminence, and the steady state the- Universe. Princeton: Princeton University ory became a relic of history. A NASA team Press, 1996. Mather, John C., and John Boslough. The Very First of scientists announced in 1992 that the Cos- Light:The True Inside Story of the Scientific Journey mic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite had Back to the Dawn of the Universe. New York: surveyed the sky and detected minor varia- Basic, 1996. tions in the cosmic background radiation, ex- Overbye, Dennis. Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos:The actly what Big Bang theorists had predicted. Story of the Scientific Quest for the Secret of the Further efforts in cosmology have focused on Universe. New York: HarperCollins, 1991. refining and detailing the theory, concentrat- ing especially on the first few minutes after the birth of the universe. Speculation has also Big Science focused on the question of whether there is The term Big Science refers to scientific proj- enough matter in the universe to eventually ects involving centralized control over large reverse the expansion of the universe so that numbers of scientists and technical staff, sup- the universe will start to contract, eventually ported by large amounts of funding, usually leading to a “big crunch,” when all matter from governments. These projects often in- comes together in a giant black hole. At that clude the application of big technology, point perhaps another Big Bang will occur, which is often characterized by expensive beginning a new universe, perhaps part of a and physically large technology. Big science continuing cycle of Big Bangs and big is also characterized by scientific projects, crunches. which have grown in size from small teams Among those whose religious beliefs point to large, widely distributed enterprises. Al- to the creation of the universe by God, the though much of the scientific and technolog- Big Bang has often seemed more compatible ical research in the Soviet Union was cen- with their point of view than the steady state trally directed by the Soviet Academy of theory.Those who believe that God and the Sciences or industrial ministries, only some universe have always existed find the steady of the projects reached a scale to be consid- state theory more compatible. Other cre- ered Big Science. ationists have rejected both the Big Bang and Ancient civilizations built impressive steady state theories, creating pseudoscien- structures, such as the Egyptian pyramids, tific theories based on literal interpretations the Great Wall of China, and major canals to of scripture of how the universe was created. connect rivers to oceans, all requiring highly See also Astronomy; Creationism; Gamow, organized states that mobilized thousands of George; Hawking, Stephen; Hoyle, Fred; workers over a period of years. Although National Aeronautics and Space technological projects on that scale continue Administration; Quasars; Satellites today, Big Science is a unique category. The Big Science 29

The Atlantis docks with the Russian space station Mir as they orbit the earth in tandem, November 15, 1995. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)

American during World dollars and succeeded in landing a human on War II which developed the first atomic the moon in 1969; a total of six successful bombs in 1945, is the prototype of big sci- landings brought back 838 pounds (380 kilo- ence projects. This first big science project grams) of lunar rocks.The Apollo project be- cost $2 billion and involved 100,000 work- came the first big customer of integrated cir- ers.The American physics community, riding cuits and played a key role in accelerating the on the laurels of the Manhattan Project, growth of the semiconductor industry. After turned to other projects to the cancellation of further Apollo landings, develop the hydrogen bomb and the nuclear the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- reactor. In the quest to understand ever tration (NASA) created the space shuttle, the smaller components of the atom, large parti- most complex machine ever designed by hu- cle accelerators were built, some of them manity, first launched in 1981. many miles in length.The physicist Alvin M. Big science is also characterized by building Weinberg (1915–), the director of the Oak scientific instruments that single scientists Ridge National Laboratory, popularized the could never build for their own individual term Big Science in 1961 to describe the new use.The best examples of this kind of instru- scale of this research. ment are the early large telescopes.Telescopes Space exploration only became possible on the ground cost a considerable amount of with the backing of the wealthiest govern- money and are usually built by consortiums of ments. The Apollo project cost $25 billion universities and governmental organizations. 30 Big Science

The premier space-based telescope, the Hub- scale with limited goals—shooting down a ble Space Telescope (HST), launched from a few missiles rather than thousands. Another space shuttle in 1990, revolutionized astron- failure came with the ambitious attempt to omy, providing clearer pictures than any pos- built the Superconducting Supercollider sible from the ground. The numerous space- (SSC) in Texas, with a circumference of 52 craft sent to other planets to return miles (87 kilometers) and plans to produce photographs and other sensor readings, in- collisions of and antiprotons at 40 cluding landings and probes on Venus, Mars, TeV (trillions of electron-volts). Construc- and Jupiter, have resulted from a long-term tion began in 1989, but disputes within the commitment of financing and resources by physics community about where limited gov- American, European, and Soviet (now Rus- ernment funding should go, escalating costs, sian) space agencies. The International Space and federal politics caused the SSC to Station, begun in the 1990s, was the most ex- founder on federal budget cuts in 1993 after pensive ongoing big science project as the mil- being partially built.A major rationale for the lennium came to a close, though many critics SSC, national prestige, no longer mattered as have doubted its scientific usefulness, espe- much after the cold war ended in 1991.The cially when its political usefulness seemed to Human Genome Project continued to receive be the main motivation. funding because of promised advances in The Human Genome Project marked the medical research. coming of Big Science to the biological sci- Other big science projects included the In- ences. Begun in 1990, the project announced ternational Geophysical Year of 1957–1958, in 2003 that it had mapped 99.99 percent of the smallpox vaccination campaign that suc- the human genome (100 percent was not ceeded in eradicating that dread disease in reachable because people are genetically dif- 1979, various oceanographic research initia- ferent from each other), finishing the project tives, and the continuing research presence in in thirteen years instead of the originally pro- Antarctica. Big science has become big busi- jected fifteen years and coming in under ness, as government-sponsored projects have budget at $2.7 billion.The political leaders of funneled funding into universities, aerospace the six major nations involved signed the companies, national laboratories, and inter- statement announcing final success of the in- national laboratories like the Conseil Eu- ternational project. The biological sciences ropéen pour la Recherche Nucléaire have built on the success of the Human (CERN). Advances in genetic engineering Genome Project to start other large projects, have led to successful bioengineering corpo- including the Protein Structure Initiative, the rations.Though created by scientific develop- Single Consor- ments, biotechnology corporations usually tium, and the International HapMap Project. are not examples of Big Science, lacking the Inspired by the dramatic success of the large number of people and the same scale of Manhattan Project, (1911– funding. Big science projects receive consid- 2004), the president of the United States, erable public attention and media coverage, launched in 1983 the development and con- leading to a distorted view of science by struction of the Strategic Defense Initiative many laypeople. Critics of Big Science often (SDI), a space-borne system to shoot down point out that the big projects vacuum up so incoming intercontinental ballistic missiles. much of the available funding that smaller sci- After the expenditure of billions of dollars, entific efforts have difficulty finding funding. the dream proved to be beyond the reach of See also Apollo Project; Cold War; Human current science and technology; it must be Genome Project; Hydrogen Bomb; counted as a failure of big science ambitions, International Geophysical Year; Media and even though research continues on a reduced Popular Culture; National Aeronautics and Bioethics 31

Space Administration; National Science tion, the faith of many commentators in the Foundation; Nuclear Physics; Oceanography; goodness of the medical profession was Particle Accelerators; Smallpox Vaccination shaken. Other cases of medical malfeasance Campaign; Soviet Academy of Sciences; Soviet also came to light in subsequent years. Union; Space Exploration and Space Science; Telescopes From 1932 to 1972, to take one notorious References example, the United States Public Health Galison, Peter, and Bruce Hevly, editors. Big conducted a study during which Science:The Growth of Large-Scale Research. physicians withheld treatment for syphilis Stanford, CA: Press, 1992. from 400 African-American men in Alabama Kevles, Daniel. “Big Science and Big Politics in the United States: Reflections on the Death of the in order to document and study the effects of SSC and the Life of the Human Genome syphilis as the disease ran its fatal course.The Project.” Historical Studies in the Physical and Tuskegee Institute, founded and staffed by Biological Sciences 27 (1997): 269–297. African Americans, cooperated in the study. ———. The Physicists:The History of a Scientific An effective cure for syphilis was not in fact Community in Modern America. Revised edition. available at the beginning of the study, but Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Price, Derek J. de Solla. Little Science, Big even after became widely available Science . . . and Beyond. New York: Columbia after World War II, it was not given to the University Press, 1963. subjects.The study ended only when exposed Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. by a newspaper article. Episodes like the New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986. Tuskegee experiment led to an ethical move- Weinberg, Alvin M. Reflections on Big Science. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1967. ment where researchers needed to obtain in- formed consent of all human subjects in any research project. The first institute to study bioethics was Bioethics founded in 1969 in the United States. Other Bioethics is the study of how to apply moral institutes, organizations, scholarly journals, and ethical principles in the practice of med- and academic conferences followed. Medical icine and the life sciences.After World War II, schools now often include bioethics in their the victorious Allies convened a war crimes curriculum.The Human Genome Project set tribunal at Nuremberg, Germany. Judges aside up to 5 percent of its funding to study from among the Allies tried top-ranking ethical, legal, and social issues involved in the Nazis for war crimes and punished the con- project. One of the objections to the project victed by execution or imprisonment. The was that the knowledge might lead to eugen- trials brought out the complicity of many ics, allowing people to tailor the DNA of German physicians and medical researchers their unborn children to conform to modern in the Nazi murder of , other ethnic mi- images of attractiveness, athleticism, and in- norities, and the mentally or physically hand- tellectual ability. Cultures that value docility icapped. Investigators discovered that med- in women might strive to find gene sequences ical researchers had also performed horrific that predispose women to that trait. experiments on prisoners, including studies Bioethical discussions have also focused on involving fatal exposure to cold water or low , in vitro fertilization, experi- pressure, deliberately burning patients, in- mentation, organ transplants, cloning, stem fecting them with diseases, and performing cell research, biotechnology, and suicide. experimental surgical procedures. Japanese Abortion gradually became legal in the United medical doctors and scientists in the infa- States and Great Britain in the late 1960s and mous Unit 731 also engaged in similar aber- early 1970s.Abortion had been legal earlier in rant research. Although many commentators other Western countries, became legal later in considered these activities to be an aberra- other countries, and remains illegal in some 32 Bioethics

countries. In vitro fertilization, first success- sheep in 1996, cloning became a real issue in fully demonstrated in humans in 1978, raised bioethics. Should humans be cloned? Many sci- many ethical questions, such as what to do entists have spoken out in opposition to with frozen embryos that are no longer cloning on ethical and practical grounds; other needed. If the parents divorce, who retains scientists have welcomed cloning and other control over frozen embryos? genetic engineering advances as ways for hu- Medical science has long used as mans to take conscious control of human evo- test subjects in lieu of humans. In the last sev- lution. Stem cell research and biotechnology eral decades, animal activists have become in- both promise medical miracles. The debate creasingly vocal in their opposition to this over undifferentiated stem cells, which come testing. Medical researchers have successfully from fetuses or umbilical cords, is intertwined argued that they need animal testing, but the with the debate on abortion. Successful stem activism has led to improved conditions cell therapies could create an enormous de- within laboratories. Psychologists have also mand for stem cells that would be difficult to used animals, not only in the classic rat meet in an ethical manner. mazes, but in more sophisticated research. In Issues of death and dying are important in the 1940s and 1950s, Harry F. Harlow bioethics. The psychiatrist Elisabeth Kübler- (1905–1981) used affection deprivation stud- Ross (1926–2004) found that terminally ill ies on rhesus monkeys to prove that affection patients went through a series of five emo- and love are primary psychological needs. tional stages as they dealt with their impend- Harlow’s research methods, condemned ing death. Family members of terminally ill nowadays as inhumane, would not be ap- patients also go through the same stages, as proved by current ethics review boards, but do the bereaved. Kübler-Ross also promoted his results are now part of the accepted wis- the hospice movement to create places near dom in contemporary psychology. hospitals to care for the physical and emo- The first successful organ transplant oc- tional needs of terminally ill patients.What is curred in 1954 in Boston when a patient re- a good life and what is a good death are im- ceived the kidney of his identical twin portant questions, and here religious per- brother and lived for another eight years. spectives and the perspectives of bioethics Organ transplants raise a host of ethical ques- can combine to find answers. The extremely tions, especially considering the shortage of controversial practice of physician-assisted donated organs.Where do we get the organs, suicide also reflects attempts to decide what who gets to receive them, and can we in- is a good death. crease the organ supply by using animal or- See also Biotechnology; Cloning; Ethics; Human gans? In most Western countries, the distri- Genome Project; In Vitro Fertilization; Kübler- bution of organs is controlled by a strictly Ross, Elisabeth; Medicine; Organ Transplants; egalitarian system, though stories have circu- Religion lated that China has harvested organs from References executed prisoners for distribution to those Jones, James H. Bad Blood:The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. New York: Free Press, 1981. with money or political connections. Most McGee, Glenn, editor. Pragmatic Bioethics. Second people do not die in a way that allows many edition. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003. of their organs to be harvested.The question Paul, Ellen Frankel, and Jeffrey Paul. Why Animal also arises, when is a person dead? The legal Experimentation Matters:The Use of Animals in systems of various legal jurisdictions and reli- Medical Research. New Brunswick, NJ: Social Philosophy and Policy Foundation, 2001. gious groups give different definitions of tra- Pence, Gregory E. Brave New Bioethics. Lanham, ditional death and brain death (which can be MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002. difficult to diagnose). Veatch, Robert M. The Basics of Bioethics. New With the successful cloning of Dolly the York: Prentice Hall, 2000. Biology and the Life Sciences 33

Biology and the Life Sciences microbes could acquire induced characteris- The practice of biology and other life sciences tics, and that organelles inside cells were re- in the last half of the twentieth century has ally former bacteria that had fused with other been dominated by the theoretical insights of cells. These theories, together with her re- the theory of natural selection, advances in vival of the importance of symbiosis, came to genetics, and the development of new tech- be accepted. Margulis also supported the nologies. For centuries, the issue of vitalism Gaia hypothesis, developed by the scientific had tormented the life sciences. How is it that polymath James Lovelock (1919–) in the late living things seemed to be animated and dif- 1960s, which proposed that Earth was like a ferent from inanimate things? The scientific living organism, maintaining surface and at- revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth mospheric conditions so that the chemistry centuries explained the inanimate world in and temperature would sustain life. mechanical terms, but life seemed to be an The biologist Edward O.Wilson (1929–), exception, relying on some unknown “vital the world’s leading expert on ants, showed principle” that could not be understood in that ants communicate via pheromones; he mechanical terms.Advances in ontogeny that also developed important contributions to explained the development of living organ- the theory of natural selection. His contro- isms, the discovery of the structure of DNA, versial creation of sociobiology in the 1970s and a greater understanding of the inner argued that many social behaviors in insects, working of cells via cytology finally put vital- animals, and humans have a biological basis ism to rest in the twentieth century. and are selected for as part of evolution.The In the 1930s and 1940s, the Russian-born English zoologist (1941–) zoologist Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900– expanded on sociobiology and promoted the 1975), the ornithologist Ernst Mayr (1904–), idea of evolutionary psychology. He also ar- and others reinvigorated Charles Darwin’s gued that evolution occurred on the level of (1809–1882) theory of natural selection and genes, rather than the level of individuals or its emphasis on random mutations, creating species. what became known as the modern synthesis Scientists also made important contribu- by combining the theory of natural selection tions to the study of animal behavior within with Mendelian genetics. The paleontologist the framework of natural selection.The zool- Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002) and a col- ogist (1903–1989), popularly league promoted the theory of punctuated known for the way ducklings and goslings im- equilibria, according to which evolution did printed on him as their surrogate parent, not always occur in gradual steps, taking long helped found and promote the science of periods of time; at times evolutionary change modern ethnology. Primatologists such as happened in bursts. A consequence of the Jane Goodall (1934–) and Dian Fossey modern synthesis is that many scientists have (1932–1985) showed that many primate be- argued that the taxonomic system of naming haviors were not that different from human living things should be changed to reflect behaviors. their evolutionary history. The discovery of the structure of DNA by The microbiologist Lynn Margulis the zoologist James D. Watson (1928–) and (1938–) proposed an additional twist to evo- the biologist Francis Crick (1916–2004) in lution in 1967 with her development of serial 1953 revolutionized the study of genetics and endosymbiosis theory (SET), first published led to a shift in focus toward understanding in 1967. Margulis argued that eukaryotic life on the molecular level rather than only on cells, which contain nuclei, evolved when the larger scale preferred by traditional biol- non-nucleated bacteria fused together bil- ogists and zoologists. Molecular biology be- lions of years ago. She also demonstrated that came a dominant field, not only drawing the 34 Biology and the Life Sciences

Macrophotograph of a female , quadratus, on the stem of a plant.The spider measures about 18 mm across. (Dr. Jeremy Burgess/Photo Researchers, Inc.)

most funding and best talent, but intellectu- Boyer (1936–) and Stanley Cohen (1935–). ally dominating the other subfields within bi- Genetic engineers often used the bacteria Es- ology. For molecular biologists, the secrets of cherichia coli (E. coli) and the mustard weed, biology were found in genes, proteins, and Arabidopsis thaliana, for manipulation in their enzymes, not on the larger scale of cells, work. A biotechnology industry developed plants, or animals. A similar divide is found from genetic engineering, leading many to be- between physicists, who often are looking at lieve that just as the twentieth century was the smallest possible scale, and chemists, who dominated by physics, the twenty-first cen- apply the atomic-level knowledge gained by tury will be dominated by biology. physicists, but also work on a larger scale to Oceanography provided new vistas for bi- develop practical applications. An exception ologists. One of the more extraordinary dis- to this trend, the geneticist Barbara McClin- coveries came in 1977: deep-sea hydrother- tock (1902–1992), known as a traditional bi- mal vents spewing hot water mixed with ologist, looked at the whole organism with a minerals from geologically active areas. Scien- holistic sense of intuition, rather than from tists were astonished at the unique ecology the narrow view that molecular biologists surrounding the vents. New species of tube- brought to their work. McClintock showed in worms, clams, crabs, shrimp, mussels, and 1951 that transposable genes existed that other kinds of life have been catalogued. Al- could move from chromosome to chromo- though the food chain of life in the rest of the some. ocean is dependent on the basic process of The increasing understanding of genetics photosynthesis, converting sunlight into en- led to the development of genetic engineering ergy, the bacteria around the vents use in the early 1970s by the biochemists Herbert chemosynthesis to create energy, converting Biology and the Life Sciences 35 the sulfides into organic carbon. The more tional argument in favor of preserving the complex life-forms form symbiotic relation- rainforests and stopping the extinction of ships with the chemosynthetic bacteria and species. survive off the energy they create.A microor- Botany also experienced many advances. ganism discovered in 1982 at a vent in the Pa- During the first half of the century, botanists cific Ocean, Methanococcos jannaschii, is now had discovered that plants secrete hormones, considered to be part of a new domain of life and during the second half, they came to un- consisting of microorganisms called archaea. derstand how these hormones work.The hor- The two previously recognized domains of life mone ethylene, for instance, signals the plant consisted of bacteria and eukaryotes. Archaea to ripen its fruit, change the size of individual are characterized by the lack of a cell nucleus cells, or develop more roots. In the 1950s, and a smaller number of genes than the or- botanists discovered the chemical phy- ganisms in the other domains of life. tochrome, which is light sensitive and signals The publication in 1962 of Silent Spring by the plant how to respond to the length of the the biologist Rachel Carson (1907–1964), day.The American biochemist documenting the dangers of synthetic pesti- (1911–1997) at the University of California at cides, is often credited with launching the Berkeley used the radioactive isotope carbon- modern environmental movement. In the 14 to trace the process of photosynthesis in 1960s, many scientists in the life sciences be- the green alga Chlorella. He received the 1961 came concerned about the expanding human for this break- population.The entomologist Paul R. Ehrlich through. Deep Green, the Green Plant Phy- (1932–) devoted his life to campaigning for a logeny Research Coordination Group, a proj- reduction in the population growth rate and ect started at the University of California at an eventual reduction of human population. Berkeley in 1994, coordinated the work of This theme became important to the emerg- many scientists, examining the phylogenetic ing environmental movement, combined makeup of numerous plants in an attempt to with concerns about pollution, species ex- reconstruct the evolutionary relationships tinction, and the loss of unspoiled wilder- among all green plants.The project found that ness.The only reason that the present human the evolutionary history revealed in those population has avoided starvation is that the genes was much more complex than initially Green Revolution of the 1950s through the thought. Botanists had always thought that 1970s combined the use of nitrogenous fer- green plants initially emerged from seawater tilizers and new strains of staple crops to dra- plants, but Deep Green showed that primitive matically increase food production in Third freshwater plants are the original ancestral World nations.The environmental movement stock from which all known green plants now also drew on the burgeoning insights of ecol- on land are descended. ogy, which accentuated the interconnected- ness of all beings in the web of life. See also Agriculture; Biotechnology; Boyer, For centuries, the botanical riches of trop- Herbert; Carson, Rachel; Cohen, Stanley N.; Crick, Francis; Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents; ical rainforests have made them a source of Dobzhansky,Theodosius; Ecology; Ehrlich, biodiversity, including new medicines. Med- Paul R.; Environmental Movement; Evolution; ical anthropologists, representatives of phar- Fossey, Dian; Genetics; Gilbert,Walter; maceutical companies, and other scientists Goodall, Jane; Gould, Stephen Jay; Green have sought the sources of drugs used by in- Revolution; Lorenz, Konrad; Mayr, Ernst; McClintock, Barbara; Microbiology; National digenous peoples and catalogued other sub- Geographic Society; Oceanography; stances that might be turned into useful Population Studies; Psychology; Sociobiology drugs. Environmentalists have emphasized and Evolutionary Psychology; Symbiosis; the usefulness of this biodiversity as an addi- Watson, James D.;Wilson, Edward O. 36 Biotechnology

References organism accidentally escaping into the wild. Joyce, Christopher. Earthly : Medicine-Hunting The National Institutes of Health (NIH) an- in the Rainforest. Philadelphia: Little, Brown, nounced safety guidelines for recombinant 1994. Judson, Horace Freeland. The Eighth Day of DNA technology in 1976, and as time went Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology. by without a major mishap, these controls Expanded edition.Woodbury, NY: Cold Spring were relaxed. The ethical standard switched Harbor Laboratory, 1996. from proving that a given experiment would Magner, Lois N. A History of the Life Sciences. not be harmful to proving that a given exper- Second edition. New York: Marcel Dekker, iment would be harmful. 1994. Mayr, Ernst. The Growth of Biological Thought: In 1975, Boyer and a venture capitalist Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance. Cambridge: formed Genentech, one of the first genetic Harvard University Press, 1982. engineering firms.The company’s first prod- Smocovitis,Vassiliki Betty. Unifying Biology:The ucts were variations of E. coli that produced Evolutionary Synthesis and . insulin and human growth hormone. Genen- Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996. tech patented these new forms of life, though many critics questioned whether life itself should be patented. (1932–), Biotechnology who pioneered gene-sequencing techniques, Civilizations have used biotechnology to fer- formed with his partners the biotechnology ment food and beverages for thousands of company Biogen in 1978. Numerous other years, for example in the making of cheeses biotechnology firms followed, as venture and bread. By the end of the twentieth cen- capitalists saw biotechnology as possessing tury, biotechnology based on genetic engi- potential comparable to that of integrated neering, manipulating genes to create new circuits and computers.The scientist as an en- bacteria or plants, had become around a $50- trepreneur became a common figure in the billion-a-year industry in just the United biotechnology industry. States. Most early genetic engineering fo- The nascent biotechnology industry ar- cused on medical research, though develop- gued that without patents they could not pro- ing new strains of crops for agriculture also tect their financial investment from other soon became important.The discovery of the companies simply copying their technology structure of DNA by the zoologist James D. and selling it as their own. Watson (1928–) and the biologist Francis developed an oil-eating bacterium for possi- Crick (1916–2004) in 1953 eventually led ble use in cleaning up oil spills and applied for the biochemists Herbert Boyer (1936–) and a patent, which led to a controversial land- Stanley Cohen (1935–) to develop the tech- mark 1980 decision by the U.S. Supreme niques of genetic engineering in the early Court, v.Chakrabarty, that permitted 1970s. Recombinant DNA enables scientists life created in a laboratory to be patented. In to combine DNA molecules from two or 1988, the U.S. Patent Office took the next more sources together inside cells or a test step by granting a patent on a transgenic tube. After being inserted into a host organ- mouse developed at Harvard University.The ism, such as Escherichia coli (E.coli), thus mod- mouse had been altered to be susceptible to ifying the organism, the new creation is then breast cancer. Other mice have been altered able to reproduce. to be susceptible to various diseases so that Recognizing the power of this new tech- they might be used to test new medicines and nology, scientists initially agreed to a year- vaccines. In 1997, the U.S. Patent Office long moratorium on further research until began to grant patents on expressed sequence research guidelines could be developed to tags (EST), short sequences of human DNA, minimize the risk of a genetically engineered causing a chorus of by critics that Birth Control Pill 37 often the patent applicants could not even de- biotechnology had proved itself to be an im- scribe what the sequence actually did. These portant new science and technology, with patent rights made the current form of the promises that it may be as important as any biotechnology industry possible. previous technology ever invented by hu- The development of the polymerase chain mans. The history of humanity has seen bio- reaction (PCR) technique by the American logical evolution through natural selection biochemist (1944–) in 1985 superseded by cultural evolution, and with made easier the creation of large amounts of biotechnology, the possibility of direct bio- genetic samples for testing, making the logical evolution through deliberate genetic process of genetic engineering much more engineering of the human genome is on the efficient. Advances in computer technology horizon.The ethical disputes surrounding this in the form of control equipment and data- potential development promise to fuel one of base technology also helped make biotech- the biggest controversies of the twenty-first nology and large-scale sequencing projects century. possible. The Human Genome Project, See also Bioethics; Boyer, Herbert; Cloning; launched in 1990 and completed in 2003, Cohen, Stanley N.; Computers; Crick, Francis; provided a completed sequence of 3.1 billion Ethics; Genetics; Gilbert,Walter; Human pairs, making up 35,000 to 40,000 genes. In Genome Project; Microbiology; National order to gain experience and develop better Institutes of Health;Watson, James D. gene-sequencing technologies, the project References Aldridge, Susan. The Thread of Life:The Story of also sequenced the of simpler or- Genes and Genetic Engineering. New York: ganisms, such as Escherichia coli and the Cambridge University Press, 1996. genome of the mouse. Genetic engineering Bud, Robert. The Uses of Life:A History of also made possible cloning, the creation of a Biotechnology. New York: Cambridge University genetic duplicate of a previous organism. Press, 1993. Magnus, David, Arthur Caplan, and Glenn Forensic analysis using DNA fingerprinting, McGee, editors. Who Owns Life? Amherst, NY: first proposed in 1984, by the end of the cen- Prometheus, 2002. tury became an important tool in solving Oliver, Richard W. The Coming Biotech Age:The crimes in which bodily fluids or physical sam- Business of Bio-Materials. New York: McGraw- ples are recovered from the crime scene. Sci- Hill, 1999. entists also began to use variations of DNA Shannon,Thomas A. Genetic Engineering:A Documentary History.Westport, CT: fingerprinting and analysis of mitochondrial Greenwood, 1999. DNA on larger populations in order to un- Sterckx, Sigrid, editor. Biotechnology, Patents and derstand historical demographic movements Morality. Second edition. Aldershot, UK: of ethnic groups. Ashgate, 2000. In the 1990s, experiments in gene transfer therapy began, in which a gene is introduced into a patient (often via a virus) because the Birth Control Pill patient either lacks that gene or that gene The development of an effective birth control does not function properly. Gene therapy pill has had such a dramatic social effect that may prove effective in treating diseases such it is usually just called “the pill.” In 1928, two as cystic fibrosis and Huntington’s disease American physicians, George Corner that have a strong genetic component. Ulti- (1889–1981) and Willard M. Allen (1904–), mately,gene therapy could be used to perma- discovered progesterone, a hormone that nently alter a patient so that the patient’s prompted the uterus to prepare for egg im- body then continues to create any protein or plantation. Other hormones were later dis- enzyme that the body previously lacked. covered that regulated the human menstrual By the end of the twentieth century, cycle, and scientists realized that an effective 38 Birth Control Pill

Margaret Sanger,American advocate of birth control (Bettman/Corbis) chemical contraceptive might be developed The heiress Katherine Dexter McCormick to fool a woman’s body into assuming that she (1875–1967) asked Sanger in 1951 what the was already pregnant. The two main prob- birth control movement most needed. Sanger lems facing such a proposal were the legal wanted a cheap, effective method of birth limitations in America on birth control and control. They contracted with the physiolo- the difficulty of obtaining sufficient natural gist Gregory Pincus (1903–1967), who di- supplies of the hormones. rected the Worcester Foundation for Experi- (1879–1966), an Ameri- mental Biology,to undertake this task. Pincus can nurse and activist who coined the phrase found that a Boston gynecologist, in an at- “birth control” in 1914, campaigned for years tempt to regulate the menstrual cycles of his to educate the American public about birth patients to help them with infertility prob- control techniques and provide contraceptive lems, had been experimenting with expen- devices. At that time, the laws of many states sive injections of progesterone and found that in the United States made even birth control it was an effective contraceptive. Having education illegal. A series of lawsuits eroded found a solution, Pincus then needed a good the effects of these laws, and Sanger’s Birth source of cheap progesterone. Control League became Planned Parenthood. Though Pincus did not know it at the time, The botanist Marie Stopes (1880–1958) be- the chemical problems were almost solved. came the leading birth control activist in The American chemist Russell E. Marker Britain, fighting a controversial fight similar (1902–1995) discovered in the 1940s a way to Sanger’s. to extract the sapogenin from a Mex- Birth Control Pill 39 ican desert plant and synthesize it into only “mini-pill” was introduced. It worked by progestogen, a substitute for progesterone. prompting changes in the cervix and uterus He refused to patent his process, allowing that inhibited the sperm from uniting with others to freely use the technique. the egg. The mini-pill was less effective at In 1949, Syntex, a pharmaceutical com- contraception than the progestin-estrogen pany, hired the Austrian-born chemist Carl pills and did not become as popular. Innova- Djerassi (1929–) to work on synthetic tions in the 1970s reduced the amount of es- steroids. Djerassi quickly found a compound trogen in the first type of pills, keeping them that substituted for progesterone and could as effective, but reducing the risks. In 1982, be administered orally. He applied for a the biphasic pill was introduced, followed by patent on a progestin compound on Novem- the triphasic pill in 1984.These low-dose pills ber 22, 1951. At the same time, the Polish- changed the ratio of progestin to estrogen born chemist Frank B. Colton (1923–), from pill to pill during the normal 21-day working at the G. D. Searle pharmaceutical cycle that pills are taken. company, found a similar substance and ap- The feminist movement welcomed the pill plied for a patent a year and a half after and its implications for allowing women to Djerassi did. Searle called its product Enovid. control their own fertility. As medical prob- Pincus conducted a secret trial, using the lems emerged with the pill, some factions progestin products from Syntex and Searle, within the feminist movement condemned on fifty women in Massachusetts and was en- the pill as being foisted on women by an un- couraged by the results. Larger clinical trials caring medical profession and drug compa- followed in Puerto Rico, Haiti, and Mexico nies. Other feminists condemned drug com- City,where local laws were not so restrictive. panies for not also developing chemical or They found that certain batches of Searle’s hormonal contraceptives for men, leaving the product produced fewer side effects. Oddly onus of contraceptive responsibility on enough the reason was that those batches had women only. been contaminated with small amounts of es- trogen. The contraceptive failure rate from See also Feminism; Foundations; Medicine; Pharmacology; Population Studies the trial was under 2 percent. References In 1957, Searle received approval from the Briant, Keith. Marie Stopes:A Biography. London: Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to Hogarth, 1962. market Enovid (containing small amounts of Clarke, Adele E. Disciplining Reproduction: estrogen) for women with repeated miscar- ,American Life Sciences, and ‘the Problem of Sex.’ Berkeley and : University of riages and menstrual disorders. By 1959, California Press, 1998. about half a million American women were Djerassi, Carl. This Man’s Pill: Reflections on the using the product, though not nearly that 50th Birthday of the Pill. New York: Oxford many suffered from the “approved” problems. University Press, 2001. Searle requested approval for using the drug Gray, Madeline. Margaret Sanger:A Biography of the as an oral contraceptive, and in May 1960 the Champion of Birth Control. New York: Putnam, 1979. FDA approved the first drug prescribed for Marks, Lara V. Sexual Chemistry:A History of the healthy women. The pill launched a revolu- Contraceptive Pill. New Haven: tion in birth control and sexual expression. Press, 2001. By 1969, researchers had proved that early Tone, Andrea. Devices and Desires:A History of complaints about side effects of the pill, such Contraceptives in America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001. as blood clots, stroke, and heart attacks, were Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel. On the Pill:A Social justified.They found a direct relationship be- History of Oral Contraceptives, 1950–1970. tween the amount of estrogen in the pill and Baltimore: Press, the problems. In the early 1970s a progestin- 1998. 40 Black Holes

Black Holes black hole sucked material off its companion Black holes are a form of mathematical sin- star, spitting out x-rays during the process. gularities, collapsed stars whose concen- (1931–) and Stephen Hawk- trated mass produces such intense gravity ing (1942–) began to work on the problem of that even light cannot escape. Although Al- black holes and in 1970 published a theory bert Einstein (1879–1955) admitted that the that argued that, although black holes could equations of his theory of not be observed, relativistic radiation from could be worked to create a singularity, he near the event horizon of black holes should thought it physically impossible that such a be detectable. The event horizon is the thing could exist. The German astronomer boundary of black holes, the boundary inside Karl Schwarzschild (1873–1916) predicted which incoming mass can no longer escape that collapsed stars would not emit radia- the intense gravity of the black hole. The tion, and he tragically died in Schwarzschild radius is used to describe the only months after sending a letter about his radius of the event horizon of a black hole. calculations to Einstein. Schwarzschild’s Drawing on the work of Subrahmanyan ideas were considered a mere mathematical Chandrasekhar (1910–1995) and others, the- quirk. Then two papers published in 1939, oretical physicists calculated the stellar mass both coauthored by Robert Oppenheimer, necessary for a star to eventually collapse into used the theories of relativity and quantum a black hole. mechanics to examine what would happen if Although theory predicted the existence massive stars collapsed at the end of their life of black holes, observational evidence was cycle.The equations predicted that the mass nonexistent.The discovery of pulsars in 1967 would collapse so far down that gravity offered hope, when scientists concluded that would overcome the nuclear forces separat- pulsars were really spinning neutron stars. ing subatomic particles and a singularity The same chain of mathematical reasoning would be formed. that led to the idea of neutron stars also led to In a remarkable example of a physicist that of black holes. In 1971, an orbiting satel- reinventing himself later in life, John A. lite observatory detected intense x-rays ema- Wheeler (1911–) turned from nuclear nating from a binary system in the constella- physics and building bombs to relativistic the- tion Cygnus. Many astronomers believe that ory. He focused his attention on singularities this system, called Cygnus X-1, consists of a and promoted research in this area in the black hole in orbit around a blue supergiant 1950s and 1960s. In 1967, Wheeler gave a some 6,000 light-years away in our own talk in New York City on singularities, which galaxy, sucking material away from its com- he called gravitationally completely collapsed panion star and causing a lot of x-ray noise in objects. The phrase was a mouthful, and an the process. anonymous member of the audience sug- The study of singularities not only is about gested the term black hole. Wheeler used the the eventual fate of large stars, but also finds term in a talk later that year, which was pub- application in the theory of the Big Bang.The lished in 1968, and he is now credited with Big Bang is thought to be a massive singular- coining the term. Soviet scientists used the ity that exploded to create the universe. In term frozen star until the term black hole be- the 1970s, Hawking proposed that in the im- came common. mediate aftermath of the Big Bang, numerous The Soviet scientists Yakov Boris Zeldovich miniature black holes were formed, each no (1914–1987) and O. H. Guseyov proposed in larger than a . Combining quantum 1965 that black holes could be located if they mechanics with relativity theory showed were part of a double system, in which the Hawking, to his astonishment, that these Boyer, Herbert 41 miniature black holes would emit radiation. Boyer, Herbert (1936–) Eventually they would explode, scattering The biochemists Herbert Boyer and Stanley energy and particles.This revolutionary idea, Cohen (1935–) developed the techniques running counter to all current theory on that genetic engineering is based upon. Her- black holes, became known as Hawking Radi- bert Wayne Boyer was born in , ation. According to his theory, these minia- Pennsylvania, where his father worked on ture black holes were an important part of the railroad and as a miner. As a high the sequence of events following the Big school football player whose coach also Bang, but no miniature black holes now re- taught science, Cohen soon developed an in- main. terest in science. In 1954 he enrolled in pre- Scientists also posited that black holes medical studies at Saint Vincent College in exist at the center of galaxies, consuming Latrobe, Pennsylvania, intent on becoming a stars and growing ever more massive as bil- doctor. The discovery of the structure of lions of years pass. In 1994, the Hubble Space DNA by James D.Watson (1928–) and Fran- Telescope found what many consider to be cis Crick (1916–2004) a year earlier had ex- evidence of a large black hole in the heart of cited him, and he named his two cats Watson the M87 galaxy.Astronomers have also found and Crick. Boyer graduated four years later evidence to support the idea that our own with a B.S. in biology and chemistry. He at- local galaxy, the Milky Way, has its own large tended the for his black hole at its center. doctorate and graduated in 1963, followed Quasars have gradually become identi- by three years of postdoctoral work at Yale. fied as one of the proofs that black holes Boyer married in 1959 and fathered two exist.The current thinking about quasars is children. that they are distant objects that give hints In 1966, Boyer became an assistant pro- about the first of billion years after fessor at the University of California at San the Big Bang. The great energy output of Francisco. Boyer and his students worked on each is the result of energy being restriction enzymes found in Escherichia coli emitted by a large spinning black hole found (E. coli).These bacteria live in the human di- at the center of a galaxy, where stars are lit- gestive system, helping us digest our food. erally being consumed by the ravenous Geneticists favor E. coli because it is simple black hole. Matter shooting from the black in structure and reproduces quickly in cul- hole forms jets of energy and debris thou- ture. Boyer learned how to use enzymes to sands of light-years long, and the matter is cut away a selected strand from the DNA moving so fast that relativistic effects are molecule. created, such as time slowing relative to the At a 1972 conference in , Boyer rest of the universe. met Stanley N. Cohen, a biochemist at Stan- ford University. Cohen, extending the work See also Astronomy; Chandrasekhar, of another Stanford biochemist, Subrahmanyan; Hawking, Stephen; Oppenheimer, J. Robert; Penrose, Roger; (1926–), was also working with E. coli and Quasars; Satellites;Telescopes;Wheeler, John had created a way to remove plasmids from A. cells and reinsert them into other cells. Plas- References mids are small rings of genetic material sepa- Hawking, Stephen W. A Brief History of Time: From rate from the main DNA in a cell. Boyer and the Big Bang to Black Holes. New York: Bantam, 1988. Cohen worked together to combine their Wheeler, John Archibald, with Kenneth Ford. techniques to cut away strands of DNA from Geons, Black Holes and Quantum Foam:A Life of one plasmid and insert it into another plas- Physics. New York: Norton, 1998. mid. These new plasmids were then injected 42 Broecker, Wallace S. into E. coli bacteria to create a new organism, A.B. a year later. He received his master’s de- and genetic engineering was born. gree in 1956 and his doctorate in geology in In 1975, the venture capitalist Robert 1958. He remained at Columbia as a faculty Swanson approached Boyer about forming a member at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Ob- company to exploit this new technique. servatory, and in 1977 he became the New- Genentech became one of the first genetic berry Professor of Earth and Environmental engineering firms, and Boyer served as a vice Sciences at Columbia. He married in 1952, president. Genentech quickly created varia- fathered six children, and now describes him- tions of E. coli that produced insulin and self as areligious. human growth hormone.They patented these Broecker’s early work concentrated on new forms of life, and in a landmark 1980 de- using chemical and radioactive tracers to cision, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed that track water circulation patterns in the life created in a lab could be patented. Patent world’s oceans.The Geochemical Ocean Sec- rights allowed Genentech to protect its in- tions Study (GEOSECS), sponsored by the vestment from other companies. Patenting a Scripps Institute of Oceanography, collected life-form was very controversial; the data from , Pacific, and Indian Supreme Court’s decision made the current Oceans between 1972 and 1977. Broecker form of the genetic engineering industry pos- partially led the GEOSECS effort and pub- sible. lished Tracers of the Sea in 1982 based on his Boyer became a full professor in 1976, the conclusions from GEOSECS. Broecker’s same year that Genentech was formed, and most important contribution came from his has remained in academia, though he made study of the thermohaline circulation system millions of dollars from Genentech. He has in the northern Atlantic, which circulates continued to do research and has received heat from the tropics up to the water off of numerous awards, including the National northwest Europe, making that part of the Medal of Science in 1990. world much warmer than would normally be See also Biotechnology; Cohen, Stanley N.; the case.This effect, which operates in some Crick, Francis; Genetics;Watson, James D. ways like a conveyer belt, is now called References Broecker’s Conveyor Belt. Genentech. http://www.gene.com/ (accessed Broecker was also interested in the geol- February 12, 2004). ogy of ice ages and paleoclimatology. His Hall, Stephen S. Invisible Frontiers:The Race to 1966 paper with his student Jan Van Donk Synthesize a Human Gene. New York:Atlantic Monthly, 1987. used analysis of deep-sea cores to show that Milankovitch’s ice age theory was correct. The Serbian scientist Milutin Milankovitch (1879–1958) posited in 1920 that the ice Broecker, Wallace S. (1931–) ages were caused by astronomical variations A geologist and oceanographer who pio- in Earth’s orbit. Broecker went on to explain neered the study of ocean circulation cycles, the Younger Dryas period, a time just after Wallace S. Broecker has also been one of the end of the last ice age when a drop in those scientists who have sounded a warning temperature almost restarted the ice age, as about global warming. Wallace S. Broecker the result of an interruption in the ocean heat (Wally) was born in Chicago into a family of conveyor system. fundamentalist Christians, where his father Based on his understanding of oceanogra- ran a gas station. He studied at Wheaton Col- phy, Broecker became an outspoken icono- lege from 1949 to 1952 before transferring clast on the dangers of global warming and to Columbia University and completing an . His study of ice age cycles Broecker, Wallace S. 43

See also Environmental Movement; Geology; convinced him that Earth can switch quite Global Warming; Oceanography suddenly from one mode to another and that References global warming could inadvertently trigger Calvin,William H. “The Great Climate Flip-Flop.” another ice age. His 1985 book, How to Build Atlantic Monthly 281, no. 1 (January 1998): a Habitable Planet, is pessimistic about human- 47–64. ity’s effect on the global climate. Among his Stevens,William K. “Scientist at Work:Wallace S. Broecker, Iconoclastic Guru of the Climate many awards, Broecker received the National Debate.” New York Times, March 17, 1998, F1. Medal of Science in 1996. C

Carson, Rachel (1907–1964) all publications for the service. On her own The biologist Rachel Carson combined her time she wrote popular articles on natural understanding of science with her writing history for newspapers and magazines. A talent to produce books that transformed book published in 1941, Under the Sea-Wind, how people viewed the natural world and sold poorly. Her next book, The Sea around alerted the world to the dangers of pesti- Us, published in 1951, won the National Book cides. More than any other writer, Carson Award, was translated into many languages, shaped the emergence of modern environ- and brought her fame as a writer who could mentalism out of an older conservation tradi- bring the magic of nature and science to the tion. Born in Springdale, Pennsylvania, Car- masses. She earned enough from the book to son enjoyed the outdoors and loved books. In resign from government service and devote 1925, she earned a partial scholarship to the herself full-time to writing.A 1955 book, The Pennsylvania College for Women. Her family Edge of the Sea, further established her reputa- sacrificed so that she could attend college, tion. and she majored in English, with ambitions to Her final book, Silent Spring, published in become a writer. A required course in biol- 1962, was a well-documented polemic on the ogy turned her interests to science. She dangers of synthetic pesticides, which she la- earned another partial scholarship, took on beled “elixirs of death.”These pesticides were more debt, and transferred to Johns Hopkins chemical toxins that enabled high crop yields University, graduating magna cum laude in by killing small insects and other pests. 1929.Three years later she earned a master’s Among the pesticides she described was degree in zoology from Johns Hopkins. She DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane), wanted to work on a doctorate, but finances developed in 1942 by Paul Müller of Switzer- forced her to turn to teaching jobs. land, who received a Nobel Prize in Physiol- The death of her father in 1935 and the ogy or Medicine in 1948 for this break- death of her older sister a year later left Car- through. DDT was toxic in minute amounts, son with a mother and two nieces to care for. and Carson described the research that She found a job with the U.S. Bureau of Fish- showed that exposure to DDT poisoned agri- eries (later to become the U.S. Fish and cultural workers and was persistent enough Wildlife Service), writing radio scripts for to pass through the food chain. Eggs from them, and eventually rose to editor in chief of hens fed alfalfa from fields sprayed by DDT

45 46 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

See also Agriculture; Environmental Movement References Lear, Linda. Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature. New York: Henry Holt, 1997. Rachel Carson.org. http://www.rachelcarson. org/ (accessed February 12, 2004).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Founded in 1946 as part of the United States Public Health Service, the Communicable Disease Center (CDC) first used a building from the defunct Office of Malaria Control in War Areas in Atlanta, Georgia.The CDC ini- tially worked to combat malaria and other in- sect-borne communicable diseases. As its funding, staff, and responsibilities expanded, the government changed the name of the CDC to the Center for Disease Control in 1970. A decade later, with more centers being added to its organization, the name Rachel Louise Carson, biologist and environmental activist, changed again to Centers for Disease Con- 1952 (Bettmann/Corbis) trol.The final name change came in 1992, to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, emphasizing the role of proactive disease pre- vention, though the organization did not showed concentrations of the chemical. DDT change its well-known initials. The CDC is passed into milk when cows ate hay sprayed now an agency of the federal Department of by the pesticide, and DDT also devastated Health and Human Services and employs bird populations. Carson argued that modern 8,500 scientists, physicians, and staff around agriculture should turn to alternatives, such the United States and the world. as biological controls and the release of ster- In 1961, the CDC took over publishing the ile insect males. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report The chemical and agricultural industries (MMWR), a weekly compilation of deaths attacked Carson and her book, spreading and disease causes from all over the United falsehoods about her character and her scien- States. The MMWR is often the tool that tific work. They derided her scientific cre- alerts the CDC to new disease outbreaks, and dentials (only a master’s degree), mocked her it played this role when acquired immunode- status as a popular writer, and slyly insinuated ficiency syndrome (AIDS) initially surfaced in that her gender disqualified her from serious 1981. The CDC also publishes on scientific work. Desperately ill with cancer, smoking, violence, sexually transmitted dis- Carson pressed for pesticide legislation on eases, heart diseases, and other causes of ill- the national and state levels. After her death, ness and mortality besides communicable dis- DDT and some other pesticides were banned eases. Programs on occupational safety, from the United States and other Western na- injury prevention, and environmental health tions, and many bird populations that had also fall under the expanded CDC purview. been declining began to come back. Silent An older federal agency, the National Insti- Spring has remained a prophetic classic. tutes of Health (NIH), overlaps with the Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan 47

CDC.When soldiers at Fort Dix, New Jersey, became ill with influenza, and one died, the blood work found a variant of influenza called the swine flu. Alarmed that a repeat of the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic might occur, the CDC urged the federal government to ini- tiate preventive . The pandemic failed to materialize, embarrassing the presi- dent, Gerald R. Ford (1913–), the federal government, and the CDC. The CDC created the Epidemic Intelli- gence Service (EIS) in 1951 to respond to epidemic outbreaks around the world. EIS has been instrumental in responding to out- breaks of new exotic diseases, including the Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa fevers in Africa. The CDC and EIS provide support for prob- lems outside of the United States because of AIDS researcher at the Centers for Disease Control and the recognition that the age of airline travel Prevention (CDC/Public Health Information Library) has made every corner of the world so inter- connected that disease outbreaks can no longer be considered only a local matter. CDC in its responsibilities, at times causing See also Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; duplication of efforts and bad feelings be- Medicine; National Institutes of Health; tween the two organizations, though in gen- Smallpox Vaccination Campaign;World Health eral the NIH concentrates on basic research Organization and the CDC works on recognizing and con- References trolling communicable diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http: //www.cdc.gov/ (accessed February 13, The physician Donald A. Henderson 2004). worked at the CDC from 1955 to 1966 be- Etheridge, Elizabeth W. Sentinel for Health:A fore leaving to join the World Health Organi- History of the Centers for Disease Control. Berkeley zation (WHO), where from 1966 to 1979 he and Los Angeles: University of California led the smallpox vaccination campaign that Press, 1992. Garrett, Laurie. The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging successfully eliminated smallpox in the wild. Diseases in a World out of Balance. New York: The CDC maintains one of the few known Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1994. samples of the smallpox virus in its freezers Mullen, Fitzhugh. Plagues and Politics:The Story of in a maximum-containment laboratory. the United States Public Health Service. New York: An outbreak of a new type of pneumonia at Basic, 1989. a Philadelphia convention of the American Le- gion in 1976 led to twenty-nine dead and many more sick. The CDC successfully iso- Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan lated the cause, Legionella pneumophilia, or Le- (1910–1995) gionnaire’s Disease, a year later. Studies by the Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar made impor- CDC showed that contaminated water spread tant contributions to that laid the the disease, even through air conditioning sys- theoretical basis for black holes, quasars, neu- tems, and had caused earlier outbreaks that tron stars, and pulsars. Subrahmanyan Chan- had remained a mystery up until then. The drasekhar, called Chandra by all who knew year 1976 also saw a major misstep by the him, was born in Lahore, a city in the British 48 Chaos Theory colony of India (later to become Pakistan), to Chandra returned to India to marry in a high-caste family. His father was a govern- 1936, and the next year took his bride with ment official and musicologist, and his him to America. His dispute with Eddington mother was a literary scholar. His uncle, Sir made an academic appointment difficult in Chandrasekhar Venkata Raman (1888–1970), Britain, so he found a position at the Univer- who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930, sity of Chicago. He worked peripherally on inspired Chandra to become a scientist. the Manhattan Project, became a U.S. citizen Chandra earned a degree in physics from in 1953, and turned out a long stream of sci- Presidency College at the University of entific research, including work on radiative Madras in 1930, having already written his transfer, plasma physics, and a mathematical first two published scientific papers (at the model of spinning black holes. Chandra did age of eighteen). A scholarship allowed him not hold a grudge against Eddington, later to go to England to study at College at eulogizing him, but he did make a deliberate Cambridge University.On the voyage he read effort to be open to the ideas of his own stu- The Internal Constitution of Stars, by the emi- dents. Though his most influential work was nent Cambridge astronomer Sir Arthur Stan- done in the 1930s—following the tradition ley Eddington (1882–1944). Eddington ar- that most physicists make their major contri- gued that all stars went through a life cycle bution while in their twenties or thirties— that ended with them becoming white the significance of his work was not generally dwarfs. recognized for another two decades. The Applying the theory of 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics was jointly and quantum statistics to the problem, Chan- awarded to Chandra and William A. Fowler dra concluded that Eddington’s theory only (1911–1995), giving Chandra credit for applied to stars that contained up to 1.44 work done half a century earlier. Fowler had times the mass of the Sun. If a star contained also worked on the problem of stellar evolu- more mass, the collapse of the star after a su- tion, independently of Chandra. pernova would mean that the force of gravity See also Astronomy; Black Holes; Nobel Prizes; would compress the atoms of the star into Pulsars; Quasars subatomic particles through relativistic de- References generacy.This value of 1.44 times the mass of Wali, Kameshwar C. Chandra:A Biography of S. the Sun later became known as the Chan- Chandrasekhar. Chicago: University of Chicago drasekhar Limit. Chandra continued to work Press, 1991. ———. S. Chandrasekhar:The Man behind the on his theory at Cambridge and discussed his Legend. London: Imperial College Press, 1997. work extensively with Eddington. When Chandra presented his theory in 1933 to the Royal Astronomical Society, Eddington arranged to follow Chandra with his own sur- Chaos Theory prise presentation. He ridiculed relativistic Chaos theory,sometimes called the science of degeneracy and Chandra’s ideas. Chandra was complexity, is a new mathematical under- emotionally shattered by this assault. He standing of physical phenomena represented earned his Ph.D. in 1933 and remained at by systems of nonlinear equations. Classical Cambridge for the next four years, continu- Newtonian physics predicted that the physical ing to do research in order to build support world behaved in a mechanical, deterministic for his theory.Although many eminent physi- manner, best described by linear equations. cists privately told him that he was on the Nonlinear equations contain infinite quanti- right track, the fame and authority of Ed- ties and can often only be solved approxi- dington prevented them from offering more mately.The great French mathematician and public support. astronomer Jules Henri Poincaré (1854– Chemistry 49

1912) realized at the turn of the century that probably misnamed, since the use of the word Newton’s equations were not always so chaos implies that there are no constraints; in straightforward and that small differences in reality, chaotic systems confine themselves to initial conditions of nonlinear equations a limited range of behavior.The implications could have dramatic effects when calculating of chaos theory are still in the early stages, the orbits of planets. The development of but clearly the Newtonian understanding of computers, allowing approximate solutions physical phenomena is being significantly re- to large systems of equations, enabled scien- vised. Chaos theory has been applied to al- tists to examine nonlinear equations more most every area of science, including ecology, closely. thermodynamics, chemistry, astrophysics, bi- The meteorologist Edward N. Lorenz ology, economics, cognitive science, medi- (1917–) introduced the term cine, and even political geography. to describe his own insight that a small See also Computers; Gell-Mann, Murray; Lorenz, change in initial conditions can have a dra- Edward N.; Mandelbrot, Benoit matic effect on later events, or as he titled a References 1972 paper, “: Does the Flap of Briggs, John, and F. David Peat. Turbulent Mirror: a Butterfly’s Wings in Brazil Set off a Tornado An Illustrated Guide to Chaos Theory and the in Texas?” Because of the nature of chaos, he Science of Wholeness. New York: Harper and Row, 1989. argued, even the best knowledge of current Gell-Mann, Murray. The Quark and the Jaguar: weather conditions would not enable meteo- Adventures in the Simple and the Complex. San rologists to predict weather too far into the Francisco:W.H. Freeman, 1994. future. Lorenz used computer modeling to Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. New illustrate his ideas and developed a set of York: Penguin, 1987. Lorenz, Edward N. The Essence of Chaos. Seattle: well-known equations used in chaos theory. Press, 1993. Computers became the essential tool of Pagels, Heinz R. The Dreams of Reason:The Computer chaos theorists. and the Rise of the Sciences of Complexity. New The mathematician York: Simon and Schuster, 1988. (1924–) coined the word to describe physical shapes that have the same jagged shape no matter what scale you choose to use Chemistry when looking at them. He noticed that his Beginning in the early nineteenth century, computer-generated color images resembled chemistry has flourished as a successful sci- shapes in nature, such as the curve of coast- ence, not only explaining the chemical lines, the patterns in turbulent liquids, processes of the world, but contributing to snowflakes, blood vessels, and other natural technological advances. After World War II, systems that reflect chaotic behavior. In chemistry continued to change dramatically, 1979, he developed his Mandelbrot Set to and many chemistry graduates found employ- support his theory of fractals, and his 1982 ment in a burgeoning set of related fields: book, The of Nature, with its biochemistry, genetics, pharmacology, chem- gorgeous computer-generated pictures of ical engineering, environmental science, geo- fractals, helped scientists understand that chemistry, and chemical physics. Biochem- fractals were a fundamental element of istry and molecular biology have grown so emerging chaos theory. fast since the 1970s that college instructors The physicist and Nobel laureate Murray have difficulty finding textbooks current with Gell-Mann (1929–) and others founded the the field. in in 1984 to New tools allowed chemists to peer more promote the study of chaos theory and other deeply into the physical world.The transmis- implications of complexity. Chaos theory is sion electron (TEM), developed 50 Chemistry

by the German physicist performing complex calculations on mea- (1906–1988) in 1931, works like a tradi- surements taken from x-ray photographs. tional light telescope, but uses electrons in- , the analysis of light to deter- stead of for viewing objects smaller mine the chemical composition of the light’s than traditional light-based source or of the place the light was reflected could image.The first electron micrograph of from, was first discovered by the Swiss Johann an intact cell was published in 1945. The Balmer (1825–1898) in 1885. It became an scanning (SEM), first important tool for chemists. In 1950, two developed in 1942 at the RCA Laboratories English chemists, Ronald G. W. Norrish in the United States, did not become a com- (1897–1978) and (1920– mercial product until the 1960s; it resolved 2002), developed the technique of flash pho- smaller objects than the TEM by scanning a tolysis: they used flashes of light each only a beam of electrons across an object and using fraction of a second long to apply spectro- magnetic lenses to focus the resulting image. scopic analysis to extremely fast chemical re- The scanning tunneling microscope (STM), actions. Porter later used lasers to generate invented in 1979 by the German physicist flashes of light only a nanosecond long. (1947–) and the Swiss physicist , macromolecules made up of (1933–) at the International smaller molecules (called monomers), were Business Machines (IBM) Zürich Research first discovered in the late nineteenth cen- Laboratory, can image down to the atomic tury. DNA itself is a macromolecule. As the level. Ruska, Binnig, and Rohrer shared the twentieth century progressed, chemists un- 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics. derstood polymers better and got better at The new field of x-ray manufacturing these wonder materials of emerged after World War I, where x-rays re- modern technological civilization, with over flected through crystals resulted in photo- a hundred different polymers and plastics in graphs. The American chemist use at the end of the century. Organic poly- (1901–1994) used x-ray diffraction photog- mers have been used in medicine and surgery, raphy in the 1930s to analyze the crystal and some scientists hold out hope of using structure of inorganic molecules and to revo- polymers to create artificial organs. lutionize the understanding of chemical The English chemist Derek H. R. Barton bonds. The momentous discovery of the (1918–1998) revolutionized organic chem- structure of the deoxyribonucleic acid istry with his development of conformational (DNA) molecule by the zoologist James D. analysis in the early 1950s, demonstrating Watson (1928–) and the biologist Francis how the shapes of organic carbon rings dic- Crick (1916–2004) in 1953 revolutionized tated their chemical and biological proper- the study of genetics. They based their dis- ties. The crystalline forms of carbon are im- covery on x-ray diffraction photographs portant compounds, including and taken of the DNA molecule by the chemist graphite, with many industrial uses.The 1996 Rosiland Franklin (1920–1958). Dorothy Nobel Prize in Chemistry went to three Crowfoot Hodgkin (1910–1994) determined chemists, the Americans Robert F. Curl Jr. the chemical structure and shape of peni- (1933–) and Richard E. Smalley (1943–) and cillin, vitamin B12, and insulin by using x-ray the Englishman Sir Harold W.Kroto (1939–), crystallography.The chemical formula for B12 for their discovery of carbon balls, fullerenes, that she announced in 1957 was which are formed in symmetric shapes simi- C63H88N14O14PCo, and the structure of the lar to the design of the innovative insulin molecule that she revealed in 1969 thinker Buckminster Fuller (1895–1983). contained 777 atoms. Computer programs The buckminsterfullerene, composed of sixty helped her in her work on insulin molecules, carbon molecules, is known as the buckyball. Chomsky, Noam 51

Some other notable advances in chemistry References have included the discovery of dozens of new Aldersey-Williams, Hugh. The Most Beautiful elements, all predicted by the , Molecule:The Discovery of the Buckyball. New York:Wiley, 1997. usually created in or particle accel- Chemical Heritage Foundation. http://www. erators, since element 43 (technetium) and all chemheritage.org/ (accessed February 13, elements with an atomic number greater than 2004). 83 are found only as radioactive isotopes.The Fruton, Joseph. Proteins, Enzymes, Genes:The chemist Willard F. Libby (1908–1980) devel- Interplay of Chemistry and Biology. New Haven: oped the process of carbon-14 dating in the Yale University Press, 1999. Kohler, Robert. From Medical Chemistry to late 1940s, one of the most important tools Biochemistry:The Making of a Biomedical Discipline. ever given archaeologists. In 1962, the New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982. British-born Neil Bartlett (1932–) synthe- Levere,Trevor H. Transforming Matter:A History of sized the first noble gas, xenon hexafluoro- Chemistry from Alchemy to the Buckyball. platinate, XePtF . More noble gases followed, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 6 2001. used as powerful oxidizing agents in laborato- Reinhardt, Carsten, editor. Chemical Science in the ries. In the 1970s, when an anticancer medi- : Bridging Boundaries.Weinheim, cine was found in Pacific yew tree bark, Germany:Wiley-Vch, 2001. chemists created a method of synthesizing the drug (paclitaxel) so that yew trees would not have to be harvested. One of the great success stories of chem- Chomsky, Noam (1928–) istry in the first half of the century became a Noam Chomsky revolutionized the study of nightmare in the second half. First invented linguistics by arguing that language and gram- in 1928, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) became mar arose from innate traits in the human a wonder chemical, manufactured for use in brain. Avram Noam Chomsky was born in air conditioners and aerosol cans, and the Philadelphia, where his father was a noted basis of a multibillion-dollar industry by the Hebrew scholar who had emigrated from the 1970s. Drawing on the work of Dutch-born fifteen years earlier. His mother was chemist Paul Crutzen (1933–), the Mexican also a Hebrew scholar, as well as a writer of chemist Mario Molina (1943–) and the children’s books. In 1945 Chomsky entered American chemist F. Sherwood Rowland the University of Pennsylvania, where he be- (1927–), working at the University of Cali- came a protégé of the linguist Zellig Harris fornia at Irvine, discovered in 1974 that CFC (1932–2002). He earned a bachelor’s degree gases accelerated the decay of the ozone layer. in linguistics in 1949 and remained at the Further research confirmed continuing dam- University of Pennsylvania to receive his mas- age to the ozone layer, with possible cata- ter’s degree in 1951 and his doctorate in strophic results for human civilization. The 1955. He then joined the faculty of the Mas- Montreal Protocol international agreements sachusetts Institute of Technology and has re- of 1987, 1990, and 1992 committed signato- mained at MIT, with occasional semesters at ries to phasing out the use of CFCs. other institutions as a visiting professor. See also Archaeology; Barton, Derek; Cold Chomsky married a fellow linguist in 1949, Fusion; Crick, Francis; Crutzen, Paul; and they have three children. Franklin, Rosiland; Fuller, Buckminster; Drawing on some of the ideas of Harris, Genetics; Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot; Chomsky published Syntactic Structures in Lasers; Libby,Willard F.; Medicine; Molina, 1957. At that time, ideas about the origin of Mario; Nobel Prizes; Ozone Layer and language were shaped by behaviorist notions, Chlorofluorocarbons; Particle Accelerators; Pauling, Linus; Pharmacology; Rowland, F. such as those offered by the noted psychologist Sherwood;Watson, James D. B. F. Skinner (1904–1990). The behaviorists 52 Clarke, Arthur C.

argued that newborn babies had a blank mind, Clarke, Arthur C. (1917–) a tabula rasa, and that children acquired lan- One of the leading science fiction authors and guage through learning and mimicry. Chom- science writers of the twentieth century, Sir sky argued that human beings were in fact Arthur C. Clarke also conceived of the idea of born with the innate ability to understand the communications satellites. Arthur Charles generative grammars that form the basis of all Clarke was born in Minehead, Somerset, human languages. Children use this innate England, where his father was a postal ability to learn the languages that they are ex- worker. Interested in science from a young posed to. Chomsky cemented his linguistic age, Clarke built his own telescope at age theory in 1965 with Aspects of the Theory of Syn- thirteen and drew detailed maps of the tax and in 1975 with The Logical Structure of Lin- Moon. During World War II, he served in the guistic Theory. Research in cognitive science Royal Air Force as a radar technician and later confirmed Chomsky’s ideas. The impact began publishing science fiction, short sto- of Chomsky on linguistics is comparable to the ries, and technical papers. In a 1945 article impact of Charles Darwin (1809–1882) on for World, he proposed the idea of evolution and biology or satellites in geosynchronous orbit remaining (1879–1955) on physics. Chomsky’s devastat- stationary above Earth and providing relays ing critique of Skinner’s behaviorism helped for radio transmissions. Commentators often diminish that theory’s influence on psychol- referred to him as the “father of the commu- ogy, and Chomsky’s ideas have important im- nications satellite” after this became a com- plications for other areas of psychology as well mon technology twenty years later, though it as for cognitive science, anthropology, neurol- was not his article that inspired the actual ogy, and sociology. building of communications satellites. After Although Chomsky has remained engaged the war, Clarke attended King’s College in in his linguistic studies, he has also gained London, and in 1948 he graduated with a considerable attention for his extensive po- B.Sc. degree in physics and mathematics. litical publications. Energized by the antiwar Clarke continued to publish articles and movement that opposed American involve- books on the possibility of space travel while ment in Vietnam, Chomsky became politi- working as an assistant editor for the journal cally active in 1964. His essays, books, and Science Abstracts. lectures have focused on the self-serving na- Clarke’s second book, Exploration of Space ture of American foreign policy.His political (1951), sold well enough to encourage orientation consists of a curious blend of an- Clarke to become a full-time writer. With archism, socialism, and libertarianism. He this book and later books, Clarke became a displays a visceral distrust of authority and world-famous science writer, concentrating institutions that claim authority. In the on technology and the future of space explo- United States, he usually aligns himself with ration.After his only marriage proved to be a leftists. His writings have become influential failure, Clarke moved to Ceylon (later called outside of the United States, and he remains Sri Lanka), where he made his permanent far better known outside his country than home and became an avid scuba diver and within it. writer on undersea topics. Along with Isaac Asimov (1920–1992) See also Cognitive Science; Psychology; Skinner, and Robert A. Heinlein (1907–1988), B. F. Clarke is considered one of the three grand References old masters of the science fiction field. His Barksy, Robert F. Noam Chomsky:A Life of Dissent. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997. 1953 novel, Childhood’s End, is among his Haley, Michael C., and Ronald F. Lunsford. Noam best, describing a future in which an alien Chomsky. New York:Twayne, 1994. species arrives to raise up humanity from its Cloning 53

References Clarke, Arthur C. Greetings, Carbon-Based Bipeds! Collected Essays, 1934–1998. New York: St. Martin’s, 1999. ———. Profiles of the Future:An Inquiry into the Limits of the Possible. New York: Harper & Row, 1973. McAleer, Neil. Arthur C. Clarke:The Authorized Biography. Chicago: Contemporary, 1992.

Cloning Cloning is the process of creating a genetic duplicate of a previous organism. Cloning is common in nature as a method of reproduc- tion. As scientists came to understand the role of the nucleus in a cell and the role of ge- netic material, the idea emerged of removing the nucleus from an egg cell and replacing it Arthur C. Clarke, science fiction author and science writer, 1976 (Bettmann/Corbis) with the nucleus from another cell. In 1952, the American embryologist Robert Briggs (1911–1983) and a colleague tried to do this with eggs from the North American leopard childhood. He collaborated with the famous frog. Frog eggs were used because they were filmmaker Stanley Kubrick on the landmark relatively large and easy to manipulate. They 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey, considered were only partially successful, and later work by many to be one of the finest science fic- showed that the embryonic age of a cell was tion movies of all time. He served as a tele- very important to success.After eggs are fer- vision commentator during the first Moon tilized, they start a rapid timetable of division landing, a vindication of the faith and vision, and differentiation, as different cells become influenced by science fiction, that he and precursors to each type of cell found in an an- other futurists shared. In 2000, Clarke was imal’s body. knighted. In 1970, repeated experiments with frog In 1962, Clarke formulated three laws, eggs produced animals that reached the tad- which became well-known: pole stage before they died. By 1984, the When a distinguished but elderly scientist technique had been improved enough to lead states that something is possible he is almost to the successful cloning of a sheep. By 1994, certainly right.When he states that calves had been cloned, by a process transfer- something is impossible, he is very probably ring a nucleus into an egg that had reached an wrong. amazing seven divisions. This last success The only way of discovering the limits of came after it was accidentally found that if an the possible is to venture a little way past egg was starved of nutrients, it restarted its them into the impossible. embryonic timetable. Any sufficiently advanced technology is In 1996, at Roslin Institute, a government indistinguishable from magic. (Profiles of the research facility near Edinburgh, Scotland, a Future 14, 21) team led by Ian Wilmut (1944–) and funded See also Asimov, Isaac; Media and Popular by a pharmaceutical corporation decided to Culture; Sagan, Carl; Satellites; Science take adult cells (not from an egg as in previ- Fiction ous efforts) from a sheep, starve them of 54 Cloning

Dolly the sheep, the first animal cloned from DNA taken from an adult animal (Najlah Feanny/Corbis Saba)

nutrients, and inject them into sheep eggs.An Many scientists have spoken out in opposi- electrical pulse started the cell dividing. Out tion to cloning on ethical and practical of 434 attempts, one succeeded, and on July grounds. The sociobiologist Edward O. Wil- 5, 1996, Dolly the sheep was born. Her exis- son (1929–), however, welcomed cloning and tence was announced February 22, 1997.This other genetic engineering advances as ways extraordinary event captured the world’s for humans to take conscious control of imagination. human evolution. There have been spurious With this successful cloning from an adult claims of cloning humans, but so far no pub- somatic cell, people immediately asked them- licly sanctioned experiments. selves whether humans should be cloned, and Other animals have been cloned from adult if so, when.This idea had originally been ex- cells since 1996, and for unknown reasons, se- plored in the realm of science fiction, some of rious medical problems are often common in it insightful and some of it seriously lacking in cloned animals. Suffering from a lung infec- scientific understanding. Many people are tion and chronic arthritis, Dolly was eutha- concerned about the ethics of human cloning, nized at the age of six in 2003. Efforts have wondering how two identical people would also been made to use the DNA from frozen be able to achieve distinct identities.This fear mammoths and elephant eggs to allow a fe- is caused by a belief in genetic determinism. male elephant to carry a mammoth to term. It ignores the question, is it our genes that So far this effort has met with no success. make us unique individuals or are we more See also Bioethics; Medicine; Science Fiction; than our genes? Wilson, Edward O. Cognitive Science 55

References By its nature, the study of cognitive science Brannigan, Michael C., editor. Ethical Issues in is an interdisciplinary activity, though some Human Cloning: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives. sixty academic departments or academic cen- New York: Seven Bridges, 2001. Kolata, Gina. Clone:The Road to Dolly, and the Path ters in cognitive science have been founded at Ahead. New York:William Morrow, 1998. different universities.Anthropology, cognitive MacKinnon, Barbara, editor. Human Cloning: psychology, linguistics, , ar- Science, Ethics, and Public Policy. Urbana: tificial intelligence, neurology, mathematics, University of Illinois Press, 2000. logic theory, and the philosophical study of Nussbaum, Martha, and Cass Sunstein, editors. the mind are all elements of cognitive science. Clones and Clones: Facts and Fantasies about Human Cloning. New York: Norton, 1998. The Cognitive Science Society was founded at Stone, Richard. Mammoth:The Resurrection of an Ice a meeting at the University of California at Age Giant. Cambridge, MA: Perseus, 2001. in 1979, and in 1986 that university Wilmut, Ian, Keith Campbell, and Colin Tudge. founded a department in cognitive science. The Second Creation: Dolly and the Age of Researchers in many different disciplines Biological Control. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000. added their expertise in the effort to under- stand how the human brain really worked.The American linguist Noam Chomsky (1928–) revolutionized the field of linguistics in the Cognitive Science late 1950s by arguing that language and gram- Cognitive science is the study of cognition, the mar arose from innate traits in the human process by which humans think.The invention brain. The British mathematician Roger Pen- of the electronic digital computer founded the rose (1931–), after making significant contri- field of cognitive science.The American math- butions to the theory of black holes, turned to ematician Marvin Minsky (1927–), a pioneer artificial intelligence. His studies in the 1980s in the field of artificial intelligence, was among and 1990s led him to argue that the human many who saw electronic computers as the brain can carry out processes that no com- first step toward the creation of genuine think- puter can do.This conclusion ran contrary to ing machines. Subsequent efforts in artificial the general consensus in the field. intelligence have fallen far short of expecta- The problem of consciousness plagues tions.To believe that the development of bet- cognitive science. How is it that people are ter computers will lead to artificial intelli- self-aware? Some have argued that the prob- gence requires a mechanistic theory of the lem does not really exist because our percep- mind, according to which there is no essential tion of consciousness is actually an illusion. difference between machines and humans. Neurologists have not found a way to associ- During the 1960s and 1970s, the idea that ate consciousness with any particular neural computers offered a model of how the human pattern or part of the brain. After decades of mind actually worked dominated the field. assuming that the problem would disappear, During the 1980s, when neurologists used in the 1980s a new subdiscipline of cognitive new tools to understand the brain, cognitive neuroscience emerged, which made the as- science moved away from the computer as a sumption that consciousness remained a cen- brain model and included research into how tral problem to be examined. the brain actually worked. Neural networks, The Harvard-based educator Howard which had first been experimented with in Gardner (1943–) drew on neuroscience to the early 1950s, made a resurgence, as com- argue that intelligence is not a single quantity puter programs tried to solve problems just in people, but that individuals possess multi- as the human brain did, through association ple types of intelligence. Gardner identified rather than sequential execution. seven types of intelligence: linguistic, musical, 56 Cohen, Stanley N. logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kines- in biochemistry from the University of Penn- thetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. He sylvania in 1960. After serving in various ac- found these different intelligences by studying ademic medical positions in New York City; how brain damage isolated different abilities, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Bethesda, Maryland; how the brain worked in idiot savants and and Durham, North Carolina, Cohen moved other exceptional individuals, how intelli- west to Stanford University. gence might have evolved through natural se- Cohen and his students extended the work lection, and what psychologists had found of another Stanford biochemist, Paul Berg through experiments and psychometrics. (1926–), by creating a way to remove plas- Gardner and other researchers have also iden- mids from cells and reinsert them into other tified four possible additional intelligences: cells. Plasmids are small rings of genetic ma- naturalist, spiritual, existential, and moral. In- terial separate from the main DNA in a cell. dividuals are not dominated by a single type of Cohen was using Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacte- intelligence, but possess each type of intelli- ria as the basis of his work, which are the bac- gence present to a different degree. Gardner’s teria that live in the human digestive system, ideas have had a significant effect on educa- helping us digest our food. E. coli are favored tion; the theory shows teachers how to mod- by geneticists because they are simple in ify their curriculum to take advantage of the structure and reproduce quickly in culture. different learning styles associated with each At a 1972 conference in Hawaii, Cohen met type of intelligence. Herbert Boyer, a biochemist at the University See also Artificial Intelligence; Chomsky; Noam; of California at San Francisco. Boyer was Computers; Minsky, Marvin; Neuroscience; working on restriction enzymes found in E. Penrose, Roger; Psychology coli. He had learned how to use the enzymes to References cut away a selected strand from the DNA mol- Bechtel,William, and George Graham, editors. A ecule. Cohen and Boyer worked together to Companion to Cognitive Science. Oxford: combine their techniques to cut away strands Blackwell, 1998. Dupuy, Jean-Pierre. The Mechanization of the Mind: of DNA from one plasmid and insert it into On the Origins of Cognitive Science.Translated by another plasmid. These new plasmids were M. B. DeBevoise. Princeton: Princeton then injected into E. coli bacteria and created a University Press, 2000. new organism. Genetic engineering was born. Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind:The Theory of Cohen called the new organisms chimeras, but Multiple Intelligences. Second edition. New York: Basic, 1993. the technical term clone is more commonly ———. Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences used, though not in the broader sense that the for the 21st Century. New York: Basic, 1999. layperson uses the term clone. Penrose, Roger. Shadows of the Mind:A Search for the Boyer has teamed up with a venture capi- Missing Science of Consciousness. New York: talist to form a company called Genentech to Oxford University Press, 1994. exploit this new technology. Cohen has con- Pinker, Steven. How the Mind Works. New York: Norton, 1997. tinued working at Stanford, increasing our knowledge about plasmid biology. He has re- ceived many awards, including the National Medal of Science in 1988. Cohen married in Cohen, Stanley N. (1935–) 1961 and has two children. The biochemists Stanley N. Cohen and Her- bert Boyer (1936–) developed the techniques See also Biotechnology; Boyer, Herbert; Crick, Francis; Genetics;Watson, James D. that genetic engineering are based upon. References Stanley N. Cohen was born in Perth Amboy, Hall, Stephen S. Invisible Frontiers:The Race to New Jersey, and received his bachelor’s de- Synthesize a Human Gene. New York:Atlantic gree from and a doctorate Monthly, 1987. Cold Fusion 57

Cold Fusion On March 23, 1989, the chemists Stanley Pons (1943–) and Martin Fleischmann (1927–) held a press conference with officials at the University of Utah where they announced that a simple laboratory experiment had created excess heat that could only be explained by a process of fusion occurring at room tempera- tures (thus the term cold fusion). Fleischmann was a respected senior electrochemist from England and a Fellow of the Royal Society. Normally the results of such an experiment would be presented at a scientific meeting or published in a scientific journal. Pons, Fleisch- mann, and university officials chose such an unorthodox method because another scientist, the physicist Steven E. Jones (1949–) at the nearby Brigham Young University, was also en- gaged in the same research.Whoever claimed priority on such a breakthrough technology A cold fusion experiment (Leif Skoogfors/Corbis) stood to earn billions of dollars from a source of energy that promised to be environmentally friendly and cheap. raise the temperatures the millions of degrees Even before successfully building the sufficient to actually create fusion.The dream atomic bomb, scientists created early fission of using fusion has not yet been realized. reactors with the potential to generate elec- The experiment of Pons and Fleischmann tricity. After World War II, intensive invest- consisted of a tabletop apparatus in which ment resulted in military and civilian fission- was electrolyzed by two elec- based nuclear reactors, used aboard ships and trodes made of palladium and platinum. The to generate for cities. These reac- experiment generated more energy than was tors generated radioactive waste, though put into it. From the beginning, many scien- other impacts by the reactors on the environ- tists, especially physicists, doubted that such a ment were minor compared with equivalent simple experiment could yield such dramatic coal-fired electrical generation plants. After results. Other laboratories around the world the hydrogen bomb proved that fusion could attempted to duplicate the experiment; some be harnessed to create an explosion, scientists met with partial success, and many failed. A sought to harness fusion in reactors. laboratory in Italy announced they had de- Fusion is the process that powers the Sun tected excess in their experiment, and the stars; it uses deuterium, a form of hy- an indication of fusion.The media went into a drogen, as its fuel.The promise of cheap elec- frenzy, and governments quickly announced tricity, created with reactors much safer than funding for cold fusion research. fission reactors and relying on a fuel easily ex- In a meeting of the American Physical So- tracted from ordinary water, excited policy ciety in Baltimore on May 1, 1989, physicists makers. Over the following decades, scien- condemned the entire idea of cold fusion. tists and engineers expended hundreds of From a sociological standpoint, Pons and millions of dollars pursuing hot fusion. They Fleischmann had three strikes against them. found fusion difficult to control, and fusion They were chemists claiming to succeed reactors required large amounts of power to where generations of physicists working on 58 Cold War hot fusion had failed; they had not followed Cold War the normal process of scientific publication; The greatest war in history,World War II, was and their simple experiment proved not to be fought on battlefields and in the laboratory. simple to reproduce. Cold fusion became a Never had a war been so dependent on re- classic cautionary tale teaching the impor- search in science and technology. Among the tance of repeating experimental results inventions that poured forth, many of them enough times to be certain and of following created on the basis of scientific research, were the accepted procedures of publication. radar, computers, jet airplanes, short-range The story did not end there. Pons and missiles, and the atomic bomb.A cold war de- Fleischmann left Utah for Nice, France, veloped in the late 1940s, a global ideological where the Japanese corporation Toyota struggle between communism and its centrally funded their research. Scientists at the United controlled markets, led by the Soviet Union, States conducted and democracy and free markets, led by the over two hundred experiments in cold fusion United States and its Western European allies. during the 1990s and achieved inconsistent Both antagonists realized how important sci- results.They did find hints that the composi- ence and technology were to their efforts, and tion of trace elements in the palladium elec- funding levels for research in science and tech- trode was very important and that micro- nology continued at unprecedented levels dur- scopic cracks stopped the experiment from ing the cold war, part of the race for newer producing excess energy. When they pub- weapons and prestige. lished their results, their work was ignored. The Soviet Union exploded its first atomic The Japanese government has funded a New bomb in 1949. The United States responded Hydrogen Energy program, and research has by developing a more powerful nuclear de- also continued in China and Italy. Neverthe- vice, relying on fusion rather than fission, and less, research on cold fusion has become exploded its first hydrogen bomb in 1952. pariah science, conducted on the fringes of The Soviets followed suit in 1953. The race respectable science. for nuclear weapons, and developing aircraft See also Chemistry; Hydrogen Bomb; Nuclear and ballistic missiles to deliver them, resulted Physics; Physics; Social Constructionism; in a standoff, based on the doctrine of mutual Universities assured destruction (MAD): both sides were References reluctant to use their nuclear weapons for Beaudette, Charles G. Excess Heat: Why Cold Fusion fear that a retaliatory strike would turn vic- Research Prevailed. Second edition. South tory into defeat. An anti-ballistic missile Bristol, ME: Oak Grove, 2002. Daviss, Bennett. “Reasonable Doubt.” New Scientist (ABM) treaty was even signed in 1972 to pro- 177, no. 2388 (March 29, 2003): 36–44. hibit the development of defensive missiles to Goodstein, David. “Pariah Science:Whatever shoot down incoming nuclear-tipped mis- Happened to Cold Fusion?” American Scholar 63 siles, because of concerns that such a defen- (1994): 527–541. sive system might undermine MAD. Frenzied Huizenga, John R. Cold Fusion:The Scientific Fiasco of the Century. Rochester, NY: University of open-air during the Rochester Press, 1992. 1950s led to scientists’ becoming concerned “Low Energy Nuclear Reactions—Chemically about the accumulation of radiation in the at- Assisted Nuclear Reactions.” http://www mosphere. Among others, the U.S. Nobel .lenr-canr.org/ (accessed February 13, 2004). laureate Linus Pauling (1901–1994) cam- Simon, Bart. Undead Science: Science Studies and the paigned for the United States and Soviet Afterlife of Cold Fusion. Rutgers, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002. Union to at least stop open-air testing in the Taubes, Gary. Bad Science:The Short Life and Weird interest of public health. His efforts helped Times of Cold Fusion. New York: Random lead to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, and House, 1993. Pauling received the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize. Cold War 59

Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev shakes hands with U.S. president following talks on the Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty in 1972. (National Archives)

Actual combat encounters between the and deployment of opposing forces. Spy satel- two superpowers proved to be rare, such as lites also made cheating on arms controls when reconnaissance aircraft were shot down, treaties more difficult. and the fact was usually quickly concealed in The governments of the United States, the order not to escalate the situation. Other na- Soviet Union, and their allies recruited their tions instead served as proxies, fighting ideo- best and brightest to serve in defense-related logically based surrogate wars. Besides the research and development. Scientists and en- economic and ideological arenas, the two su- gineers developed more advanced comput- perpowers competed by showing their scien- ers, computer networks, the Internet, better tific and technological prowess.The launching medicines, better alloys, industrial , of Sputnik I in 1957 by the Soviet Union as and technologies with no civilian use, like the part of the International Geophysical Year neutron bomb. Britain, France, and China (IGY) initiated a “space race” between the two also poured funding into defense-related re- superpowers, as they sought international search, developing their own nuclear prestige by achieving firsts.The Soviets placed weapons and trying to maintain their own the first animal (1957), first man (1961), and status as second-tier powers. first woman (1963) into orbit, but fell behind In an effort to break the nuclear stalemate as the Apollo project successfully landed an and concentrate on defensive weapons rather American astronaut on the moon in 1969. Be- than offensive weapons, Ronald Reagan sides the public relations advantages, the space (1911–2004), the ardently anticommunist race contributed to stabilizing the cold war; president of the United States, proposed in spy satellites could now ascertain the strength 1983 the development and construction of 60 Computers

the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), an or- Leslie, Stuart W. The Cold War and American Science: biting system of satellites to shoot down in- The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT coming intercontinental ballistic missiles. and Stanford. New York: Columbia University Later dubbed Star Wars, after the popular Press, 1994. Schwartz, Richard Alan. The Cold War Reference movie, SDI implementation required the Guide. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1997. United States to withdraw from the ABM Wang, Jessica. American Science in an Age of Anxiety: treaty, though the technology never advanced Scientists,Anticommunism, and the Cold War. enough to require that step. As the project Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina developed through the mid-1980s, the origi- Press, 1999. nal ambition of a near-perfect shield formed by orbiting satellites armed with antimissile missiles and beam weapons quickly became Computers more limited in conception, once it became During World War II, various defense proj- apparent that the Soviet Union could build ects in America and Britain developed high- more intercontinental ballistic missiles much electronic calculators, among which faster and cheaper than any possible SDI sys- were the first digital computers. Earlier com- tem that could be deployed. Although re- puters were either mechanical or analog- search continued on a much reduced scale, based. Digital computers represent data as SDI disappeared as a strategic vision until the discrete pieces of information, or bits.These second Bush administration revived it in new computers were based on vacuum-tube 2001, withdrawing from the ABM treaty, and technologies and experienced frequent fail- hoping to develop a limited system to shoot ures. Engineers extending the frontiers of down possible missiles from North Korea. their craft, rather than scientists, built these Though the cold war strained the computers. economies of the United States and its allies, The first truly digital computer that was it eventually bankrupted the Soviet Union. more than a prototype was the Colossus, built An estimated quarter of the entire Soviet by the British during World War II to help de- economy came to be devoted to their mili- crypt German radio traffic. The British gov- tary-industrial complex, and the inefficien- ernment kept their success a secret for more cies inherent in their centralized economy than two decades, so the first acknowledged eventually caused an economic and political digital computer was an American invention. collapse. In November 1989, a popular upris- Completed in 1945, the ENIAC (Electronic ing breached the Berlin Wall, and the Eastern Numerical Integrator and Computer) was a European countries in the Soviet political high-speed electronic calculator designed to orbit fell away. In 1991, the Soviet Union it- create artillery ballistic tables, built by J. Pres- self dissolved into its constituent republics, per Eckert (1919–1995) and officially ending the cold war. (1907–1980) for the U.S. Army at the Uni- versity of Pennsylvania Moore School of Elec- See also Apollo Project; Computers; Hydrogen trical Engineering. While building ENIAC, Bomb; International Geophysical Year; Eckert and Mauchly developed for their next Internet; Nuclear Physics; Pauling, Linus; computer the concept of a stored program, Satellites;War where data and program code resided to- References gether in memory.This concept allowed com- Baucom, Donald R. The Origins of SDI, puters to be programmed dynamically so that 1944–1983. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1992. the actual electronics did not have to change Fitzgerald, Frances. Way out There in the Blue: with every program. Reagan, Star Wars and the End of the Cold War. The noted mathematician John von Neu- New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000. mann (1903–1957) expanded on the concept Computers 61

Computer operators program ENIAC, the first successful electronic digital computer, by plugging and unplugging cables and adjusting switches. (Corbis) of stored programs and laid the theoretical ory of thirty-one 16-bit words.After moving to foundations of all modern computers in a Moscow, Lebedev proceeded to supervise the 1945 report and later work. His ideas came development of the BESM (the acronym for to be known as the “von Neumann Architec- “large electronic computer” in Russian) series ture.”The center of the architecture is the re- of computers, which used magnetic drums and peating fetch-decode-execute cycle: instruc- magnetic tapes for storage. tions are fetched from memory and then The transistor was invented in 1947 at the decoded and executed in a processor.The ex- Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, ecution of the instruction changes data that New Jersey, by John Bardeen (1908–1991), are also in memory. Eckert and Mauchly de- William Shockley (1910–1989), and Walter serve equal credit with von Neumann for H. Brattain (1902–1987). By the late 1950s, their innovations, though von Neumann’s the transistor became a useful commercial elaboration of their initial ideas and his con- product, creating the second generation of siderable prestige lent credibility to the bud- computer hardware; it rapidly replaced vac- ding movement to build digital computers. uum tubes in computers and other electronic Eckert and Mauchly went on to build the first devices because transistors were much commercial computer, the UNIVAC (Univer- smaller, generated less heat, and were more sal Automatic Computer), in 1951. reliable. Defense-related projects and space- The Soviet Union built their first computer related projects undertaken in the United in 1950 at the Kiev Institute of Electric Engi- States as part of the cold war became a major neering under the direction of S.A. Lebedev; it driver for computer-related innovation in ran fifty instructions a second and used a mem- both hardware and software. 62 Computers

The development of integrated circuits in human brain does. Research into artificial in- the mid-1960s concentrated transistors on telligence has led to advances in cognitive re- wafers, inaugurating a third genera- search. tion of computer hardware. In the 1970s, en- Numerous computer scientists have dedi- gineers packed enough logic gates onto an in- cated their research toward the goal of mak- tegrated circuit to create a microprocessor, ing computers a tool extending the human or a computer on a chip. Microprocessors led mind, using the computer’s calculating ability to personal computers and cheap, handheld and ability to organize information. Douglas calculators, banishing slide rules to museums. Engelbart (1925–) contributed the idea of The current fourth generation of hardware is hypertext in the 1960s as a way to navigate based on microprocessors and ever more so- the interconnectedness of information. En- phisticated integrated circuit chips. gelbart and his research team also invented In the 1960s a new kind of computer, the the windowed interface and the mouse.These supercomputer, emerged. Expensive and ori- ideas were extended by a team at the ented toward scientific computing, it was Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in the used in new centers in Europe, the United 1970s to create local area networks, desktop States, and Japan to offer scientists the op- publishing, laser printers, and the idea of a portunity to model physical systems. Since paperless office. The Xerox technologies the late 1970s, most have ironically led to even greater consumption of been parallel computers: many processors paper. Xerox also created the graphical user combine to work on different parts of a prob- interface, based on the combination of the lem in parallel, rather than in sequence. mouse and bit-mapped graphics displays.The The 1950s brought the first higher-level development of object-oriented program- programming languages. FORTRAN (FOR- ming helped program these new graphical mula TRANslator) was invented in 1957 as an environments and allowed programmers to easy way to write mathematically oriented model their programs more closely on real- scientific programs.The 1960s brought time- world analogies. sharing systems and the development of op- In the 1960s, early networks endeavored erating systems. In the 1970s, structured pro- to link computers together for communica- gramming became prevalent, leading to tions.The Internet began with four nodes in programs that were easier to develop and less 1969 as a creation of the cold war and be- likely to have errors. came a worldwide network of networks, In the 1950s and 1960s, the academic dis- forming a single whole. Tim Berners-Lee cipline of computer science emerged, a (1955–) invented the World Wide Web in unique combination of engineering, applied 1991, a technology that made the Internet ac- mathematics, and technical craft. Whereas cessible to the masses. E-mail, file transfer, other sciences have a natural part of the and other network technologies have allowed world that is the object of their study, com- scientists to communicate more quickly and puter scientists study and expand technologi- access supercomputing resources from a dis- cal creations. Purists argue that computer sci- tance. ence, if it is to be worthy of the name of Computers have created the technology of science, should be only the study of algo- robotics, which allows scientists to send in- rithms, which are mathematically proven struments deep into space, deep into the recipes for solving programming problems. ocean, and into the hot craters of volcanoes. Computer science included, from the 1950s, In the 1990s nanotechnology, the creation of research into artificial intelligence, trying to microscopically small devices, emerged, with create a combination of computer hardware the potential to launch another technological and computer software that behaves as the revolution. Cousteau, Jacques 63

Computers are the great technological and Kaufmann,William J. Supercomputing and the scientific innovation of the second half of the Transformation of Science. New York: Scientific twentieth century. Computers have made American Library, 1993. many scientific advances possible, from mod- McCartney, Scott. ENIAC:The Triumphs and Tragedies of the World’s First Computer. New York:Walker, els of subatomic interactions to models of the 1999. birth and death of the universe. Computers Williams, Michael R. A have made possible space travel, advanced air- Technology. Second edition. Los Alamitos, CA: craft design, DNA sequencing, chaos theory IEEE Computer Society, 1997. modeling, and , as well as the creation of atmospheric models, molecu- lar , and models of proteins. As Cousteau, Jacques (1910–1997) computers have become ubiquitous in daily Jacques-Yves Cousteau achieved fame for his life, the dominant trends in computing are technical inventions and indefatigable energy ever more processing power and greater ease in exploring the world’s oceans and promot- of use. ing the sound use of the ocean’s ecology. Much as the ever more widespread use of Though they lived in , his parents re- the clock in the later Middle Ages changed turned to their home village of Saint-André- the way people perceived time, and the re- de-Cubzac for Cousteau’s birth in 1910. His finement and spread of the steam engine in father worked as a personal assistant to an the eighteenth century stimulated scientists American millionaire, and the family moved to think of the laws of nature in terms of ma- often, including spending a year in New York chines, the success of the computer in the late City when Cousteau was ten years old. As a twentieth century prompted scientists to child he built a functional model of a marine think of the operation of the basic laws of the crane and a small battery-powered automo- universe as being similar to the operation of a bile. Though considered a sickly child, computer. The new physics of information Cousteau learned to swim and was drawn to has come to think of matter and natural laws the ocean. An earlier disinclination toward as bits of information. For example, one can schoolwork changed as he grew older, and he argue that not only do black holes consume graduated from College Stanislas in Paris in energy and matter, they also destroy informa- 1930, then entered the École Navale, tion. The computer, made possible by ad- France’s naval academy. He served as a naval vances in science, has transformed the prac- officer from 1933 to 1956 and retired as a tice of science and the actual content of capitaine de corvette. science. Though he learned to pilot aircraft, Cousteau remained oriented toward the sea. See also Artificial Intelligence; Bardeen, John; In 1936, he was given a pair of goggles that Berners-Lee,Timothy; Chaos Theory; Cognitive allowed him to see underwater. He began Science; Cold War; Engelbart, Douglas; working on a device to allow a human to Integrated Circuits; Internet; Mathematics; breathe underwater.After France’s defeat by Nanotechnology; Neumann, John von References Germany in 1940, Cousteau continued to Aspray,William. John von Neumann and the Origins serve with the Vichy navy and secretly joined of Modern Computing. Cambridge: MIT Press, the French underground resistance. For his 1990. espionage activities, he received the Légion Ceruzzi, Paul E. A History of Modern Computing. d’Honneur and the Croix de Guerre with Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998. Garfinkel, Simson. Architects of the Information Palm after the war. During the war, Society:Thirty-Five Years of the Laboratory for Cousteau also continued working on his Computer Science at MIT. Cambridge: MIT “Aqua-Lung,” which the Germans allowed Press, 1999. because they considered him harmless. 64 Creationism

Cousteau succeeded in 1943 by using the au- See also Environmental Movement; National tomatic gas-feeder valve invented by Émile Geographic Society; Oceanography; Undersea Gagnon. After the war, the French Air Liq- Exploration uids Company started to sell commercial References Cousteau Society. http://www.cousteau.org/ versions of the Aqua-Lung, which came to be (accessed February 12, 2004). called a scuba (a self-contained underwater Madsen, Axel. Cousteau:A Biography. New York: breathing apparatus). Beaufort, 1986. In 1946, Cousteau founded the Undersea Munson, Richard. Cousteau:The Captain and His Research Group for the French navy and World. New York:William Morrow, 1989. began extensive efforts to use his Aqua-Lung in oceanographic research. In 1951, Cousteau converted a British minesweeper Creationism into a research ship named Calypso. He lived Creationism is the belief that a deity created aboard this ship and traveled the world on ex- the universe and life within the universe; the peditions, raising money from his own pri- oddly named discipline of creationist science vate ventures, from public agencies such as is focused primarily on a literal interpretation the French Academy of Sciences, and from of the Judeo-Christian Book of Genesis. The research foundations, such as the National theory of natural selection developed by Geographic Society. In 1957, Cousteau be- Charles Darwin (1809–1882) created a crisis came director of the Oceanographic Museum for biblical literalists on two points. Darwin of Monaco, a position he held until 1988. and other geologically minded scientists ar- Also in 1957, he became head of the Conshelf gued for a long age of Earth, more than the Saturation Dive Program, a lengthy effort ex- six thousand years traditionally based on a lit- perimenting with long-term undersea human eral interpretation of the book of Genesis. habitation. Darwin and his successors also taught that During World War II, Cousteau made his humans were not unique, not directly created first two underwater films. After the war he by God, but just an evolved form of primate, developed a new type of process that allowed sharing ancestry with such other primates as better television filming underwater. He apes, chimpanzees, and monkeys. Darwinism began to turn out film documentaries and and other aspects of modern thought then television documentaries based on the prompted a conservative backlash and the re- travels of the Calypso. The popular films won vitalization of fundamentalist and evangelical three Academy Awards (1957, 1959, and forms of Christianity at the beginning of the 1964) and numerous other film awards. twentieth century (in the Islamic world, Cousteau married in 1937, and his two modernity also prompted a similar phenom- sons worked with him in his research. He enon). George McReady Price (1870–1963), wrote many books, often with coauthors, an American Seventh-day Adventist and a ge- that sold millions of copies worldwide and ologist, wrote numerous books putting forth were translated into many languages.Among his own geological theory that the flood de- the more prominent books were The Silent scribed in the Bible had laid down all the World (1953), The Living Sea (1963), and The strata and fossils during the year that water Ocean World of Jacques Cousteau (1972), a se- covered the entire planet. ries. In his books and films, Cousteau acted The strength of the arguments by evolu- as a relentless educator who brought under- tionists came from fossils and geological strata. sea exploration to the masses and cam- The doctrine of gradualism became dominant paigned for understanding and preserving in geology, in part as a reaction to the creation the ocean environment. story of Genesis. When the physicist Luis W. Creationism 65

The book of Genesis in the Bible (Stan Rohrer/iStockPhoto.com)

Alvarez (1911–1988) and geologist Walter Al- principle of natural selection among evolu- varez (1940–) found that an asteroid had cata- tionists. Darwinism also came to be taught in strophically hit Earth 65 million years ago, ge- the schools to a greater extent. ologists were reluctant to abandon their In a 1961 book, The Genesis Flood, a Texas ingrained gradualist assumptions. Cata- hydraulic engineer, Henry M. Morris strophism reminded geologists too much of (1918–), and a theologian, John C. Whit- creationism and pseudoscientific theories such comb Jr. (1924–), revived Price’s theories.As as the proposal of the Russian-born writer Im- strict creationists, they argued that the uni- manuel Velikovsky (1895–1979) that certain verse was divinely created less than ten thou- events described in the Old Testament were sand years ago, that the Fall of Adam activated caused by the motions of the planets. the second law of thermodynamics, that the In the United States prior to World War II, theory of biological evolution was wrong, Darwinism remained under serious attack and that the flood explained all seemingly from state legislatures and local school boards, contradictory evidence. Morris and Whit- though at the same time some people used the comb helped found the Creation Research idea of Social Darwinism to justify harsh eco- Society in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1963. nomic and social policies. Social Darwinists Other societies followed, and scientists hold- believed that poverty and other social ills came ing doctorates participated. The societies from poor genes, not flawed social structures. have sponsored scientific research, published After the war that science had so obviously peer-reviewed journals, and undertaken edu- helped win, Darwinism enjoyed a revival, as a cational outreach to promote what they term new evolutionary synthesis reemphasized the scientific creationism. 66 Crick, Francis

Beginning in the 1970s, creationist politi- References cal activists within the United States have Eve, Raymond A., and Francis B. Harrold. The fought for state laws to mandate that biologi- Creationist Movement in Modern America. Boston: Twayne, 1990. cal evolution and scientific creationism be Hayward, James L. The Creation/Evolution taught together as alternative theories; they Controversy:An Annotated Bibliography. Pasadena, have sought curriculum change on the local CA: Salem, 1998. level. Creationists have created textbooks Morris, Henry M., and Gary E. Parker. What Is with biblical references removed, but all the Creation Science? El Cajon, CA: Master, 1987. same arguments remaining.They have found a Numbers, Ronald L. The Creationists:The Evolution of Scientific Creationism. New York: Knopf, measure of success, especially with local 1992. school boards, though a Supreme Court rul- Toumey, Christopher P. God’s Own Scientists: ing in 1986 ruled that laws requiring equal Creationists in a Secular World. New Brunswick, treatment were unconstitutional on the basis NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994. of separation of church and state. Strict cre- ationism has not been confined to the United States, with marginal creationist movements Crick, Francis (1916–2004) found in most countries that have significant Francis Crick and James D.Watson (1928–) Christian populations. discovered the double helix molecular struc- When the theory of the Big Bang began to ture of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is gain prominence in the late 1940s, theolo- the basis of modern genetics and molecular gians were intrigued, since it seemed to be a biology. Francis Harry Compton Crick was variation on the idea of creation out of noth- born outside of Northampton, in Northamp- ingness, as described in Genesis. Pope Pius tonshire, England, where his father manufac- XII (1876–1958) spoke positively in 1951 of tured boots and shoes.When the family busi- the idea of a primeval atom. Fred Hoyle ness failed after World War I, the family (1915–2001), creator of the steady state the- moved to London, and Crick went to a pri- ory of the universe, complained bitterly that vate school at Mill Hill. In 1934 he entered one reason people supported the Big Bang University College in London, earning a B.S. was that it resonated with their desire for a in physics in 1937. He remained at University divine creation. Other theologians found the College for graduate studies, researching the steady state theory, which required the con- of water at high temperatures.With tinuous creation of matter to fuel the expan- the coming of World War II, Crick left school sion of the universe, to be more congenial to to conduct research on naval mines at the their theological point of view. British Admiralty Research Laboratory. Mainstream scientists reacted strongly Crick remained with the navy for two against creationism, partly in forceful popular years after the war, and during that time he writings by Carl Sagan (1934–1996) and read Erwin Schrödinger’s book What Is Life? Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002). Some cre- The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell, which ar- ationists have abandoned a strict literal inter- gued that the phenomenon of life could be pretation of Genesis, arguing that the days in reduced to chemical and physical factors. As the biblical account are really geological ages, an atheist, Crick disliked the notion of vital- or even abandoning Genesis entirely and ar- ism in biology, which is the belief that an un- guing for a form of divinely guided evolution known “vital principle” animated living be- via natural selection. ings that could not be explained in just See also Alvarez, Luis W.,and Walter Alvarez; Big physical terms, and so Schrödinger’s ideas in- Bang Theory and Steady State Theory; Gould, trigued him. He chose to change his empha- Stephen Jay; Hoyle, Fred; Philosophy of sis from physics to biology and in 1947 began Science; Religion; Sagan, Carl working at the Strangeways Research Labora- Crutzen, Paul 67 tory at Cambridge University on a Medical proteins. In 1977, Crick left Cambridge to Research Council Studentship scholarship. become the Kieckhefer Distinguished Re- After teaching himself biology and biochem- search Professor at the Salk Institute of Biol- istry, Crick moved to the Medical Research ogy in La Jolla, California.This move allowed Council Unit at the Cavendish Laboratories him to change his research focus to neurobi- to study under the chemist Max F. Perutz ology. Much of his research then concen- (1914–2002), a future Nobel laureate in trated on the nature of dreams, which he chemistry in 1962. Scientists at that time speculated were a way for the mind to discard knew that DNA formed the genes that passed experiences from the previous day that were on hereditary information from generation to not necessary to remember and would clutter generation. Scientists even understood many up the neural connections of the mind. of the chemical characteristics of DNA, but In his 1981 book Life Itself: Its Origin and they did not understand how it worked.The Nature, Crick drew attention to the fact that shape of the molecule eluded them. all life on Earth uses DNA, with the excep- Crick worked on this problem by drawing tion of mitochondria. He speculated that all on the x-ray diffraction pictures of DNA life came from a single source of microorgan- taken by the chemist Rosiland Franklin isms from another planet. This theory of (1920–1958) of the University of London, an panspermia is similar to ideas that the noted associate of Crick’s friend, the physicist Mau- astronomer Fred Hoyle advanced at about the rice H. F.Wilkins (1916–). In 1951, James D. same time. Crick’s two marriages produced Watson, a twenty-three-year-old wunderkind three children. from America, came to Cambridge to do See also Biotechnology; Franklin, Rosiland; postdoctoral study at the Cavendish Labora- Gamow, George; Genetics; Hoyle, Fred; tories. Crick and Watson developed a close Neuroscience;Watson, James D. relationship and collaborated on determining References the chemical shape and structure of DNA. In Crick, Francis. What Mad Pursuit:A Personal View of February 1953,Watson realized that a double Scientific Discovery. New York: Basic, 1988. Judson, Horace Freeland. The Eighth Day of helix would match the shape that they Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology. sought.They created a model of their double Expanded edition.Woodbury, NY: Cold Spring helix out of beads, wire, and cardboard, and Harbor Laboratory Press, 1996. published their discovery in a letter to the journal Nature in April. In their landmark let- ter, they also observed that the double helix, Crutzen, Paul (1933–) with its zipper-like nature, offered a mecha- The chemist Paul Crutzen discovered that ni- nism for gene replication. Crick,Watson, and trogen oxide chemicals accelerated the decay Wilkins received the 1962 Nobel Prize in of the ozone layer in Earth’s atmosphere. or Medicine. Franklin had died by Paul J. Crutzen was born in Amsterdam, the that time, and the Nobel is not awarded . His father was a waiter. When posthumously. he took his university entrance exams in Crick received his doctorate from Cam- 1951, sickness prevented him from achieving bridge in 1953 for research unrelated to a score that qualified him for a university DNA and remained at Cambridge working stipend. Crutzen instead attended Middel- on how DNA replication occurred. Impor- bare Technische School, middle technical tant insights were provided by the physicist school, for three years to become a civil en- George Gamow (1904–1968) and others. gineer, and he worked as an engineer for the Crick made contributions to explaining how Bridge Construction Bureau of Amsterdam ribonucleic acid (RNA) was used to transfer until 1958. Desiring an academic career, he instructions from DNA to the cell to create moved to Sweden to work as a computer 68 Crutzen, Paul

programmer in the Department of Meteo- conditioners, also accelerate the decay of the rology at Stockholm University. He took ozone layer. This discovery, and the realiza- courses in addition to his work and in 1963 tion that continued use of CFCs would de- qualified for the filosofie kandidat, which is plete the ozone layer, with catastrophic re- the Swedish equivalent to a master’s degree. sults for human civilization, led to the Crutzen earned his doctorate in meteorol- Montreal Protocol international agreements ogy from Stockholm University in 1973. of 1987, 1990, and 1992 to phase out the use Crutzen became interested in the photo- of these gases. Crutzen, Molina, and Rowland chemistry of atmospheric ozone after helping received the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. an American scientist in 1965 develop a Crutzen moved to the National Center for model of oxygen allotrope distributions in Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, the atmosphere.The ozone layer is created by in the 1970s, where he investigated the ef- the presence of an isotope of oxygen (O3) in fects of smoke from burning forests in Brazil the stratosphere, which reduces the amount on the atmosphere.This led to research with of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the Sun a colleague, John Birks, on what might hap- that reaches the planet’s surface. Ozone is pen from the fires started by a nuclear war. created naturally in the stratosphere, and They concluded in the early 1980s that a sig- without its protection, too many ultraviolet nificant amount of sunlight would be rays could lead to DNA mutations, cancer, blocked, plunging a post–nuclear holocaust and blindness. In 1970, while doing research Earth into a “.” Crutzen moved at the Department of Atmospheric Physics at to the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in the Clarendon Laboratory at Oxford Univer- Germany in 1980, and he also later became sity in England, Crutzen published an article associated with the Scripps Institution of in the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorolog- Oceanography. Crutzen married in 1958 and ical Society that showed that nitrogen oxides fathered two daughters. formed naturally by soil bacteria can rise up See also Chemistry; Environmental Movement; to the stratosphere. Once in the stratosphere, Meteorology; Molina, Mario; Nobel Prizes; the nitrogen oxide molecules are broken Rowland, F. Sherwood apart by sunlight and react with ozone, accel- References erating the chemical processes that lead to Nobel e-Museum. “Paul J. Crutzen– the natural decay of ozone molecules. Autobiography.” http://nobelprize.org/ chemistry/ (accessed February 12, 2004). Crutzen’s research was not generally ac- cepted until the Mexican chemist Mario Molina (1943–) and the American chemist F. Sherwood Rowland (1927–) discovered in 1974 that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases, manufactured for use in aerosol cans and air See Ecology D

Dawkins, Richard (1941–) and intellectual ideas. Dawkins called these A leading popularizer of evolutionary theory, products of the mind memes, and argued that Richard Dawkins also helped found evolu- they propagate and are selected for in exactly tionary psychology. He was born Clinton the same way that genes are selected for. Richard Dawkins in , , where How does complexity in organisms arise? his father worked as a colonial administrator. Dawkins turned to computer models to show After spending the first eight years of his life how seeming complexity can arise from sim- in Africa, he moved with his family to a dairy ple interactions and the pressures of selec- farm near Chipping Norton, in Oxfordshire, tion. In his third book, The Blind Watchmaker: England. Dawkins entered Oxford Univer- Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe sity in 1959, earning a bachelor’s degree in without Design (1986), Dawkins described 1962 and a doctorate in 1966, both in zool- computer programs that he had written to ogy.After two years at the University of Cal- mimic the process of natural selection. His ifornia at Berkeley (1967–1969), he returned programs simulate the development of more to Oxford as a faculty member and has re- complex forms of life. mained there. Married three times, he fa- Not all scientists have accepted Dawkins’s thered a daughter. view of evolution, though Dawkins’s evolu- His success came not from his scientific tionary psychology and its kin, sociobiology, work, but from his ability to write com- became powerful intellectual currents within pelling arguments for his interpretation of science in the 1970s. Besides his books, Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection. Dawkins often appears on talk shows and His first book in 1976, The Selfish Gene, ar- gives lectures. In 1995, he became the first gued that natural selection occurs on the level Charles Simonyi Professor of Public Under- of genes, rather than the level of individuals standing of Science, a position more suited to or species. He argued that individuals are just the role he had selected for himself. Dawkins temporary carriers of genes and that physiol- has expounded his point of view with the fer- ogy and behavior can be explained by the vor and conviction of a preacher.A committed need for genes to propagate.The human brain atheist, he has also become well-known for his introduced a complex new variable into nat- attacks on religion, which he views as an ar- ural selection, with the formation of cultural chaic meme suited to prescientific times.

69 70 Deep-Core Drilling

See also Creationism; Evolution; Religion; These two efforts relocated to the center of Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology the ice cap, where conditions were harsher References and drilling more difficult, but the scientific Dawkins, Richard. The Extended Phenotype:The Long rewards greater.Aircraft from the New York Reach of the Gene. Revised edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Air National Guard provided transportation “The World of Richard Dawkins.” http://www. for scientists and ice cores. The Europeans world-of-dawkins.com/ (accessed February drilled from 1989 to 1992. The Americans 12, 2004). drilled for five years, and in 1993 GISP2 re- covered the deepest ice core drilled in Greenland: 3,053 meters deep. Greenland Deep-Core Drilling ice cores reach back to 110,000 years ago; During the International Geophysical Year cores from Antarctica reach back 450,000 (IGY) of 1957–1958, glaciologists received years. Ice cores have also been recovered funding and support to more thoroughly ex- from the Andes Mountains in South America, plore the Arctic and Antarctica. Drills were Siberia, North America, and mountains in developed to draw out ice cores from loca- Africa. tions in Greenland and Antarctica.The layers In order to store the ice cores from GISP2, of snow compacted into ice on the perma- the National Science Foundation and U.S. nent ice caps created a stratigraphic record Geological Survey created a premier storage similar to that provided by tree rings. Sophis- facility for ice cores from around the world. ticated analysis of ice in these cores revealed Fifty-five thousand cubic feet of freezer space annual temperatures and annual precipita- is kept at –33 degrees Fahrenheit (–36 de- tion, and preserved airborne particles from grees Celsius) at the National Ice Core Labo- plants, volcanic ash, and other chemicals. ratory in Denver, Colorado.With the rise of Small bubbles in the ice also preserved sam- concerns over global warming, ice cores have ples of atmospheric gases from the past. provided the best evidence of past climate The Cold Regions Research and Engi- conditions, showing periods of heating and neering Laboratory (CRREL) of the U.S. cooling and proving that the climate is a dy- Army Corps of Engineers, located in namic force in history. Hanover, New Hampshire, led the American See also Geology; Global Warming; International effort after the IGY,developing relationships Geophysical Year; Meteorology; National with Swiss and Danish geophysicists. The Science Foundation Swiss glaciologist Henri Bader of Rutgers References University gained a reputation for his instru- Alley, Richard B. The Two-Mile Time Machine: Ice mental role in these early efforts. In 1966, a Cores,Abrupt Climate Change, and Our Future. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000. CRREL project drilled all the way from the Mayewski, Paul Andrew, and Frank White. The Ice surface of Greenland’s ice cap to bedrock. Chronicles:The Quest to Understand Global Climate The Danes developed a lighter, more ad- Change. Hanover, NH: University Press of New vanced drill to use in the combined Danish- England, 2002. Swiss-American Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP), reaching bedrock in 1981. These early efforts took place close to the edge of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents the ice cap, where working conditions were The acceptance of the theory of plate tecton- easier, but the depth to drill to bedrock was ics in the 1960s led geologists to realize that shorter. deep rifts and mountain ranges in the oceans The U.S. GISP2 was inaugurated in 1988, were actually the boundaries of tectonic accompanied by its European counterpart, plates, either spreading apart into a rift or the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP). pushing together into mountains. They pre- Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents 71

A black smoker in the Gulf of California's Guaymas Basin (Ralph White/Corbis) dicted that volcanic activity at these rifts and that up to a quarter of Earth’s total heat input mountains would lead to the venting of hot comes from these vents. water from deeper in Earth’s crust. An even more important discovery by the In 1977, the deep-sea submersible Alvin Alvin was the unique ecology surrounding found deep-sea hydrothermal vents at about the vents. Large tubeworms as much as 2 2,700 meters in the Galapagos Rift near the meters long waved in the created Galapagos Islands. Vents in rifts, where the by the hot water, alongside giant clams a tectonic plates are spreading, tend to be spec- third of a meter wide and new species of tacular, spewing what looks like white or crabs, shrimp, mussels, and other types of black smoke. Sensors found the smoke, min- worms.The food chain of most other life on erals mixed in with water, to be as hot as 400 Earth is dependent on the basic process of degrees Celsius.These vents at times formed photosynthesis, the conversion of sunlight chimneys of accreted minerals, and re- into energy.The fauna of the deep-sea vents searchers soon dubbed the vents and chim- are too deep for sunlight to reach. Species of neys “black smokers,” some as tall as 20 me- bacteria around the vents use chemosynthe- ters. Researchers were astonished by the sis to create energy, converting the sulfides chemistry of the black smokers, which were into organic carbon.The more complex life- rich in sulfides, lead, cobalt, and other met- forms form symbiotic relationships with the als. Other vents that spewed white smoke, chemosynthesis bacteria and survive off called “white smokers,” were formed from them. gypsum and zinc, rather than sulfides. As the A microorganism called Methanococcos jan- number of known deep-sea hydrothermal naschii, discovered in 1982 at a vent in the Pa- vents has grown, scientists have calculated cific Ocean, came to be considered part of a 72 Dobzhansky, Theodosius new domain of life, made up of microorgan- where Dobzhansky became an assistant pro- isms named Archaea.The two previously rec- fessor of genetics. In 1936, he became a full ognized domains of life were bacteria and eu- professor, and in 1937 he published a great karyotes. Archaea are characterized by the synthesis of Charles Darwin’s theory of natu- lack of a cell nucleus and a smaller number of ral selection and Mendelian genetics under genes than other domains of life. Some scien- the title Genetics and the Origin of Species. Many tists have proposed that Earth life originated commentators consider this to be the most in the rich chemical mix of deep-sea hy- important book on evolution written in the drothermal vents up to four billion years ago. twentieth century. Dobzhansky became a They consider Archaea to be the most primi- U.S. citizen in 1937. In 1940, Dobzhansky tive domain and closest in kind to the first or- returned to Columbia University as a profes- ganisms to arise on Earth. sor of zoology. He later relocated to the See also Biology and the Life Sciences; Ecology; Rockefeller Institute in 1962 and the Univer- Evolution; Geology; National Geographic sity of California at Davis in 1971. Society; Oceanography; Plate Tectonics; Dobzhansky’s major area of study involved Undersea Exploration;Volcanoes experiments with populations of the vinegar References fly Drosophila pseudoobscura, in which the fre- Ballard, Robert D., with Will Hively. The Eternal quency of generations made the process of Darkness:A Personal History of Deep-Sea Exploration. Princeton: Princeton University natural selection through genes more visible. Press, 2000. He demonstrated that the frequency of cer- Van Dover, Cindy Lee. The Ecology of Deep-Sea tain genes among the population dramatically Hydrothermal Vents. Princeton: Princeton varied even during the course of a single year, University Press, 2000. as seasons put selection pressure on the pop- ———. The Octopus’s Garden: Hydrothermal Vents and Other Mysteries of the Deep Sea. Reading, ulation. Besides his own contributions to MA: Addison-Wesley, 1996. population and evolutionary genetics, Dobzhansky tirelessly and successfully pro- moted the perspective of using mathematical Dobzhansky, Theodosius models of populations within genetics. (1900–1975) Later in his life, Dobzhansky wrote prolif- Theodosius Dobzhansky pioneered the syn- ically on his own and with other authors on thesis of Charles Darwin’s theory of natural the philosophical implications of evolution. selection and the science of Mendelian genet- His classic textbooks educated generations of ics. Dobzhansky was born Feodosy Grigore- scientists. His 1962 book, Mankind Evolving, vich Dobzhansky in Nemirov, Ukraine (then condemned those who took biology as des- part of Russia), where his father was a math- tiny, especially to justify racist positions; yet ematics teacher.He read Charles Darwin’s On he also objected to those who argued that the Origin of Species as a teenager and majored human behavior was not constrained by ge- in biology at the University of Kiev. Graduat- netics. He believed that scientists had an obli- ing in 1921, Dobzhansky taught in Kiev and gation to understand genetics and natural se- at the University of Leningrad. Dobzhansky lection, and to inform the public of this married in 1924 and fathered a daughter. In understanding so that humanity might learn 1927, Dobzhansky came to the United States to control the process of natural selection in- as a Fellow of the International Education telligently. Board of the Rockefeller Foundation, and See also Evolution; Genetics studied with the Nobel laureate Thomas Hunt References Morgan (1866–1945) at Columbia Univer- Ceccarelli, Leah. Shaping Science with Rhetoric:The sity. He impressed Morgan and moved with Cases of Dobzhansky, Schrödinger, and Wilson. him to the California Institute of Technology, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001. Dyson, Freeman 73

Dobzhansky,Theodosius. Mankind Evolving:The Evolution of the Human Species. New Haven:Yale University Press, 1962. Louis Levine, editor. Genetics of Natural Populations: The Continuing Importance of Theodosius Dobzhansky. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.

Dyson, Freeman (1923–) An important physicist, Freeman Dyson also became well-known for his speculative writ- ings on nuclear weapons, extraterrestrial civilizations, genetics, and computers. Born in Crowthorne, Berkshire, England, Free- man John Dyson had as mother a lawyer and as father a music teacher who was later knighted. As a child, Dyson showed an apti- Freeman Dyson, physicist, 1985 (Douglas Kirkland/Corbis) tude for mathematics and consumed science fiction novels by Jules Verne, H. G. Wells, and Olaf Stapledon. He taught himself calcu- lus from a mail-order textbook in 1938. In physics professor (1951–1953), Dyson re- 1941, he enrolled at Cambridge University turned to the Institute for Advanced Study at to study mathematics. In 1943, he joined the Princeton, where he remained. His first mar- war effort as a civilian analyst in operations riage in 1950 resulted in a son and a daugh- research for the Royal Air Force Bomber ter. The marriage ended in divorce, and his Command. He was horrified by the death second marriage yielded four daughters. rate among the bomber crews and the num- In 1958, Dyson took a temporary leave ber of civilians killed on the ground. In later from the institute to work in La Jolla, Cali- writings and conversations, he condemned fornia, on the Orion Project. Orion designed the bureaucratic mentality of Bomber Com- an ambitious spacecraft, with a large plate at mand officers and their inability to innovate its end, that was pushed through space by re- effectively. peated atomic explosions. A small model After the war, Dyson returned to Cam- using high explosives successfully demon- bridge and completed his B.A. in mathemat- strated the soundness of the concept, though ics in 1945. A 1947 fellowship brought him funding for the project languished, and the across the Atlantic Ocean to Cornell Univer- U.S. Air Force officially cancelled the effort sity,where he studied physics with prominent in 1965. Dyson later speculated and wrote physicists. During a bus trip through the about the possibility of extraterrestrial civi- western United States, Dyson had an insight lizations. He posited that a truly advanced that allowed him to show that the quantum technological civilization would want to trap electrodynamic (QED) theories of Richard P. as much of their star’s energy as possible and Feynman (1918–1988), thus build a shell of planetoids around their (1918–1994), and Sin-itiro Tomonaga (1906– star. This concept became known as the 1979) were mathematically equivalent, lead- Dyson sphere. Dyson advocated the coloniza- ing to the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for tion of space by human beings in order to those three men. Dyson also studied at the reintroduce social diversity and avoid the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, consequences of being trapped on only one New Jersey.After a brief time at Cornell as a planet. 74 Dyson, Freeman

Dyson also briefly worked on a low-fallout extraterrestrial civilizations, genetics, and bomb, which later became the neutron computers has earned him a following. His bomb. He initially opposed the proposed nu- work has resulted in many awards and hon- clear test ban treaty in 1960, but later orary degrees. changed his mind and supported it whole- See also Feynman, Richard; Nuclear Physics; heartedly. He also lobbied effectively to cre- Particle Physics; Physics; Science Fiction; ate the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Agency. Dyson later became involved with References the debate over recombinant DNA research Dyson, Freeman. Disturbing the Universe. New in the 1970s and has speculated about the York: Harper and Row, 1979. ———. Weapons and Hope. New York: Harper consequences of genetic technologies. Dyson and Row, 1984. published his first book at the age of fifty-five, and his talented writing on nuclear weapons, E

Earthquakes that continents really did drift and a 1970 ar- In 1923, an earthquake in , Japan, killed ticle first used the term plate tectonics.The the- 68,000 people. As might be expected, the ory of plate tectonics proved to be a powerful Japanese government reacted by promoting explanatory mechanism that transformed ge- scientific study of earthquakes and efforts to ology from a science of particulars into a ma- engineer more earthquake-resistant build- ture science with a body of integrated knowl- ings. Because of delays in translating these ef- edge. As plates grid together, they create forts into English, Japanese expertise only mountains from uplift, and where plates pull slowly came to influence the rest of the apart, they create rift valleys and opportuni- world. American earthquake studies and ties for magma to well up from deeper in the earthquake engineering were spurred by the Earth. Volcanoes and greater earthquake ac- 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Charles tivity exist on the edges of continental plates. Richter (1900–1985) developed his scale for The rim of the Pacific Ocean is called the Ring measuring earthquake magnitude at the Cali- of Fire because of numerous active volcanoes, fornia Institute of Technology, though the and it has many seismic faults that cause nu- Japanese scientist Kiyoo Wadati had already merous earthquakes. developed a similar system. The Japanese During the cold war, the superpowers set geophysicist Keiiti Aki (1930–), who worked up sensitive seismic monitoring stations to mostly at American universities, is perhaps detect the waves from nuclear explosions. the most important seismologist of the last The technology became so good that interna- half of the twentieth century. Aki developed tional nuclear test bans were possible because in 1966 a different measurement of earth- nuclear tests could not be concealed from the quake size, the seismic , but the monitors.To uniformly monitor earthquakes Richter scale remained the common measure around the world the Worldwide Standard- for the public. ized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) was Geologists and seismologists knew that created in 1961. Studies of waves generated earthquakes were more frequent in some by earthquakes that travel through Earth’s in- areas, such as along the Pacific Coast of Amer- terior have provided important insights into ica, Japan, and China, but did not understand the composition (particularly density) of the why. During the 1960s, geology experienced planet’s interior.The use of computers to col- a revolution, as geologists became convinced late and analyze seismograph data has greatly

75 76 Ecology

reputable techniques for prevention exist, but Chinese scientists have devoted consider- able effort to earthquake prediction since the 1960s and claimed partial success. Among their indicators are changes in groundwater levels and agitation among domestic animals and birds. See also Apollo Project; Cold War; Computers; Geology; Plate Tectonics; Satellites; Space Exploration and Space Science;Volcanoes References Bolt, Bruce A. Earthquakes and Geological Discovery. New York: Scientific American Library, 1993. ———. Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes:The Parted Veil. San Francisco:W.H. Freeman, 1976. Hough, Susan Elizabeth. Earthshaking Science :What We Know (and Don’t Know) about Earthquakes. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Ecology The study of biological organisms and their environment has been part of human inquiry Charles F.Richter posing next to a device to measure the from prehistoric times, but the effort gained magnitude of earthquakes, 1966 (Bettmann/CORBIS) an intellectual focus with the theory of natu- ral selection developed by the English natu- ralist Charles Darwin (1809–1882). By the late nineteenth century, biologists, botanists, helped geologists. In the late 1990s, Global zoologists, and scientists from other disci- Positioning System (GPS) receivers placed plines were engaged in disciplined ecological around volcanoes revealed the existence of studies. In the first half of the century, ecolo- silent earthquakes.These earthquakes are sig- gists often viewed their subject matter in nificant movements of the Earth that take terms of an ecological community, though place over days rather than minutes, so they critics of this approach objected that ecologi- do not cause classic earthshaking and are not cal communities were difficult to define geo- detected on seismographs. graphically because animal and plant species The Apollo astronauts placed seismome- often participate in many different communi- ters on the Moon’s surface that recorded ties. Population ecology emerged as an alter- lunar earthquakes.Though the Viking 2 lander native in the 1920s, attempting to create on Mars carried a seismometer, noise from mathematical models of the population wind in the thin atmosphere interfered with growth of individual species and predator- its operation. Other planets and moons of the prey relationships. The idea of the carrying solar system obviously have earthquakes, capacity of an environment to support cer- since fault lines and rift valleys have been tain levels of individuals of different species identified from photographs, but knowledge emerged. Experiments showed that microbes in this area is still limited. in solutions did not follow the mathematical The chief public concerns about earth- models and that one species usually pushed quakes are prevention and prediction. No out another species unless competition was Ecology 77 somehow reduced. This discovery led to the darker forms of the moth were more com- related ideas of ecological niches and com- mon downwind from industrial sites in Eng- petitive exclusion, the theory that natural se- land than in areas where pollution was not so lection tended to reduce the potential for common. He argued that pollution had competition by rewarding the subdividing of stained lichens on trees with soot and that resources into niches. when moths rested on the trees, the light-col- The British ecologist Arthur Tansley ored moths were eaten by birds and the (1871–1955) coined the term ecosystem, and darker-colored moths had a greater chance of after World War II the ecosystem approach be- survival.This study became a common exam- came influential. This approach initially em- ple of the principle of natural selection in ac- phasized biogeochemistry, following the tion. In the 1980s and 1990s, scientists found movement of energy, chemicals, water, and that Kettlewell’s technique contained flaws. resources through the food chain in a given Photographs from the study showed the environment to support plant and animal moths on the trees, but Kettlewell used cap- species. In a classic study, the English-born tured moths that he placed on trees, not real- limnologist G. Evelyn Hutchinson (1903– izing that that particular species of moth 1991) showed that guano deposits in South rarely on trees or that ornithologists America increased fish populations and when doubted that the birds ate the moths when fishermen from Peru and Chile shot the birds they were on the trees. The explanation that eating the fish, in an effort to get rid of their Kettlewell advanced is now abandoned, competitors, the fish populations actually de- though the coloration frequency of moths in creased because fewer birds meant less guano. different areas has not been explained. During World War II, scientists and engi- Spurred on by the writings of scientists neers became used to working with auto- like the biologist Rachel Carson (1907– matic control systems, with their feedback 1964), the environmental movement grew loops and self-adjusting characteristics: air- out of ecological concerns. As environmen- craft control systems, for example, and me- talism gained strength, the demand for eco- chanical computers and gun control systems. logical studies increased and the field blos- The American mathematician Norbert somed. In the 1970s, American universities Wiener (1894–1964) coined the term cyber- began to grant degrees in ecology, whereas netics in 1948 to describe the study of such before, students interested in ecology gradu- systems. Ecosystem ecologists recognized ated in biology, zoology, or botany. Ecology that were a form of cybernetic may be the most diverse and interdisciplinary system and often used similar metaphors.The of all scientific endeavors, with few scientists two brothers Eugene Odum (1913–) and identifying themselves as just ecologists. The Howard Odum (1922–) promoted the field is further subdivided by the type of or- ecosystem approach, and an influential text- ganism primarily studied (plant ecology, ani- book by Eugene, Fundamentals of Ecology, first mal ecology, or microbe ecology), the envi- published in 1953, promoted the ecosystem ronment studied (marine ecology, tree concept and later used cybernetic metaphors. ecology, or alpine ecology), or the methodol- The Odums also worked for the Atomic En- ogy used (population ecology, community ergy Commission (AEC) studying the impact ecology, or ). of nuclear testing on Pacific islands. The application of mathematical model- The classic example of evolutionary ecol- ing, computer simulations, and thinking in ogy came from studies in the 1950s by the terms of systems has grown since the 1940s British naturalist H. B. D. Kettlewell to become a major part of the field of ecol- (1907–1979) of the peppered moth, Biston ogy.The web-of-life analogy so often used in betularia. Kettlewell pointed out that the teaching ecology has become a cliché, but it 78 Ecology

Stetson Bank at Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in Georgia, one of the northernmost coral reefs in the United States. Coral reefs are very intricate ecosystems. (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration/Frank and Joyce Burek)

is accurate in that it suggests that the many Biome and the Grassland Biome. The Na- parts that make up the whole of an ecosystem tional Science Foundation (NSF) continued to are connected to each other; it is also useful fund ecological research after the official end in the sense that removing a thread or threads of the IBP in 1974. weakens the overall web. Scientists came to recognize that biodiver- Ecological studies are often small projects, sity is the foundation of a resilient ecology.By but Big Science played a role in at least one 2000, only about 1.75 million species, most project, the International Biological Pro- of them insect species, had been identified gramme (IBP), which began in 1961 in Am- worldwide. Estimates of the total number of sterdam under the auspices of the Interna- species range from 3 million to 100 million, tional Union of Biological Sciences. The IBP most of them yet to be found in tropical rain- began in earnest in 1968, and American ecol- forests. The island of Madagascar is particu- ogists obtained federal funding to participate larly rich in species unique to the island. in 1970. American ecologists explicitly used At the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de the ideas of cybernetics and , Janeiro, an international agreement, the Con- and their usefulness to the environmental vention on Biological Diversity (CBD), was movement, to obtain the $40 million in fund- adopted. The pact promoted the sustainable ing. Much of the American funding went to use of natural resources, preservation of creating computerized models of five bio- species, and the equitable use of genetic re- mes, such as the Eastern Deciduous Forest sources.An overwhelming majority of nations Economics 79 signed and ratified the CDB; the United States See also Big Science; Biology and the Life only signed, and did not ratify, the treaty. Sciences; Carson, Rachel; Computers; Deep- Some Third World nations and indigenous peo- Sea Hydrothermal Vents; Environmental ples have asserted their right under the CDB Movement; Genetics; Global Warming; Lovelock, James; Margulis, Lynn; National to prevent scientists from conducting studies Science Foundation; Oceanography; Symbiosis on territory that they control.They fear that a References plant or other genetic resource might be found Bocking, Stephen. Ecologists and Environmental and developed into a commercial product Politics:A History of Contemporary Ecology. New without the nation or people receiving any Haven:Yale University Press, 1997. Bowler, Peter J. The Norton History of the compensation. Under the guidelines of the Environmental Sciences. New York: Norton, CDB, scientists must get prior informed con- 1993. sent or sign a bioprospecting agreement be- Golley, Frank Benjamin. A History of the Ecosystem fore conducting surveys or studies. Concept in Ecology: More Than the Sum of the Parts. Scientists thought that the fundamental New Haven:Yale University Press, 1993. source of energy in all ecosystems was solar Hagen, Joel B. An Entangled Bank:The Origins of Ecosystem Ecology. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers energy, but the discovery of life around deep- University Press, 1992. sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 provided an Kingsland, Sharon E. Modeling Nature: Episodes in alternate ecological model, as well as perhaps the History of Population Ecology. Chicago: an explanation of how the first life on Earth University of Chicago Press, 1985. developed. Where the food chain of most Worster, Donald. Nature’s Economy:A History of Ecological Ideas. Second edition. New York: other life on Earth starts with the process of Cambridge University Press, 1994. photosynthesis, which converts sunlight into energy, species of bacteria around the vents use chemosynthesis to create energy, con- verting sulfides into organic carbon. Economics The microbiologist Lynn Margulis The science of economics began with the (1938–), who reinvigorated the idea of sym- work of the Scottish philosopher and politi- biosis, in which two different organisms inti- cal economist (1723–1790), mately associate with each other, has champi- who described the “invisible hand” of free oned the idea that microbes are the dominant markets promoting the most efficient use of form of life on Earth.This perspective inverts economic resources and creating wealth. By the classic way of viewing all species as form- encouraging the individual economic self-in- ing a kind of pyramid of life with human be- terest of people, a nation prospered. Later ings at the top and changes the way ecosys- theorists, such as the British philosopher and tems are viewed. Perhaps the ultimate economist (1806–1873), expression of the idea of an ecosystem as a expanded on Smith’s work, explaining how cybernetic system came when the biophysi- the forces of supply and demand led to effi- cist and inventor James Lovelock (1919–) de- ciency, and these ideas were central in what veloped the Gaia hypothesis in the late 1960s, became known as . Clas- arguing that Earth was like a living organism, sical economics supported the system of cap- maintaining surface and atmospheric condi- italism that had become dominant in Western tions so that chemical processes and the tem- Europe with the advent of the Industrial perature would sustain life. Margulis found Revolution. The German-born political the- the idea compatible with her own promotion orist and failed revolutionary of symbiosis and has vigorously championed (1818– 1883) lived in exile in London after Gaia. Many other biologists remain suspi- 1849 and wrote his critique of capitalism, ar- cious of such a holistic notion and are un- guing for the ownership of the means of pro- comfortable with Gaia’s mystical overtones. duction by the working classes. The science 80 Economics of economics, called political economy at the Smith’s “invisible hand” really existed, a time, influenced as it was by political ideol- method of arriving at a “general equilibrium,” ogy, was not just a scholarly pursuit, but a complex theory explaining how individuals formed the basis of government policy and make economic decisions.This mathematical inspired revolutionary movements. underpinning has given economics a firmer The of the 1930s chal- claim to status as a science, even though it re- lenged traditional economists to understand mained hamstrung by its study of human-cre- why the world economy had shrunk and how ated behaviors, rather than the natural phe- to recover from such a period of extended nomena that the harder sciences, such as unemployment. The British economist John physics and chemistry, study. The Bank of Maynard Keynes (1883–1946) published The Sweden funded an annual economics prize to General Theory of Employment,Interest and Money be awarded by the , with in 1936, contradicting classical economics the first prize being awarded in 1969 to the and arguing that only massive government Norwegian (1895–1973). spending could end the Great Depression. The Hungarian-born mathematician John became influential as von Neumann (1903–1957), besides laying the world’s economies emerged from the de- the theoretical foundations of the modern structive chaos of World War II and began to electronic computer, developed the concept rebuild. of “” with the economist Oskar Serving as government policy makers in Morgenstern (1902–1976) in 1944. Game the prosperous Western democracies, econo- theory describes how to apply rational deci- mists applied Keynesian principles by mak- sions to games and, by extension, to eco- ing credit easier to obtain during economic nomic or political behavior. The brilliant slowdowns and striving to maintain high em- mathematician John Nash (1928–) expanded ployment. In the postwar period, commu- on the work of von Neumann and Morgen- nism expanded from its base in the Soviet stern to better understand noncooperative Union, applying a modified form of Marxism games, cooperative games, and two-person to manage centralized economies with bur- bargaining games, by focusing on mutually densome bureaucracies and constructing in- optimal threat strategies in these types of dustry at heavy environmental costs. In the games, and created what became known as Western world, after the environmental Nash equilibria. After other theorists ex- movement gained prominence in the 1960s panded on Nash’s work, game theory became and 1970s, the of growth at any ecolog- an part of economic theory in the ical cost was questioned. Some economists 1960s. Game theory becomes particularly in- responded by trying to develop ways of teresting when actors in the game do not have measuring environmental impacts and incor- access to the same information and are thus porate them into economic theory. prevented from making rational decisions. The United Kingdom fostered the best The Keynesian model began to break economic theorists before World War II, and down in the 1960s as economists disproved in the postwar era, economists in the United some of its assumptions. States often took the lead. Beginning in the (1912–), one of the new neoclassical econo- 1930s, economists had increasingly applied mists who taught at the University of mathematics to their theories, creating equa- Chicago, emphasized the importance of mon- tion-driven models of and etary policy and thought that government in- . In 1951, a famous article by tervention in the economy had harmful ef- the American economist fects. Friedman has since become a patron (1921–) and French economist Gerard De- saint of the resurgent conservative parties in breu (1921–) showed mathematically that the United States and Europe. Edelman, Gerald M. 81

In the 1970s, some economists began to Edelman, Gerald M. (1929–) work with psychologists and to use insights The biochemist Gerald M. Edelman made from the behavioral sciences in general, rec- significant contributions to our understand- ognizing that not all economic behavior is ra- ing of and morphogenesis. Gerald tional. For instance, stock trading is often Maurice Edelman was born in New York driven by ego and exuberance rather than ra- City, where his father was a physician. Edel- tional calculation. By the 1990s, behavioral man entertained early ambitions to be a vio- economics had become an accepted approach linist, but later he turned to science and in the field. graduated from Ursinus College in 1950 If it is seen only as the economic theory be- with a B.S. in chemistry. Following his father hind communism, Marxism failed in the last into medicine, he graduated from the Uni- two decades of the twentieth century. On the versity of Pennsylvania medical school in other hand, many nations have been influ- 1954.After serving his obligation to the U.S. enced by Marxist thought in the shaping of Army for two years in Paris, he became con- their socialist or semisocialist economies, and vinced that he wanted to dedicate his life to some of these economies have been success- research.The problems of par- ful. Recently, critics have argued that econo- ticularly fascinated him. Edelman entered mists are good at explaining what is happening the Rockefeller Institute in New York (later when the economy is functioning normally, ) to study biochem- but are not so good at explaining how to han- istry.After receiving a doctorate in 1960, he dle a serious economic crisis or how new remains at Rockefeller as a faculty member. technologies and changing work patterns Edelman married in 1950 and fathered two might affect the economy. Despite such criti- sons and a daughter. cisms, economists remain influential. Noted Edelman’s work in immunology focused economists often advise governments around on antibodies, large molecules formed by the the world on economic matters, drawing on immune system to destroy viruses and bacte- economic models, increasingly sophisticated ria by binding to them. Edelman’s first insight reporting of , their per- was that immunoglobulins (antibodies) were sonal ideological inclinations, and personal really peptides made up of heavy and light experience born of long study. chains. The 1960s were an exciting time, as scientists closed in on the discovery of how See also Environmental Movement; Mathematics; antibodies formed and operated. A team led Nash, John F.; Nobel Prizes; Soviet Union; by Rodney R. Porter (1917–1985) of Oxford Neumann, John von References University competed with Edelman’s team in Blaug, Mark. The Methodology of Economics: Or How the contest to decipher the structure of a Economists Explain. Second edition. New York: myeloma globulin molecule. They Cambridge University Press, 1992. chose to work on the myeloma antibody be- Fox, Justin. “What in the World Happened to cause populations of these antibodies were Economics?” Fortune, March 15, 1999, 91–102. more homogeneous than those of other anti- Heilbroner, Robert L. The Worldly Philosophers:The Lives,Times and Ideas of the Great Economic Thinkers. bodies. Edelman’s team achieved their goal Seventh edition. New York:Touchstone, 1999. first, but the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology Mirowski, Philip. Machine Dreams: Economics or Medicine was awarded to both bio- Becomes a Cyborg Science. New York: Cambridge chemists. Edelman and his team also pro- University Press, 2001. moted a theory that showed that each im- Morgan, Mary S. The History of Econometric Ideas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. mune system contained many different types Weintraub, E. Roy. How Economics Became a of antibodies and when an antigen was de- Mathematical Science. Durham, NC: Duke tected, those antibodies most likely to coun- University Press, 2002. teract the antigen were selected for in a 82 Edelman, Gerald M.

Gerald M. Edelman, biochemist, 1969 (Bettmann/Corbis)

process analogous to Charles Darwin’s prin- neurology. Edelman developed a theory of ciple of natural selection. the brain that again drew on the principle of After receiving the Nobel prize, Edelman natural selection. In his theory, the connec- turned his attention to morphogenesis, the tions within some groups of neurons are se- process in which individual cells come to- lected from those within other groups be- gether to form tissues. Edelman and his re- cause they are more effective at producing search team discovered three different types of consciousness, memory, and other higher cell adhesion molecules (CAM) that provided functions of the mind. He has published four the cement to keep cells together in a tissue. books on his theory, including The Remem- They also developed a theory that showed that bered Present:A Biological Theory of Consciousness cells develop into one of many possible forms (1990). His theory is not widely accepted by based on interaction with neighboring cells. other neurologists. The discovery of CAM revolutionized the field of developmental biology. See also Cognitive Science; Evolution; Medicine; In the late 1970s, Edelman again shifted Neuroscience; Nobel Prizes his focus and turned to the study of the References brain. He formed the Neurosciences Insti- Edelman, Gerald M. Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind. New York: , tute at the Rockefeller University in New 1992. York City in 1981 and in 1993 moved to the Nobel e-Museum. “Gerald M. Edelman— Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, Cali- Biography.” http://nobelprize.org/medicine/ fornia, to further continue his research in (accessed February 13, 2004). Edwards, Robert 83

Edwards, Robert (1925–) ized egg into a uterus for the first time. None Robert Edwards and Patrick Steptoe of the approximately thirty women in their (1913–1988) perfected the process of in test group who became pregnant carried the vitro fertilization (IVF) and created the first babies for more than a trimester. Funding for human test-tube baby. Robert Geoffrey Ed- their experiments was cut amidst a general wards was born in a small town in outcry from Members of Parliament, reli- and grew up in the city of Manchester, En- gious leaders, and other scientists.Among the gland. Edwards served in the British Army objections was fear that a successful tech- from 1944 to 1948, then received his ad- nique would not stop at helping infertile cou- vanced education at the University of Wales ples, but would lead to genetically engi- and his doctorate in physiology in 1957 at the neered babies and surrogate mothers. Institute of Animal Genetics at Edinburgh Edwards was willing to engage in discussions University. His doctoral research concen- on the ethics of his work and published with trated on mouse embryos, and in collabora- the lawyer David Sharpe the first ethics paper tion with a fellow student, Ruth Fowler, he on IVF in 1971. developed the Fowler-Edwards method, used Continued criticism from their colleagues to treat female mice with hormones and reg- caused Edwards and Steptoe to suspend re- ulate the number of eggs produced and their porting on their research. Steptoe financed time of ovulation. He also married Fowler.A the continuation of their research from his fellowship at the California Institute of Tech- practice, including legal , and the nology brought Edwards to America for a two scientists moved their work to a smaller year. He returned to the United Kingdom, hospital in Oldham, Dr. Kershaw’s Cottage spending 1958 to 1962 at the National Insti- Hospital. They persisted amid many failures tute of Medical Research at Mill Hill in Lon- until late 1977, when Lesley Brown was im- don, then a year at the University of Glasgow, pregnated with her own egg fertilized by her before joining the faculty at Cambridge Uni- husband’s sperm. Steptoe and Edwards de- versity in 1963. cided to implant the egg after it had divided Other scientists had already perfected in only three times and was only eight cells vitro fertilization of mouse embryos, and Ed- large, instead of waiting for it to get larger as wards conducted research in this area. He re- they had done up till then. On July 25, 1978, alized that the basic problems of the proce- a daughter name Louise Joy was delivered by dure were the same from mammal to caesarian section. The world press pro- mammal and turned to working with human claimed the world’s first test-tube baby. Step- embryos. He found it difficult to obtain sam- toe and Edwards continued their collabora- ples from ovaries until the gynecologist who tion, and their clinic succeeded in producing had delivered two of his daughters offered to over a thousand babies for infertile couples. provide occasional samples and the rare Their technique of IVF and successful im- human egg. Even with this material, his re- plantation of the egg into a uterus is now used search suffered from the lack of material to throughout the industrialized world. Ed- work with. He read about the pioneering lap- wards retired from Cambridge University in aroscopy techniques of Patrick Steptoe, an 1989. obstetrician and gynecologist in practice in Oldham, England. Edwards contacted Step- toe in 1968, and the two men began a long See also Biotechnology; In Vitro Fertilization; Medicine; Steptoe, Patrick . References Steptoe used laparoscopy to obtain human Edwards, Robert G. “The Bumpy Road to Human eggs, and Edwards fertilized them in the lab- In Vitro Fertilization.” Nature Medicine 7, no. 10 oratory. In 1972, Steptoe implanted a fertil- (October 2001): 1091–1094. 84 Ehrlich, Paul R.

Ehrlich, Paul R. (1932–) In the 1960s, the entomologist Paul R. Ehrlich became the best known of those sci- entists and writers sounding a warning call over human population growth. Paul Ralph Ehrlich was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylva- nia, where his father was a salesman and his mother taught high school Latin. The family moved to Maplewood, New Jersey, where Ehrlich indulged his passion for the outdoors. In high school he read Road to Survival, the prophetic 1948 book by William Vogt on the dangers of overpopulation. Ehrlich received his B.A. in zoology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1953, then moved to the Uni- versity of Kansas, where he received his M.A. in 1955 and Ph.D. in 1957, both in zoology. He concentrated in entomology and did fieldwork on biting flies in the Arctic and par- asitic mites. He became an assistant professor of biology at Stanford University in 1959, and rapidly moved up the academic ranks, be- Paul R. Ehrlich, entomologist (Bettmann/Corbis) coming an associate professor in 1962 and a full professor of biology in 1966. His re- search at Stanford concentrated on butter- posure, including a full hour on the popular flies. He married Anne Fitzhugh Howland in Johnny Carson late-night television show. 1954, and his wife worked closely with him Ehrlich’s concern with population, com- in their research.They had one daughter. bined with concern over the environment, Always conscious on an intellectual level led him to found a political advocacy organi- of the problem of burgeoning human popula- zation called Zero Population Growth, which tion growth, Ehrlich was with his family in was later renamed Population Connection. India in 1966, riding in a taxi through a The organization sought increased birth con- crowded city, when he had an emotional trol, legalized abortion (before it was legal- epiphany that provoked a lifelong crusade ized nationwide in the United States in against population growth. In 1968 he pub- 1973), government support for smaller fam- lished The Population Bomb, drawing attention ilies, and increased protection of the environ- to the coming crisis when there would not be ment. His wife and he coauthored other enough food to feed the world’s growing books on the subject, including The Population population. Increasing food production Explosion (1990) and Betrayal of Science and through dramatic efforts like the agricultural Reason: How Anti-Environmental Rhetoric Threat- Green Revolution would serve only as a “stay ens Our Future (1996). Ehrlich became the of execution,” if humanity did not learn to Bing Professor of Population Studies at Stan- curb its population growth.The world’s pop- ford in 1976. Among his many honors, ulation had grown from 1.6 billion in 1900 to Ehrlich shared the 1990 with 3.6 billion in 1968. Ehrlich felt that 1.5 bil- the zoologist Edward O.Wilson (1929–).The lion was the reasonable human population for Crafoord Prize is awarded by the Royal the planet. Ehrlich’s book became a best- Swedish Academy of Sciences in those areas seller,and he received considerable media ex- not covered by the Nobel prizes. El Niño 85

See also Agriculture; Biology and the Life and vice versa. He named this phenomenon Sciences; Ecology; Environmental Movement; the Southern Oscillation. In 1969, the Norwe- Population Studies;Wilson, Edward O. gian meteorologist (1897– References 1975), who taught at the University of Cali- “Paul R. Ehrlich.” http://www.stanford.edu/ group/CCB/Staff/paul.htm (accessed fornia at Los Angeles, tied the two phenomena February 13, 2004). together in his description of the El Niño Population Connection. http://www. Southern Oscillation (ENSO). La Niña (The populationconnection.org/ (accessed February Little Girl), also sometimes called El Viejo 13, 2004). (The Old One), is the opposite end of the os- cillation, when the Pacific water along the El Niño equator turns cooler than normal. For centuries fishermen off the equatorial The strong El Niño of 1982–1983 at- coast of Peru noticed that the water warmed tracted the attention of scientists, and they around the time of Christmas, and they called began to study the ENSO more intensely.The the phenomenon El Niño, which means “The use of satellites, buoys, and other sensors led Little One” in Spanish, a reference to the infant to more accurate temperature and pressure Jesus.This phenomenon came to the attention readings. As they followed the cycle, which of scientists in the late nineteenth century, lasted about four to five years, meteorologists who realized that there was a relationship be- came to partially understand the effects of El tween the warming water along the equator in Niño. Although scientists still cannot predict the Pacific Ocean and heavier seasonal rains in when an El Niño episode will occur, after they South America. In 1923, Sir Gilbert Walker detect its beginning they can make accurate (1868–1958), who headed the Indian Meteo- six-month weather forecasts of its effects on rological Service, observed that when the air South America and North America. The pressure over the Pacific Ocean was high, the strength of El Niño episodes varies, with mild air pressure over the Indian Ocean was low, episodes raising the temperature of the water

A graph at the Max Planck Institute in Hamburg shows the abnormal temperatures caused by El Niño in 1997. (Pandis Media/Corbis Sygma) 86 Elion, Gertrude B. only 2 to 3 degrees Celsius (4–5 degrees Elion, Gertrude B. (1918–1999) Fahrenheit) and the most intense episodes The pharmacologist Gertrude B. Elion raising the temperature of the water 10 de- helped pioneer a new way to search for drugs grees Celsius (18 degrees Fahrenheit). and discovered several important drugs to Though the eruption of El Chichón in Mex- treat leukemia, suppress the immune system, ico preceded the El Niño of 1982–1983 and and treat viral infections. Gertrude Belle the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philip- Elion was born in New York City to Jewish pines preceded the El Niño of 1991–1992, sci- immigrants. Her father, a dentist, came from entists believe that these are coincidences and Lithuania, and her mother came from Russia. that volcanoes are not significant actors in the A bright student, she skipped four grades be- ENSO phenomenon. Tree-ring data have fore graduating from high school at the age of shown that the ENSO has existed for at least fifteen. Because of the stock market crash of the past 750 years. El Niño episodes cause fish 1929, her parents could not send her to a pri- populations to decline off the coast of South vate college, so Elion turned to the tuition- America because the thick layer of warmer free, women-only Hunter College in New water prevents the upwelling of nutrients. York City.A voracious reader, skilled at many ENSO also has a major effect on rain patterns different academic disciplines, she could not across the Pacific, on the monsoons of the In- decide on a career choice until her grandfa- dian Ocean, and on the rainfall in South Amer- ther died painfully of stomach cancer the ica and North America. Drought patterns summer before she entered college. She re- often follow the ENSO cycle. solved to pursue a cure for cancer, choosing The 1997–1998 El Niño became the to major in chemistry because she did not like largest and warmest in the twentieth century, dissecting animals in biology. generating extensive news media coverage. Obtaining her A.B. degree summa cum Some scientists and politicians speculated laude in 1937, she wanted to go to graduate that global warming caused the magnitude of school. Even though she had excellent that particular El Niño. This supposition re- grades, the financial hardship of the Depres- mains unproven, and computer models that sion and discrimination against women in sci- combine global warming and the ENSO are ence proved to be difficult hurdles, and she so far unsatisfactory. Scientists do recognize could not find a graduate assistantship. She that the equatorial Pacific provides carbon went to work as an unpaid assistant to a dioxide to the atmosphere and that during La chemist at a small pharmaceutical company. Niña episodes more is re- The job eventually started to pay a little leased than during El Niño episodes. money, and she found additional employment See also Computers; Environmental Movement; as a doctor’s receptionist and a substitute Global Warming; Meteorology; Oceanography; teacher in secondary schools. This allowed Volcanoes her to attend and grad- References uate with an M.Sc. in chemistry in 1941. Changnon, Stanley A., editor. El Niño 1997–1998: World War II opened up employment oppor- The Climate Event of the Century. New York: tunities, and after several jobs she went to Oxford University Press, 2000. Fagen, Brian. Floods, Famines, and Emperors: El Niño work for the Burroughs Wellcome Company, and the Fate of Civilizations. New York: a pharmaceutical company. The research HarperCollins, 2000. chemist George H. Hitchings (1905–1988) Glantz, Michael H. Currents of Change: El Niño’s hired her as his assistant for fifty dollars a Impact on Climate and Society. Cambridge: week. Cambridge University Press, 1996. Nash, J. Madeleine. El Niño: Unlocking the Secrets of Hitchings believed in a new way of search- the Master Weather-maker. New York:Warner ing for drugs.The old method was based on a Books, 2002. hit-or-miss process of trying many different Enders, John 87 compounds on many different diseases and James W. Black, Hitchings, and Elion. Black seeing what happened.The new way, based on was a British pharmacologist who had devel- what was called antimetabolite theory, con- oped beta-blocking agents. Elion took out sisted of learning how the disease worked, forty-five patents; she was awarded a Na- then trying to find a compound that interfered tional Medal of Science, and she became the with the disease process. Elion proved to be first woman inducted into the National In- an excellent laboratory worker, and Hitchings ventors Hall of Fame. She died in Chapel gave her considerable freedom. In 1948 a Hill, North Carolina. compound that she isolated, 2,6-diamino- See also Medicine; Nobel Prizes; Organ purine, was tested on three leukemia patients Transplants; Pharmacology with some success. Elion pursued work with References other purine compounds and isolated 6-mer- Elion, Gertrude B. “The Quest for a Cure.” Annual captopurine (6-MP), which proved useful in Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 33 (1993): extending the life of leukemia patients, 1–23. Holloway, Marguerite. “Profile: Gertrude Belle though not curing them. Elion continued to Elion:The Satisfaction of Delaying work on 6-MP, and her work was noticed by Gratification.” Scientific American 265, no. 4 others, who realized that 6-MP could sup- (October 1991): 40, 43–44. press the immune system. In 1962, the sur- geon Joseph E. Murray (1919–) used the 6-MP azathioprine to suppress the Enders, John (1897–1985) immune system of the recipient of the first The American microbiologist John Enders successful kidney transplant from a nonre- developed with his coworkers a better way to lated donor. Murray later shared the 1990 culture mammalian viruses, leading to effec- Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for this tive antiviral vaccines. accomplishment. Elion’s research on 6-MP was born in West Hartford, Connecticut, also led to an enzyme that became the drug al- where his father was a banker. He attended lopurinol, which successfully treated gout and prestigious private schools before entering a number of other diseases. Yale University in 1915. During World War I, As Hitchings rose up through the ranks of he joined the navy and learned to fly. After Burroughs Wellcome, his protégé followed, the war Enders returned to school and grad- and in 1967, Elion became head of the De- uated in 1920 with a B.A. in English. He partment of Experimental Therapy. She re- worked as a real estate agent, but decided mained heavily involved in research, helping that the world of commerce was not for him in the development of acyclovir, a treatment and entered Harvard University. In 1922, he for shingles, chicken pox, and other herpes- earned an M.A. in English literature. He re- virus conditions. Elion retired in 1983, but mained at Harvard, studying literature and remained active in the field and continued to ancient languages, intending to receive a doc- partially oversee projects for Burroughs Well- torate in those areas. A fellow student intro- come, including the development of azi- duced him to the microbiologist dothymidine (AZT), used to treat acquired (1878–1940), and Enders changed his direc- immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). tion, working in Zinsser’s laboratory and After her fiancé died in the late 1930s, graduating in 1930 with a Ph.D. in microbi- Elion chose not to marry; she felt that her ca- ology. Harvard retained his services as an in- reer in research consumed too much of her structor, and Enders conducted research into time to entertain the possibility of children. bacterial immunity. She also never completed a doctorate because In 1937, Enders turned to studying of time constraints.The 1988 Nobel Prize in viruses. At that time, before the discovery of Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Sir DNA, viruses were known to be smaller than 88 Engelbart, Douglas bacteria, and they could not be grown in nor- Engelbart, Douglas (1925–) mal cultures.Viruses required animal cells to The computer scientist Douglas Engelbart reproduce. During World War II, Enders developed a system in the 1960s that pio- served as a consultant advising the military on neered many of the technological innovations epidemic diseases. After the war, he created that led to the personal computer and World an Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory at Wide Web. Douglas C. Engelbart was born in Boston Children’s Hospital, where he re- Portland, Oregon; his father died when he mained for the rest of his professional life, was nine years old, and he was raised on a while also remaining a member of the Har- farm. He entered Oregon State College in vard faculty.The medical doctors Thomas H. 1942, majoring in electrical engineering Weller (1915–) and Frederick C. Robbins under a military deferment program during (1916–2003) joined Enders in his research. World War II. After two years, the military In 1947, the three scientists developed a ended the deferment program because the process called continuous culture, which al- immediate need for military personnel took lowed them to grow mumps virus in a precedence over the long-term need for en- medium of cultured chicken cells.They used gineers. Engelbart elected to join the navy the new antibiotics of streptomycin and peni- and became a technician, learning about ra- cillin to kill the bacteria that had contami- dios, radar, sonar, teletypes, and other elec- nated previous efforts. tronic equipment. He missed the fighting and In 1948, the three scientists succeeded in returned to college in 1946. Two years later culturing the polio virus in normal human he graduated and went to work for the Na- cells. Up to that time, the polio virus had only tional Advisory Committee for Aeronautics been cultured in human nerve cells and in (NACA), a precursor to the National Aero- live monkeys. Enders, Weller, and Robbins nautics and Space Administration (NASA). received the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physiology He married in 1951, and feeling dissatisfied or Medicine for their discovery.Albert Sabin with his work at NACA, he sought a new di- (1906–1993) and Jonas Salk (1914–1995) rection in his life. used the new technique to create their differ- After considerable study he realized that ent polio vaccines. the amount of information was growing so Enders continued his research and found, fast that people needed a way to organize and with his coworkers, a strain of measles that cope with the flood, and computers were the conferred immunity without the ravages of answer. Engelbart was also inspired by the the disease.This strain became the basis of the seminal 1945 article, “,” by successful in 1963. Enders the electrical engineer Vannevar Bush married in 1927 and had a son and a daugh- (1890–1974), who directed the American ter.After his wife died in 1943, he remarried Office of Scientific Research and Develop- in 1951. He retired in 1967 and died at his ment during World War II. Bush envisioned home in Waterford, Connecticut, in 1985. the use of computers to organize information See also Medicine; Nobel Prizes; Pharmacology; in a linked manner that we now recognize as Sabin, Albert; Salk, Jonas an early vision of hypertext. Electronic com- References puters in 1951 were in their infancy, with Tyrrell, D.A. J. “John Franklin Enders: February only a few dozen in existence. Engelbart en- 10, 1897–, 1985.” Biographical tered the University of California at Berkeley, Memoirs of the Fellows of the Royal Society 33 and earned a master’s degree in 1952 and a (1987): 213–233. Weller,Thomas H., and Frederick C. Robbins. Ph.D. in electrical engineering in 1955, with “John Franklin Enders: February 10, 1897– a specialization in computers. September 8, 1985.” Biographical Memoirs of the Engelbart became an employee at the Stan- National Academy of Sciences 60 (1991): 47–65. ford Research Institute (SRI) in 1957 and Environmental Movement 89 after two years obtained his own laboratory, advantage of his ideas before his retirement in becoming director of the Augmentation Re- 1989. In 1990, Engelbart founded the Boot- search Center. After developing a theoretical strap Institute in Palo Alto, California, to framework for the NLS (oNLine System) that continue to promote his ideas of how organi- he wanted to create, Engelbart and his team of zations could cope with too much data. In engineers and psychologists worked through 1991, the English computer programmer the 1960s on realizing the dream. Engelbart Tim Berners-Lee (1955–) used the ideas of wanted to do more than automate previous hypertext, by then much further developed tasks like typing or clerical work; he wanted by engineers other than Engelbart, to create to use the computer to fundamentally alter the World Wide Web. the way people think. In a demonstration of In the mid-1980s, people in the computer NLS at the Fall Joint Computer Conference in industry began to take notice of Engelbart’s December 1968, Engelbart showed the audi- contributions, and the awards began to flow. ence on-screen videoconferencing with an- Among his numerous awards are a lifetime other person back at SRI, thirty miles away, as achievement award in 1986 from PC Maga- well as an early form of hypertext, the use of zine, a 1990 ACM Software System Award, windows on the screen, mixed graphics and the 1993 IEEE Pioneer award, the 1997 text files, structured document files, and the Lemelson-MIT Prize, with its $500,000 first mouse.Although he is often credited only stipend, and the National Medal of Technol- with inventing the mouse, Engelbart had de- ogy in 2000. veloped the basic concepts of groupware and See also Berners-Lee,Timothy; Computers; networked computing. Engelbart’s innova- Internet tions were ahead of their time, requiring ex- References pensive equipment that retarded his ability to Bardini,Thierry. Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, innovate. A computer of Engelbart’s at SRI Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing. became the second computer to join the Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000. Bootstrap Institute. http://www.bootstrap.org/ ARPAnet in 1969, an obvious expansion of his (accessed February 13, 2004). emphasis on networking. ARPAnet later evolved into the Internet. In the early 1970s, several members of En- gelbart’s team left to join the Palo Alto Re- Environmental Movement search Center (PARC), which Xerox Corpo- The environmental movement grew out of ration had set up, where ample funding led to the older conservation and preservation rapid development of the personal computer, movements of the late nineteenth and early local area networking, laser printers, graphi- twentieth centuries. The conservationists cal user interfaces, and object-oriented pro- sought to manage public resources by apply- gramming. Ironically, Xerox failed to capital- ing scientific principles to rational planning of ize on these innovations, and other the development of natural resources. The companies, including 3Com and Apple, took preservationists tried to preserve unique nat- the innovations to market, making billions of ural treasures by establishing national parks, dollars and transforming the computer indus- trusts, and reserves. As the twentieth century try. SRI eventually sold NLS to a small com- progressed, population grew quickly and in- pany called Tymeshare, and Engelbart fol- dustrialization spread, increasing resource lowed his creation and tried to turn it into a consumption. The Green Revolution in agri- commercial product. In 1984, McDonnell culture, which increased crop yields through Douglas bought Tymeshare, and Engelbart the increased use of artificial fertilizers and became a senior scientist for the aerospace synthetic pesticides and new crop strains, company, but failed to convince them to take staved off starvation in Third World countries. 90 Environmental Movement

In 1952, a London fog trapped enough French-born microbiologist pollution from coal furnaces to kill 4,000 (1901–1982) co-authored the Pulitzer people, leading to a 1956 Clean Air Act and Prize–winning Only One Earth: The Care and conversion of home heating in London from Maintenance of a Small Planet in 1972, exem- coal to gas and electricity. In the 1940s and plifying a new attitude toward nature and 1950s, automobiles in the city of Donora, Earth.Twenty million Americans participated near Pittsburgh, sometimes stalled on the in the first Earth Day,held in 1970.The Earth street for lack of sufficient oxygen. The pas- Day held in 1990 attracted 200 million par- sage of the Clean Air Act (1970) and Clean ticipants worldwide.The federal government Water Act (1972) in the United States mir- established the Environmental Protection rored efforts in other nations. Although not Agency in 1970. The United Nations estab- perfect in their efforts by any measure,West- lished the UN Environmental Programme in ernized nations cleaned up the more egre- 1972. Green political parties, emphasizing gious examples of air and water pollution in environmentalism, human rights, and other their nations by the 1980s. Growing Third causes, have arisen in many countries and World cities have continued to suffer from air gained a measure of influence in some Euro- pollution, with the megalopolis of Mexico pean countries. Environmental movements City leading the indicators, and seven of the also grew in poorer Third World nations after top ten most polluted cities in the world 1980, with government ministries being es- being found in the newly industrialized na- tablished and private organizations being tion of China. founded. The biologist Rachel Carson (1907–1964) Concerns over declining biodiversity and published her prophetic classic, Silent Spring, species extinction have led to many private in 1962, a well-documented polemic on the and government attempts to protect individ- dangers of synthetic pesticides. Among the ual species and species habitat, since some pesticides she described was DDT (dichloro- species now only exist in zoos or other col- diphenyl-trichloro-ethane), which is toxic in lections. How many species have been lost is minute amounts, and Carson described the difficult to measure, since a complete cata- research that showed that exposure to DDT logue of the world’s species, especially in- poisoned agricultural workers, damaged bird sects, has not been compiled. Certainly the populations, and remained persistent enough rate is at least one species a day. In 1900, at to pass through the food chain up to animals least 150,000 blue whales lived in the south- and humans. Carson argued that modern ern ocean, and in 1989, only 500 remained. agriculture should turn to alternatives, such Most other whale species faced similar deci- as biological controls and the release of ster- mation. A vocal and effective campaign to ile insect males. “Save the Whales” led to most whaling being The counterculture ferment of the 1960s banned worldwide in 1986. A few countries in Western nations included environmental still whale under the guise of taking scientific concerns among its signature issues. Scien- specimens, though the harvest of hundreds of tists like the American entomologist Paul R. whales a year by whaling factory ships cannot Ehrlich (1932–) raised the alarm about pop- be justified under any scientific rationale. ulation increases. Ehrlich’s 1968 book, The Some aboriginal peoples also have the right to Population Bomb, was published when world harvest a limited number of whales. population stood at 3.6 billion. In 1999, Concerns over nuclear weapons testing world population passed 6 billion. The pic- and pollution from commercial nuclear reac- tures of Earth taken by the Apollo astronauts tors became powerful motivators in the also contributed to a sense that our world global environmental movement. Open-air was a limited, fragile, and unique habitat.The nuclear testing concerned many scientists be- Environmental Movement 91

Sewage discharges into the ocean near Rabat in Morocco. (Chinch Gryniewicz; Ecoscene/Corbis) cause of the documented increase of radioac- Although commercial nuclear reactors pro- tive fallout in the upper atmosphere and vide clean electricity with little pollution, downwind from nuclear testing sites. they are expensive to build and generate ra- The Nobel laureate Linus Pauling dioactive waste that is difficult to transport (1901–1994) and other scientists cam- and store for the thousands of years necessary paigned for the United States and Soviet for the waste to become safer. The long- Union to at least stop open-air testing in the feared accident occurred in 1986 at a Soviet interest of public health.Their efforts helped plant near Chernobyl in the Ukraine with ex- lead to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, and plosions, fire, and a partial meltdown of the Pauling received the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize. core of one of the four reactors at the site. No Nuclear testing and manufacture during the expensive containment buildings, such as are cold war (1945–1991) also led to large areas usually found in Western countries, sur- within the United States and the Soviet rounded any of the reactors. A Soviet cover- Union, as well as some islands in the South up failed because sensors in Western Europe Pacific, being poisoned by radioactive debris. detected the radioactive fallout in the wind. Cold war soldiers, sailors, and airmen, in Dozens of people died in the immediate af- both the United States and the Soviet Union, termath of the accident, with towns and unrestrained by environmental regulations, farmland around the reactor permanently transformed their military bases into toxic abandoned, and the local population experi- waste dumps. enced long-term radiation sickness and in- A 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Is- creases in various forms of cancer. land in Pennsylvania led to a minor release of After the collapse of the Soviet Union and radiation and accentuated concerns about the communist regimes of Eastern Europe, it be- environmental wisdom of nuclear reactors. came apparent that the large state-directed 92 Environmental Movement industrial and agriculture enterprises in those ronmental movement. Many biologists are countries had created environmental disas- uncomfortable with the idea’s mystical over- ters. The lack of a democratic process had tones and remain suspicious of such a holistic prevented environmental activists from being notion. effective. Polluted rivers, poisoned farmland, In the mid-1970s, research by the Dutch and toxic industrial areas led to documented chemist Paul Crutzen (1933–), the Mexican health effects and reduced life expectancy. chemist Mario Molina (1943–), and the East Germany created more sulfur dioxide American chemist F. Sherwood Rowland emissions per capita than any other nation on (1927–) showed that artificially manufac- the planet.The Aral Sea in central Asia shrank tured chlorofluorocarbons were eroding the to half of its previous size by the mid-1990s ozone layer in the upper atmosphere.A major and continues to shrink because of an ill-con- success story for the environmental move- ceived mass irrigation project that drew away ment came as the Montreal Protocol interna- water that normally drained into the inland tional agreements of 1987, 1990, and 1992 sea. The Soviets disposed of their nuclear agreed to phase out the use of chlorofluoro- waste by draining it into the Arctic Ocean and carbons. Chlorofluorocarbons are also sunk old submarine and ship nuclear reactors thought to contribute to global warming. under the ocean as a way to dispose of them. In the 1980s, scientists determined that Before 1980, most industrial enterprises in the average temperature on Earth was rising, the Western world also disposed of toxic on the order of approximately 0.6 degree wastes, a common by-product of industrial Celsius (1 degree Fahrenheit) during the processes, in a haphazard manner. In a famous twentieth century, with about a third of that incident, the residential area of Love Canal in change coming in the last twenty-five years. upstate New York was evacuated from 1976 to Whether this global warming is part of a 1980, as toxic waste buried over two decades long-term natural pattern or an effect of earlier percolated to the surface, leading to a human industrial activity became a heated marked increase in cancer and birth defects issue in the 1990s and has remained so. By the among the local population. Laws on toxic end of the century, global warming had be- waste disposal in Western countries encour- come an important rallying point for envi- aged corporations to engage in the often ille- ronmental groups.The 1992 United Nations gal practice of exporting toxic waste to Conference on Environment and Develop- poorer countries.An irony of the reunification ment in , also known as the of East Germany with West Germany in 1990 Earth Summit, included global warming was that for years West Germany had ex- among many other environmental and eco- ported its toxic waste to its eastern neighbor nomic development issues. The United Na- and after reunification had to deal with the re- tions Conference on Climate Change in 1997 sulting toxic waste deposits. in , Japan, led to the Kyoto Protocol, an Concern over the environment also led to international treaty that required nations to increased emphasis on the science of ecology, reduce their carbon dioxide emissions. The so that scientists and laypersons might better United States has refused to ratify the treaty, understand the intricate connections be- leaving the status of the Kyoto effort partially tween different elements of the natural crippled. A study by the National Science world.The Gaia hypothesis of the biophysicist Foundation in 1997 concluded that environ- James Lovelock (1919–), which proposes mental monitoring and environmental re- that Earth is like a living organism, maintain- search had become the largest research pro- ing surface and atmospheric conditions so gram of all time, spread out across the world that the chemistry and temperature will sus- in more than 2,000 organizations. Despite tain life, resonated with activists in the envi- considerable progress up to the end of the Ethics 93 century, population continues to grow, natu- their knowledge to benefit humanity.A code ral resource consumption increases, the of ethics, sometimes formal, often informal, world’s oceans grow more polluted, coral has developed. Scientists are expected to be- reefs are dying, and the rainforests of Central have in their students’ best interest when act- and South America, particularly in the Ama- ing as mentors; scientists are expected to zon River basin, are being quickly destroyed. keep good records of their work and not fal- See also Apollo Project; Carson, Rachel; Cold sify any data or conceal data that do not sup- War; Crutzen, Paul; Ecology; Ehrlich, Paul R.; port their assertions; and scientists are ex- Global Warming; Green Revolution; Lovelock, pected to participate honorably in the peer James; Molina, Mario; National Science review system. As the financial and profes- Foundation; Oceanography; Ozone Layer and sional stakes get ever larger, scientists face Chlorofluorocarbons; Pauling, Linus; greater temptation to commit fraud. Population Studies; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Wilson, Edward O. Conflict-of-interest problems can also arise References when scientists have a substantial financial Cronon,William, editor. Uncommon Ground:Toward stake in the results of their own research or in Reinventing Nature. New York: Norton, 1995. the results of research done by others that Dowie, Mark. Losing Ground:American they can influence. Private funding sources Environmentalism at the Close of the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995. and private industry are now working more Hutton, Drew, and Libby Connors. A History of the closely with academic institutions, raising is- Australian Environment Movement. Melbourne, sues of who owns the intellectual property Australia: Cambridge University Press, 1999. rights that might arise from the research. McNeill, John Robert. Something New under the Another aspect of scientific ethics arises Sun:An Environmental History of the Twentieth- from the simple fact that there are conse- Century World. New York: Norton, 2000. Mould, Richard F. Chernobyl Record:The Definitive quences to every scientific and technological History of the Chernobyl Catastrophe. development. Some scientists and engineers Philadelphia: , 2000. who have developed powerful new weapons, Wilder, Robert Jay. Listening to the Sea:The Politics such as machine guns, chemical weapons, and of Improving Environmental Protection. Pittsburgh: atomic weapons, have thought that their in- University of Pittsburgh Press, 1998. ventions would actually end war because the weapons would be too horrible to use. Only in the case of atomic bombs has this kind of Ethics effect possibly been proven true; the nuclear The Piltdown Man, discovered in 1912, led standoff between the Soviet Union and scientists to believe that England was the United States during the cold war restrained birthplace of humanity. In 1953, a researcher that ideological conflict from igniting into a showed conclusively that the human cranium third world war. combined with the jaw of an orangutan was a Nevertheless, nuclear weapons did place deliberate hoax. The practice of science is many scientists in serious ethical quandaries. based on the expectation that other scientists The physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904– are truthful. Because science builds on previ- 1967), the “father of the atom bomb,” opposed ous experiments that have to test a real building the hydrogen bomb on both moral world, mistakes and fraud will eventually be and technical grounds. Oppenheimer and oth- discovered. Yet fraud is often difficult to ers saw the hydrogen bomb as being so pow- prove, especially when the researcher claims erful that its only possible targets were cities, to have just been sloppy. whereas atomic bombs might be used to de- In the context of science, the discipline of stroy many types of military targets. Linus ethics addresses how to behave as an individ- Pauling (1901–1994), a Nobel laureate in ual scientist and how scientists should use chemistry and a pacifist, refused to participate 94 European Space Agency in the Manhattan Project, successfully cam- See also Bioethics; Cold War; Evolution; paigned against open-air nuclear weapons test- Hydrogen Bomb; Oppenheimer, J. Robert; ing, and vigorously pursued antinuclear activi- Pauling, Linus; Philosophy of Science;Teller, ties. (1908–2003),on the other Edward;Wilson, Edward O.;War References hand, driven by anticommunism, encouraged Bronowksi, Jacob. Science and Human Values. the development of nuclear weapons to pro- Revised edition. New York: Julian Messner, tect the United States during the cold war. 1965. Since the late 1960s, bioethics has grown Erwin, Edward, Sidney Gendin, and Lowell into a major branch of philosophy and medi- Kleiman. Ethical Issues in Scientific Research:An Anthology. New York: Garland, 1994. cine.The issues of abortion, in vitro fertiliza- Macrina, Francis L. Scientific Integrity:An tion, organ transplants, cloning, stem cell re- Introductory Text with Cases.Washington, DC: search, suicide, and the use of human subjects American Society for Microbiology, 1995. in research have all become subjects of Spier, Raymond E., editor. Science and Technology bioethical discussions. Developments in ge- Ethics. New York: Routledge, 2002. netic engineering and within the biotechnol- ogy industry will force scientists, ethicists, and laypeople to confront serious ethical European Space Agency questions, such as what is life, when does life The European Space Agency (ESA) is an ex- start, when is a person dead, and should ample of Big Science; member nations have health care be rationed because of cost? pooled their financial resources to create a Moral questions about the use of deception in larger space program than would be possible social psychology and medical clinical trials, for the individual nations. The United States in which patients in the control group do not and the Soviet Union (in its space age heyday) receive what may be a new lifesaving treat- had had the largest programs. In the 1990s, ment, are often difficult to answer. the Soviet program became the Russian pro- The Australian-born, Oxford-educated gram and declined due to lack of funding, moral philosopher Peter Singer (1943–) leaving the ESA the second biggest space pro- wrote Animal Liberation in 1975, which is gram in the world. often credited with reviving the modern ani- The ESA was created in 1975 with the mal rights movement. This movement merger of two earlier organizations, the Eu- strongly objects to the use of animals in sci- ropean Space Research Organization (ESRO) entific research, and Singer himself also and the European Launcher Development claims that “speciesism” is similar to racism, Organization (ELDO). ESRO and ELDO in that we value human life over animal life. were both created in the early 1960s.The ten Most medical scientists are adamant that ani- founding nations of the ESA were France, mal experimentation is the foundation of West Germany, Italy, Spain, the United King- their work and is the only way that they can dom, Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, make medical progress. Sweden, and . Five other nations Many scientists, imbued with scientific ma- joined later: Ireland, Austria, Norway, Fin- terialism, argue that the basis of all knowledge land, and Portugal. Canada is also associated must be science and scientific materialism. with the current fifteen nations as a cooper- Even moral reasoning must use the scientific ating state. The ESA is headquartered in process to arrive at its conclusions.The biolo- Paris, France. gist Edward O.Wilson (1929–) has advanced Scientific inquiry has always been a major this argument forthrightly. Other scientists mission of the ESA. They contributed fund- argue that science is only a method and that ing, materials, and expertise to the Hubble values should be derived from other sources, Space Telescope. They sponsor the Space- such as religious beliefs or secular humanism. guard organization, headquartered in Rome, Evolution 95

The Spacelab module, which flew on sev- eral space shuttle missions, provided a plat- form for many short-term scientific experi- ments that took advantage of the zero gravity of outer space. ESA astronauts have flown on the American space shuttle and in Russian capsules.The ESA is also participating in the current International Space Station as a full partner. In order to promote international cooperation and share the costs, the ESA and NASA are cooperating on many planned fu- ture scientific spacecraft. Desiring their own launchers, the ESA created the successful Ariane series of rock- ets. The Ariane are launched from Kourou, French Guiana, a launch center founded by the French Centre National d’Études Spatiales in 1964. Its location on the equator allows rockets launched there to carry more payload than rockets launched from the United States or the former Soviet Union. Ariane rockets carry most ESA and European commercial satellites into orbit. See also Big Science; National Aeronautics and The French Ariane-5 rocket, used by the European Space Space Administration; Space Exploration and Agency (/Corbis) Space Science;Telescopes References European Space Agency. http://www.esa.int/ Italy, which coordinates the search for aster- (accessed February 13, 2004). Krige, John, and Arturo Russo. SP-1235—A oids and comets. The joint ESA-USA space- History of the European Space Agency, 1958–1987. craft Ulysses, launched in 1990, used a gravi- Volume 1, ESRO and ELDO, 1958–1973. tational assist past Jupiter to enter a solar Noordwijk,The Netherlands: European Space orbit that flew over the of the Sun, ex- Agency Publications Division, 2000. ploring sections of space outside the ecliptic Krige, John, Arturuo Russo, and Lorenza Sebesta. SP-1235—A History of the European Space Agency plane. The ERS-1 and ERS-2 (European Re- 1958–1987.Volume 2, The Story of ESA, mote Sensing) satellites have surveyed Earth’s 1973–1987. Noordwijk,The Netherlands: resources with radar, infrared cameras, and European Space Agency Publications Division, . ERS-2 has paid special attention 2000. to monitoring the ozone hole in the atmo- sphere over Antarctica.The Solar and Helio- spheric Observatory spacecraft, launched in Evolution 1995, continues to monitor the Sun. The The British naturalist Charles Darwin XMM-Newton orbiting telescope has pro- (1809–1882) published the theory of natural vided x-ray observations since 1999. Numer- selection in his famous book On the Origin of ous other scientific missions are planned, ri- Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859). valing those of the American National Darwin argued that the variety of species in Aeronautics and Space Administration the world arose from small random muta- (NASA) in their breadth. tions among earlier species that led to the 96 Evolution mutated animals surviving to pass on those a solid understanding of the underlying mutations to their children. He used the term mechanism for natural selection. As genetics natural selection in contrast to the term artifi- developed, evolutionists argued that species cial selection, which referred to the practice of should be classified by their evolutionary re- dog breeders selecting for traits when they lationship rather than the traditional system bred dogs and developing new varieties of developed centuries ago by the Swedish dogs, or the selections by herders and farm- botanist Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778). ers that led to more desirable domesticated The Harvard-based paleontologist Stephen animals and plants. Darwin saw natural selec- Jay Gould (1941–2002) became an important tion at work in nature, but he could not ex- theorist and popularizer of the theory of evo- plain the underlying mechanism.The science lution. In 1972, Gould and Niles Eldredge of genetics had been simultaneously devel- (1943–) published “Punctuated Equilibria:An oped, by the Austrian botanist Gregor Alternative to Phyletic Gradualism,” which Mendel (1822–1884), but no one recognized argued that evolution did not always occur in its importance until the turn of the century. gradual steps over long periods of time. The The science of genetics grew up in the early lack of intermediate fossils for many species in twentieth century, while Darwin’s theory of the geological record indicated that evolution natural selection fell out of favor with scien- often occurred in spurts, with new species tists, replaced by a vague theory of the inher- evolving in as little as a couple of thousand itance of acquired characteristics. Still, the years, rather than in the longer time periods idea of evolution had become firmly estab- favored by the more strictly gradualist Dar- lished among scientists, despite their doubts winists. The theory of punctuated equilibria about Darwin, and Social Darwinists used was not widely accepted but did provoke con- natural selection to justify racist and imperi- siderable intellectual ferment. alist assumptions about human nature. The biologist Edward O.Wilson (1929–), The Russian-born zoologist Theodosius based at Harvard University, became the Dobzhansky (1900–1975), the ornithologist world’s recognized authority on ants and Ernst Mayr (1904–), and others in the 1930s consistently applied the principles of natural and 1940s returned to the theory of natural selection in his work. His landmark book, selection and Darwin’s emphasis on random Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975), as- mutations. Dobzhansky also successfully pro- serted that what biologists had learned about moted the use of mathematical models of insect and animal societies, along with the population within species populations. Mayr insights of the theory of natural selection, revived an old theory of geographic specia- should also be applied to understanding tion and argued that small mutations in geo- human behavior and human society. This graphically isolated populations led to rapid manner of applying the theory of natural se- evolution. Mayr also proposed the founder lection to human and animal behavior led to effect, which occurs when some geographic the growth of a subdiscipline called evolu- quirk or partial die-off has caused a popula- tionary psychology. The English zoologist tion to be founded by a few individuals. Richard Dawkins (1941–), based at Oxford Dobzhansky, Mayr, and like-minded scientists University, became a significant popularizer created what became known as the modern of evolutionary psychology; he argued that synthesis by combining the theory of natural evolution occurs on the level of genes, rather selection with Mendelian genetics. The dis- than the level of individuals or species. This covery of the structure of DNA in 1953 by approach offered a solution to the vexing the zoologist James D. Watson (1928–) and problem of altruism, which is the philosoph- the biologist Francis Crick (1916–2004) led ical puzzle of why people engage in generos- to a revolution in genetics that finally allowed ity without any desire for a reward. The Evolution 97 work of animal behavioral scientists, such as Konrad Lorenz (1903–1989), Jane Goodall (1934–), and Dian Fossey (1932–1985), helped scientists understand animal behav- iors that might have a genetic component. Scientific advocates of the theory of evolu- tion through natural selection have regularly spoken out against any revival of Social Dar- winism. Those same advocates, with Wilson, Gould, and Dawkins acting as prominent voices, have condemned creationism. Al- though creationism is simply the belief that a deity created the universe and life within the universe, most creationist science is focused primarily on a literal interpretation of the Judeo-Christian Book of Genesis. Some scholars have pointed out that the attacks of creationists on evolution have spurred con- temporary evolutionists in their efforts to re- Charles Darwin, biologist and advocate of evolution () fine and communicate their theories. As cosmological theories developed, they described the development of the solar sys- tem and a young Earth. How did life start on (SET), first published in 1967, the microbiol- Earth? In the 1920s, the Russian biochemist ogist Lynn Margulis (1938–) proposed an ad- Aleksandr Oparin (1894–1980) and the ditional twist to evolution. While still using British scientist J. B. S. Haldane (1892–1964) the principle of natural selection, Margulis argued that an early Earth atmosphere com- argued that eukaryotic cells, which contain posed of water vapor, methane, hydrogen, nuclei, evolved when non-nucleated bacteria and ammonia formed a primeval soup that fused together billions of years ago. She also could lead to organic compounds. Stanley L. demonstrated that microbes could transmit Miller (1930–), a chemistry graduate student induced characteristics, and that organelles under the guidance of Nobel laureate Harold inside cells were really former bacteria that C. Urey (1893–1981), supported the had fused with other cells. These ideas have Oparin-Haldane theory with a successful come to be accepted, though her theory that 1953 experiment that simulated the early most evolutionary change is the result of Earth’s atmosphere and spontaneously cre- symbiogenesis and her support of the Gaia ated amino acids, an essential building block hypothesis are not widely accepted.The Gaia of life. Fred Hoyle (1915–2001) and a few hypothesis, developed by the scientific poly- other scientists have argued for panspermia, math James Lovelock (1919–) in the late which argues that life did not spontaneously 1960s, proposed that Earth was like a living originate on Earth, but came from biological organism, maintaining surface and atmo- material contained in interstellar dust clouds. spheric conditions so that the chemistry and This theory is not widely accepted. The dis- temperature would sustain life. covery of early microfossils by the paleo- As Darwin pointed out in his Descent of botanist Elso Barghoorn (1915–1984) and Man (1873), if natural selection is a valid sci- others showed that early Earth, up to 3.5 bil- entific theory, then humans are also de- lion years ago, contained microbial life. scended from previous species. Scientists With her serial endosymbiosis theory sought fossils of precursor species and found 98 Extrasolar Planets

Java Man, a partial skeleton of what is now ually grown that Neanderthals were a sepa- known as Homo erectus, in 1891 at Trinil, Java. rate sapient species with their own ability to Peking Man, also Homo erectus, was found in make tools, art, and graves for their dead. China in 1927. The Piltdown Man, a fos- Neanderthals also coexisted with modern hu- silized skull found near Lewes, England, at mans, Homo sapiens sapiens, during the last ice Piltdown Common in 1912, played on racist age. Recent finds of Neanderthal skeletons in and nationalist assumptions that modern hu- the late 1990s allowed scientists to extract mans had evolved in England. With the Pilt- mitochondrial DNA, showing that Nean- down Man finally exposed as a hoax in 1954, derthals were a separate species, but cross- scientists looked elsewhere for the origins of breeding with modern humans was possible humanity. and may have occurred. The paleoanthropologist Louis S. B. Leakey See also Anthropology; Barghoorn, Elso; Biology (1903–1972) argued that Africa was the birth- and the Life Sciences; Creationism; Crick, place of humanity and proved it with the dis- Francis; Dawkins, Richard; Dobzhansky, coveries made by his wife, Mary Leakey Theodosius; Fossey, Dian; Genetics; Geology; (1913–1996), at Olduvai Gorge in northern Goodall, Jane; Gould, Stephen Jay; Hoyle, Tanzania. She found hundreds of fragments of Fred; Leakey Family; Lorenz, Konrad; Lovelock, James; Margulis, Lynn; Mayr, Ernst; a hominid skull in 1959, later determined to Miller, Stanley Lloyd; Sociobiology and be of a separate line of hominids named Aus- Evolutionary Psychology; Symbiosis;Watson, tralopithecus boisei. Mary also found, at Laetoli James D.;Wilson, Edward O. in 1978, the fossilized footprints of three ho- References minids dated 3.6 million years old.The three Eldredge, Niles, and Stephen Jay Gould. “Punctuated Equilibria: An Alternative to are thought to be the footprints of a man, a Phyletic Gradualism.” Pp. 82–115 in Models in woman or a smaller man, and a child.The gait Paleobiology. Edited by Thomas Schopf. San of the footprints clearly showed that these ho- Francisco: Freeman, Cooper, 1972. minids walked upright much sooner than any- Hull, David L. Science as a Process:An Evolutionary one had suspected. In 1974, Donald Johanson Account of the Social and Conceptual Development (1943–) found the first nearly complete of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis, which he Ruse, Michael. The Evolution Wars:A Guide to the named “Lucy.” Debates. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2000. Discoveries at Lake Turkana by a team led Tattersall, Ian. The Fossil Trail: How We Know What We by Richard Leakey (1944–), the son of Mary Think We Know about Human Evolution. New and Louis, showed that at least three different York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Weiner, Jonathan. The Beak of the Finch:A Story of species of hominids lived together in close Evolution in Our Time. New York: Knopf, 1994. proximity millions of years ago, though con- troversy remains over which line of hominids led to modern humans.The meaning of these discoveries remains elusive. The so-called Extrasolar Planets missing link has not been found, and the con- Once astronomers came to understand the tinuing profusion of extinct hominid species nature of our solar system and that stars were sows confusion in the continuing efforts to really faraway suns, the question naturally construct a solid line of evolution to modern arose whether planets around other stars ex- humans. Though numerous skeletons of Ne- isted.Was our solar system created by an in- anderthals have been discovered, scientists terstellar calamity, the result of matter being argued for much of the last century over pulled from the Sun by another star passing whether this recent species was a precursor nearby? Or was planet formation a common to modern humans or a separate species. By by-product of star formation? Both theories the end of the century, a consensus had grad- were accepted at one time or another, with Extrasolar Planets 99 the latter becoming ascendant. Stars are too who argued for extraterrestrial life on plan- far away for planets around them to be seen ets around other stars. It was then only a using conventional techniques, even with the small step to arguing that the search for ex- power of the orbiting Hubble Space Tele- traterrestrial intelligence (SETI) should be scope. expanded. The astronomer Peter Van de Camp began Since 1995, numerous other extrasolar observing Barnard’s Star in 1938. Barnard’s planets have been discovered by observations Star is only six light-years away, and only the of subtle Doppler shifts.The discoveries hap- three stars making up the Alpha Centauri sys- pened so quickly that one astronomer joked tem are closer to Earth. He gradually accu- about a Planet-a-Month club. At times, the mulated over 2,000 photographic plates and frequency of discoveries made a joke about a in 1963 announced that a wobble in the im- Planet-a-Week club more appropriate. The ages of Barnard’s Star indicated the presence planets discovered so far are all the size of gas of a large unseen planet.This proposed planet giants, but smaller than brown dwarfs. The had an extreme elliptical orbit, and after fur- National Aeronautics and Space Administra- ther observation, in 1969 Van de Kamp de- tion has proposed launching an observatory cided that the wobble was really caused by that will be able to see extrasolar planets two planets similar in size to our gas giants, around nearby stars as dots of light. Jupiter and Saturn. Two other astronomers See also Astronomy; National Aeronautics and measured the wobble much more accurately Space Administration; Search for and published their conclusion in 1973 that Extraterrestrial Intelligence; Space Exploration there were no planets around Barnard’s Star. and Space Science;Telescopes The entire debate was revitalized in Octo- References ber 1995 by Michel Mayor (1942–) and Di- Boss, Alan. Looking for :The Race to Find New Solar Systems. New York:Wiley, 1998. dier Queloz (1966–), two Swiss astronomers Clark, Stuart. Extrasolar Planets:The Search for New at the Geneva Observatory. Mayor had spent Worlds. New York:Wiley, 1998. years searching for Doppler shifts that would Croswell, Ken. Planet Quest:The Epic Discovery of indicate hidden planets. They found strong Alien Solar Systems. New York: Free Press, 1997. evidence that a planet at least half the mass of Goldsmith, Donald. Worlds Unnumbered:The Search for Extrasolar Planets. Sausalito, CA: University Jupiter orbited 51 Pegasi, a star similar to the Science Books, 1997. Sun about forty-five light-years away. The Lewis, John S. Worlds without End:The Exploration of news received wide publicity, and commen- Planets Known and Unknown. Cambridge, MA: tators immediately realized that the existence Perseus, 1998. of extrasolar planets boded well for those F

Feminism not only in science, but in the cause of erod- Modern feminism began during the counter- ing gender barriers. Beginning in the 1960s, culture movement of the 1960s, building on feminist activists helped break down many of the foundation laid by the earlier women’s the educational and cultural barriers. rights movement of the nineteenth and early Although gender bias still exists in the twentieth centuries.The earlier movement in practice and profession of science, decades of Westernized countries often gained women progress have led to a situation in which the right to vote, legal rights, access to birth many women now hold prominent positions control, and some measure of social mobility. and are in a position to make important con- Feminism as applied to science has engaged tributions. Even so, female scientists are gen- principally in two areas. First, feminists have erally less productive on average than male sought ways to break down gender barriers, scientists. Scholars have explained this dis- in order to give women completely equal op- crepancy as a result of the distractions of chil- portunity to engage in scientific work. Sec- dren and family, the tendency of men to be ond, feminists have studied the ways gender more competitive, and a sense that women bias in male-dominated fields has affected the have to achieve proportionally more in order practice and actual content of the sciences. to be treated equally by their male counter- Strong barriers existed in the mid-twenti- parts. Studies also show that women scien- eth century to the entry of women into sci- tists in Westernized countries still tend to be ence. Cultural attitudes often placed women paid less than their male counterparts, even in the home rather than the workforce; edu- when other factors, such as age, rank, and cational opportunities were limited, and aca- field of specialization, are compensated for demic appointments were often restricted statistically. from women. A study of Nobel prize–win- On the other hand, women have some- ning women in the last century found that times had an advantage because they were they had often had to overcome considerable women, in that they have been able to make obstacles, including hostility, to leaving gen- distinctive contributions. For example, early der roles. Only a determined commitment to primatologists tended to see primates in mas- science, support by relatives, and often a sup- culine terms, making aggressive and territo- portive husband enabled them to be pioneers rial males the primary focus of study. Female

101 102 Feynman, Richard primatologists, such as Jane Goodall (1934–) See also Archaeology; Birth Control Pill; Fossey, and Dian Fossey (1932–1985), helped change Dian; Goodall, Jane; Medicine; Psychology; that perspective through patient fieldwork in Social Constructionism; Sociology of Science; the 1960s and 1970s, and now the scientific Symbiosis References understanding of primates is much more nu- Creager,Angela N. H., Elizabeth Lunbeck, and anced. As more women archaeologists en- Londa Schiebinger, editors. Feminism in tered the field of archaeology, archaeologists Twentieth-Century Science,Technology, and became more sensitive to finding tools, such Medicine. Chicago: University of Chicago as digging sticks, baskets, textiles, and slings Press, 2001. Kass-Simon, Gabriele, and Patricia Farnes, for carrying babies, used heavily by women, editors. Women of Science: Righting the Record. rather than only the ax heads, arrowheads, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990. spear points, and other hunting tools used by McGrayne, Sharon Bertsch. Nobel Prize Women in men.Women researchers have also challenged Science. Second edition. Secaucus, NJ: Carol, the theory that hunting activities drove human 1998. evolution, rather than the gathering activities Rossiter, Margaret W. Women Scientists in America: Before Affirmative 1940–1972. Baltimore: more common among women. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. Medical researchers in pharmacology are Schiebinger, Londa. Has Feminism Changed Science? now aware that drugs react differently within Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999. women’s bodies, and greater numbers of Wyer, Mary, and others, editors. Women, Science, women must be included in clinical trials, es- and Technology:A Reader in Feminist Science pecially since women on average take more Studies. New York: Routledge, 2001. medicinal drugs than men do.Women also in- teract differently with physicians and require Feynman, Richard (1918–1988) different approaches in medical care. The Richard P. Feynman, perhaps the most bril- fields of psychology and psychiatry used to liant American physicist of the twentieth cen- use masculine terminology and male-cen- tury, refined quantum electrodynamics tered concepts to explain human behavior (QED), giving it its modern form. Richard and to define mental health. Pressure from Phillips Feynman was born in New York City, feminist activists and a greater influx of where his father, a sales manager, encouraged trained women into the field have changed his son to become a scientist. Feynman taught this approach considerably. himself while still a child and re- Studies have shown that women are often paired during high school for extra drawn in greater numbers to some sciences money. He earned a B.S. degree with honors than others: biology rather than physics, for in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of example. Some feminist scholars have argued Tec hnology in 1939. His doctorate in physics that the idea of symbiosis and various subdis- followed three years later from Princeton ciplines involved in ecology profit from University, where John A. Wheeler (1911–) women’s inclination to view nature in terms served as his advisor and mentor.The Manhat- of cooperation rather than competition. Fem- tan Project recruited him, and his work with inist-inspired studies have also explained how (1906–) led to a formula for cal- to change the pedagogy of the sciences and culating the yield of an atomic explosion. various technical fields to draw more women Bethe later received the 1967 Nobel Prize in into those fields. More radical feminist cri- Physics. Feynman witnessed the first atomic tiques have drawn support from social con- explosion at Trinity, New Mexico, in 1945. structionism and postmodernism to question His first marriage in 1941 ended with the much of the entire enterprise of science, death of his wife from cancer four years later. though this questioning is not usually shared His second marriage ended in divorce, and his by practicing female scientists. third marriage resulted in a son and daughter. Fossey, Dian 103

After the war, Feynman taught at , before accepting an appointment at the California Institute of Technology (Cal- tech), where he remained for the rest of his life. At Cornell, Feynman returned to his in- terest in QED, where he developed a new theory to renormalize quantum electrody- namics, fixing flawed equations that led to in- finite results and problems with how to han- dle the self-energy of particles. Feynman was part of the second generation that refined the theory. Julian Schwinger (1918–1994), a fel- low New Yorker, independently developed a similar theory, as did Shinichiro Tomonaga (1906–1979), working in war-imposed isola- tion in Japan. Freeman Dyson (1923–) showed that the three theories were mathe- matically equivalent, and the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics was shared among Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga. Feynman’s mathe- , physicist, 1986 (Bettmann/Corbis) matical notation system for QED was ac- cepted by the physics community over the systems developed by Schwinger and Tomo- naga, and his method of graphically drawing particle interactions, in what came to be report castigating NASA management. Un- dubbed Feynman diagrams, was widely like many academics of his stature, he ex- adopted. celled at undergraduate teaching. At Caltech, Feynman worked with Murray See also Dyson, Freeman; Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann (1929–) to create a theory that Grand Unified Theory; National Aeronautics explained the weak nuclear force, one of the and Space Administration; Nobel Prizes; four fundamental physical forces. Later Feyn- Particle Physics; Physics; Schwinger, Julian; man worked on the strong nuclear force, an- Wheeler, John A. other of the four fundamental physical forces, References Feynman, Richard P. The Pleasure of Finding Things proposing hypothetical particles called par- Out:The Best Short Works of Richard P.Feynman. tons that make up protons and neutrons. He Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1999. also explained on a quantum level the super- Gleick, James. Genius:The Life and Science of Richard fluid behavior of , based on the Feynman. New York: Pantheon, 1992. work of the Soviet physicist (1908–1968). A gregarious man known for his infectious Fossey, Dian (1932–1985) enthusiasm for mathematics and physics, Dian Fossey became the leading expert on Feynman was widely admired by his peers. the mountain gorilla through years of difficult He was always ready to seek out his own an- field research and campaigned for the preser- swers and always spoke his mind. When he vation of their African habitat. Fossey was was appointed to a panel to investigate the born in San Francisco, where her love of ani- causes of the 1986 explosion of the space mals sustained her during an unhappy child- shuttle Challenger, he conducted his own sep- hood.When Fossey entered the University of arate investigation and produced a separate California at Davis, she intended to become a 104 Fossey, Dian

Dian Fossey, zoologist, 1985 (Yann Arthus-Bertrand/Corbis) veterinarian, but the required courses in study, just as Wilkie had funded Jane chemistry and physics convinced her that she Goodall’s study of chimpanzees in the wild. should choose another path. Fossey graduated After a brief visit with Goodall (1934–) to from San Jose State College in 1954 with a learn the rudiments of fieldwork, Fossey set B.A. in occupational therapy. She moved to up camp in Zaire. The gorillas normally fled Kentucky and worked in Louisville as direc- from strangers, forcing her to slowly work tor of the occupational therapy department at her way into their confidence until she was the Kosair Crippled Children’s Hospital.Tak- allowed to approach close enough to observe ing out a loan, she traveled to Africa in 1963 the different family groups. Political turmoil with the desire to meet the famous Louis in Zaire led to her capture by government S. B. Leakey (1903–1972) and see the moun- troops. After escaping from her captors, she tain gorillas.That species of gorilla lives only fled the country and restarted her research in in the Virungas Mountains, located at the Rwanda. junction of the nations of Rwanda, Uganda, Encouraged by Leakey, Fossey left her re- and Congo (renamed Zaire in 1971, then re- search long enough to attend Cambridge Uni- named the Democratic Republic of the versity from 1970 to 1974 and earn a Ph.D. in Congo in 1997). She was fascinated by the zoology. The National Geographic Society large gentle animals. began funding Fossey in 1968 and provided In 1966, Leakey visited Fossey in other forms of assistance and publicity for Louisville and convinced her to study the an- Fossey that made her into a celebrity. Follow- imals, even though she had no field experi- ing the death of a favorite gorilla at the hands ence or relevant training. Leakey persuaded of poachers in 1978, Fossey began a campaign his friend Leighton A.Wilkie to fund Fossey’s to publicize the diminishing numbers of Foundations 105 mountain gorillas and the depredations of tion (1913), and the Ford Foundation (1936), poachers. In 1980 she also interrupted her re- created from fortunes built respectively in search to teach at Cornell University.This re- the steel, oil, and automobile industries. turn to America gave her time to complete The sciences have benefited from these Gorillas in the Mist (1983), which reported on private foundations. In the period between mountain gorillas for a popular audience. Fos- World War I and World War II,a patron-client sey was more comfortable in the company of relationship developed between scientists and her beloved gorillas than with other people. the foundations. Scientists became used to Her anthropomorphic accounts of the gorillas applying for grants and directing their re- treated the primates as individuals, not just search into those areas that foundations research subjects. wanted to emphasize. In the United States, Fossey returned to Africa to continue her private foundations provided much of the research, at the same time organizing anti- funding for basic research during the inter- poaching patrols and aggressively seeking to war period. Foundation funding created the protect the mountain gorilla habitat from the practice of postdoctoral fellowships to fur- burgeoning local human population. Fossey ther educational and research opportunities was found dead in her Rwanda camp the day for scientists.The foundations were just as in- after Christmas in 1985, presumably slain by terested in the social sciences during this pe- poachers. riod as in the harder sciences. Rockefeller See also Anthropology; Environmental funding was so generous that in the 1930s the Movement; Goodall, Jane; Leakey Family; majority of cultural anthropologists working National Geographic Society; Zoology in the field received funding from the Rocke- References feller Foundation. After World War II, the Mowat, Farley. Woman in the Mists:The Story of Dian federal government, through organizations Fossey and the Mountain Gorillas of Africa. New like the National Science Foundation, Na- York:Warner Books, 1987. Torgovnick, Marianna. Primitive Passions: Men, tional Institutes of Health, and defense- Women, and the Quest for Ecstasy. New York: related initiatives, took over funding basic re- Knopf, 1997. search. The foundations moved to more ap- plied studies, where trustees and managers saw opportunities to be effective. Foundations From the beginning, health issues have re- Private foundations have made major contri- ceived considerable emphasis from the foun- butions to scientific research, especially in the dations.The Rockefeller Foundation has been area of public health. In the late nineteenth instrumental in numerous health initiatives and early twentieth centuries, corporations around the world, promoting medical educa- based on large amounts of capital and new tion, seeking ways to alleviate chronic dis- methods of management came to dominate eases like yellow fever and malaria, and fund- the economies of the United States and Great ing medical research. The heiress Katherine Britain. Some of the wealthiest of the “robber Dexter McCormick (1875–1967) provided barons” who founded these corporations de- the funds in the 1950s that led to the first ef- voted considerable parts of their fortunes to fective birth control pill.The National Foun- creating private philanthropic foundations. dation for Infantile Paralysis successfully These foundations functioned on a different funded the separate efforts of virologists level from other charities, both because of Jonas Salk (1914–1995) and Albert Sabin their size and because of their emphasis on (1906–1993) to develop effective polio vac- larger projects. Among the most notable of cines.The philanthropist John D. Rockefeller the American foundations are the Carnegie III (1906–1978) founded The Population Corporation (1911), the Rockefeller Founda- Council in 1952 to promote research into 106 Franklin, Rosiland population control, and he aggressively pro- the Wellcome Trust are unique in their size. moted family-planning programs and contra- Critics have often accused private foundations ceptive use throughout the world.This was an of promoting the social and cultural agendas early expression of the concern with popula- of their founders. Although that is true to a tion growth that became a dominant focus of degree, foundations have usually followed thought and action among scientists in the general cultural trends already emerging. 1960s. The emphasis on health and developing na- The Green Revolution that transformed tions continued in 2000 when the cofounder twentieth-century agriculture occurred as a of Microsoft Corporation and his wife cre- result of deliberate foundation policies. The ated the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation hired the American with an initial endowment of approximately plant specialist Norman E. Borlaug (1914–) $25 billion. The Gates Foundation works to to go to Mexico in 1944 to work on a project promote global health equity, bringing health to create new strains of wheat. The resulting education and medical help to Third World strains produced higher yields and resisted countries. The Gates Foundation also pro- diseases better, though they also required motes technology education, in order to min- more water and depleted the soil more imize the “digital divide” that separates the quickly, requiring fertilizers to help them computer literate, who have ready access to grow. In 1962, the Ford Foundation joined the education and computers, and the computer Rockefeller Foundation to found the Interna- illiterate, who do not have ready access to ei- tional Rice Research Institute in the Philip- ther the knowledge or actual machines. pines at Los Banos, where Robert Chandler See also Birth Control Pill; Green Revolution; and his team quickly created new strains of National Institutes of Health; National Science rice that proved as successful as Borlaug’s Foundation; Pharmacology; Population wheat strains. In 2000, the value of the Ford Studies; Sabin, Albert; Salk, Jonas Foundation stood at $13 billion, making for References about $500 million a year being spent. Forty Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. http://www. gatesfoundation.org/ (accessed February 13, percent of the spending went to developing 2004). countries (Ford Foundation Web site). Ford Foundation. http://www.fordfound.org/ In Great Britain, the American expatriate (accessed February 13, 2004). Henry Wellcome (1853–1936) cofounded a Jonas, Gerald. The Circuit Riders: Rockefeller Money pharmaceutical company in 1880. As his and the Rise of Modern Science. New York: Norton, 1989. company became successful, Wellcome in- Rockefeller Foundation. http://www.rockfound. dulged in his passion for medical history, col- org/ (accessed February 13, 2004). lecting instruments and archival material. His Schneider,William H., editor. Rockefeller will converted his holdings in the company Philanthropy and Modern Biomedicine: into a private foundation, the Wellcome International Initiatives from World War I to the Cold Trust.The trust promoted research in the his- War. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002. tory of medicine and medical research. By The Wellcome Trust. http://www.wellcome the end of the century, the trust was worth .ac.uk/ (accessed February 13, 2004). some 9 billion pounds, and some 400 million pounds a year supported medical research, chiefly in Great Britain. The Wellcome Li- Franklin, Rosiland (1920–1958) brary became one of the premier medical his- Rosiland Franklin specialized in x-ray diffrac- tory facilities in the world. tion methods, and her photographs of de- Although other foundations exist around oxyribonucleic acid (DNA) helped Francis the world, working in areas applicable to sci- Crick (1916–2004) and James D. Watson ence, the foundations in the United States and (1928–) determine the double-helix nature Fuller, Buckminster 107 of the molecule. Rosiland Elsie Franklin was (RNA). Franklin died of cancer at the age of born in London, England, where her father thirty-seven. Four years later, Crick,Watson, was a wealthy Jewish banker. Even as a child, and Wilkins received the 1962 Nobel Prize she proved to be headstrong and impatient for Physiology or Medicine.The Nobel is not with the limitations that cultural attitudes im- awarded posthumously, nor is a single prize posed on women. Determined to pursue a awarded to more than three persons at a career as a scientist, she earned admission to time. One of the more interesting what-ifs of Cambridge University,though her father only history is the question of whether Franklin grudgingly agreed to fund her education, would have also received the prize if she had since he did not believe that women should still been alive. be educated at universities. She attended See also Crick, Francis; Genetics; Nobel Prizes; Newnham College, a women’s college at Watson, James D. Cambridge. She graduated with a bachelor’s References degree in chemistry in 1941 and went to Maddox, Brenda. Rosiland Franklin:The Dark Lady of work at the British Coal Utilization Research DNA. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. Association. Her research on how burning McGrayne, Sharon Bertsch. Nobel Prize Women in Science. Second edition. Secaucus, NJ: Carol, coal turns into graphite resulted in five pub- 1998. lished papers and earned her a Ph.D. in phys- ical chemistry from Cambridge in 1945. From 1947 to 1950, she worked at the Labo- ratoire Central des Services Chimiques de Fuller, Buckminster (1895–1983) l’État in Paris. Buckminster Fuller was one of the most in- In 1951, Franklin returned to England to novative thinkers of the twentieth century. work with the Medical Research Council at Richard Buckminster Fuller (“Bucky”) was King’s College at the University of London. born in Milton, Massachusetts, to a distin- Franklin mastered the new field of x-ray crys- guished family. His father’s male ancestors of tallography,in which reflected x-rays through the Fuller line had all attended Harvard Uni- crystals resulted in photographs. She worked versity since 1760. Fuller entered Harvard in with Maurice H. F.Wilkins (1916–), applying 1913, was expelled a year later for spending her skills by taking pictures of the DNA mol- his tuition money on a lavish party in New ecule. Wilkins showed his friend James D. York City, worked as an apprentice mechanic Watson one of Franklin’s best photographs, at a textile mill in Canada for a time, then re- which helped Francis Crick and Watson to turned to Harvard, to be expelled again for determine that the DNA molecule was a dou- not concentrating on his studies. Fuller found ble helix. Crick and Watson published their work as a laborer, and with the coming of discovery in a letter to Nature in April 1953. World War I in 1917, served in the U.S. Navy Franklin’s photographs and her own article as an officer. He also married the daughter of were published in the same issue. Franklin a prominent architect in 1917. later became a close friend of Crick’s, but Fuller continued to work odd jobs, until Watson’s account of the discovery, The Double he joined his father-in-law in a business man- Helix (1968), portrayed her in a negative ufacturing a fibrous building block that his fa- light, and did not give her the credit that was ther-in-law had invented. The death of his her due. four-year-old daughter sent him into a deep In 1953, Franklin moved to the Crystal- depression, and when the business suffered, lography Laboratory at Birkbeck College in the stockholders fired him. In 1927, he found London. She turned her attention to divining himself in Chicago, living with his wife and a the molecular structure of the tobacco mo- new daughter, but on the edge of a precipice, saic virus and studies of ribonucleic acid drinking heavily and even considering sui- 108 Fuller, Buckminster

Buckminster Fuller, stands before a geodesic dome at the 1967 World's Fair in Montreal, Quebec. (Bettmann/Corbis)

cide. Fuller survived by finding a personal result in many commercial successes. During mission, the improvement of the human con- World War II, Fuller served as chief of the dition through new design principles. These section of the Board principles applied to machines, architecture, of Economic Warfare. After the war, he de- technology, and a philosophy of life. His de- veloped the mathematics for a science of ge- signs aimed to develop ways to be more effi- odesics. His most interesting product was the cient in all things. geodesic dome, an efficient building shape Fuller founded Dymaxion Corporation that is also remarkably strong. (combining the words dynamic, maximum, and In 1959, Southern Illinois University of- ion) and proceeded to spew forth inventions: fered Fuller a position as a research professor, a prefabricated house, a revolutionary car, a a testament to his recognized genius, despite type of map that projected the globe onto a his failure at formal education. Fuller ac- flat surface without visible flaws, and a cepted. He then moved in 1972 to Philadel- portable shelter for use by the military dur- phia to become a World Fellow for the Uni- ing World War II. Many of these inventions versity City Science Center. Fuller also wrote derived from innovative ways of using trian- books on his design philosophy and applied it gles, circles, and tetrahedron-shaped objects. to other areas of human endeavor,such as lan- His inventions aroused interest, but did not guage, education, and even thought. In the Fuller, Buckminster 109

1960s and 1970s, the American countercul- of carbon balls that are formed in shapes rem- ture movement adopted Fuller as an icon for iniscent of Fuller’s . These mole- his ability to think thoughts unconstrained by cules are called fullerenes, or buckyballs. convention. The environmental movement See also Environmental Movement found inspiration in his ideas that more could References be done with less if only effective design prin- The Buckminster Fuller Institute. http://www ciples were applied. Fuller died in 1983, the .bfi.org/ (accessed February 13, 2004). holder of over 2,000 patents, having received Zung,Thomas T., editor. Buckminster Fuller:An numerous awards and honorary degrees, and Anthology for the New Millennium. New York: St. Martin’s, 2000. with a reputation for original thinking. The 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to three chemists for their artificial creation G

Gaia Hypothesis Project, even though he became a U.S. citizen See Ecology; Environmental Movement; in 1940, so he worked on high explosives for Lovelock, James; Margulis, Lynn the U.S. Navy. In 1948, Gamow and his stu- dent Ralph Alpher wrote a paper titled “The Origin of Chemical Elements,” one of many Gamow, George (1904–1968) contributions to the Big Bang theory that George Gamow made significant contribu- Gamow made. Gamow included Hans A. tions to the theory of radioactivity,the theory Bethe as an author so that the published paper of the Big Bang, and to genetics. Born Georgy would appear as authored by Alpher, Bethe, Antonovich Gamov in Odessa, Russia, and Gamow,close to alpha, beta, and gamma, Gamow attended Leningrad University, the first three letters of the Greek alphabet. where he earned a Ph.D. in physics in 1928. Bethe did not object to this famous joke. He then traveled abroad to study at the Uni- During the 1950s, Gamow was the chief versity of Göttingen, University of Copen- champion of the Big Bang theory, and Fred hagen, and Cambridge University, where he Hoyle (1915–2001) was the chief champion worked with the luminaries in the field of of the steady state theory. Gamow and his quantum physics. He developed a quantum team of researchers even hypothesized that theory to explain radioactivity, and other the Big Bang had left a faint background radi- physicists took notice. In 1933, he traveled to ation in the universe, though they did not re- the Solvay International Congress on Physics alize that radio astronomers might be able to in Brussels; there he decided not to return to detect it. The Big Bang theory triumphed in the Soviet Union. Though not a strongly po- the 1960s because of discoveries that the litical man, Gamow sensed the changing at- steady state theory could not explain but the mosphere as the tyranny of the Soviet dicta- Big Bang theory could. The major discovery tor Josef Stalin (1879–1953) grew, reaching was the background radiation of the universe, into every aspect of Soviet life. though the explanation for the radiation was In 1934, Gamow found a post as a profes- developed independently of Gamow’s work a sor of at the George Wash- decade earlier. In 1954, Gamow also made ington University in Washington, D.C. Dur- important proposals about the genetic code ing World War II, his Russian origins meant embedded within the newly discovered dou- that he could not work on the Manhattan ble helix of DNA. In 1956, Gamow moved to

111 112 Gell-Mann, Murray

mental type of matter, which he playfully called the quark. Murray Gell-Mann was born in New York City to Jewish Austrian im- migrants.A scholarship allowed him to attend private school, and at age fifteen he entered Yale University. Gell-Mann wanted to study archaeology or linguistics, and his father wanted something more practical, such as en- gineering. They compromised on physics. Gell-Mann graduated from Yale in 1948, then earned a Ph.D. in physics from the Massachu- setts Institute of Technology in 1951. After a year at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, he accepted a position at the Insti- tute for Nuclear Studies at the University of Chicago. In 1955, he moved to the California Institute of Technology, becoming a full pro- fessor the following year and remaining there until his retirement in 1993. Gell-Mann mar- ried a British archaeologist in 1955, and they produced a son and daughter. His wife died in George Gamow, physicist (Bettmann/Corbis) 1981, and he remarried in 1992. After World War II, nuclear physicists used cloud chambers and then particle accelera- tors to smash atoms, tracking the subatomic the University of Colorado. Beginning in the particles that briefly flared to life before de- 1930s, Gamow wrote popular articles and caying. Dozens of particles had been identi- books on science for the average person, fied by the early 1950s, with little theoretical filled with humor and his own line drawings. understanding of how to organize them. He eventually produced some twenty books, Gell-Mann brought order to this confusion in including his famous Mr.Tomkins series. 1953 by proposing a new property for sub- See also Astronomy; Big Bang Theory and Steady atomic particles called strangeness and creat- State Theory; Genetics; Hoyle, Fred; Media ing a new theory. In 1961, he found a way to and Popular Culture; Physics; Soviet Union categorize the subatomic particles into References Gamow, George. Mr.Tompkins in Paperback. groups, creating a system similar to the peri- Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, odic table of the elements. He predicted the 1965. properties of a new particle that was subse- ———. My :An Informal Autobiography. quently discovered in 1964. An Israeli physi- New York:Viking, 1970. cist, Yuval Ne’eman (1925–), independently Kragh, Helge. Cosmology and Controversy:The Historical Development of Two Theories of the devised a similar system, and the two physi- Universe. Princeton: Princeton University cists collaborated to write a 1964 book, The Press, 1996. Eightfold Way. The name for their system is a reference to Buddhism, another example of Gell-Mann’s penchant for whimsical names. Gell-Mann, Murray (1929–) Also in 1964, Gell-Mann proposed a new The prominent physicist Murray Gell-Mann type of fundamental matter that formed sub- devised theories to categorize subatomic par- atomic particles. He called the constituents ticles as well as describe an even more funda- of this fundamental matter quarks and anti- Genetics 113 quarks, and suggested that three “flavors,” or DNA replication occurs and determined how types, existed. Since that time the number of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) is used to types has risen to six, and quark theory is transcribe information from DNA genes to now part of the standard model that attempts build proteins. The French researchers to combine the four basic forces (the weak François Jacob (1920–) and nuclear force, the strong nuclear force, elec- (1910–1976) were among those who deter- tromagnetism, and gravity) into a grand uni- mined how the genetic transcription process is fied theory. Gell-Mann received the 1969 turned on and off by proposing that a repres- Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on sor molecule binds itself to the DNA at the ap- strangeness and the eightfold way. In the propriate point to block transcription. Jacob 1970s, Gell-Mann expanded his theory of and Monod also developed the theories of quarks into what he called quantum chromo- operons and allosteric transitions to help ex- dynamics (QCD). plain how information is transferred from A man of diverse interests, Gell-Mann was DNA to form enzymes and proteins inside drawn in the early 1980s to the new science cells. The geneticist Barbara McClintock of complexity, which sought to find order in (1902–1992) contributed her theory of trans- seemingly random events. Chaos theory posable genes, or “jumping genes,” developed emerged from this new science, and Gell- in the 1940s even before Watson and Crick’s Mann enjoyed speculation in this area, even- discovery, though not appreciated until two tually writing a book, The Quark and the decades later. Jaguar:Adventures in the Simple and the Complex The central dogma of genetics became that (1994). Gell-Mann and others founded the DNA controls everything, with RNA acting Santa Fe Institute in New Mexico in 1984 to as the messenger to create proteins. Molecu- promote the study of chaos theory and other lar biology became the dominant discipline in implications of complexity. Gell-Mann re- the biological sciences, claiming that all the mains active in the study of complexity. really interesting biological processes oc- See also Grand Unified Theory; Nobel Prizes; curred at the level of molecules. Cellular bi- Particle Physics ologists have countered that the obsession References with DNA has neglected the role that the Gell-Mann, Murray. The Quark and the Jaguar: other proteins and enzymes in the cell play as Adventures in the Simple and the Complex. New the coded information from genes is ex- York:W.H. Freeman, 1994. pressed. The microbiologist Lynn Margulis Johnson, George. Strange Beauty: Murray Gell-Mann and the Revolution in Twentieth-Century Physics. (1938–) examined cytoplasmic genes, those New York: Knopf, 1999. genes found outside the cell nucleus in or- ganelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts, and created a theory that organelles were re- Genetics ally former bacteria that had fused with other The rediscovery of Mendelian genetics at the cells. Her 1967 theory of serial endosymbio- turn of the century created the science of ge- sis theory (SET) became an important way to netics. Through painstaking research, geneti- understand that bacteria exchanged genes in cists developed laws of and developed a manner that accelerated the process of nat- the theory that genes exist and have a definite ural selection. The existence of prions (pro- chemical nature, but exactly how genes work teinaceous infectious particles) also chal- eluded them. The discovery of the molecular lenged conventional notions of life and the structure of DNA by the zoologist James D. dominance of DNA, because, though prions Watson (1928–) and the biologist Francis act like viruses and cause neurological dis- Crick (1916–2004) in 1953 revolutionized the eases, they are too small to be viruses or to study of genetics. Later research showed how contain DNA. 114 Genetics

James Watson (left) and Francis Crick with their model of part of a DNA molecule in 1953 (A. Barrington Brown/Photo Researchers, Inc.)

The biochemists Herbert Boyer (1936–) quence genes by chemically describing indi- and Stanley Cohen (1935–) developed the vidual genes. These technologies laid the techniques of genetic engineering in the early foundation for the Human Genome Project, 1970s, leading to a large biotechnology in- begun in 1990 and completed in 2003. Be- dustry.Their techniques allowed scientists to cause people are genetically different from cut away strands of DNA from one plasmid each other, only 99.99 percent of the human and insert it into another plasmid.These new genome could be mapped, yielding 3.1 bil- plasmids were then injected into bacteria to lion pairs making up 35,000 to 40,000 genes. create a new organism.The molecular biolo- Mendelian genetics in the first half of the gists Walter Gilbert (1932–) at Harvard and twentieth century combined with Social Dar- (1918–) at Cambridge Uni- winism to create the intellectual foundation versity both developed techniques to se- for the powerful political force of eugenics. Geology 115

Extrapolating from the small advances in ge- animals, many scientists and laypeople worry netics, geneticists and other scientists argued that cloning of human beings lies close in the for biological determinism, a theory accord- future. ing to which nature reigned over nurture; Other successes in genetics came from they believed that human races contained in- more traditional techniques of crossbreeding trinsic differences and that hybrid races were plants. The Green Revolution of the 1950s inferior. Eugenics in the United States re- through 1970s fed the world’s burgeoning sulted in anti-immigration laws, as well as population through the development of new sporadic efforts to sterilize the mentally fee- strains of wheat and rice. Genetic engineer- ble and poor. Eugenics in Germany eventu- ing has been used since the 1970s to engineer ally led to the Nazi extermination campaigns transgenic cereal crops that are pest-resis- during World War II.The horrors of Nazi eu- tant, fungus-resistant, and virus-resistant, genics ended the Western eugenics move- and that can grow in marginal soils and yield ments.The Human Genome Project set aside even larger returns for each acre. some of its funding for the study of bioethics See also Bioethics; Biotechnology; Chemistry; as it applies to genetics. Some critics objected Cloning; Crick, Francis; Franklin, Rosiland; to the project because the knowledge might Green Revolution; Human Genome Project; lead back to eugenics, allowing people to tai- Margulis, Lynn; McClintock, Barbara; Monod, lor the DNA of their unborn children to con- Jacques; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane; Prions; form to modern images of attractiveness, ath- Sanger, Frederick; Symbiosis;Tsui, Lap-Chee; Watson, James D. leticism, and intellectual ability. References Geneticists have often searched for the Chadarevian, Soraya de. Designs for Life: Molecular gene or small set of genes that cause certain Biology after World War II. Cambridge: effects in biological organisms or certain dis- Cambridge University Press, 2002. eases. The German geneticist Christiane Crow, James F., and William F. Dove, editors. Perspectives on Genetics:Anecdotal, Historical, and Nüsslein-Volhard (1942–) and the American Critical Commentaries, 1987–1998. Madison: biologist Eric Wieschaus (1947–) bred University of Wisconsin Press, 2000. 40,000 fruit fly families, each with a single Judson, Horace Freeland. The Eighth Day of chemically induced genetic defect, then used Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology. a microscope to examine thousands of em- Expanded edition.Woodbury, NY: Cold Spring bryos and larvae. The fruit fly contains Harbor Laboratory, 1996. Kevles, Daniel J. In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics 20,000 genes, but Nüsslein-Volhard and Wie- and the Uses of Human Heredity. New York: schaus found that only 139 are essential to Knopf, 1986. embryonic development. The Chinese-born Wright, Susan. Molecular Politics: Developing molecular geneticist Lap-Chee Tsui (1950–) American and British Regulatory Policy for Genetic led one of the teams that identified the gene Engineering, 1972–1982. Chicago: University that causes the disease of cystic fibrosis in of Chicago Press, 1994. 1989. Advances in genetics also made possible cloning, the creation of a genetic duplicate of Geology a previous organism. Starting with frog eggs Geology and its many subdisciplines, includ- in 1952, embryologists and geneticists ing geodesy, , crystallography, worked to clone simple animals. Eventually, , paleogeology, seismology, and in 1996, Dolly the sheep was born, a clone petrology, have flourished because of the from an adult somatic cell. Even though practical impact of the discipline. Mining and Dolly was euthanized at the age of six in petroleum extraction activities are important 2003, suffering from serious medical prob- foundations of our industrial economy. The lems of the kind that are common in cloned major change in geology during the last half 116 Geology

Geothermal activity at Rotorua, North Island, New Zealand (Corel Corporation)

of the twentieth century occurred in the to finding anomalous evidence pointing to- 1960s, when the work of Harry Hess ward plate tectonics. (1906–1969), (1908– Deep-sea exploration also led to the dis- 1993), and others led the geological commu- covery of other geological wonders, includ- nity to accept that plate tectonics existed.The ing deep-sea hydrothermal vents, discovered theory of plate tectonics posits that the conti- in 1977 by the Alvin, a deep-sea submersible, nents actually move around on a mantle of at about 2,700 meters in the Galapagos Rift magma, pushing up mountain ranges where near the Galapagos Islands. Bacteria in the the plates meet and forming rift valleys unique ecology surrounding the vents used where plates are pulled apart.The theory has chemosynthesis to create energy, converting proven to be a powerful explanatory mecha- the sulfides into organic carbon. The geolo- nism, which has transformed geology from a gist and oceanographer Wallace S. Broecker science of particulars into a mature science (1931–) and others used analysis of deep-sea with a body of integrated knowledge. A cores to show that Milankovitch’s ice age the- major impetus for the development of the ory was correct.The Serbian scientist Milutin theory came from oceanographical expedi- Milankovitch (1879–1958) posited in 1920 tions that mapped the sea floor, finding mi- that the ice ages were caused by astronomical docean mountain ranges as well as magnetic variations in Earth’s orbit. polarity reversals among rocks on the ocean Plate tectonics also finally explained earth- bottom. Studies in oceanography, seismol- quakes and volcanoes. Volcanoes and greater ogy, and geomagnetism constituted impor- earthquake activity exist on the edges of con- tant activities during the International Geo- tinental plates. Examination of other planets physical Year (1957–1958) that contributed by spacecraft and landers has given geologists Gilbert, Walter 117 examples to compare with Earth. They have Mexico, as the source of the K-T boundary found active volcanism on Jupiter’s planet Io iridium. The dramatic impacts of the Shoe- and the remains of lava flows on all the inner maker-Levy comets on Jupiter in 1994 planets and the Moon, but so far no conclusive showed that extraterrestrial hazards in the evidence of plate tectonics on other planets. form of comets and asteroids still exist. The Geological evidence that accumulated in pioneering planetary geologist Eugene Shoe- the nineteenth century showing that Earth maker (1928–1997) had made his reputation has existed for a long time constituted one of earlier by proving that meteorite impact the major challenges that overthrew the pre- events were more common in earlier Earth vious biblically based belief in a divine cre- history than previously supposed. Some sci- ation just six thousand years ago. The possi- entists have proposed that all the major ex- bility of gradual change over eons of time tinctions in Earth history were caused by im- allowed Charles Darwin (1809–1882) to pact events, making even more room for posit the gradual evolution of species through catastrophism in geological theory. natural selection. Geologists and paleontolo- See also Alvarez, Luis W.,and Walter Alvarez; gists uncovered fossils of dinosaurs and other Barghoorn, Elso; Broecker,Wallace S.; extinct species, reinforcing the idea that Creationism; Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents; Earth had been considerably different in ear- Earthquakes; Hess, Harry; International lier eons. The paleobotanist Elso Barghoorn Geophysical Year; Kuno, Hisashi; Plate (1915–1984) from Harvard University and Tectonics; Shoemaker, Eugene; Shoemaker- Levy Comet Impact; Space Exploration and the Soviet scientist Boris Vasil’evich Timofeev Space Science;Volcanoes;Wilson, John Tuzo (1916–1982) identified microfossils from the References Precambrian era, the remains of the single- Gohau, Gabriel. A . Revised celled life that dominated Earth before the edition. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Cambrian era began 550 million years ago. University Press, 1991. Hallam, Anthony. A Revolution in the Earth Sciences: Creationists continued to insist that the bibli- From to Plate Tectonics. Oxford: cal flood laid down all the geological strata Clarendon Press, 1973. and fossils during the catastrophic year that Raup, David M. The Nemesis Affair:A Story of the water covered the entire planet. Death of Dinosaurs and the Ways of Science. The idea of gradualism, in reaction to cre- Revised and expanded edition. New York: ationism, became a firm dogma within the Norton, 1999. Young, Davis A. Mind over Magma:The Story of geological community, and geologists instinc- Igneous Petrology. Princeton: Princeton tively rejected any theories that proposed any University Press, 2003. form of catastrophism. The geologist Walter Alvarez (1940–) and his father, Nobel laure- ate and physicist Luis Walter Alvarez (1911– Gilbert, Walter (1932–) 1988), discovered high concentrations of Walter Gilbert trained as a physicist, then iridium in a 65-million-year-old layer of clay turned to molecular biology and discovered a in Gubbio, Italy, at the stratigraphical bound- process to sequence genes. Walter Gilbert ary between the Cretaceous era and the Ter- (“Wally”) was born in Boston, Massachusetts, tiary era, also called the K-T boundary. Be- where his father was an economist at Harvard cause iridium is deposited on Earth from University and his mother was a child psy- extraterrestrial sources through meteorites chologist. His father moved the family to and micrometeorites, the father and son pro- Washington, D.C., during World War II. posed that the dinosaurs were driven to ex- Though lackluster in his studies, Gilbert was tinction by the impact of an asteroid or obviously bright, and he entered Harvard in comet. Other scientists in the 1980s identi- 1949. He graduated summa cum laude in fied an in Chicxulub,Yucatán, 1953 with an A.B. in physics. He earned an 118 Gilbert, Walter

M.S. in physics from Harvard a year later. For oped a similar technique. The 1980 Nobel his doctorate, he moved to England to attend Prize in Chemistry was shared, with half Cambridge University, where he worked on being awarded to Gilbert and Sanger, and the mathematical formulas to predict the scatter- other half being awarded to Paul Berg ing of elementary particles. He received a (1926–) for other genetics research. Ph.D. in mathematics in 1957. Gilbert mar- Approached by venture capitalists, Gilbert ried in 1953 and fathered a son and daughter. and others formed, in 1978, a biotechnology Gilbert met Francis Crick (1916–2004) company called Biogen. Gilbert served as and James D.Watson (1928–) at Cambridge, chairman of the scientific board of directors who had just become famous for their discov- and eventually became chief executive officer. ery of the double-helix structure of deoxyri- In 1982, Gilbert decided that the company bonucleic acid (DNA). Gilbert returned to required more of his time and he resigned Harvard for a yearlong fellowship, then from Harvard. Gilbert led Biogen for three worked as a research assistant to the promi- and a half years, before resigning because he nent physicist Julian Schwinger (1918– found that his commitment to scientific re- 1994). In 1959, he became an assistant pro- search was not always compatible with the fessor in physics. In 1960, Watson moved to profit motives of a corporation. Biogen later Harvard, and Gilbert renewed their friend- became quite successful, based on the patents ship.Watson was working on the problem of filed during the years of Gilbert’s tenure. messenger RNA (mRNA), and Gilbert Gilbert returned to Harvard in the De- agreed to help him. Gilbert found that he en- partment of Cellular and Developmental Bi- joyed molecular biology so much that he ology. He became an early passionate advo- switched fields, becoming an associate pro- cate of the Human Genome Project in the fessor in the department in 1964. mid-1980s, giving the idea credence because Messenger RNA is used to transcribe in- he had developed one of the main techniques formation from DNA genes to build proteins. for sequencing genes.At one point, frustrated The French researchers François Jacob by the attempt to get the project going, he (1920–) and Jacques Monod (1910–1976) tried to find funding to create a company to asked the question why proteins were some- do the project. He failed to find funding; the times created in a cell and sometimes not. Human Genome Project officially began in What turned the transcription process on and 1990. Gilbert believed that decoding the off? They proposed that a repressor molecule blueprint of the human body would do more bound itself to the DNA at the appropriate than help scientific understanding. He ex- point to block transcription. Gilbert chose to pected the project to change how human be- examine the genes that created the proteins ings view themselves, though he also warned needed to digest the milk sugar lactose. that what makes human beings unique indi- Working with Escherichia coli (E. coli), in 1966 viduals is more than our genes. Gilbert and his colleagues identified the re- pressor molecule used to stop proteins from See also Biotechnology; Crick, Francis; Genetics; Human Genome Project; Nobel Prizes; being produced. Watson, James D. Gilbert continued to work on repressor References molecules. Building on earlier efforts at se- Gilbert,Walter. “A Vision of the Grail.” Pp. 83–97 quencing genes, a process of chemically de- in The Code of Codes: Scientific and Social Issues in scribing genes, Gilbert and his students cre- the Human Genome Project. Edited by Daniel J. ated a better way to sequence genes and in Kevles and . Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992. 1977 successfully sequenced every base se- Hall, Stephen S. Invisible Frontiers:The Race to quence used in a protein. Frederick Sanger Synthesize a Human Gene. New York:Atlantic (1918–) at Cambridge University also devel- Monthly, 1987. Global Warming 119

Glashow, Sheldon L. (1932–) erty for quarks, which he called “charm.” The American theoretical physicist Sheldon Quark theory now includes six quarks. L. Glashow developed the electroweak the- Glashow, Weinberg, and Salam shared the ory, combining the weak nuclear force and 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics. Glashow mar- the electromagnetic force, two of the basic ried in 1972 and fathered four children. four physical forces, and invented the prop- See also Gell-Mann, Murray; Grand Unified erty of charm for quark theory. Sheldon Lee Theory; Nobel Prizes; Particle Physics; Glashow was born in New York City, where Schwinger, Julian his parents were Jewish Russian immigrants References and his father owned a plumbing business. Glashow, Sheldon L. The Charm of Physics. New His father had changed the family name from York: American Institute of Physics, 1991. Glashow, Sheldon L., with Ben Bova. Interactions:A Gluchovski to Glashow. Glashow went to the Journey through the Mind of a Particle Physicist and Bronx High School of Science, where he met the Matter of This World. New York:Warner, (1933–). He graduated 1988. from Cornell University in 1954 with a B.S. in physics and received a Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University in 1959. His major Global Positioning System professor and mentor was Julian Schwinger See Satellites (1918–1994), who shared the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his contribution to quan- tum electrodynamics (QED). Global Warming Glashow studied as a postdoctoral fellow In the 1970s, scientists noticed a slight drop at the University of Copenhagen from 1958 in world temperatures from 1940 to 1970, to 1960. In 1960, using gauge symmetry, he and some alarmed scientists feared that a new published a theory unifying the weak nuclear ice age might be coming. But by the 1980s, force and the electromagnetic force into an scientists had determined that the average electroweak force.This theory became an im- temperature on Earth was rising, on the portant step on the road to the elusive grand order of approximately 0.6 degree Celsius (1 unified theory to combine into one standard degree Fahrenheit) during the course of the model the four basic forces of electromagne- twentieth century, with about a third of that tism, gravity, the weak nuclear force, and the change coming in the last twenty-five years. strong nuclear force. Weinberg and the In- Whether this global warming was part of a dian-born, Cambridge-educated long-term natural pattern or an effect of (1926–1996) also worked on elaborating this human industrial activity has become a theory as it developed during the next two heated issue, starting in the 1990s. Water decades. vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases in the Glashow taught at the University of Cali- atmosphere reflect back heat radiating from fornia at Berkeley until 1967, when he re- the Earth’s surface to create a greenhouse ef- turned to Harvard. He continued to work on fect.Without the greenhouse effect, the aver- his electroweak theory, predicting the exis- age temperature on Earth would be about tence of several subatomic particles, later –18 degrees Celsius (0 degree Fahrenheit). confirmed by experiments in particle accel- By the end of the century, global warming, erators. After Murray Gell-Mann predicted not global ice, had become an important ral- the existence of three particles more basic lying point for environmental groups. than any known , which he Accurate records of past temperatures called quarks, Glashow further developed the kept by human beings are scant before the theory in the mid-1960s to include a fourth twentieth century. Deep-core drilling of the quark. Glashow also proposed a new prop- Greenland ice cap and other ice deposits has 120 Global Warming

NASA-created image illustrating elevated sea surface temperatures caused by El Niño (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Center)

revealed clues to past temperatures and car- use of fossil fuels (Woods Hole Research bon dioxide levels. Scientists have been sur- Center). Current forecasts predict that if prised to find how much past temperatures left unchecked, concentrations of carbon have varied, even when the Earth was not in dioxide in the atmosphere at the end of the the midst of an ice age.The Serbian scientist twenty-first century could reach 490 to Milutin Milankovitch (1879–1958) proposed 1,260 parts per million. in 1920 that orbital variations cause the com- The scientific effort to understand global ing and receding of ice ages. Milankovitch’s warming has encouraged paleoclimatological theory is now accepted, with the addition studies to determine past climate fluctua- that minor variations in solar output could tions, as well as the creation of computer also be a factor. programs to model the Earth’s atmosphere. Many scientists argue that the greenhouse These models require sophisticated algo- effect has been enhanced by human indus- rithms and large computing resources. The trial activities during the past two centuries. first effort to create a numerical model of Current studies find that the amount of car- Earth’s atmosphere was published in 1922 by bon dioxide in the atmosphere has risen the English mathematician Lewis Fry from 280 parts per million to 370 parts per Richardson (1881–1953). Although his million in the last 200 years, as the Western model was limited to the speed at which world has industrialized and increased the manual calculations could be made, his effort Goodall, Jane 121 showed promise. Using supercomputers, sci- on how much of the ice melts, many coastal entists in the 1980s and 1990s created ever areas would be inundated. more sophisticated climate models. Studies of See also Broecker,Wallace S.; Computers; Deep- the atmospheres of other planets and the Core Drilling; El Niño; Environmental larger moons in the solar system are also used Movement; International Geophysical Year; in these models. Meteorology; Oceanography Although global warming does not cause References the El Niño weather phenomenon, its discov- Houghton, John. Global Warming:The Complete Briefing. Second edition. Cambridge; New ery has contributed to a general sense of con- York: Cambridge University Press, 1997. about the climate. The explanation by Mayewski, Paul Andrew, and Frank White. The Ice geologist Wallace S. Broecker (1931–) of the Chronicles:The Quest to Understand Global Climate thermohaline circulation system in the north- Change. Hanover, NH: University Press of New ern Atlantic, which delivers heat from the England, 2002. Michaels, Patrick J., and Robert C. Balling, Jr. The tropics up to the water off of northwest Eu- Satanic Gases: Clearing the Air about Global rope, indicates how important the oceans are Warming.Washington, DC: Cato Institute, in regulating the Earth’s temperatures. 2000. Global warming became a scientific issue Woods Hole Research Center. “Scientific with serious political and economic implica- Evidence.” http://whrc.org/resources/ tions in the 1980s.The United Nations estab- online_publications/warming_earth/scientific _evidence.htm (accessed November 2004). lished the Intergovernmental Panel on Cli- mate Change (IPCC) in 1988, and the international team of scientists published its first report in 1990, followed by later up- Goodall, Jane (1934–) dates.The United Nations Conference on En- Jane Goodall became the world’s leading ex- vironment and Development in Rio de pert on chimpanzee behavior through pa- Janeiro in 1992 was known as the Earth Sum- tience and empathy. Goodall was born in mit, and included global warming among the London, where her father was an engineer many other environmental and economic de- and her mother was a novelist. She grew up velopment issues. The United Nations Con- in a country home and showed a continuous ference on Climate Change in 1997 in Kyoto, fascination with the outdoors. After working Japan, led to the Kyoto Protocol, an interna- as a secretary and a film production assistant, tional treaty that required nations to reduce Goodall accepted the invitation of a child- their carbon dioxide emissions. The treaty hood friend to visit Africa in 1957. She met was not ratified by the U.S. Senate, and the Louis S. B. Leakey (1903–1972) in Kenya and United States withdrew from the treaty. went to work for the paleontologist as an as- The possible consequences of global sistant secretary. Leakey encouraged her to warming include dramatic shifts in agricul- undertake a study of chimpanzees in the hope tural productivity and increased desertifica- that understanding modern primates would tion. Founded in 1990, the Hadley Centre for lead to insights into how humanity’s own an- Climate Prediction and Research in the cestors behaved. United Kingdom was one of the first of many In 1960, Goodall set up camp in the organizations devoted to the study of global Gombe Stream Game Reserve near Lake Tan- warming, and it has issued forecasts of the ganyika. Her mother accompanied her be- likely consequences of further global warm- cause the government authorities would not ing. The direst forecasts by some scientists allow a single Englishwoman to be alone in predict the possible melting of the polar ice the bush. Chimpanzees in the wild normally caps and the Greenland ice cap. Smaller is- flee humans, so Goodall found a high clearing land nations might disappear, and depending where she could watch the chimpanzees on 122 Goodall, Jane

married , a Dutch wildlife photographer.Their son, nicknamed Grub, be- came a common sight on the wildlife films they produced. Goodall divorced in 1974, and her second marriage in 1975 ended with the death of her husband in 1980. At Leakey’s suggestion, Goodall entered Cambridge University and received a Ph.D. in ethology in 1965, a most unusual achieve- ment for someone who had never received a bachelor’s degree. Goodall’s unorthodox techniques have not always been accepted by other scientists.They objected to her naming the chimpanzees in her study, instead of using numbers; they objected to her feeding the troop so that they would stay closer to her camp for study; they objected to her anthro- pomorphizing the chimpanzees and reporting anecdotes instead of more abstract forms of knowledge; and they objected to her insis- tence that chimpanzees experience emotions in the same way humans do. Research assis- tants in the 1970s helped Goodall with her work, and they observed the troop under study break into two troops.A four-year-long Jane Goodall, primatologist, 1972 (Bettmann/Corbis) war ensued between the two troops until every member of one troop was killed. Goodall’s research assistants also witnessed the surrounding terrain through binoculars. the killing of an infant and cannibalization of After a time, the local chimpanzee troop be- the body. These events shocked Goodall. In came used to her and came closer. She began the 1980s, as her research grew more ac- to follow the chimpanzees around the forest cepted, Goodall began to use her fame in a and while this initially provoked aggressive relentless effort to preserve chimpanzee displays that she feigned to ignore, the troop habitat in Africa and improve conditions for eventually came to accept her and even to captive chimpanzees around the world, espe- wait for her to catch up in their travels. cially those chimpanzees used in biomedical Goodall made several astounding initial dis- research. coveries. Up until then, scientists had thought that chimpanzees were vegetarians, but See also Anthropology; Environmental Movement; Fossey, Dian; Goodall, Jane; Leakey Family; Goodall witnessed them eating meat. She also National Geographic Society; Zoology observed a chimpanzee fishing for termites by References stripping a twig of leaves and using the twig to Goodall, Jane. Reason for Hope:A Spiritual Journey. draw the termites out of their mound. This New York:Warner, 1999. was the first evidence of tool creation and tool ———. Through a Window: My Thirty Years with the use by an animal other than humans. National Chimpanzees of Gombe. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990. Geographic television specials on her work Montgomery, Sy. Walking with the Great Apes: Jane turned Goodall into a celebrity scientist and Goodall, Dian Fossey, Biruté Galdikas. Boston: brought funding to her project. In 1964 she Houghton Mifflin, 1991. Grand Unified Theory 123

Gould, Stephen Jay (1941–2002) human potential, Gould rejected sociobiol- The paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould was an ogy, promoted by his fellow Harvard faculty important theorist and popularizer of the member, Edward O.Wilson (1929–), as too theory of evolution. Gould was born in New determinist. Gould also objected to the evo- York City, where his father worked as a court lutionary psychology promoted by the zoolo- stenographer.At the age of five, he was taken gist Richard Dawkins (1941–), with its em- by his father to the Museum of Natural His- phasis on genes as the focus of evolution. tory, sparking Gould’s interest in paleontol- Gould’s 1981 book The Mismeasure of Man ogy. His parents encouraged his intellectual examined the ways that psychological intelli- interests and in 1963 Gould graduated from gence tests have been used to limit human Antioch College with a B.A. in geology. He potential and have often promoted racial and received his Ph.D. in from Co- cultural assumptions. Using the social promi- lumbia University in 1967, where he studied nence that his popular writings gave him, land snail fossils from Bermuda. After teach- Gould campaigned relentlessly against the ing for a year at Antioch, Gould accepted an rise of creationist science, which he saw as a appointment at Harvard University,where he contradiction in terms. As for his own reli- became a full professor of geology in 1973 gious life, Gould considered himself to be an and also served as curator of invertebrate pa- agnostic. The culmination of Gould’s scien- leontology at Harvard’s Museum of Compar- tific thought, the massive Structure of Evolu- ative Zoology. tionary Theory (2002), was published two Gould’s original scientific research con- months before his death. Gould won many centrated mostly on land snails of the West awards for his scientific work and his writing, Indies and evolution. In 1972, Niles Eldredge including an American Book Award. Gould (1943–) and Gould published “Punctuated married in 1965 and fathered two children. Equilibria: An Alternative to Phyletic Gradu- Divorced in 1995, he remarried and moved alism,” which argued that evolution did not to New York City. Gould survived a diagnosis always occur in gradual steps, taking long pe- of mesothelioma in 1982 and died of another riods of time.The lack of intermediate fossils form of cancer in 2002. for many species indicated that evolution in- See also Creationism; Dawkins, Richard; stead often occurred in spurts, with rapid Evolution; History of Science; Media and in a short period of time, even Popular Culture; Psychology; Sociobiology and within a couple of thousand years.The theory Evolutionary Psychology;Wilson, Edward O. was not widely accepted but did provoke References considerable intellectual ferment, and Gould Gould, Stephen Jay. Full House:The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin. New York: later argued that a pluralism of ideas within Harmony, 1996. the evolutionary paradigm led to better sci- ———. Wonderful Life:The Burgess Shale and the entific theories. Nature of History. New York: Norton, 1989. Gould’s monthly columns for Natural His- tory magazine, written from 1974 to 2001, were widely praised for their readability and Grand Unified Theory insight into evolution and the history of sci- The search for a grand unified theory ence. Gould once said that if he had not been (GUTS), combining the four known funda- so interested in paleontology, he would have mental physical forces of nature into one become a historian. The columns at times mathematical model, became an important wandered into curious asides, reflecting quest in the late twentieth century.The great Gould’s multifaceted interests. Many of English scientist (1642–1727) Gould’s twenty-three books were compila- mathematically explained the force of gravity tions of these columns. A strong believer in in the late seventeenth century. In the 124 Grand Unified Theory

nineteenth century the Scottish scientist the Big Bang, as matter formed from energy, James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) mathe- replicated many of the conditions that the matically explained the force of electromag- particle physicists studied in their quest for a netism. In the early half of the twentieth cen- grand unified theory. theo- tury, Albert Einstein (1879–1955) refined ries emerged from this marriage of the the work of Newton with his general theory physics of the very large and the physics of of relativity. Einstein spent the last quarter the very small, which seemed reasonable to century of his life trying to create a theory expect, since any grand unified theory had to that combined his own theory with Maxwell’s explain everything from the Big Bang to the , but failed.With the devel- smallest interaction between subatomic par- opment of quantum mechanics, physicists ticles. discovered two more forces of nature: the The Japanese-born physicist Yoichiro strong nuclear force, which holds nuclear Nambu (1921–) realized in 1970 that quarks particles together, and the weak nuclear act as if they are connected by strings. Fur- force, which causes radiation. ther work by Nambu and others led to the Beginning in 1960, the American theoreti- development of string theory in the 1980s. cal physicists Sheldon L. Glashow (1932–) String theory deals with hypothetical strings and Steven Weinberg (1933–), as well as the that are near the Planck length in size (about Indian-born, Cambridge-educated Abdus 10-33 centimeters or 10-34 inches), so small Salam (1926–1996), developed the elec- that no instruments can measure them.These troweak theory, combining the weak nuclear strings manifest themselves as the larger force and the electromagnetic force. Tests in known elementary particles, such as quarks, particle accelerators confirmed their predic- , and . String theory demanded tions of a weak .Their theory complex mathematics, using up to twenty-six also predicted the existence of three vector multiple dimensions, and provided a promis- bosons that, along with the , mediate ing avenue to the development of a grand the interactions within the electroweak the- unified theory. String theory later combined ory. Experimental physicists using the parti- with supersymmetry to create superstring cle accelerators at the Conseil Européen pour theory. la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN) discovered Multiple grand unified theories have been the three bosons in 1983. proposed, many of them based on string the- The American physicist Murray Gell- ory, but all the theories require experimental Mann (1929–) proposed the existence of proof that can only come from particle accel- quarks in 1964, later expanding this insight erators far beyond current technology, or ex- into a theory called quantum chromodynam- traordinarily precise measurements to detect ics (QCD) to explain the strong nuclear gravitons, or measurements of the natural force. This theory proposed gluons as the abundance of other esoteric particles thought force particles to mediate the strong force. to exist in certain quantities after the Big Gravitons have been proposed as the mediat- Bang. Occasionally another fundamental ing particle for the force of gravity, but have force is proposed, a fifth to add to the known not been found and are not widely accepted. four, but none have ever been accepted by the The currently accepted and experimen- physics community. The notion of parallel tally proven theories are called the standard universes, a consequence of quantum theory, model. In the 1960s, cosmologists, used to is now seriously entertained among sober- thinking about the vast expanses of the uni- minded theorists. verse, accepted the Big Bang model to ex- See also Gell-Mann, Murray; Glashow, Sheldon plain the origin of the universe and all matter L.; Nambu,Yoichiro; Particle Accelerators; within the universe.The first few minutes of Particle Physics; Physics Green Revolution 125

References Crease, Robert P.,and Charles C. Mann. The Second Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Twentieth- century Physics. New York: Macmillan, 1986. Greene, Brian. The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory. New York: Norton, 1999. Kaku, Michio. Hyperspace:A Scientific Odyssey through Parallel Universes,Time Warps, and the 10th Dimension. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Kaku, Michio, and Jennifer Thompson. Beyond Einstein:The Cosmic Quest for the Theory of the Universe. Revised edition. New York:Anchor, 1995. The Official String Theory Web Site. http:// superstringtheory.com (accessed February 13, 2004). Weinberg, Steven. Dreams of a Final Theory:The Search for the Fundamental Laws of Nature. New York: Hutchinson Radius, 1993.

Green Revolution The Green Revolution of the 1950s through 1970s came from the combined use of ni- trogenous fertilizers and new strains of staple A new kind of engineered wheat, grown at Colombia's Tibaitita Agriculture Station, as part of the Green crops to dramatically increase food produc- Revolution (Ted Spiegel/Corbis) tion in Third World countries. Nitrogenous fertilizers came from the development of the Haber-Bosch ammonia synthesis prior to World War I. (1868–1934), a these wheat strains, and Mexico’s wheat har- German Jew, received the 1918 Nobel Prize vest allowed that nation to become self-suffi- in Chemistry for an accomplishment that led cient in wheat in 1956. Nations who adopted to billions of people being fed. It is estimated the new strains often doubled their wheat har- that almost a third of the current world pop- vest within only a couple of years. India and ulation of over six billion people is fed only Pakistan staved off starvation in the 1960s because the use of nitrogenous fertilizers has through this technology. In 1962, the Ford increased crop yields. Foundation joined the Rockefeller Foundation The new crop strains came from the efforts to found the International Rice Research In- of American scientists sponsored by private stitute in the at Los Banos. Robert foundations. American plant specialist Nor- Chandler and his team at Los Banos quickly man E. Borlaug (1914–) went to Mexico in created new strains of rice that proved as suc- 1944 to work for the Rockefeller Foundation cessful as Borlaug’s wheat strains.The work of on a project to create new strains of wheat. both Borlaug and Chandler benefited from The resulting strains produced higher yields earlier strains of dwarf wheat and rice devel- and resisted diseases better, though they also oped by Japanese plant breeders. required more water and depleted the soil Borlaug received the Nobel Peace Prize in more quickly, requiring fertilizers to help 1970 in recognition of his important achieve- them grow. Many developing nations adopted ment. Borlaug did not believe, however, that 126 Green Revolution

the Green Revolution solved the population gineer transgenic cereal crops that are pest- crisis; rather, the increased food production resistant, fungus-resistant, and virus-resis- bought time to find more permanent solu- tant, and can grow in marginal soils and yield tions to the problem. Largely as a result of even larger returns for each acre. the Green Revolution, worldwide grain pro- See also Agriculture; Biology and the Life duction increased from 692 million tons in Sciences; Biotechnology; Foundations; Nobel 1950 to 1.9 billion tons in 1992, outpacing Prizes; Population Studies the growth in population. In order to meet References the growing need for food, biotechnology ad- Brown, Lester R. Seeds of Change:The Green vocates argue that more refined techniques Revolution and Development in the 1970s. New York: Praeger, 1970. from biotechnology will be necessary to en- H

Harlow, Harry F. (1905–1981) emphasized the physical drives for food, The experimental psychologist Harry F. Har- water, and procreation as primary motives, low changed the way modern psychologists with cognitive motives like the need for lov- look at the need for affection and the intrica- ing affection and curiosity relegated to sec- cies of mother-child relationships. Harry ondary roles. Prevailing Freudian and behav- Frederick was born in Fairfield, Iowa, iorist wisdom even advocated that parents to parents who owned a general store. His fa- not give their children too much affection. ther had attended medical school before Using rhesus monkeys, Harlow engaged in dropping out and dabbled in many pursuits. maternal deprivation research; newborn After a year at Reed College in Oregon, Har- monkeys were taken from their mothers and low transferred to Stanford University in isolated. Two surrogate mothers were of- 1924. Originally an English major, he fered, one cloth-covered and cuddly and the changed to psychology and graduated with a other made of wire. Even when only the wire Ph.D. in 1930. In graduate school, the young mother offered milk from a nipple, the mon- man changed his last name from Israel to keys preferred the touch and warmth of the Harlow. His family was not Jewish, but the cloth-covered mothers. He also noted that Jewish sound of the name could have been a monkeys raised without their own mothers serious career obstacle in those anti-Semitic grew up to be neglectful or abusive mothers times. to their own offspring, and that monkeys Harlow accepted an appointment at the raised without affectionate mothers mani- University of Wisconsin at Madison and began fested behavioral disorders while still new- behavioral experiments with rats, cats, and borns and also as mature monkeys. Numer- frogs, but found that primates were enough ous variations on these experiments led like humans to be more useful. He founded a Harlow to conclude that affection was a pri- primate research center, and long hours of mary need. Among the supporters of his re- work led to considerable recognition as a pri- search were the National Institutes of Health mate researcher. Harlow’s first graduate stu- and the Ford Foundation. Harlow served as dent was Abraham Maslow (1908–1970), the president of the American Psychological who later gained fame as a psychologist. Association in 1958–1959. His 1958 presi- Harlow valued experiment over grand dential address, “The Nature of Love,” be- theories. The current theories of the time came a classic paper; in it he summarized his

127 128 Hawking, Stephen work and argued that love was a primary graduating with his B.A. in 1962, he moved to drive for primates and humans. Cambridge University for graduate studies. Harlow married Clara Mears in 1932, and He preferred theory to experiment and found they had two sons.They divorced in 1946. He cosmology to offer the grandest theories. married a fellow researcher in 1948, and they Early in his studies he was diagnosed with had a son and a daughter. After his second amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), com- wife died of cancer in 1971, Harlow renewed monly called Lou Gehrig’s disease, a neuro- contact with his first wife, and they remar- muscular degenerative disorder with no cure. ried in 1972. Both of his wives were partners After the disease stabilized, Hawking attacked in his research and writing.Years of smoking, his studies with renewed vigor. He married in , emotional isolation, long work 1965 and credited his wife with giving him hours, and Parkinson’s disease took their toll the determination to succeed professionally on Harlow, and his health declined. His wife and in his personal life. After he earned his helped him complete a final collection of his Ph.D. in 1966, Hawking remained at Cam- work, The Human Model: Primate Perspectives bridge on the staff of the Institute of Theoret- (1979), and he died in 1981. Harlow received ical Astronomy and remains as a faculty mem- many awards, including a National Medal of ber in the department. Science in 1967. Harlow’s research methods, Dennis Sciama (1926–1999), Hawking’s condemned nowadays as inhumane, would thesis advisor, introduced the young man to not be approved by contemporary ethics re- the mathematician Roger Penrose (1931–), view boards, but his results are part of the ac- and Penrose’s interest in singularities, later cepted wisdom of contemporary psychology. called black holes, intrigued Hawking. Singu- See also Ethics; Foundations; National Institutes larities were thought to represent what hap- of Health; Psychology pened to certain stars at the end of their life References cycle and what the primordial point at the Blum, Deborah. Love at Goon Park: beginning of the universe looked like before and the Science of Affection. Cambridge, MA: the Big Bang. Penrose and Hawking began to Perseus, 2002. work on the problem and in 1970 published a Harlow, Harry F., and Clara Mears Harlow. From Learning to Love:The Selected Papers of H. F. theory that argued that while black holes Harlow. New York: Praeger, 1987. could not be observed, relativistic radiation from near the event horizon of black holes should be detectable.The event horizon is the Hawking, Stephen (1942–) boundary of a black hole, the limit past which The theoretical physicist incoming mass can no longer escape the in- became a celebrity as a result of overcoming tense gravity of the black hole. his physical disabilities to produce important The study of singularities is not only about work on black holes and the Big Bang theory the eventual fate of large stars, but also finds of the creation of the universe. Stephen application in the theory of the Big Bang.The William Hawking was born in Oxford, En- Big Bang is the name given to the explosion of gland, 300 years to the day after the death of a massive singularity to create the universe. In (1564–1642), a coincidence the 1970s, Hawking proposed that in the im- that appealed to his mischievous sense of mediate aftermath of the Big Bang, numerous humor. Hawking grew up in London, where miniature black holes were formed, each no his father, a medical doctor, directed the divi- larger than a proton. Combining quantum sion of parasitology at the National Institute mechanics with relativity theory showed for Medical Research. Hawking first studied Hawking, to his astonishment, that these mathematics at University College at Oxford miniature black holes would emit radiation, University, but soon turned to physics. After before eventually exploding, scattering en- Hess, Harry 129

was forced to abandon his cane and became confined to a wheelchair. Eventually he lost the ability to talk or even move most of his body. Hawking has two sons and a daughter, though his first marriage eventually resulted in divorce from the strain of his disease. He remarried in 1995. Hawking also turned to popularizing cosmology, giving public lec- tures, appearing in television programs, and writing several best-selling books, including A Brief History of Time (1988). The combina- tion of his intellect, his ideas, and his disabil- ity fascinated the public. Hawking seemed to enjoy his iconic status, as when he appeared as himself on the science fiction television se- ries Star Trek:The Next Generation. See also Astronomy; Big Bang Theory and Steady State Theory; Black Holes; Penrose, Roger References Hawking, Stephen. Black Holes and Baby Universes Stephen Hawking, physicist, 1982 (M. Manni/Bettmann/ and Other Essays. New York: Bantam, 1993. Corbis) White, Michael, and . Stephen Hawking:A Life in Science. New York: Dutton, 1992. ergy and particles. This revolutionary idea, running counter to all current theory on black Hess, Harry (1906–1969) holes, became known as Hawking Radiation. Harry Hess did not initially support the According to his theory, these miniature black heretical idea of continental drift, but when holes were an important part of the sequence he worked out his explanation of how sea of events following the Big Bang, but no floor spreading in midoceanic ridges oc- miniature black holes now remain. curred, he came to support that idea, and Hawking’s brilliance was apparent to all, proposed a theory of how plate tectonics and he moved up the academic ranks. He be- worked. was born in came a professor of gravitational physics in New York City. He earned his B.A. in geology 1977 and the Lucasian Professor of Mathe- at Yale University in 1927. He graduated with matics in 1980. The same position had been a Ph.D. in geology from Princeton University held by the great scientist Isaac Newton in 1932, and two years later he began teach- (1642–1727). His disability relieved Hawk- ing there. He became a professor in 1948 and ing of teaching duties, and he devoted his remained at Princeton until his retirement in time to research, remaining on the cutting 1966. In the 1930s, Hess worked with the edge of cosmological thought. As of 2004, navy on submarine gravity studies and be- Hawking remained active in his field. Penrose came an officer in the naval reserve. During and Hawking shared the prestigious Wolf World War II, Hess served as the captain of Prize for Physics in 1988, just one of the the assault transport USS Cape Johnson. As his many honors that Hawking has received. As ship traveled the Pacific Ocean, Hess used its his disease progressed, destroying his ability sonar to map the ocean floor, searching for to control his voluntary muscles, his brain seamounts. and senses remained unaffected. In 1969 he After the war and his return to Princeton, 130 History of Science

Hess continued to be involved in the explo- “Hess, Harry Hammond.” A Princeton Companion. ration of the ocean bottom. Oceanographers http://etc.princeton.edu/CampusWWW/ were astonished to find that midoceanic Companion/hess_harry.html (accessed ridges existed in all the major oceans. Studies February 13, 2004). of these ridges revealed that they were geo- logically young, no more than 400 million years old, and had a central rift valley, high History of Science heat flows, a lack of sediment deposits, and The history of science was a small field in unusual magnetic readings. In 1960, Hess 1950, with not even twenty on the wrote an essay, “History of Ocean Basins,” subject in the world. Few U.S. universities which he called geopoetry, as if the notion of offered graduate training. By the late 1960s, writing such a history was a fanciful one. He there were some 150 historians of science in circulated the essay among the geological just the United States.The history of science community. In the essay, he proposed magma is now a vibrant discipline in Western nations, as the lubricant that allowed continental with numerous doctoral programs, academic plates to move and argued that the mid- journals, scholarly conferences, and dedi- oceanic ridges were the result of sea floor cated archives sustaining a vigorous world- spreading.The ideas in this widely circulated wide program of study. With over 3,000 manuscript supported the heretical theory of members, the American-based History of continental drift first proposed by the Ger- Science Society, founded in 1924, is the man meteorologist (1880 world’s largest scholarly society studying the –1930) in 1912. Most geologists rejected that subject. The History of Science Society pub- theory. lishes Isis, the leading journal in the field. In 1962, Hess published his essay as a Many other such societies exist, usually in a scholarly article. (1939–) and national context, such as the British Society (1931–1997) in Cam- for the History of Science. bridge, England, expanded the work of Hess The last half of the twentieth century saw by proposing the hypothesis that magnetic history of science studies becoming ever strips on the ocean floor were a recording of more specialized. At the same time, books reversals in Earth’s . Lawrence and articles on the subject turned from their Morley (1920–) of Canada independently usual focus on narrow technical or concep- proposed a similar hypothesis, and it became tual themes (such as the relationship of sci- known as the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypoth- ence to nature) to more emphasis on the so- esis. By the mid-1960s the hypothesis was ac- cial or cultural context in which scientific cepted, and Hess was vindicated. At his change occurred (the relationship of science death, Hess was involved with the Apollo to social structures). This change could also project as one of the geologists who intended be described as a shift from an “internalist” to examine the rock samples brought back by approach, concentrating on issues within the the Apollo 11 astronauts from the first Moon discipline, to an “externalist” approach, con- landing. centrating on the discipline in relation to the See also Apollo Project; Geology; Oceanography; external world. Perspectives of other disci- Plate Tectonics plines, such as sociology, philosophy, eco- References nomics, literary criticism, and anthropology, Frankel, Henry. “Hess’s Development of His became more common in externalist studies, Hypothesis.” Pp. 345–366 enriching the analysis and fostering interdis- in Scientific Discovery: Case Studies. Edited by ciplinary studies.The new field of science and Thomas Nickles. , the Netherlands: D. Reidel, 1980. technology studies (STS), combining history, sociology, and philosophy, emerged. In the History of Science 131

Soviet Union and other communist coun- Social constructionism, postmodernism, tries, the study of the history of science re- and certain developments in the philosophy mained a slave to Marxist ideology until com- of science sparked in the 1980s what became munism crumbled and allowed historians to known as the “.”The work of his- engage in unfettered analysis. torians of science was influenced by the per- The 1962 book The Structure of Scientific spectives of postmodernist theorists who em- Revolutions, by the physicist-turned-historian phasized the human fallibility inherent in Thomas S. Kuhn (1922–1996), is the single scientific endeavors. Social constructionists, most important book in the field. In the present on the cutting edge of sociology, an- book, Kuhn adopted the term paradigm to de- thropology, and history in the 1980s and scribe the common worldview, shared prac- 1990s, advocated a position of cultural and tices, and accepted theories of a group of sci- cognitive relativism. The agenda of social entists. Using Ptolemaic geocentric constructionists was not welcomed by prac- astronomy and Copernican heliocentric as- ticing scientists, who vigorously defended the tronomy as examples, Kuhn argued that sci- as a way of objectively ob- entists have usually practiced “normal sci- taining knowledge and defended the body of ence,” in the sense that they have accepted the scientific knowledge as being a correct view current paradigm in their field and their ex- of the universe. periments have either confirmed the para- How do case studies and narratives from digm or resulted in minor changes. Repeat- the history of science help the practitioners edly, however, as time has gone on, anomalies of actual science today? To take one example, have occurred in observations and experi- the story of the cold fusion controversy, as ments that could not be explained by the cur- documented by journalists and historians, rent paradigm.When enough of these anom- provides a reminder of the importance of alies accumulate, the old paradigm becomes properly documenting and announcing scien- ripe for revolution, and a new paradigm tific breakthroughs. Many scientists are very emerges that explains the anomalies and in- aware of the history of their disciplines, but corporates the old paradigm inside it. are impatient with studies that lean toward The English historian Herbert Butterfield social constructionism or postmodernism (1900–1979) condemned the presentism in and find them not at all helpful. From the contemporary history books in his work The perspective of the practice of history, many Whig Interpretation of History (1931). Like historians have seen the history of science and writers of political or cultural history, the its sister disciplines of the history of technol- writers of the history of science are particu- ogy and the as examples larly vulnerable to ideological advocacy of of truly global history: historical research and one scientific vision over another, and to the writing that can transcend national and ideo- extent that they are presentists (or Whigs, to logical boundaries. use Butterfield’s analogy), they advocate the A sampling of some classics in the history scientific vision of the present as the true of science from the second half of the twenti- one. Many argue that the best historical writ- eth century would have to include Alexander ing comes from solidly placing past events in Koyré, Galileo Studies (1978, originally pub- their social, cultural, and intellectual con- lished in French in 1939); Herbert Butter- texts, as opposed to viewing history as a tri- field, The Origins of Modern Science, umphal march of obvious decisions and de- 1300–1800 (revised edition, 1957); Joseph velopments to the present. Many of the best Needham, Science and Civilization in China historians of science have taken Butterfield to (seven volumes, 1954–1984); Thomas S. heart and set their narratives and analysis Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution: Planetary As- within solid historical contexts. tronomy in the Development of Western Thought 132 Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot

Gillispie, Charles C. “Recent Trends in the (1957); Charles E. Rosenberg, The Cholera Historiography of Science.” Bulletin for the Years:The United States in 1832,1849,and 1866 History of Chemistry 15–16 (1994): 19–26. (1968); Charles Coulston Gillispie, editor, Hessenbruch, Arne. Reader’s Guide to the History of Dictionary of Scientific Biography (18 volumes, Science. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000. 1970–1980); Daniel J. Kevles, The Physicists: Jasanoff, Sheila, et al., editors. Handbook of Science The History of a Scientific Community in Modern and Technology Studies.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995. America (1977); Stillman Drake, Galileo at Kragh, Helge. An Introduction to the Historiography Work: His Scientific Biography (1978); Michael of Science. New York: Cambridge University Ruse, The Darwinian Revolution (1979); I. Press, 1987. Bernard Cohen, The Newtonian Revolution: Olby, R. C., et al., editors. Companion to the With Illustrations of the Transformation of Scien- History of Modern Science. New York: Routledge, 1990. tific Ideas (1980); Stephen Jay Gould, The Mis- Rossiter, Margaret W.,editor. “Catching Up with measure of Man (1981); Jack Morrell and the Vision: Essays on the Occasion of the 75th Arnold Thackray, Gentlemen of Science: Early Anniversary of the Founding of the History of Years of the British Association for the Advancement Science Society.” Supplement to Isis 90 (1999). of Science (1981); Margaret W. Rossiter, Söderqvist,Thomas, editor. Historiography of Women Scientists in America:Struggles and Strate- Contemporary Science and Technology. New York: Harwood Academic, 1997. gies to 1940 (1982); Martin J. S. Rudwick, The Great Devonian Controversy:The Shaping of Scientific Knowledge among Gentlemanly Special- ists (1985); Daniel J. Kevles, In the Name of Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Hered- (1910–1994) ity (1985); and Simon Schaffer, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin determined the Leviathan and the Air Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and chemical structure and shape of penicillin, the Experimental Life (1985); David C. Lind- the vitamin B12, and insulin. She was born berg and Ronald L. Numbers, editors, God Dorothy Crowfoot in Cairo, Egypt, where and Nature:Historical Essays on the Encounter be- her father was an archaeologist. As a child, tween Christianity and Science (1986); Richard she was fascinated by chemistry and crystals, Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (1987); a preoccupation that English society of her Crosbie Smith and M. Norton Wise, Energy time approved for women. She attended and Empire: A Biographical Study of Lord Kelvin Somerville College, the women’s college at (1989); David Lindberg, The Beginnings of Oxford University, where she decided be- Western Science (1992); Donald Worster, Na- tween her twin interests in archaeology and ture’s Economy:A History of Ecological Ideas (sec- chemistry, graduating in 1932 with a degree ond edition, 1994); and Richard S. Westfall, in chemistry. She learned crystallography at The Life of Isaac Newton (1994). As the above Oxford and continued to work in that area list shows, the history of science hit its stride with the noted chemist John D. Bernal in the 1980s in producing outstanding works (1901–1971) at Cambridge University. In of scholarship. Many other books written in 1934, Somerville invited her back to teach the 1990s and the opening years of the there. She taught at Oxford while earning her twenty-first century will certainly qualify as Ph.D. in chemistry from Cambridge in 1937, classics after a measure of time has passed. and in that same year married Thomas See also Cold Fusion; Kuhn,Thomas S.; Hodgkin, a historian who specialized in Philosophy of Science; Social Constructionism; African studies. Sociology of Science Hodgkin remained at Oxford, pursuing References her studies of crystallography while raising a Durbin, Paul T., editor. The Culture of Science, family. She bore two sons and a daughter, and Technology, and Medicine. New York: Free Press, the family often maintained two , 1980. Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot 133

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, chemist, 1964 (Hulton-Deutsch Collection/Corbis)

as her husband’s work took him to Africa and better understand how that molecule behaves her own kept her at Oxford. Hodgkin moved in chemical reactions. In 1949, she cracked up the academic ranks, becoming a university the structure of penicillin. Beginning in lecturer in 1946, a university reader in 1957, 1948, her group took more than 2,500 x-ray and finally the Wolfson Research Professor of photographs of the vitamin B12,and she the Royal Society in 1960. helped pioneer the use of computers to ana- Using x-ray crystallography photographs, lyze molecules. The eventual chemical for- obtained by a process in which x-rays re- mula for B12 that she announced in 1957 was flected through crystals resulted in photo- C63H88N14O14PCo. She then turned to an graphs, Hodgkin determined the structure of even greater challenge, the structure of the iodide in 1943. Knowing the insulin molecule, which contained 777 structure of a molecule allows chemists to atoms. She succeeded in 1969, helped by 134 Hoyle, Fred advances in computers that allowed more coworkers, Hermann Bondi (1919–) and complex calculations on measurements taken Thomas Gold (1920–), were also interested from x-ray photographs. in astrophysics.The three of them developed Hodgkin was elected to the Royal Society the steady state theory of cosmology, which in 1947, only the third woman to receive this they published in 1948, with Hoyle con- honor. She considered this honor to be tributing the mathematical work. After the greater than the Nobel Prize in Chemistry war, Hoyle returned to Cambridge, becom- that she received in 1964. Nobel prizes are ing the Plumian Professor of Astronomy in often shared between recipients, but her 1958. award was a solo honor. In 1965, the Queen Hoyle became the leading proponent of of England awarded her the Order of Merit. the steady state theory and vigorously de- The only other woman to receive that honor fended the idea that the universe had always up until then had been Florence Nightingale existed and that matter was constantly being (1820–1910). Hodgkin served as created to fuel its expansion. The opposing of Bristol University from 1970 to 1988. theory proposed a moment of creation, a pri- Hodgkin was renowned for her patient mordial egg that exploded to create the uni- work and her dexterous fingers. Her skills are verse. Hoyle dubbed the opposing theory the all the more remarkable because in 1934 she “Big Bang,” and the name stuck. Debate over contracted rheumatoid arthritis, which the two competing theories raged among as- painfully inflamed her hands and feet and tronomers during the 1950s.The discovery of eventually crippled her. A committed social- background radiation in the universe in ist and pacifist, Hodgkin remained politically 1964, at the temperature predicted by the Big active her entire life, though she maintained Bang theorists, resolved the dispute for most that her science and her politics were sepa- astronomers. rate endeavors. A former student of hers, Because George Gamow had proposed that Margaret Thatcher (1925–), turned from all the heavier elements were formed during chemistry to become an influential conserva- the Big Bang, Hoyle needed to find a way that tive prime minister of the United Kingdom. heavy elements could have been created in a See also Chemistry; Computers; Nobel Prizes steady-state universe. Hoyle and his collabora- References tors developed the theory of nucleosynthesis, Ferry, Georgina. :A Life. London: arguing that the heavier elements are created Granta, 1998. by as part of the life cycle of McGrayne, Sharon Bertsch. Nobel Prize Women in stars. This breakthrough is now a standard Science. Second edition. Secaucus, NJ: Carol, part of astronomy and earned Hoyle’s collab- 1998. orator, William A. Fowler (1911–1995), a share of the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics. Hoyle also made significant contributions to Hoyle, Fred (1915–2001) the theory of , specifically on Sir Fred Hoyle developed and championed the theory of accretion by which stars are the steady state theory of the universe. Fred formed, and worked on quasars and the Hoyle was born in Bingley, Yorkshire, En- physics of supermassive objects. gland, to parents in the wool business; he at- Hoyle raised the funds to found the Insti- tended Cambridge University,winning prizes tute of Theoretical Astronomy at Cambridge and recognition as a mathematician. He mar- in 1966. A bitter dispute with fellow faculty ried in 1939 and fathered a son and a daugh- at the university led to his retirement from ter. During World War II, Hoyle worked on Cambridge in 1972, the same year that he radar for the British Admiralty, where two was knighted. He resumed his career at the Human Genome Project 135

Cardiff University of Wales.While at Cardiff, Human Genome Project he branched out into other areas of interest, The Human Genome Project created a com- including publishing a theory that the ice ages plete map of all the genes in the human body, were caused by comet impacts rather than including every base pair. In the mid-1980s, permutations of Earth’s orbit.Working with a the advent of new gene sequencing tech- former student, Sri Lankan–born Chandra niques encouraged visionaries to begin to Wickramasinghe (1939–), he created a the- promote the idea of sequencing the entire ory of panspermia, which argued that life did human genome. Individuals at the United not spontaneously originate on Earth, but States Department of Energy (DOE) and Na- came from biological material contained in tional Institutes of Health (NIH) both started interstellar dust clouds. The Cardiff Center to seek funding for such a project.The DOE for Astrobiology was founded to further in- justified its interest as a continuation of its vestigate this theory. Neither the theory on long-term studies of the effects of radiation ice ages nor panspermia has been generally on humans and pointed to its experience with accepted by the scientific community. multibillion-dollar big science projects. The Hoyle also wrote science fiction novels, molecular biologist and Nobel laureate Wal- plays, short stories, two works of autobiog- ter Gilbert (1932–) became an early propo- raphy, and a book on Stonehenge and nent of the idea and persuaded his fellow archeoastronomy, and was well-known for Nobel laureate James D. Watson (1928–) of his numerous books. His its feasibility. most noted novels were The Black Cloud The Human Genome Project officially (1957) and A for Andromeda (1962).The year began in 1990 as a joint NIH/DOE project, before he died, Hoyle published a book pro- federally funded at $200 million a year for fif- posing a quasi–steady state theory, yet an- teen years. Watson became the first director other effort to promote his favorite theory. of the organization, serving until 1992, when His penchant for thinking outside of the the physician took over the mainstream of the scientific community en- job. The project began by sequencing the abled Hoyle to make major contributions, genomes of simpler organisms, such as Es- but also meant that he left behind many re- cherichia coli, in order to gain experience and jected ideas. Hoyle received many important develop better gene-sequencing technolo- awards, including the 1997 Crafoord Prize gies. Work on the genome of the mouse ac- from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sci- companied intensified work on the human ences.The Crafoord prize is awarded by the genome. Britain’s Wellcome Trust joined the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in those project in 1993, and many other international areas not covered by the Nobel prizes. Per- collaborators joined, with organizations and haps his penchant for controversy and odd individuals from over twenty countries con- theories explains why Hoyle failed to receive tributing.The Internet allowed the collabora- a Nobel prize. tors to share and publish their data. See also Astronomy; Bell Burnell, Jocelyn; Big When the project began, scientists knew Bang Theory and Steady State Theory; Gamow, that the human genome contained about 3 George; Media and Popular Culture; Physics; billion base pairs, making up an estimated Quasars 50,000 to 100,000 genes. Many of the base References pairs are not parts of genes, but just debris Hoyle, Fred. Home Is Where the Wind Blows: Chapters connecting the double-helix-shaped deoxyri- from a Cosmologist’s Life. Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1994. bonucleic acid (DNA) molecule together. As Rees, Martin. “Fred Hoyle: Obituary.” Physics Today the project progressed, scientists were aston- 54, no. 11 (November 2001): 75. ished to find that the human genome 136 Human Genome Project

chine. Venter’s new company, Celera Ge- nomics, intended to use 300 of the machines to sequence the entire human genome in just three years for only $300 million. They planned to publish their results through their own Web site and not the usual GenBank public , and also sought to make a profit from commercial users of the data. The two projects feuded as their race in- tensified.A temporary truce allowed the two to agree to the simultaneous publication of rough drafts of the genome in 2000. In April 2003, the Human Genome Project an- nounced that it had mapped 99.99 percent of the human genome (100 percent was not reachable because people are genetically dif- ferent from each other), finishing the project James D. Watson, zoologist (National Human Genome in thirteen years, instead of the originally Research Institute) projected fifteen, and coming in under budget at $2.7 billion.The final genome con- tained 3.1 billion pairs, making up 35,000 to 40,000 genes.The Sanger Institute in England contained only about 30,000 to 35,000 had done 30 percent of the work, and the po- genes. The project intended to sequence litical leaders of the United States, United every base pair.The physiologist J. Craig Ven- Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, and ter of the National Institute for Neurological China signed the statement announcing final Disorders and Stroke disagreed with the con- success. Celera chose not to complete their servative sequencing approach of the project, effort and continued to offer their research arguing that they should seek out the genes via subscription. and only sequence them, not everything else. Up to 5 percent of the funding for the In 1991, a venture capital firm lured Venter Human Genome Project was devoted to away from the NIH to form The Institute for studies of the ethical, legal, and social issues Genomic Research (TIGR). involved, a unique innovation for a big sci- In 1995,Venter and TIGR announced that ence project. It is expected that the human they had sequenced the genome of the bac- genome map will help scientists create new terium Haemophilus influenzae, which con- medical treatments. It may also enable the ge- tained 1.8 million base pairs. They used a netic engineering of human beings, stoking shotgun technique, cutting the entire genome fears of a return of eugenics. Besides curing into smaller pieces and using powerful com- diseases, will people start to modify their puters to match the base pairs at the ends of own bodies and the bodies of their children? the fragments. In 1996, the NIH succeeded in See also Big Science; Bioethics; Genetics; Gilbert, sequencing the yeast genome, using their Walter; Internet; National Institutes of Health; more methodical and more accurate meth- Watson, James D. ods. In 1998, Venter raised the stakes by an- References nouncing a partnership with the Perkin- Bodmer,Walter, and Robin McKie. The Book of Man:The Human Genome Project and the Quest to Elmer Corporation, which made a Discover Our Genetic Heritage. Boston: Little, sophisticated automated sequencing ma- Brown, 1994. Hydrogen Bomb 137

Davies, Kevin. Cracking the Genome: Inside the Race rico Fermi (1901–1954) and Edward Teller to Unlock Human DNA. New York: Free Press, (1908–2003) led to speculation that a more 2001. powerful type of bomb, a superbomb based Kay, Lily E. Who Wrote the Book of Life? A History of on fusion instead of fission, was possible. the Genetic Code. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000. Such a bomb, using , Kevles, Daniel J., and Leroy Hood, editors. The deuterium, and , would force hydro- Code of Codes: Scientific and Social Issues in the gen nuclei together to fuse into larger nuclei Human Genome Project. Cambridge: Harvard of helium, releasing excess energy in the University Press, 1992. process.This conversion of mass into energy Roberts, Leslie. “Controversial from the Start.” followed the prediction of Albert Einstein’s Science 291 (February 16, 2001): 1182–1188. 2 Sloan, Phillip R., editor. Controlling Our Destinies: famous equation: E=mc . Fusion is what Historical, Philosophical, Ethical, and Theological powers the Sun, turning hydrogen into he- Perspectives on the Human Genome Project. Notre lium, and helium into heavier elements. Cur- Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, rent cosmological theory holds that all atoms 2000. in the universe, other than hydrogen, were created in the solar furnaces of stars. Teller advocated research into fusion Hydrogen Bomb bombs as well as fission bombs during the The hydrogen bomb, a thermonuclear de- Manhattan Project, but Oppenheimer chose vice, uses the process of fusion to create a to concentrate on the technically less chal- much larger explosion than is possible with lenging fission bomb. The 1949 explosion of the fission-based atomic bomb.The first U.S. the Soviet Union’s first atomic bomb shocked atomic bombs were exploded in 1945, the the Americans. Teller and Atomic Energy culmination of the expensive and secret Man- Commission (AEC) chairman Lewis L. hattan Project. J. Robert Oppenheimer Strauss (1896–1974), a former investment (1904–1967) led the American researchers at banker, argued that the United States needed the Los Alamos Laboratory in New Mexico to accelerate development of the superbomb. who designed the atomic bomb. Atomic The general advisory committee of the AEC, bombs are based on fission, a process in which formulated military and civilian nu- which a stream of neutrons splits the nucleus clear policy for the United States, debated of an atom, breaking it apart, releasing fur- the decision. Oppenheimer, chair of the com- ther neutrons and energy in the process. mittee, and others opposed pursuing the su- These neutrons then split other atoms, creat- perbomb on moral and technical grounds. ing a . Isotopes of , They saw the superbomb as being so power- U-235 or U-238, or the isotope ful that its only possible targets were cities, P-239 are used as the atomic fuel. whereas atomic bombs might be used to de- A more powerful type of bomb was stroy many types of military targets. The thought possible even before the fission committee also questioned the difficulty of bombs were successfully developed.The first actually building the device. This opposition theoretical suggestion of such a bomb was eventually led to a 1954 AEC hearing that put forward by a physicist at the University of stripped Oppenheimer of his security clear- Kyoto, Tokutaro Hagiwara (1897–1971), in ance, effectively exiling him from nuclear May 1941, six months before the Pearl Har- weapons work. bor attack brought America into World War President Harry S. Truman (1884–1972) II. Japan never developed a serious atomic decided to build the superbomb, and Teller weapons program during World War II. In led this effort. Flawed calculations by Teller September 1941, conversations between En- initially delayed the superbomb project. 138 Hydrogen Bomb

The first hydrogen bomb tested in 1952 by the United States, which obliterated an island in the Eniwetok Atoll (Corbis)

Teller wanted to build a megaton-capable The brilliant (1921– weapon immediately, and later observers 1989) designed the first Soviet hydrogen have noted that if the Americans had scaled bomb, which was exploded on August 12, back their ambitions to about half a megaton, 1953. A leading scientist on the American still much larger than kiloton-capable atomic project, the German-born bombs, the first hydrogen bomb could have (1911–1988), had fed detailed intelligence to been exploded in 1949. Eventually Teller’s the Soviet Union. The intelligence from errors were corrected. In 1951, the mathe- Fuchs and others certainly helped the Soviet matician (1909–1984) and atomic bomb effort, but how much it helped Teller solved the major technical obstacle by the Soviet hydrogen bomb effort is disputed electing to use x-rays generated by an atomic by historians. A nuclear arms race followed bomb trigger to start the fusion reaction in the development of atomic and hydrogen the hydrogen bomb.The first hydrogen bomb bombs by the Soviets, turning the cold war was exploded on November 1, 1952, on the into an ideological conflict with the potential small island that formed part of Eniwetok to devastate much of the planet. Ever larger Atoll.The island disappeared, leaving a mile- bombs were detonated, with at least one So- wide crater 175 feet deep.Teller became the viet explosion in excess of 50 megatons in “father of the hydrogen bomb.” yield.These open-air tests led to measurable Hydrogen Bomb 139 poisoning of the atmosphere until open-air References testing was banned in 1963 by a treaty be- Bailey, George. Galileo’s Children: Science, Sakharov, tween the United States and Soviet Union. and the Power of the State. New York:Arcade, 1990. The United Kingdom (first public test in Goncharov, German A. “Thermonuclear 1952), China (first public test in 1964), Milestones.” Physics Today, November 1996, France (first public test in 1961), Israel (no 44–61. public test), (no public test), Herken, Gregg. Brotherhood of the Bomb:The Tangled India (first public test in 1998), and Pakistan Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest (first public test in 1998) have all developed Lawrence, and Edward Teller. New York: Henry Holt, 2002. atomic or hydrogen bombs. After the end of Holloway, David. Stalin and the Bomb:The Soviet the cold war, a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Union and Atomic Energy 1939–1956. New Ban Treaty was negotiated in the 1990s, but Haven:Yale University Press, 1994. not all nuclear-capable nations have signed or Rhoades, Richard. Dark Sun:The Making of the ratified it. Hydrogen Bomb. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995. See also Big Science; Cold War; Ethics; Nuclear Schweber, Silvan S. In the Shadow of the Bomb: Physics; Oppenheimer, J. Robert; Sakharov, Bethe, Oppenheimer, and the Moral Responsibility of Andrei;Teller, Edward the Scientist. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000. I

In Vitro Fertilization who became pregnant carried the babies for In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a medical tech- more than a trimester. Funding for their ex- nique for removing a mature egg from a periments was cut amidst a general outcry woman, fertilizing it with donor sperm in the from Members of Parliament, religious lead- laboratory, allowing it to divide several times ers, and other scientists. Among the objec- until it becomes a blastocyst, and then im- tions was fear that a successful technique planting the blastocyst in a uterus. Studies would not stop at helping infertile couples, have estimated that one in ten married cou- but would lead to genetically engineered ba- ples experience some form of infertility bies and surrogate mothers. Steptoe financed problem.A common cause of these problems the continuation of their research with prof- is defective fallopian tubes. Normally, an egg its from his practice, which included legal is fertilized in the ovary, divides into a blasto- abortions, and the two scientists moved their cyst, then descends through the fallopian work to a smaller hospital in Oldham, Dr. tubes to implant itself on the wall of the Kershaw’s Cottage Hospital. uterus, where it grows into a baby. Continued criticism from their colleagues IVF was initially developed for breeding caused Steptoe and Edwards to suspend re- animals, but the Cambridge University phys- porting on their research. They persisted de- iologist Robert Edwards (1925–) saw the spite many failures until late 1977, when they promise of applying this technique to hu- decided to stop using a fertility drug with their mans. He teamed up with Patrick Steptoe patients and started to implant blastocysts that (1913–1988), a gynecologist in Oldham, were only eight cells large. Up until then, they England, who had pioneered the technique of had waited for the blastocyst to become much laparoscopy.The laparoscope, a narrow tube larger, as it would in nature before descending with a fiber-optic light at the end, allowed a from the ovary to the uterus.The patient Les- surgeon to peer into the abdominal cavity. ley Brown was impregnated with her own egg Steptoe used his skill to extract mature eggs fertilized by her husband’s sperm. On July 25, from the ovaries of volunteers, and Edwards 1978, a daughter named Louise Joy was deliv- fertilized them in the laboratory. In 1972, ered by Caesarian section. The world press Steptoe implanted a fertilized human egg into proclaimed the world’s first test-tube baby. a uterus for the first time. None of the ap- By the year 2000, over half a million chil- proximately thirty women in the test group dren had been born worldwide through the

141 142 Integrated Circuits use of IVF since 1978, and the number of been developed in the 1990s, and effective clinics specializing in the procedure is in the techniques for sex selection are close to being hundreds. The implantation process has con- developed. IVF and other forms of ART allow tinued to be the weakest point in the IVF individuals to overcome problems with infer- process. Although other mammals have high tility, though from the larger perspective of rates of success, the rate of success in humans world population growth, fertility rates has been as low as one in five tries. Much of within the human population are more than the research in IVF has focused on bettering adequate to sustain the population. these implantation statistics, resulting in slow See also Edwards, Robert; Ethics; Medicine; improvements. Laparoscopy has also been re- Population Studies; Steptoe, Patrick placed by using a vaginal ultrasound probe to References retrieve eggs. Bonnicksen, Andrea L. In Vitro Fertilization: Building Normally, multiple embryos are created as Policy from Laboratories to Legislatures. New York: insurance, because of the high incidence of Columbia University Press, 1989. Edwards, Robert G. “The Bumpy Road to Human failure in the implantation process. Excess In Vitro Fertilization.” Nature Medicine 7, no. 10 embryos are frozen in liquid nitrogen and (October 2001): 1091–1094. show no side effects when unfrozen and later Gosden, Roger. Designing Babies:The Brave New implanted, even if years have passed.What to World of Reproductive Technology. San Francisco: do with these frozen embryos after a success- W. H. Freeman, 1999. Sher, Geoffrey,Virginia Davis, and Jean Stoess. In ful pregnancy and the couple do not want to Vitro Fertilization:The A.R.T.of Making Babies. have more children? Who owns the embryos New York: Facts on File, 1995. if the couple divorces before pregnancy? Silver, Lee M. Remaking Eden: How Genetic Should embryos be used for further scientific Engineering and Cloning Will Transform the research? These legal and ethical questions American Family. New York:Avon, 1997. have been answered differently by legisla- tures, courts, and public opinion in different countries. Attitudes toward abortion are a Integrated Circuits major indicator of how people respond to Besides creating an enormous consumer elec- these issues. The destruction of frozen em- tronics industry, integrated circuits had be- bryos was one of the issues that prompted the come pervasive in all areas of scientific en- Catholic Church to issue a statement in 1987 deavor by the late 1970s. Integrated circuits opposing IVF. are made of wafers of silicon with electronic In vitro fertilization has been joined by components, such as transistors, diodes, ca- other forms of assisted reproductive technol- pacitors, and resistors, etched into the silicon ogy (ART), such as intracytoplasmic sperm by chemicals or light.The semiconducting na- injection to help men with low sperm counts ture of silicon is used to direct the flow of and operations on fetuses in the womb to electrons through the electronic compo- correct abnormalities. Many of these ART nents, using binary values and the rules of technologies bring ethical concerns.There is Boolean , a mathematical curiosity no biological reason why a blastocyst must be created a century earlier by the self-taught reimplanted in the same woman who donated British mathematician the egg, and this fact made possible the emer- (1815–1864). gence of surrogate mothers who carry and The earlier innovation necessary to create bear children for other women. integrated circuits was the invention of the The development of IVF laid the essential transistor in 1947 at Bell Telephone Labora- groundwork for the possible future genetic tories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, by William engineering of children. Techniques for Shockley (1910–1989), Walter H. Brattain avoiding certain genetic diseases in vitro have (1902–1987), and John Bardeen (1908– Integrated Circuits 143

Integrated circuit (Kelly Harriger/Corbis)

1991), for which the three men shared the tegrated circuit led to the invention of the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics. Integrated cir- microprocessor in the early 1970s at Intel cuits were independently invented by Jack S. Corporation. A microprocessor combines all Kilby (1923–) of and the central logic necessary for a computer (1927–1990) at Fairchild onto a single chip. Semiconductor in 1958 and 1959. Kilby ob- In 1964, Gordon E. Moore (1929–) no- tained the first patent, and Noyce developed ticed that the density of transistors and other the planar process to place metal connections components on integrated chips doubled on the semiconductor wafer; royalties were every year. He charted this trend and pre- paid to both men for their inventions. Kilby dicted that it would continue until about received half of the 2000 Nobel Prize in 1980, when the density of integrated circuits Physics after Noyce had been dead for ten would decline to doubling every two years. years. Variations of this idea became known as Fairchild Semiconductor brought the first Moore’s Law. Since the early 1970s, chip integrated circuit to market in 1961. The density on integrated circuits, both micro- Apollo project became the first big customer processors and memory chips, has doubled for integrated circuits and proved a key about every eighteen months. About fifty driver to accelerate the growth of the semi- electronic components per chip was the den- conductor industry. Quite quickly, integrated sity in 1965; five million electronic compo- circuits became the main technology of the nents were placed on an individual chip in computer industry, and integrated circuits 2000. An individual transistor on a chip is made possible later space exploration.The in- now about 90 nanometers in size. At times, 144 International Geophysical Year different commentators have predicted that International Polar Year [1882–1883] had in- this trend would hit an obstacle that engi- vestigated the Arctic region. The Second In- neers could not overcome and slow down, ternational Polar Year, held fifty years later in but that has not yet happened.The electronic 1932–1933, also investigated the Arctic and components on integrated circuits are being parts of Antarctica.) Within two years, packed so close that by the second decade of Berkner’s idea had became a proposal for an the twenty-first century it is believed that International Geophysical Year in 1957–1958 quantum effects will begin to make it impos- under the auspices of the International Coun- sible to maintain the rate of increasing density cil of Scientific Unions (ICSU), a body predicted by Moore’s Law. founded in 1931 to foster international coop- In the late 1990s, the technology used to eration in science. The United Nations Edu- manufacture integrated circuits was adapted cational, Scientific and Cultural Organization by replacing transistors on the silicon with (UNESCO) began to partially sponsor the deposits of DNA.These DNA microarrays, or ICSU in 1947 and lent its efforts to the IGY. DNA chips, are used to quickly and simulta- In the United States, the National Science neously test a biological substance against Foundation helped fund the U.S. efforts, with thousands of pieces of different DNA, leading considerable cooperation from the U.S. mili- to a thousandfold increase in productivity by tary, under the auspices of the National Acad- experimental biologists. emy of Sciences.The IGY was timed to coin- See also Apollo Project; Bardeen, John; cide with the peak of the solar activity cycle, Computers; Nobel Prizes when sunspots and solar flares are more fre- References quent. The Englishman Sydney Chapman Ceruzzi, Paul E. A History of Modern Computing. (1888– 1979) headed the global effort. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998. The advances in technology during World Queisser, Hans. The Conquest of the Microchip: War II gave scientists radar, sonar, rockets, Science and Business in the Silicon Age. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988. aircraft, and computers to assist in their more Reid,T. R. The Chip: How Two Americans Invented the peaceful efforts.The main subjects and tools Microchip and Launched a Revolution. New York: of the IGY included meteorology, geomag- Random House, 2001. netism, the aurora and air glow, the iono- Riordan, Michael, and . Crystal sphere, solar activity, cosmic rays, longitude Fire:The Birth of the . New York: Norton, 1997. and latitude studies, glaciology, oceanogra- Slater, Robert. Portraits in Silicon. Cambridge: MIT phy, rockets and satellites, seismology, Press, 1987. gravimetry, and nuclear radiation. An IGY committee also coordinated the idea of world days, specific times set aside when scientists International Geophysical Year at numerous places around the globe make si- (1957–1958) multaneous measurements, for example dur- The International Geophysical Year (IGY) ing the total solar eclipse on October 12, lasted for eighteen months, from July 1, 1958. 1957, to December 31, 1958, bringing to- In 1954, an IGY committee agreed to an gether most of the globe’s nations in a con- American plan to launch artificial satellites to certed scientific effort to learn more about orbit Earth as sensor platforms during the the planet. Its origins go back to 1950, when IGY.Sergey Pavlovich Korolev (1907–1966), several prominent geophysicists met at the the “Chief Designer” of the Soviet ballistic home of the American physicist James Van missile program, used the impending IGY to Allen (1914–), and Lloyd Berkner persuade the Soviet government to build a (1905–1967) suggested that another interna- launcher and satellite to preempt the United tional polar year be organized. (The original States. The project was kept secret, and the International Geophysical Year 145

Map of proposed research stations in Antarctica during the 1957–1958 International Geophysical Year (Bettmann/Corbis)

United States did not even know that a com- the radiation. Scientists later learned that petition was going on until the Soviets sur- Earth’s magnetic field created these belts of prised the world by launching Sputnik I on radiation and that the belts helped protect October 4, 1957. In their haste to beat the Earth from some of the more harmful effects Americans, the Soviets made the first satellite of solar radiation. quite simple, with few scientific instruments. In the run-up to the IGY, explorers The first successful American satellite, Ex- swarmed onto Antarctica, setting up dozens plorer 1, was launched on January 31, 1958. of camps and monitoring stations. The naval The satellite discovered zones of radiation and military forces of many nations partici- around Earth, later named the Van Allen Ra- pated in establishing these bases, some of diation Belts in honor of the creator of the which have remained manned and useful.The onboard scientific instrument that detected IGY also prompted the negotiation of a 1961 146 Internet

Antarctic Treaty, which declared Antarctica was the International Biological Programme the possession of no nation and set the frozen (1964–1974). continent aside for scientific study. See also Cold War; National Science Foundation; A total of sixty-seven nations participated Ozone Layer and Chlorofluorocarbons; Plate in the IGY, with the notable major exception Tectonics; Satellites; Space Exploration and of China, which withdrew from its initial ef- Space Science;Wilson, John Tuzo forts. John Tuzo Wilson (1908–1993), the References Canadian geophysicist who later played an Chapman, Sydney. IGY: Year of Discovery. Ann Arbor: Press, 1959. important role in the theory of plate tecton- Eklund, Carl R., and Joan Beckman. Antarctica: ics, was president of the International Union Polar Research and Discovery during the on Geodesy and Geophysics during the IGY International Geophysical Year. New York: Holt, and played an important leadership role. Rinehart and Winston, 1963. China invited him to visit them during the Siddiqi, Asif A. “Korolev, Sputnik, and the International Geophysical Year.” http://www. IGY, and he gained some limited, informal hq..gov/office/pao/History/sputnik/ cooperation. Measurements of geomagne- siddiqi.html (accessed February 13, 2004). tism on the ocean floors during the IGY con- Sullivan,Walter. Assault on the Unknown:The tributed to the development of the theory of International Geophysical Year. New York: plate tectonics in the 1960s. Eighty-six ves- McGraw-Hill, 1961. sels participated in measurements of the Wilson, John Tuzo. IGY: Year of the New Moons. New York: Knopf, 1961. planet’s oceans and seas. Scientists began the systematic monitor- ing of the planet’s ozone layer during the IGY, creating an important base of informa- tion when chlorofluorocarbons became an Internet important environmental issue in the 1970s. The Internet forms a global computer net- The fallout from open-air nuclear testing work interconnecting other computer net- was also more carefully monitored during works, providing an unparalleled means of the IGY, leading to alarm over the higher communication. The Advanced Research than expected levels, and contributing to the Projects Agency (ARPA) was formed in 1958 creation of an open-air test ban treaty in in response to the first artificial satellite, the 1963 between the United States and Soviet Soviet Sputnik I, and the emerging space race. Union. ARPA was an agency of the Pentagon, and the The IGY was followed by the Interna- researchers at ARPA were given a generous tional Geophysical Co-operation of 1959, mandate to develop innovative technologies. which allowed the organized tapering off of In 1962, a psychologist from the Massachu- IGY activities. Many organizations and ef- setts Institute of Technology’s Lincoln Lab, forts, such as those in Antarctica, continued J. C. R. Licklider (1915–1990), joined ARPA after IGY on a reduced scale, and the organi- to take charge of the Information Processing zational effects of the IGY are still felt today. Tec hniques Office (IPTO). In 1963 Licklider Both the Americans and Soviets embarked on wrote a memo proposing an interactive net- vigorous space programs as part of their cold work allowing people to communicate via war ideological struggle. The IGY also in- computer.This project did not materialize. In spired other, smaller-scale efforts, such as 1966, Robert Taylor (1932–), then head of the International Years of the Quiet Sun the IPTO, noted that he needed three differ- (1964–1965) and the International Decade ent computer terminals to connect to three of Ocean Exploration (1970–1980). Among different machines in different locations the efforts directly sponsored by the ICSU around the nation.Taylor also recognized that Internet 147 universities working with the IPTO needed IMP looked only at the address on the enve- more computing resources. Instead of the lope, not at the letter inside. Faculty and government buying machines for each uni- graduate students at the host universities cre- versity, why not share machines? Taylor revi- ated host-to-host protocols and software to talized Licklider’s idea, secured $1 million in enable the computers to understand each funding, and hired twenty-nine-year-old other. Because the machines did not know Larry Roberts (1937–) to direct the creation how to talk to each other as peers, the re- of ARPAnet. searchers wrote programs that fooled the Universities were reluctant to share their computers into thinking they were talking to precious computing resources and concerned preexisting dumb terminals. about the processing load of a network.Wes ARPAnet began with the installation of the Clark of Washington University of St. Louis first 900-pound IMP in the fall of 1969 at proposed an Interface Message Processor UCLA, followed by three more nodes at the (IMP), a separate smaller computer for each Stanford Research Institute (SRI), University main computer on the network, that would of California at Santa Barbara, and University handle the network communication.Another of Utah. The first message transmitted be- important idea came from Paul Baran tween UCLA and SRI was “L,” “O,” “G,” the (1926–) of the RAND Corporation, who had first three letters of “LOGIN,” but then the been concerned about the vulnerability of the system crashed. Initial bugs were overcome, U.S. telephone communication system since and ARPAnet added an extra every 1960, but had yet to convince the telephone month in 1970. Improvements and new pro- monopoly AT&T of the virtues of his ideas on tocols quickly followed. Electronic mail, file distributed communications. He devised a transfer, and remote login became the domi- scheme of breaking signals into blocks of in- nant applications. formation to be reassembled after reaching In 1981 the National Science Foundation their destination.These blocks of information (NSF) created the Computer Science Net- traveled through a “distributed network,” work (CSNET) to provide universities that where each “node,” or communication point, did not have access to ARPAnet with their could independently decide which path the own network. In 1986, the NSF sponsored block of information took to the next node. the NSFNET “backbone” to connect five su- This allowed data to automatically flow percomputing centers together. The back- around blockages in the network. Donald bone also connected ARPAnet and CSNET Davies (1924–2000) at the British National together.The idea of the Internet, a network Physical Laboratory (NPL) independently de- of networks, became firmly entrenched.The veloped a similar concept in 1965, which he open technical architecture of the Internet al- termed packet-switching, each packet being a lowed numerous innovations to easily be block of data. Although Baran was interested grafted onto the whole.When ARPAnet was in a that could con- dismantled in 1990, the Internet was thriving tinue to function during a nuclear war, at universities and technology-oriented com- ARPAnet was purely a research tool, not a panies.The NSF backbone was later disman- command-and-control system. tled when the NSF realized that commercial A small consulting firm in Cambridge, entities could keep the Internet running and Massachusetts, Bolt, Beranek and Newman growing on their own. The introduction in (BBN), got the contract to construct the IMP 1991 of the World Wide Web, developed by in December 1968. They decided that the Tim Berners-Lee (1955–), took advantage of IMP would only handle the routing, not the the modular architecture of the Internet and transmitted data content. As an analogy, the became widely successful. What began with 148 Internet

four nodes in 1969 as a creation of the cold References war became a worldwide network of net- Abbate, Janet. Inventing the Internet. Cambridge: works, forming a single whole. In early 2001, MIT Press, 2000. Hafner, Katie, and Matthew Lyon. Where Wizards an estimated 120 million computers were Stay Up Late:The Origins of the Internet. New connected to the Internet in every country of York: Simon and Schuster, 1996. the world. The Internet has proved to be an Internet Society (ISOC). “Histories of the extraordinary tool for scientists to use in Internet.” http://www.isoc.org/internet/ communicating with each other and for history/ (accessed February 13, 2004). laypersons to learn about science. Unfortu- Moschovitis, Christos J. P.,Hilary Poole,Tami Schuyler, and Theresa M. Senft. History of the nately, the Internet has also been used to Internet:A Chronology, 1943 to the Present. Santa spread pseudoscientific theories and scientific Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999. misinformation. Segaller, Stephen. Nerds 2.0.1:A Brief . New York:TV Books, 1988. See also Berners-Lee,Timothy; Big Science; Cold War; Computers; Engelbart, Douglas; National Science Foundation J

Jet Propulsion Laboratory Mariner spacecraft explored Mercury,Venus, The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in and Mars. Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft vis- Pasadena, California, is jointly operated by ited the outer planets and then left the solar the California Institute of Technology (Cal- system. The two Viking landers tried to find tech) and the National Aeronautics and Space life on Mars in 1976, but failed. The Galileo Administration (NASA). In the 1930s, spacecraft began orbiting Jupiter in 1995 and Theodore von Kármán, head of Caltech’s sent a probe into that gas giant. Magellan Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory, began mapped the surface of cloud-shrouded Venus working on rocket propulsion. During World with radar from 1990 to 1994. The joint War II, Kármán and his Caltech group devel- NASA–European Space Agency spacecraft oped jet-assisted take-off (JATO) rockets for Ulysses, launched in 1990, used a gravita- the U.S. Army Air Corps.This effort led to a tional assist past Jupiter to enter a solar orbit project to create an American answer to the that flew over the poles of the Sun, exploring German V-2 rocket, and the U.S.Army Ord- sections of space outside the ecliptic plane. In nance department contracted with Caltech to the 1990s, in an attempt to stretch funding to create the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In cover more missions, JPL and NASA began to 1947, two years after Germany was defeated, build cheaper spacecraft with fewer redun- JPL launched the first Corporal rocket. dant systems and smaller loads of instru- After NASA was created in 1958, JPL was ments.Two missions to Mars in the late 1990s transferred from the control of the army to failed, leading to questions about this ap- the new civilian space agency.JPL had already proach. Numerous other missions have al- built Explorer 1, the first satellite launched by ready been launched or are planned to con- the U.S. Army earlier on January 31, 1958. tinue to explore the solar system, including JPL came to specialize in lunar and interplan- robotic visits to comets, asteroids, and Pluto. etary spacecraft, designing and operating all Having developed sophisticated sensors such spacecraft for NASA. Numerous for interplanetary exploration, JPL also cre- Ranger, Surveyor, and Lunar Orbiter space- ated other spacecraft to concentrate on Earth craft were flown to scout the way for the exploration.Among these efforts were Seasat Apollo Moon landings. Mariner 2, launched in in 1978, which examined the oceans with a 1962, was the first spacecraft to fly by an- variety of sensors, and four space shuttle mis- other planet when it passed Venus. Other sions, in 1981, 1984, 1994, and 2000, that

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used radar to image the Earth. JPL also oper- ated the Deep Space Network (DSN) for NASA, which communicated with distant spacecraft, such as the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft, that have left the solar system.The three main DSN sites are in the Mojave Desert in California; at Tidbinbilla,outside of Canberra, Australia; and near Madrid, Spain. With a budget that has reached over a billion dollars a year, JPL is an example of Big Sci- ence. JPL engineers have been pioneers in ro- botics, microelectronics, image processing, , and numerous other technolo- gies. JPL has also undertaken contracts with the United States Department of Defense and other federal agencies. See also Apollo Project; Big Science; European Space Agency; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Space Exploration and Space Science;Telescopes;Voyager Spacecraft References Jet Propulsion Laboratory. http://www.jpl.nasa. gov/ (accessed February 13, 2004). Koppes, Clayton R. JPL and the American Space The Galileo Jupiter probe undergoes testing before its Program:A History of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. launch. (Roger Ressmeyer/Corbis) New Haven, CT:Yale University Press, 1982. K

Kinsey, Alfred C. (1894–1956) dents on their sexual behavior. This led to a The zoologist-turned-sociologist Alfred C. larger project to create better data on Ameri- Kinsey revolutionized the study of human can sexual habits. Researchers in Europe had sexuality in the United States and helped lay established the academic discipline of sexol- the sociological and psychological ground- ogy, but American efforts in this area were work for the Sexual Revolution, the sea stymied by the lack of funds and a general change in American sexual mores that oc- sense that sociology did not belong in the bed- curred in the 1960s. Alfred Charles Kinsey room. Kinsey and his associates started with was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, where his detailed questionnaires about people’s sexual father taught technical subjects at the Stevens practices and moved to personal interviews. Institute of Technology. The unhappiness of In 1940, Kinsey found a steady source of re- his sickly and miserable childhood was re- search funding with the National Research lieved by his love of nature, and he graduated Council and the Rockefeller Foundation, and in 1916 with a B.S. in biology from Bowdoin founded the Institute of Sex Research in College. In 1920, he earned an Sc.D. degree 1942. After compiling the results from thou- from Harvard University and accepted a po- sands of interviews, Kinsey and his associates sition as an assistant professor of zoology at published Sexual Behavior in the Human Male in Indiana University. Kinsey married a gradu- 1948. This technical book became an instant ate student in chemistry at Indiana University best-seller, with the profits being returned to in 1921, and they eventually had two sons and the institute.The book showed that sexual ac- two daughters. Kinsey established himself as a tivity varied greatly among men, with a strong prominent entomologist, traveling to Mexico correlation to social and economic classes. and Central America as part of a long-term The book showed that what was considered study of the gall wasp. His extensive collec- sexually deviant behavior, such as masturba- tion of data showed a man who harnessed his tion and homosexuality, was much more obsessive nature to intellectual pursuits. He widespread than commonly assumed. published articles and books on the gall wasp, Kinsey’s 1953 book, Sexual Behavior in the and wrote several high school biology text- Human Female, was also very popular; it ex- books. In 1929 he became a full professor. plained that women enjoyed different types of In 1938, Kinsey offered to teach a on sexual behavior. Contemporary critics marriage, with the intention of surveying stu- condemned Kinsey for attacking the moral

151 152 Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth

fective birth control pill to create the Sexual Revolution of the 1960s. See also Birth Control Pill; Foundations; Masters, William H., and Virginia Johnson; Psychology; Sociology References Bullough,Vern L. Science in the Bedroom:A History of Sex Research. New York: Basic, 1994. Jones, James H. Alfred C. Kinsey:A Public/Private Life. New York: Norton, 1997. Robinson, Paul. The Modernization of Sex: Havelock Ellis,Alfred Kinsey,William Masters and Virginia Johnson. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth (1926–2004) A controversial psychiatrist, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross changed how medical profes- sionals and laypeople viewed the psychology of the terminally ill. Born in Switzerland, Alfred Kinsey, zoologist-turned-sociologist, 1956 (Library of Congress) Kübler-Ross was horrified by the savagery of during World War II. Her fa- ther and brother once witnessed Nazi guards machine-gunning Jewish refugees trying to foundations of society and insulting women. escape across the border from Germany into Critics feared that if a given sexual practice Switzerland. During the war, she worked as a was shown to be common, then it would be volunteer in a hospital. After Germany’s de- considered morally acceptable. Later critics feat, she hitchhiked through war-torn Eu- concentrated on Kinsey’s science, complaining rope, working at odd jobs and at clinics. She that Kinsey’s voyeuristic interview techniques decided to become a medical doctor, re- were biased and that his method of selecting turned to Switzerland, and graduated in 1957 research subjects severely compromised his from the University of with her med- statistical results, overstating the incidence of ical degree. The following year she married different sexual practices. an American, Emanuel (Manny) Robert Kinsey’s interest in sexuality derived from Ross, whom she met when they were both his personal situation and beliefs. He believed medical students. They moved to New York strongly that Americans were sexually re- City, where Kübler-Ross served as an intern pressed, and he believed in having as much and resident at several area hospitals. She de- sexual variety in his own life as possible. A cided to specialize in psychiatry, and in 1962, conflicted man, he struggled to reconcile she moved to Colorado, where she served as youthful homosexual yearnings with his reli- a fellow and then an instructor in psychiatry gious upbringing and later engaged in many at two Denver hospitals. She bore a son and types of compulsive sexual behavior, includ- daughter during this time. ing sadomasochism. Kinsey’s two books rev- In 1965, she moved to Illinois and became olutionized how Americans thought about an assistant professor of psychiatry at the Uni- sex, helping to create an intellectual environ- versity of Chicago Medical School. Her hus- ment that only needed the invention of an ef- band worked as a neuropathologist. A teach- Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth 153 ing seminar that she organized for medical These stages were later extended to apply to personnel, chaplains, and theology students the emotional cycle that the family members from the Chicago Theological Seminary led to of terminally ill patients went through, as a series of conversations with terminally ill well as to the emotional cycle of the bereaved students. Kübler-Ross and her associates usu- after a person they cared for had died. ally interviewed the patients about their feel- Critics accused Kübler-Ross of not pub- ings while the other seminar participants lishing a research methodology and being sub- watched from behind a one-way barrier. jective, rather than objective, in her approach Kübler-Ross found that other doctors did not to interviews and clinical study. Her studies want to talk to their terminally ill patients have not been repeated, but they are never- about death, but that the patients desperately theless generally accepted.Through On Death wanted to talk about their impending death. and Dying and later books, Kübler-Ross gained Kübler-Ross’s best-selling 1969 book, On worldwide fame. She became instrumental in Death and Dying, presented her conclusions promoting the hospice movement, the cre- from the seminar. She found that terminally ation of places near hospitals to care for the ill patients went through a series of five physical and emotional needs of terminally ill stages: denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, patients. She also contributed much to thana- depression, and then acceptance. Not all pa- tology, the study of death, and championed tients followed the stages in sequence and the Death Awareness movement. some even skipped stages, but the model Struck by the stories of some patients who proved to be a useful psychological theory. reported near-death experiences, Kübler- Ross came to believe in a joyous life after death. Seeking further information, she turned to mediums and charlatans, and also interviewed thousands of people about their near-death experiences. Never one to shrink in the face of controversy, Kübler-Ross pub- licly proclaimed her belief in life after death. In later books, she described her own out-of- body experience, her belief in spirit guides, and her eager desire to see what lay after death. She became an icon to seekers in New Age alternative religious movements. Dis- couraged by this change in his wife’s beliefs, Kübler-Ross’s husband divorced her after twenty-one years of marriage. Kübler-Ross eventually retired to a retreat in Arizona, but remained active in advocacy and writing until her death in 2004.

See also Bioethics; Medicine References Bennetts, Leslie. “Elisabeth Kübler-Ross’s Final Passage.” Vanity Fair, June 1997, 70–89. Chaban, Michèle. The Life Work of Dr. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross and Its Impact on the Death Awareness Movement. Lewiston, NY: Mellen, 2000. Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth. The Wheel of Life:A Memoir Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, psychiatrist (Bettmann/Corbis) of Living and Dying. New York: Scribner, 1997. 154 Kuhn, Thomas S.

Kuhn, Thomas S. (1922–1996) Kuhn taught at Harvard from 1951 to The physicist Thomas S. Kuhn became the 1956, then moved to the University of Cali- most influential historian of science of his fornia at Berkeley, where he held a joint ap- time. Thomas Samuel Kuhn was born in pointment in the history and philosophy de- , Ohio, where his parents were sec- partments. He published his first book, The ular Jews and his father worked as a consult- Copernican Revolution:Planetary Astronomy in the ing engineer. His parents moved to Manhat- Development of Western Thought, in 1957. In tan and then Croton-on-Hudson, a small 1962, he published his seminal work, The town near New York City.They placed Kuhn Structure of Scientific Revolutions. In the book, in progressive private schools where the abil- Kuhn adopted the term paradigm to describe ity to think critically was emphasized. He en- the joint worldview, shared practices, and ac- tered his father’s alma mater, Harvard Uni- cepted theories of a group of scientists. He versity, in 1940 to study physics. Because of used Ptolemaic geocentric astronomy and the coming of World War II, his studies were Copernican heliocentric astronomy as exam- redirected to electronics; he graduated ples. Kuhn argued that scientists usually prac- summa cum laude with a bachelor’s degree in ticed “normal science,” which meant that they 1943 and then worked on radar countermea- accepted the current paradigm in their field sures in Europe.After the war, he returned to and that their experiments either confirmed theoretical physics at Harvard and earned his the paradigm or resulted in minor changes. master’s degree in 1946. The philosophy of As time went by, anomalies occurred in ob- science increasingly attracted his interest, but servations and experiments that could not be he did finish his doctorate in physics in 1949. explained by the current paradigm. When The president of Harvard asked Kuhn to enough of these anomalies accumulated, the work as an assistant to a history of science old paradigm was ripe for revolution. A new course that he taught, preparing a case study paradigm emerged that explained the anom- on physics from to Galileo. Kuhn alies and incorporated the old paradigm in- was not initially drawn to history, but found side it. that he needed to understand history in order The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was to further develop his understanding of the phenomenally successful, selling 750,000 philosophy of science. copies in the next three decades and being On a summer day, while reading the phys- translated into more than forty languages. ical theories of the ancient Greek philosopher Kuhn’s work was very influential in the prac- Aristotle (384–322 B.C.), Kuhn had what he tice of the history of science, and widely ap- called an epiphany. It was not that Aristotle plied to other academic areas, influencing so- was wrong because he had not understood ciology, economics, political science, and the principles that Isaac Newton (1642– anthropology. The word paradigm even be- 1727) would develop two millennia later, but came a buzzword among business consul- that Aristotle’s science made sense in light of tants. the information the Greek philosopher had Kuhn was later criticized for having up to and the worldview of Greek philosophy. Sud- twenty-one different meanings for the word denly he realized how differently Aristotle paradigm in his book. Many scholars in vari- had viewed reality and why his physics made ous disciplines interpreted Kuhn’s work as sense. He later acknowledged that this ability demonstrating that the practice of science to see something from another person’s intel- was irrational, subjective rather than objec- lectual point of view was a common trait in tive, and that perhaps science was really just a intellectual historians, but not a trait that he form of rhetoric.The later rise of social con- had acquired as a physicist. structionism drew on Kuhn, though he dis- Kuno, Hisashi 155 agreed with their epistemological relativism. mountain climbing and skiing, and when he Socially awkward his entire life, as well as an- entered Tokyo Imperial University in 1929, noyed at how his work was misinterpreted, he gravitated to geology. The 1923 Tokyo Kuhn tended to be surprised at expressions of earthquake had killed tens of thousands of respect from his colleagues. people and focused national attention on the In 1961, Kuhn began a project to collect geological sciences. Kuno began a much ad- an archive of primary materials in twentieth- mired study of Hakone Volcano in 1931. As century physics, including collecting taped part of his study, he became unusually skilled interviews with prominent figures. This im- in the use of the petrographic microscope. He portant effort eventually led to a major made important contributions to under- study, Black-Body Radiation and the Quantum standing the process by which pyroxenes are Discontinuity (1978), in which he concluded formed, which are crystalline mineral sili- that Max Planck (1858–1947) did not dis- cates found in metamorphic and igneous cover quantum theory in 1900. Traditional rocks. accounts had credited Planck with this dis- Kuno became an assistant professor of covery and argued that the physicist had just petrology at the university, but in 1941, with not been very good at expressing himself in the coming of World War II, he was drafted writing. Kuhn took those writings at their into the Japanese Army and sent to word and decided that Planck was too con- Manchuria. Captured by Soviet troops at the fused about what he found to be credited end of the war, he spent a year in captivity be- with the discovery. fore returning home in September 1946. He In 1964, Kuhn moved to Princeton Uni- resumed his scientific work and finished his versity. In 1979, he moved to the Massachu- study of the Hakone Volcano as his disserta- setts Institute of Technology to become the tion in 1948, obtaining his doctorate of sci- Laurance S. Rockefeller Professor of Philoso- ence degree. The publication of parts of his phy; he retired in 1991. Kuhn married in dissertation in English brought him to the at- 1948, having three children. The marriage tention of Harry Hess (1906–1969) at dissolved in divorce in 1978, and he remar- Princeton University, and in 1951 Kuno was ried in 1982. When he died in 1996, he had invited to spend a year studying with Hess in completed two-thirds of an expansion on his America. Even with an international reputa- ideas entitled “The Plurality of Worlds: An tion, Kuno remained an active fieldworker. Evolutionary Theory of Scientific Discovery.” His studies of Hawaii made important contri- See also History of Science; Popper, Karl; Social butions to understanding how different types Constructionism of magma were formed. References In 1954, Kuno received the prestigious Fullmer, June Z. “Thomas S. Kuhn (1922–1996).” prize of the Japan Academy, and in 1955, he Technology and Culture 39, no. 2 (1998): became a professor of petrology at the Uni- 372–377. versity of Tokyo (the new name of Tokyo Im- Heilbron, J. L. “Thomas Samuel Kuhn, 18 July 1922–17 June 1996.” Isis 89, no. 3 (September perial University). Kuno mentored many 1998): 505–515. students who became important geologists. One of his techniques was to hold special seminars in English and have his students Kuno, Hisashi (1910–1969) make presentations in English, so that his The petrologist Hisashi Kuno became a world students could acquire the skills to partici- authority on the formation of magma and pate in the larger global community of geol- . Kuno was born in Tokyo, Japan, ogists. He also became active in organizing where his father was an artist. He enjoyed international conferences and building up 156 Kuno, Hisashi

scientific societies in Japan and internation- References ally. Kuno was chosen as a investi- Foster, Helen L. “Memorial to Hisashi Kuno.” The gator to study the rocks being brought back Geological Society of America 1 (1973): 27–37. Yagi,Kenzo. “Memorial of Hisashi Kuno.” The from the Moon by Apollo 11, though he died American Mineralogist 55 (March–April 1970): of stomach cancer before receiving the 573–583. rocks. Kuno was married and was survived by a son and a daughter. See also Earthquakes; Geology; Hess, Harry; Volcanoes L

Lasers brought him to Columbia University to study Invented in the 1950s, lasers are indispensa- with Townes. Townes introduced Schawlow ble tools in scientific investigations and high- to his younger sister, and the couple married. technology communications equipment. The In 1951, Schawlow moved to Bell Telephone laser began with Charles H.Townes (1915–), Laboratories, but he continued to collaborate born in Greenville, South Carolina, who re- with Townes on weekends. They wrote a ceived his Ph.D. in physics from the Califor- book, Microwave Spectroscopy, in 1955, and in nia Institute of Technology in 1939. Townes 1958 published an article describing how to worked at Bell Telephone Laboratories from create an optical , or laser (light ampli- 1933 to 1947; he joined the faculty of Co- fication by stimulated emission of radiation). lumbia University in 1948, where he pursued In 1960, drawing on the work of Townes and his interest in applying the technology devel- Schawlow,the physicist Theodore H. Maiman oped during World War II for microwave (1927–), working at Hughes Research Labo- radar to using microwaves in spectroscopy. In ratories in California, used a rod of synthetic 1951,Townes conceived the idea of the maser ruby as the medium to build the first laser. (microwave amplification by stimulated emis- Maiman received the 1987 Japan Prize for his sion of radiation), a machine that stimulated laser work. the atoms in ammonia gas to emit coherent A physics graduate student at Columbia microwave radiation. The famous German- University, Gordon Gould (1920–), also born Albert Einstein (1879–1955) recog- thought of the laser in 1957. He kept a note- nized in 1916 that stimulated emission was book filled with dates and his emerging ideas, possible. In 1954, Townes and his graduate intending to patent them, though he assumed students built the first functional maser. that he had to make the idea practicable be- The second individual in the story of the fore filing for a patent. He filed for a patent in laser, Arthur L. Schawlow (1921–1999), 1959, months after Townes and Schawlow had grew up in Toronto, Ontario, after being filed for their own patents. Gould lost his born in Mount Vernon, New York. Schawlow patent case before the United States Court of attended the University of Toronto, learning Customs and Patent Appeals in 1965, but the optical spectroscopy as part of graduate stud- issue was revived in 1977, when Gould re- ies that led to a Ph.D. in 1949.A Carbide and ceived a more narrow patent on the optical Carbon Chemicals postdoctoral fellowship pumping of lasers; the patent was finally

157 158 Lasers

cause the lasers were so precise. Schawlow shared half of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physics with the Dutch-born (1920–) for their contribution to the devel- opment of laser spectroscopy.The other half of the 1981 prize went to the Swedish physi- cist Kai M. Siegbahn (1918–) for his contri- bution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy. Schawlow did not re- ceive the prize for his contribution to the in- vention of the laser but for laser spec- troscopy. Schawlow remained at Stanford until his retirement in 1991. The United States military poured money into laser research during the 1960s, and though initial dreams of laser weapons were not realized, laser range finders revolution- ized tank warfare in the 1970s.The consider- able effort put into developing laser or laser- like weapons found limited success because of the enormous power requirements. Lasers Theodore H. Maiman studies a ruby crystal in the shape of did lead to the development of optical fibers, a cube in the first laser. (Bettmann/Corbis) which came to be the transmission mecha- nism of choice for efficient, no-heat, high- capacity data communications.The Apollo as- tronauts left a laser reflector on the Moon so awarded some eighteen years after he applied. that a laser could precisely measure the dis- The conflict between Gould and the Townes- tance from the Earth to the Moon. Lasers Schawlow patents over invention priority is have also been applied to laser eye surgery, sometimes referred to as the laser wars. microsurgery,optical scanners, compact discs Townes moved to the Massachusetts Insti- for data as well as audio and visual media, tute of Technology in 1961, and moved on to holography, welding, and precise measure- the University of California at Berkeley in ments of Earth movement to monitor volca- 1967, where he retired in 1986. Townes re- noes and earthquakes. ceived half of the 1964 Nobel Prize in Physics, with Aleksandr M. Prokhorov See also Apollo Project; Medicine; Physics (1916–2002) and Nikolay G. Basov (1922– References 2001), both of the Lebedev Institute for Harbison, James P.,and Robert E. Nahory. Lasers: Harnessing the Atom’s Light. New York: Scientific Physics,Akademija Nauk, in Moscow,sharing American Library, 1998. the other half.The two Soviets had independ- Hecht, Jeff. Laser Pioneers. Revised edition. San ently developed a maser-laser. Diego: Academic, 1992. Schawlow became a professor of physics at ———. “Winning the Laser-Patent War.” Laser Stanford University in 1961, where he con- Focus World, December 1994, 49–51. Taylor, Nick. Laser:The Inventor,The Nobel Laureate, tinued to help develop the technology of and the Thirty-Year Patent War. New York: Simon lasers while applying lasers to analyzing and Schuster, 2000. atoms and molecules through laser spec- Townes, Charles H. How the Laser Happened: troscopy.This technique allowed scientists to Adventures of a Scientist. New York: Oxford detect trace elements in larger samples be- University Press, 1999. Leakey Family 159

Leakey Family ily moved frequently, and she received only Beginning with Louis S. B. Leakey (1903– erratic schooling. After her father’s death 1972), the Leakey family and their associates when she was thirteen years old, Mary was have profoundly changed contemporary sent to convent schools. Her mother gave up views of humanity’s evolutionary ancestors on schooling after Mary was twice expelled. through their paleoanthropological discover- Mary was fortunate to have met archaeolo- ies and their controversial theories. Louis gists in France and England through her fa- Seymour Bazett Leakey was born in Kabete, ther and was intrigued by excavations and Kenya, where his parents were Christian mis- cave paintings. From 1930 to 1934, though sionaries to the Kikuyu people. He grew up quite young, Mary served as an assistant to with the Kikuyu; learned their language, Dorothy Liddell, one of the few women ar- folklore, and culture, as well as how to stalk chaeologists then working, on a Neolithic site game; and was initiated into their tribe at the at Hembury, England. Her illustration skills age of thirteen. His 1966 autobiography was opened opportunities for her, including her entitled White African. Leakey’s parents tu- meeting with Louis. tored him until they sent him to England at The couple moved to Africa, where Louis the age of sixteen, where he attended public studied the Kikuyu for two years for the pri- school before entering Cambridge University vate Rhodes Trust. Mary proved to be an en- in 1922.A head injury received while playing thusiastic and skilled archaeologist, continu- rugby led to a leave of absence from the ing excavations even during World War II, school. He joined an archaeological expedi- while Louis worked for British Intelligence. tion sponsored by the British Museum to The couple had three sons and a daughter, be- what is now the country of Tanzania, where ginning in 1940, though the daughter died as he learned field techniques. This sparked his an infant. lifelong preoccupation with the archaeology After the war, Louis became the full-time and anthropology of Africa. curator of the Coryndon Museum in Nairobi, Leakey returned to England to earn un- Kenya. In 1948, Mary discovered on an island dergraduate degrees in archaeology and an- in Lake Victoria the partial skull and teeth of thropology from Cambridge in 1926 and his a new primate species named Proconsul doctorate in 1929. He began to lead his own africanus, which lived at least 20 million years expeditions to Africa while holding various ago. Though the couple excavated in many minor academic appointments at Cambridge. places in Kenya, working on more recent Evolutionists at that time believed that sites, they often searched for humans had evolved into modern humans in much older material. Olduvai Gorge, a 35- Asia, as evidenced by the discovery of Peking mile-long valley cut by a stream into the sed- Man and Java Man. Leakey argued that Africa iments of an ancient lake bed, is located in was the birthplace of humanity and intended northern Tanzania. Louis always thought that to prove it. Olduvai Gorge held considerable promise Leakey married H. Wilfrida Avern in and began fieldwork there in 1931. Mary 1928, and they had a son and daughter. In continued this work with him, taking advan- 1933 he met Mary Douglas Nicol (1913– tage of the geological strata exposed along 1996), an amateur archaeologist with the the Olduvai Gorge walls. ability to draw, and she agreed to draw the il- In 1959, Mary found hundreds of frag- lustrations for his book Adam’s Ancestors ments of a hominid skull in Olduvai Gorge; (1934). Louis and Mary began an affair and, these fragments she eventually recon- after his divorce, married in 1936. structed. Louis called the hominid thus dis- Mary was born in London as the only child covered Zinjanthropus bosei and pointed out of a landscape painter and his wife.The fam- that it was found in strata dated to 1.75 160 Leakey Family

an important indicator of how ancestors to modern humans might have evolved tool use. Louis also recruited the Canadian Biruté Galdikas (1946–) to study orangutans in Bor- neo at Tanjung Puting, but she had less suc- cess because of the solitary nature of that an- imal. Louis maintained a vigorous schedule trav- eling around the world, raising funds, and promoting his scientific views to professional and lay audiences. Mary remained in Africa, concentrating on fieldwork, and the couple drifted apart. Louis died in London in 1972. Louis published regularly throughout his life, including over a dozen popular and profes- sional books, and received honorary degrees and other awards for his work, including the Founder’s Medal of the Royal Geographic So- Louis S. B. Leakey, anthropologist (Bettmann/Corbis) ciety in 1964. Mary continued their work, and in 1978, at Laetoli, she found the fossilized footprints of three hominids, which were dated at 3.6 million years old.The three are thought to be million years ago. Louis enthusiastically pro- the footprints of a man, a woman or smaller moted the significance of this find, and the man, and a child. The gait of the footprints National Geographic Society became a major clearly showed that these hominids walked sponsor of the Leakeys’ research in 1960, al- upright, much sooner than anyone had sus- lowing Louis to resign his museum position pected. Mary remained active as she grew the following year.The skull was thought for older, taking up the fund-raising and public a time to be a direct ancestor of modern hu- promotion roles that her husband had played. mans, but further discoveries led even Louis She died in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1996. Despite to agree that it was a separate line of hom- her lack of formal education, Mary received inids, and the skull was reclassified as Aus- numerous honorary degrees and awards, and tralopithecus boisei. wrote several books. Her oldest son became Louis thought that the study of the great a herpetologist, and her youngest son became apes might lead to insights into the behavior a Kenyan politician. of humanity’s own ancestors. He encouraged Mary and Louis’s middle son, Richard Ers- three women to undertake this task, believ- kine Frere Leakey (1944–), was born in ing that women had the patience to do what Nairobi. He did not want to follow his par- male scientists had earlier failed to do. He se- ents’ career, and while still a teenager he lected women who were unschooled in field- started his own safari business. On a 1967 work and found funding for Jane Goodall flight, he spied sedimentary rock out the air- (1934–) to study the chimpanzees and Dian plane window and thought that it would be a Fossey (1932–1985) to study the mountain good place to find fossils. Despite little for- gorillas. Both of them succeeded in making mal schooling and no university education, the animals accept them so that they could Richard decided to apply to be director of the study their behavior in the wild. Goodall National Museums of Kenya. Though only found that chimpanzees used primitive tools, twenty-three years old, he was a Kenyan citi- Levi-Montalcini, Rita 161 zen and he was selected for the post. Richard Leakey, Mary. Disclosing the Past. New York: thought of himself as a naturalist rather than Doubleday, 1984. an anthropologist or archaeologist. Funded Leakey, Richard E., and Roger Lewin. Origins by the National Geographic Society, Richard Reconsidered: In Search of What Makes Us Human. New York: Doubleday, 1992. led an expedition to the shores of Lake Leakey, Richard E., and Virginia Morrell. Wildlife Turkana to excavate the rocks that he had Wars: My Fight to Save Africa’s Natural Treasures. seen from the air. In the following years, his St. Martin’s, 2001. team excavated fossils from perhaps 200 indi- Morrell,Virginia. Ancestral Passions:The Leakey vidual hominids, including the 1.6-million- Family and the Quest for Humankind’s Beginnings. year-old Turkana Boy, an almost complete Simon and Schuster, 1995. skeleton of Homo erectus. The discoveries at Lake Turkana showed that at least three dif- ferent species of hominids lived together in Levi-Montalcini, Rita (1909–) close proximity millions of years ago, though The neuroembryologist Rita Levi-Montalcini controversy remains over which line of hom- and her colleague, Stanley Cohen (1922–), inids led to modern humans. discovered nerve-growth factor (NGF) in Richard developed the National Museums 1954, the agent that activates nerve growth. into a large and successful organization be- Levi-Montalcini was born to an upper-class fore he resigned in 1989 to become director secular Jewish family in Turin, Italy, where of the (KWS). He her father managed a factory.Her last name is won international acclaim for his vigorous a combination of her father’s and mother’s last efforts to root out corruption and his strug- names. Her dogmatic father insisted on con- gle to stem the losses of African wildlife to trolling the , and Levi-Montalcini poachers.With others, he championed an in- remembers herself as a submissive child on ternational ban on ivory sales, which re- the surface with resentment and strength in- duced the ongoing slaughter of elephants for side. She excelled in school, though few edu- their tusks. Richard lost the lower parts of cational opportunities were available to girls. both legs in a 1993 airplane crash. He re- When a former governess contracted cancer signed from the KWS in 1994. A year later and died, Levi-Montalcini resolved that she he helped found a political party and he re- wanted to become a doctor. She realized that mains active in politics and conservation. she did not want to be a wife and did not feel Richard’s second marriage, to Mauve Epps strong maternal instincts toward children. (1942–), a zoologist student of his father’s, Her father reluctantly agreed when she told produced three daughters. The middle him that she wanted to attend medical daughter, Louise N. Leakey (1972–), earned school. Levi-Montalcini and a cousin hired her Ph.D. in paleontology from the Univer- tutors in order to engage in remedial studies sity of London and has continued in the fam- to prepare her in the sciences. ily tradition by working with her mother at In 1930, Levi-Montalcini entered the Turin the Lake Turkana site. School of Medicine. A professor of human See also Anthropology; Evolution; Fossey, Dian; anatomy and histology, Giuseppe Levi Foundations; Goodall, Jane; National (1872–1965), became her mentor, and she Geographic Society; Zoology began to work in his laboratory. After she References graduated in 1936, she remained as an assis- Cole, Sonia. Leakey’s Luck:The Life of Louis Seymour tant to Levi.When the fascist government of Bazett Leakey, 1903–1972. London: Collins, Italy decreed that all Jews be fired from their 1975. The Leakey Foundation. http://www. university jobs and forbidden to practice leakeyfoundation.org (accessed February 13, medicine, she was dismissed. Levi and Levi- 2004). Montalcini moved to Belgium for a time to 162 Lévi-Strauss, Claude continue their neurological research there. Hamburger had brought in the biochemist When Levi-Montalcini returned to Turin at Stanley Cohen to work with her. Cohen was the end of 1939, she secretly practiced medi- able to purify the NGF, finding the salivary cine for a time before setting up a rudimen- glands of male mice particularly rich in the tary laboratory in her bedroom to continue protein. For six years the productive team her research on nerves using chicken em- expanded on the implications of NGF before bryos. Levi later returned from Belgium and Cohen moved to another university in 1959. worked with her. Eventually it became apparent that NGF is When the Italian government surrendered what keeps young nerve cells from dying and to the Allies in 1943, the German army occu- allows them to mature. Other researchers pied the country. Levi-Montalcini and her eventually isolated the NGF protein mole- family tried to flee, but found themselves cule, then sequenced its amino acids in 1971. trapped in Florence.They hid from the Nazis In 1983, researchers learned how to synthet- until Allied troops liberated the city in Sep- ically manufacture human NGF. tember 1944. Levi-Montalcini worked as a Levi-Montalcini became an American citi- doctor for the Allied health service until the zen in 1956 while retaining her Italian citi- war ended, then she returned to working zenship. In 1968, the National Academy of with Levi as a research assistant at the Uni- Sciences elected her as a member, only the versity of Turin. An article by Levi and Levi- tenth woman so honored up until then. In Montalcini on their wartime research was 1969, she began to divide her time between noticed by the prominent neurological re- Washington University and Italy, where she searcher (1900–2001) of became director of the Laboratory of Cell Bi- the zoology department at Washington Uni- ology at the Council of National Research in versity in St. Louis, . He invited her 1969. She retired in 1979. Levi-Montalcini to visit, and she arrived in 1946, remaining at and Cohen shared the 1986 Nobel Prize in Washington University at first as a research Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of associate, before becoming a member of the NGF. zoology faculty in 1951. See also Medicine; Neuroscience; Nobel Prizes Levi-Montalcini experienced an epiphany References while peering through her microscope in Levi-Montalcini, Rita. In Praise of Imperfection: My 1947. She realized that many nerve cells die as Life and Work. New York: Basic, 1988. nerve tissue develops and that there must be a McGrayne, Sharon Bertsch. Nobel Prize Women in signal of some sort to keep nerve cells devel- Science. Second edition. Secaucus, NJ: Carol, 1998. oping. A student of Hamburger’s found in 1950 that grafting a mouse tumor onto a chick embryo would excite nerve cell growth. Levi- Montalcini replicated the experiment and con- Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1908–) cluded that some type of growth factor must The theoretical anthropologist Claude Lévi- be produced by the tumor. In 1953, Levi- Strauss developed structuralism, a systematic Montalcini traveled to Rio de Janeiro to work way of understanding culture. Lévi-Strauss with a friend from medical school. In Brazil, was born in Brussels, Belgium, where his fa- she succeeded in getting nerve cells to grow in ther worked as an academic painter.He earned vitro in a petri dish by dropping a piece of degrees in law and philosophy at the Univer- tumor into the dish, causing the nerve cells to sity of Paris in 1929 and 1931, then taught phi- blossom quickly, creating a halo of new nerve losophy in secondary schools for three years, cell fibers. while profiting from association with the intel- Returning to St. Louis, she found that lectuals who orbited the existentialist philoso- Lévi-Strauss, Claude 163

bonne in 1948, and began to publish in an- thropology. He became the director of a labo- ratory of social anthropology at the University of Paris in 1950. Though he did occasional fieldwork, his reputation came from his theo- retical work. His Elementary Structures of Kin- ship, published in 1949, and his Structural An- thropology, published in 1961, helped establish him as a major thinker in French society. In these books and others, all written in challenging and complex prose, Lévi-Strauss tried to reduce human behavior and culture to its essentials and to illustrate the struc- tured relationships between those essentials. His greatest success came from describing the incest taboo and kinship systems as together constituting a foundation for culture. In reli- gion, he argued that myths are attempts to re- solve contradictions in human behavior, rather than to create justifications for human behavior, as others had previously argued. Lévi-Strauss sought to explain human behav- ior and culture in a way uninfluenced by the historical flow of time, looking for truths that Claude Lévi-Strauss, theoretical anthropologist, 1981 (Sophie Bassouls/Corbis Sygma) applied to all people at all times. His struc- turalism was not only applied to anthropol- ogy, but was just as influential in philosophy, literary criticism, and the study of religions. pher Jean-Paul Sartre (1905–1980). In 1934, In 1959, Lévi-Strauss was appointed to the Lévi-Strauss became a professor of sociology chair of social anthropology at the College of at the University of São Paulo in Brazil. In his France. Beginning in the mid-1960s, transla- five years in Brazil, he studied the native Indi- tion of his books into English spread the in- ans of the interior of the country, having de- fluence of structuralism, making structural- veloped a fascination with anthropology. ism an important school of thought in global With the coming of World War II, Lévi- anthropology. Lévi-Strauss married three Strauss served in the French army as a liaison times, fathering one child in each of the sec- officer to their British allies. After France fell ond and third marriages. to the Nazis, he escaped to the United States See also Anthropology because of the danger from being a Jew. He References obtained a visiting professorship at the New Clarke, Simon. “The Origins of Levi-Strauss’s School for Social Research in New York City Structuralism.” Journal of the British Sociological for the duration of the war. While there, he Association 12 (1978): 405–439. met the linguist Roman Jakobson (1896– Hénaff, Marcel.Translated by Mary Baker. Claude 1982) and adopted Jakobson’s ideas on struc- Lévi-Strauss and the Making of Structural Anthropology. Minneapolis: University of tural linguistics, a structured way of viewing Minnesota Press, 1998. language. Lévi-Strauss returned to Paris, Pace, David. Claude Lévi-Strauss:The Bearer of Ashes. earned a doctorate in letters from the Sor- New York: Routledge, 1983. 164 Libby, Willard F.

Libby, Willard F. (1908–1980) of archaeology.Now archaeologists only need The chemist Willard F. Libby developed the something organic—wood, cloth, plant re- process of carbon-14 dating, which is used mains, or charcoal from a fire–to positively extensively in archaeology. Willard Frank date their finds.The technique becomes more Libby was born in Grand Valley, Colorado, to inaccurate the further back one tries to mea- a poorly educated farmer.The family moved sure, but measurements for the first ten thou- to an apple ranch in California, where his sand years are quite accurate. parents encouraged him to go to college. In Libby served as a member of the United 1926, Libby enrolled in the University of States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) California at Berkeley, where he intended to from 1954 to 1959, before returning to aca- become a mining engineer, but found chem- deme at the University of California at Los istry more interesting. He earned his bache- Angeles. Libby received the 1960 Nobel lor’s in 1931 and his doctorate in 1933, and Prize in Chemistry for his carbon-14 work.A he specialized in detecting extremely low student of Libby’s at Chicago, F. Sherwood amounts of radioactivity. Rowland (1927–), later shared the 1995 Libby remained at Berkeley, first as an in- Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on structor before moving up to associate pro- chlorofluorocarbon gases. Libby remained fessor. In 1941, while spending a year as a active in research, directing the Institute of Guggenheim Fellow at Princeton University, Geophysics and Planetary Physics from 1962 Libby was recruited into the Manhattan Proj- until his retirement in 1976. Libby married in ect. He spent World War II at Columbia Uni- 1940, fathering twin daughters.The marriage versity working on ways to separate uranium dissolved in divorce in 1966, and he later re- isotopes. After the war, he became a profes- married. sor of chemistry at the University of Chicago, See also Archaeology; Chemistry; Nobel Prizes; where he conducted research at the Institute Nuclear Physics; Rowland, F. Sherwood for Nuclear Studies. References At Chicago, Libby hypothesized that a rare Burleigh, Richard. “W.F. Libby and the isotope of carbon called carbon-14 was ab- Development of Radiocarbon Dating.” Antiquity sorbed by plants through photosynthesis. 55 (1981): 96–98. Nobel e-Museum. “Barbara McClintock— After a plant died, no more carbon-14 would Autobiography.” http://nobelprize.org/ be absorbed, and the plant remains would medicine/ (accessed February 13, 2004). gradually lose the carbon-14 that it had accu- ———. “Willard F. Libby—Biography.” mulated through . By mea- http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/ (accessed suring the amount of carbon-14 in the dead February 13, 2004). plant material, one could determine when it died. Another scientist had already deter- mined in 1940 that the half-life of carbon-14, Lorenz, Edward N. (1917–) which is mildly radioactive, is 5,730 years. The meteorologist Edward N. Lorenz applied Libby developed a technique to convert a computers to modeling the atmosphere and sample into gas (thereby destroying the sam- made important contributions to meteorol- ple) and measure the carbon-14 content. ogy and chaos theory. Lorenz Libby tested his technique on tree sam- was born in West Hartford, Connecticut. He ples, where tree rings gave an independent earned an A.B. degree in mathematics at measure of the age of the sample. He also Dartmouth College in 1938 and an A.M. in tested historical artifacts with known ages. By mathematics at Harvard University in 1940. testing samples from different latitudes, he During World War II, Lorenz worked for the found that his technique applied to all loca- Army Air Corps as a meteorologist. Lorenz tions.This process revolutionized the practice earned an S.M. in meteorology at the Massa- Lorenz, Konrad 165 chusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Konrad Lorenz was born in , Austria, 1943, and an Sc.D. in meteorology from MIT the son of an orthopedic surgeon. His self- in 1948. He began his academic career on the made father owned an estate with a large gar- staff of MIT and joined the faculty of MIT in den and marshes, and the young boy rapidly 1955. showed an obsession with nature and animals. In 1963, Lorenz published an article in the As a child, he experienced a duck imprinting Journal of Atmospheric Sciences entitled “Deter- on him, a process in which newborn animals ministic Nonperiodic Flow,” a seminal article can mistakenly adopt a person as their surro- in the development of chaos theory. He later gate parent and learn their behavior from that introduced the term, the butterfly effect, to de- person. His father wanted him to study med- scribe how a small change in initial conditions icine, so Lorenz attended Columbia Univer- can have a dramatic effect on later events. sity in New York City for a short time before Even the simple mathematical models of the returning to Vienna. At the University of Vi- atmosphere of that time illustrated the butter- enna he studied comparative anatomy and zo- fly effect. This idea later became one of the ology,earning his medical degree in 1928 and foundations of chaos theory. Because of the a Ph.D. in zoology in 1933. He went on to basic nature of the complex systems described hold various academic positions in anatomy by chaos theorists, even the best knowledge of and ethology. current weather conditions limits the ability In the late 1920s and 1930s, Lorenz be- of meteorologists to predict weather too far came active in researching the behavior of into the future. Lorenz used computer mod- colonies of birds that he raised. He published eling to illustrate his ideas and developed a set ethological articles and became best known of well-known equations used in chaos theory. for developing his theory of imprinting. He The title of a famous 1972 paper,“Predictabil- argued that instincts were innate but did not ity: Does the Flap of a Butterfly’s Wings in manifest themselves until a threshold of stim- Brazil Set off a Tornado in Texas?”, succinctly uli was crossed.As an ethologist, Lorenz em- summarized the relationship of chaos theory phasized biological determinism in the form and meteorology, as well as explaining the of instinctual drives, as opposed to the behav- origin of the term butterfly effect. ioral and environmental theories espoused by Lorenz retired from MIT in 1987, but re- American psychologists, such as James D. mained active in research. Among his many Watson (1878–1958) and B. F. Skinner honors, Lorenz received the Crafoord Prize (1904–1990). in 1983 and the Kyoto Prize in 1991. Lorenz In 1940, after the Nazis had absorbed Aus- married in 1948 and had three children. tria into Germany, Lorenz wrote an article See also Chaos Theory; Computers; Meteorology that heavily used Nazi terms in describing be- References havior. He regretted this article after the true Lorenz, Edward N. “Deterministic Nonperiodic magnitude of Nazi crimes later became ap- Flow.” Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 20 (March parent. In 1941, he was drafted into the Ger- 1963): 130–141. man army as a doctor, though he had never ———. The Essence of Chaos. Seattle: University practiced medicine. A year later he was cap- of Washington Press, 1993. tured by Soviet troops and spent the next six years as a camp doctor to fellow prisoners of war. He wrote a manuscript on epistemology, Lorenz, Konrad (1903–1989) using cement sacks for paper and potassium The zoologist Konrad Lorenz founded mod- permanganate as ink.The Soviets allowed him ern ethology and later applied what he to take the manuscript with him when he was learned from the study of animal behavior to repatriated with other Austrians in 1948, and controversial ideas about human behavior. he later published it as a book. 166 Lovelock, James

Lorenz’s friends found the liberated scien- proposed that the Earth was like a living or- tist an academic position, and he resumed his ganism, maintaining surface and atmospheric research. Up until this point in his life, human conditions so that the chemistry and temper- behavior and human culture had held little in- ature would sustain life. James Ephraim Love- terest for him, but he began to apply theories lock was born in Letchworth, Hertfordshire, derived from animal behavior to human be- England, where his father was an art dealer havior and became known for books such as and his mother worked as a local government King Solomon’s Ring (1952) and On Aggression official. He loved nature, science, and tech- (1966). In the latter book he argued that ag- nology as a child, and his father encouraged gression in animals served useful purposes in this interest by supplying him with material protecting territory and preserving the to build things. Lovelock disliked school, pre- species. He argued that aggression in humans ferring to learn on his own, but chose to go is instinctual but that the development of ar- to college. He attended the Birkbeck College tificial weapons has made this drive much at the University of London for a year before more deadly.Most animal species have behav- transferring to the University of Manchester ioral mechanisms for limiting the effects of in 1939. He earned a B.Sc. in chemistry in aggression, allowing the loser to flee a fight 1941 and went to work at the National Insti- or submit to the winner. Lorenz thought that tute for Medical Research (NIMR) in Lon- humans lacked many of these behavior limita- don. He became known for his ability to in- tions. Some critics felt that Lorenz was justi- vent and construct scientific instruments. He fying war, though he denied this. also earned a Ph.D. in medicine in 1949 and In 1973, Lorenz shared the Nobel Prize in a D.Sc. in biophysics in 1959, both from the Physiology or Medicine with two fellow University of London. ethologists, (1886–1982) and In the early 1950s, Lovelock developed a (1907–1988). Lorenz machine to successfully freeze and thaw live also retired in 1973 and returned to Austria, hamsters. In 1957, he invented a small elec- but remained active in research and writing. tron capture detector. In the late 1960s, Lorenz married a childhood friend and med- Lovelock combined his de- ical doctor in 1927, who practiced as a gyne- tector with a gas chromatograph, which cologist, and they had two daughters and a Lovelock and other scientists used to demon- son. He died in Altenburg, Austria, in 1989. strate the levels of pesticide pollution in the See also Nobel Prizes; Psychology; Skinner, B. F.; environment. Lovelock also detected the high Zoology levels of chlorofluorocarbons that prompted References the discovery by the chemists Mario Molina Evans, Richard I., editor. Konrad Lorenz:The Man (1943–) and F. Sherwood Rowland (1927–) and His Ideas. New York: Harcourt Brace, that those man-made chemicals were eroding 1975. the ozone layer. Lovelock originally disagreed “Konrad Lorenz—Autobiography.” Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/medicine/ (accessed with their conclusions, thinking that Molina February 13, 2004). and Rowland were unduly alarmist, but later Nisbett, Alec. Konrad Lorenz:A Biography. New changed his mind and supported the efforts York: Harcourt Brace, 1977. to ban the chemicals. In 1961, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) invited Love- Lovelock, James (1919–) lock to come to the United States to develop The biophysicist and inventor James Lovelock scientific instruments for spacecraft. Love- gained fame (and in some quarters notoriety) lock took the opportunity to become an in- for his “Gaia hypothesis”: the hypothesis that dependent scientist, supporting himself from Lysenko, Trofim 167 revenue from his inventions and consulting See also Ecology; Environmental Movement; Jet contracts. He also held various temporary ac- Propulsion Laboratory; Margulis, Lynn; ademic positions while converting his coun- Molina, Mario; National Aeronautics and Space try home in Bowerchalke into a scientific lab- Administration; Ozone Layer and Chlorofluorocarbons; Rowland, F. Sherwood; oratory. He later moved his family and Sagan, Carl laboratory to another country home at Saint References Giles on the Heath. Bingham, Roger. “James Lovelock.” Pp. 159–166 In 1965, while a consultant at NASA’s Jet in A Passion to Know: 20 Profiles in Science. Edited Propulsion Laboratory, Lovelock learned by Allen L. Hammond. New York: Scribner’s, 1984. from a conversation with the astronomer Lovelock, James. Gaia:A New Look at Life on Earth. Carl Sagan (1934–1996) that the sun had Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979. been a quarter less luminous in the past. How ———. Homage to Gaia:The Life of an Independent had Earth managed to sustain life? This Scientist. Oxford: Oxford University Press, prompted Lovelock to develop the theory 2000. that Earth was like a living organism, main- taining surface and atmospheric conditions so that the chemistry and temperature would Lysenko, Trofim (1898–1976) sustain life. In 1967, Lovelock presented this The biologist Trofim Lysenko promoted a idea to other NASA scientists and engineers, theory of non-Mendelian genetics that found who were familiar with the notion of feed- favor in the Stalinist Soviet Union and dis- back systems and found his idea plausible. torted the science of biology in that country Other scientists were not so enthusiastic. for decades. Trofim Denisovich Lysenko was A neighbor of Lovelock’s, the novelist born to peasants in Karlovka, Ukraine, in the William Golding, suggested that he name the old . He earned a doctorate of hypothesis Gaia after the Greek goddess of agricultural science in 1925 from the Kiev the Earth. In 1970, Lovelock began to work Agricultural Institute, then worked at the with the microbiologist Lynn Margulis Gyandzha Experimental Station in the Cauca- (1938–) on the idea. She found the idea com- sus until 1929, when he moved to the patible with her own promotion of symbiosis Ukrainian All-Union Institute of Selection and vigorously championed his idea. Many bi- and Genetics in Odessa. ologists were suspicious of such a holistic no- A well-known figure in Soviet agriculture, tion.The metaphor of Gaia made Earth seem the plant breeder Ivan V. Michurin (died alive. Activists in the environmental move- 1935), argued that plants adapt to their envi- ment and advocates of New Age spirituality ronmental conditions by acquiring the char- eagerly adopted the notion of Gaia, further acteristics that they need. This revival of alienating scientists who were uncomfortable Lamarckianism was more compatible with with the idea’s mystical overtones. Lovelock Marxist ideology, which held that environ- has remained active as a scientist and speaking mental influences were paramount, than with out on issues that concern him; for instance, the theory of Mendelian genetics. Lysenko he advocates the use of clean nuclear power. adopted the ideas of Michurin as his own and In 1942, Lovelock married and became promoted what he called vernalization, a the father of two sons and two daughters. technique that he claimed would convert After the death of his first wife, he remarried winter wheat seeds to spring wheat seeds by in 1991. Among his many awards and hon- simply freezing the seeds. He claimed that his orary degrees are citations from NASA for his new seeds would dramatically increase wheat contributions to space exploration and being yields. elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society. Supported by the Soviet leader Josef Stalin 168 Lysenko, Trofim

(1879–1953), Lysenko became a powerful in Lysenko’s Marxist science, but allowed sci- Soviet bureaucrat. From 1935 to 1938, he entific criticism of Lysenko to go unpunished. was the scientific director, then director, at In 1964, after changes in the Soviet leader- the Odessa institute. From 1940 to 1965, Ly- ship, Lysenko was finally completely discred- senko directed the Institute of Genetics of the ited and exiled to a remote agricultural sta- Academy of Science of the USSR and served tion, though it took even more time for the as president of the powerful V. I. Lenin All- effects of his regime to fade. An interesting Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences. contrast to Lysenko’s pseudoscientific claims As the effective dictator of Soviet agricul- is the Green Revolution, begun in the 1940s, tural science, Lysenko wielded his power which transformed agriculture in the rest of ruthlessly. Soviet scientists who did not sup- the world, dramatically increasing crop yields port his ideas found themselves unemployed. through the use of Mendelian genetics. Some Soviet scientists who disagreed with See also Agriculture; Evolution; Green Lysenko died from either execution or star- Revolution; Soviet Union vation after being arrested and taken into cus- References tody.At one point, at the height of his power, Joravsky, David. The Lysenko Affair. Cambridge: Lysenko claimed that wheat planted in a hos- Harvard University Press, 1970. tile environment would convert to rye. Medvedev, Zhores A. The Rise and Fall of T.D. Lysenko. New York: Columbia University Press, Lysenko survived even though widespread 1969. adoption of his ideas led to agricultural fail- Soyfer,Valery N. Lysenko and the Tragedy of Soviet ures. After Stalin’s death in 1953, Lysenko’s Science. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers power declined. The new Soviet leader, University Press, 1994. Nikita S. Khrushchev (1894–1971), believed M

Mandelbrot, Benoit (1924–) rary position to another in Europe and the Benoit Mandelbrot developed the mathemat- United States. International Business Ma- ics of fractals, which came to be an important chines Corporation (IBM) became the home way to visualize chaos theory.Benoit Mandel- that he could not find at a university, and brot was born in Warsaw, , where his there he regularly worked on research and as father manufactured textiles and his mother a consultant. Mandelbrot studied linguistics, was a physician. His uncle, a mathematician Brownian , economics, random noise with a strong analytical bent, influenced on telephone lines, and natural phenomena. Mandelbrot’s choice of a vocation, but was He consistently sought the patterns and disappointed with the young man’s prefer- shapes in things, and early in the 1960s he ence for geometry over analysis. After World found that his varied interests all came to- War II started, the family moved to France, gether in the idea of fractals. where Mandelbrot waited out the subsequent Mandelbrot invented the word fractal by German occupation. In 1944, after the liber- deriving it from the Latin word fractus, which ation of Paris by Allied troops, Mandelbrot means “fragmented.” Fractals often describe scored high in university entrance exams. irregular shapes and often are self-similar, in Mandelbrot’s mathematical talent centered the sense that the closer one looks at the frac- on seeing equations as geometric shapes. tal, the more similar fractals appear, just on a After only a few days at the École Normale smaller scale. Computer scientists worked Supérieure, he chose to move to the École with Mandelbrot, making complex multi- Polytechnique, where he graduated in 1947. color graphic images of fractals.They noticed Mandelbrot moved to the United States, that the images resembled shapes in nature, earning a master’s in aeronautics in 1948 such as the curve of coastlines, and the pat- from the California Institute of Technology. terns in turbulent liquids, snowflakes, blood After returning to Europe, he earned his doc- vessels, and other natural systems that exhibit torate in mathematics from the University of mathematically chaotic behavior. In 1979, he Paris in 1952. He married in 1955 and fa- developed his Mandelbrot Set, which sup- thered two sons. ported his theory of fractals. Mandelbrot’s Mandelbrot was never comfortable study- 1982 book, The Fractal Geometry of Nature, ing a single subject and became an academic with its gorgeous computer-generated pic- wanderer, regularly moving from one tempo- tures, spread knowledge of his insights.

169 170 Margulis, Lynn

Mandelbrot fractal image generated by computer (Alfred Pasieka/Photo Researchers, Inc.)

After the pairing of fractals with the chaos Margulis, Lynn (1938–) theory pioneered by the meteorologist Ed- The microbiologist Lynn Margulis revived the ward N. Lorenz (1917–), Mandelbrot re- old theory of microbiological symbiosis and ceived recognition for his contribution. convinced her colleagues of its validity. She Among his many awards are a Barnard Medal was born Lynn Alexander in Chicago, where for Meritorious Service to Science (1985) her father was a lawyer and businessman. An and a Wolf Foundation Prize in Physics avid reader, she wanted to be an explorer and (1993). Mandelbrot eventually became a pro- a writer. She entered the University of fessor at Yale University in 1987. Chicago at the age of fifteen, where she in- tended to follow the humanities, but found See also Chaos Theory; Computers; Lorenz, science more intriguing. She graduated with Edward N.; Mathematics an A.B. in liberal arts in 1957 and promptly References Barcellos, Anthony. “Benoit Mandelbrot.” Pp. married a graduate student she had met, the 205–225 in Mathematical People: Profiles and astronomer Carl Sagan (1934–1996). She Interviews. Edited by Anthony Barcellos. earned a master’s degree in zoology and ge- Cambridge, MA: Birkhauser Boston, 1985. netics from the University of Wisconsin in Margulis, Lynn 171

1960, then followed her husband to the Uni- evolved when spirochetes merged with ar- versity of California, where she earned her chaebacteria.This hypothesis is not widely ac- Ph.D. in genetics in 1965 at Berkeley. She and cepted. Sagan divorced in 1963, and she took their In 1970, Margulis began to work with the two sons to Massachusetts, where she con- biophysicist James Lovelock (1919–) on his ducted research at Brandeis University before idea of Gaia, which is the hypothesis that finding a position at Boston University in Earth is like a living organism, maintaining 1966. A second marriage (1967–1980) pro- surface and atmospheric conditions so that the duced a son and daughter and left her with the chemistry and temperature will sustain life. last name of Margulis after her divorce. She She found the idea compatible with her view found she enjoyed being a mother more than of the planet and vigorously championed his being a wife. Her extraordinary energy and work. Many biologists were suspicious of such strong capacity for work enabled her to raise a holistic notion. The metaphor of Gaia, the four children and at the same time make sig- ancient Greek goddess of Earth, made Earth nificant contributions to science. seem alive, and activists in the environmental In her research, Margulis found her inter- movement and advocates of New Age spiritu- est drawn to cytoplasmic genes, those genes ality eagerly adopted the notion of Gaia, fur- found outside the cell nucleus in organelles ther alienating scientists who were uncom- such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. Ge- fortable with the idea’s mystical overtones. neticists of the time completely ignored cyto- Margulis did not initially see a connection be- plasmic genes and their relationship to bio- tween SET and Gaia, but she came to see Gaia logical evolution. Margulis found in her as symbiosis on a larger scale. research that earlier scientists had shown that A literary agent persuaded Margulis to add microbes could transmit induced characteris- popular articles and books to her academic tics, which led her to the idea that organelles output. Margulis has become a well-known were really former bacteria that had fused and prolific writer, promoting symbiosis, with other cells. After numerous rejections, evolution, and Gaia. Many of her books are she published her first article on what be- coauthored with her son, Dorion Sagan. Mar- came known as the serial endosymbiosis the- gulis moved to the University of Massachu- ory (SET) in 1967. A book on the Origin of setts at Amherst in 1988 as a distinguished Eukaryotic Cells followed in 1970. Eukaryotic professor in botany. She changed depart- cells contain nuclei, and she argued that they ments in 1993 to biology and then to geo- evolved when non-nucleated bacteria fused sciences in 1997. These moves reflect her together billions of years ago. She also argued strong interdisciplinary focus and abilities. that chloroplasts, which convert sunlight into She became a member of the National Acad- energy via photosynthesis, were originally emy of Sciences in 1983 and received the Na- free-living microbes that symbiotically tional Medal of Science in 1999. Among her merged with other cells. As evidence accu- international awards are membership in the mulated in the 1970s, SET came to be ac- Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. cepted, though Margulis’s contention that most evolutionary change is the result of See also Ecology; Environmental Movement; symbiogenesis is not widely accepted.Always Lovelock, James; Sagan, Carl; Symbiosis central in Margulis’s thinking is the idea that References Margulis, Lynn. Symbiotic Planet:A New Look at microbes constitute the dominant form of Evolution. New York: Basic, 1998. life on Earth. Margulis expanded on symbio- Margulis, Lynn, and Dorion Sagan. Slanted Truths: sis by proposing that cilia and other locomo- Essays on Gaia, Symbiosis, and Evolution. New tion appendages of microbes originally York: Springer-Verlag, 1997. 172 Masters, William H., and Virginia Johnson

Masters, William H. (1915–2001), for Masters.Though she never completed any and Virginia Johnson (1925–) academic degrees, Johnson rapidly became a The physician William H. Masters and psy- full partner in the sexuality research. chologist Virginia Johnson, commonly re- Where Alfred Kinsey’s (1894–1956) sex- ferred to as Masters and Johnson, pioneered ual research was riddled with biases and poor scientific research on human sexual anatomy scientific technique, relying mostly on sec- and physiology.William Howell Masters was ondary research in the form of interviews, born in , Ohio, to wealthy parents. Masters and Johnson applied solid techniques He attended Hamilton College in Clinton, in primary research. They used movie cam- New York, where he excelled in athletics and eras, electrocardiographs, electroencephalo- developed an interest in scientific research. graphs, and other advanced tools to study Earning a B.S. from Hamilton in 1938, he subjects masturbating or engaged in coitus. then earned an M.D. from the University of Masters and Johnson started by hiring prosti- Rochester in 1943. Masters married in 1942 tutes, but found that their sexual responses and fathered a son and daughter. were not normal, so they solicited couples Masters wanted to conduct research in for their study, though they realized that their human sexuality,but on the advice of an older subjects were atypical in allowing observation doctor, he determined to first establish his of such intimate situations. credentials as a legitimate researcher in an- In 1959, Masters and Johnson began to other field.After multiple residencies and in- cautiously publish the results of their research ternships in obstetrics and gynecology, on hundreds of human subjects in scientific pathology, and internal medicine, Masters journals.When a 1964 article criticized their joined the medical school faculty at Washing- work as dehumanizing the sexual experience, ton University in St. Louis. He conducted re- they became bolder and published an aca- search in obstetrics and gynecology, publish- demic book, Human Sexual Response, in 1966. ing articles on hormones and the problems of Intended for physicians and other re- aging until 1954, when Masters started to searchers, the book became a surprise best- conduct physiological research into human seller, just as Kinsey’s books had been. Mas- sexuality. He felt that he needed a female as- ters and Johnson concluded that sexual sistant to better communicate with female enjoyment did not have to decline with age, subjects, so he hired Virginia Eshelman John- and discovered a chemical present in some son in 1957. women that functioned as a contraceptive. Virginia Eshelman was born in Spring- The pair of researchers continued their re- field, Missouri, where her father was a search while appearing on television shows, farmer. She graduated from high school in occasionally writing for Playboy magazine, and 1941 at the age of sixteen and attended the writing more books: Human Sexual Inadequacy local Drury College. After a year of school, (1970), The Pleasure Bond:A New Look at Sexu- she went to work and eventually became a ality and Commitment (1975), and Homosexual- local singer. She also attended at times the ity in Perspective (1979). University of Missouri and Kansas City Con- In 1959, Masters and Johnson began to servatory of Music. Her first marriage ended apply their research to clinical sex therapy. after two days, the second ended in divorce, Couples came to their clinic for two or three and her third marriage was to a dance-band weeks of intensive therapy followed by peri- leader named George V.Johnson. She bore a odic consultations. Masters and Johnson later son and daughter, and then that marriage offered postgraduate training at Washington ended in divorce in 1956. She retained her University in sex therapy. married name and applied for a job at Wash- Masters and Johnson were explicit about ington University, where she came to work their feminist focus, and their work found Mathematics 173 favor with the feminist movement. Some to do mathematics before learning why math- critics felt that their emphasis on technique ematics works the way it does. Mathematics took the passion out of sex and failed to ac- education also found a new audience.Women count for the importance of psychological mathematicians have been rare in the history factors. Their emphasis on achieving orgasm of mathematics, but social and cultural was also criticized as reductionistic. Other changes in the last four decades have opened critics decried the bias of Masters and John- up the field for women.Approximately a fifth son toward monogamy as the best setting for of all doctorates in mathematics granted in sexual satisfaction. the United States by the end of the century In 1964, after federal funding for their re- were awarded to women. search ended, Masters and Johnson founded The invention of electronic digital com- the Reproductive Biology Research Founda- puters depended on the unusual base system tion to obtain funding from private donors of two (binary) and the development of the and private research foundations. They later rules of Boolean algebra, a mathematical cu- founded the Masters and Johnson Institute in riosity created in the mid-nineteenth century 1973. Masters and Johnson married in 1971 by the self-taught British mathematician and divorced in 1993, and after he retired in George Boole (1815–1864).The Hungarian- 1994, their Masters and Johnson Institute born mathematician John von Neumann closed. (1903–1957) expanded on the concept of See also Birth Control Pill; Feminism; stored programs and laid the theoretical Foundations; Kinsey,Alfred C.; Medicine; foundations of all modern electronic digital Psychology; Sociology of Science computers in a 1945 report and later work. References His ideas came to be known as the “von Neu- Bullough,Vern L. Science in the Bedroom:A History of mann Architecture.” Von Neumann also de- Sex Research. New York: Basic, 1994. veloped, with the economist Oskar Morgen- Robinson, Paul. The Modernization of Sex: Havelock Ellis,Alfred Kinsey,William Masters and Virginia stern (1902–1976), in 1944 the idea of game Johnson. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, theory as a way to understand economics. 1989. The relationship between computers and mathematics has remained strongly recipro- cal. Mathematicians still provide important Mathematics support for new algorithms and methods of As the twentieth century progressed, mathe- computing, especially in the fields of parallel matics became more important to every field processing and networking, and computers of scientific endeavor. Physics had long had an have become ever more important tools for intimate reciprocal relationship with mathe- mathematicians. Many fields of mathematics matics, and now such diverse fields as evolu- that had lain dormant have been revitalized tion, geology, genetics, and economics be- by using the processing power of computers came more dependent on mathematical to do repetitive and tedious work. When models. Kenneth Appel (1932–) and Wolfgang Haken In the 1950s, a movement known as the (1928–) completed their formal proof of the “New Mathematics” began in the United four-color theorem in 1976, they used a States, emphasizing the teaching of theory computer to reduce the remaining possible and to secondary and even elemen- configurations, which marked the first time tary school children, rather than just applied that a computer had been used to construct a mathematics. Despite its influence on cur- formal proof. The four-color theorem riculum, ultimately mathematics education showed that any geographical map of coun- moved away from the emphasis on theory, tries or other regions can be colored using recognizing that students usually learn how only four colors in such a way that for any 174 Mathematics

in the area of the development of sophisti- cated encryption schemes that are so secure that their algorithms are published in order to challenge other mathematicians to find any flaws in them. In 1976, Whitfield Diffie (1944–), Ralph Merkle (1952–), and Martin Hellman (1945–) developed asymmetric en- cryption, also called public key encryption. The technique is based on prime numbers and uses a pair of keys, one considered private and kept secret, and the other considered public and distributed to anyone.Any data encrypted with one key may only be decrypted with the other key of the pair. This has led to secure computer networks, secure e-mail, and digital signatures, and will certainly have an even more profound impact in the future. The brilliant mathematician John Nash (1928–) expanded on the work of von Neu- mann and Morgenstern to better understand J. Robert Oppenheimer (left) and John von Neumann stand noncooperative games, cooperative games, before an early computer, 1952. (Bettmann/Corbis) two-person bargaining games, and mutually optimal threat strategies in those kinds of games; he also created what became known as Nash equilibria, a way of finding an optimal given region all adjacent regions will receive in games including two or more different colors. players. The Hungarian exile John C. The meteorologist Edward N. Lorenz Harsanyi (1920–2000) and the German (1917–) applied computers to modeling the Reinhard Selten (1930–) both expanded on atmosphere and made important contribu- Nash’s work, and in the 1960s game theory tions to meteorology and chaos theory. He in- became an integral part of economic theory. troduced his term, the butterfly effect, to de- The three men shared the 1994 Nobel Prize scribe how a small change in initial conditions in Economics. Another noted event in math- can have a dramatic effect on later events. Even ematics occurred when the English-born the simple mathematical models of the atmo- mathematician Andrew Wiles (1953–) an- sphere of that time illustrated the butterfly nounced a proof of Fermat’s last theorem in effect.This idea later became one of the foun- 1993, exciting considerable public attention. dations of chaos theory. The French mathe- This theorem posits that for the equation xn matician Benoit Mandelbrot (1924–) devel- + yn = zn, there exist no solutions where n oped the mathematics of fractals, which came is a positive whole number greater than 2. to be an important way to visualize chaos the- ory. Fractals often describe irregular shapes See also Chaos Theory; Computers; Economics; and are self-similar, in the sense that the far- Lorenz, Edward N.; Mandelbrot, Benoit; Nash, ther one looks into the fractal, the more simi- John F.; Neumann, John von;Wiles, Andrew References lar fractals appear, just on a smaller scale. Farmelo, Graham. It Must Be Beautiful: Great Perhaps one of the most far-reaching im- Equations of Modern Science. London: Granta, pacts of mathematics on computing has been 2002. Mayer, Maria Goeppert 175

Katz,Victor J. A :An wrote an influential chemistry textbook with Introduction. Second edition. Reading, MA: her husband.The couple employed a maid so Addison-Wesley, 1998. that Mayer might have the time to pursue sci- Peterson, Ivars. The Mathematical Tourist: Snapshots ence, though she confessed to feeling guilty of Modern Mathematics. San Francisco:W.H. Freeman, 1988. about leaving the children at home with the maid. After her husband moved to Columbia University, Mayer obtained her first paid po- Mayer, Maria Goeppert sition in 1941, teaching part-time at Sarah (1906–1972) Lawrence College. During World War II, won a Nobel Prize in Mayer and her husband worked on wartime Physics for her work on the organization of research, and she worked on the Manhattan protons and neutrons in orbitals around the Project for a time.When the war ended, the . Maria Goppert (as her sur- couple moved to the University of Chicago, name was originally spelled) was born in Kat- and Mayer returned to working as an unpaid towitz, Germany, the child of a professor of associate. A former student invited her to medicine and a schoolteacher. Mayer’s father work part-time at Argonne National Labora- was in the sixth straight generation of Gop- tory outside Chicago as a nuclear physicist. perts to work as a university professor,and he While there, she dove into the problem of moved the family to Göttingen when she was why some isotopes are more stable than oth- four years old. Mayer grew up an academic ers. When the Italian-born physicist and princess, doted upon as an only child, en- Nobel laureate (1901–1954) couraged by her father to become a scholar, a asked her if -orbit coupling had anything vivacious attraction at parties, and endowed to do with it, the solution presented itself to with a powerful intellect. her. She developed a theory of nuclear shell Mayer entered the University of Göttingen orbits. Simultaneously, three Germans devel- to study mathematics, but friendships with oped the same theory, and all four published (1882–1970) and other influential at about the same time. Mayer co-wrote a physicists turned her attention to the emerg- book with one of the Germans, J. Hans D. ing field of quantum mechanics. In 1930, she Jensen (1907–1973) of the University of married Joseph E. Mayer (1904–1983), an , Elementary Theory of Nuclear Shell American chemist boarding with her mother. Structure (1955). She earned her doctorate in physics a few The Mayers moved to the University of months later. Three Nobel prize winners sat California at San Diego in 1960, where on her dissertation committee. Her husband Mayer was offered a regular full-time profes- strongly supported Mayer in her scientific sorship in physics and her husband a position pursuits throughout her life, encouraging her as a professor of chemistry. Half of the 1963 to stay involved even when she was inclined to Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Mayer withdraw.Mayer accompanied her husband to and Jensen, and the other half to Eugene America, where he joined the faculty of Johns Wigner (1902–1995) for unrelated work. Hopkins University. Like most American uni- After years of declining health, Mayer died in versities, Hopkins had an anti-nepotism policy San Diego in 1972. that prevented her from being hired, so she conducted research, taught, and supervised See also Nobel Prizes; Nuclear Physics; Physics References graduate students as an unpaid associate. In McGrayne, Sharon Bertsch. Nobel Prize Women in her first nine years, while bearing a son and a Science. Second edition. Secaucus NJ: Carol, daughter, she published ten papers and co- 1998. 176 Mayr, Ernst

Nobel e-Museum. “Maria Goeppert Mayer— Biography.” http://nobelprize.org/medicine/ laureates/index.html (accessed February 13, 2004). Sachs, Robert G. “Maria Goeppert Mayer, , 1906–, 1972.” Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences 50 (1979): 311–328.

Mayr, Ernst (1904–) The ornithologist Ernst Mayr helped create the modern version of the theory of evolu- tion by natural selection, often referred to as the evolutionary synthesis, before turning to writing important works on the history of bi- ology. Ernst Mayr was born in Kempten, Germany, where his father was a judge. He began his higher education as a medical stu- dent, but was influenced to change by his love of ornithology, graduating in 1926 from the University of Berlin with a doctorate in zool- ogy. He became assistant curator of the uni- versity’s Zoological Museum for the next six Ernst Mayr, ornithologist (Rick Friedman/Corbis) years. During that time, he undertook an or- nithological expedition to New Guinea and remained there for over a year, collecting specimens and exploring the island with two other similar species. In 1942, Mayr pub- expeditions. In 1929, he joined an American lished Systematics and the Origin of Species, the Museum of expedition to the first of his major contributions to the theory Solomon Islands. The American Museum of of evolution. Although many scientists Natural History invited Mayr to New York as thought evolution required dramatic muta- a research associate in 1931, and the follow- tions, Mayr revived the old idea of geographic ing year, when he was named associate cura- speciation and argued that small mutations in tor of the museum’s Whitney-Rothschild geographically isolated populations led to Collection, he resigned his position in Berlin rapid evolution. Mayr also proposed the and remained in the United States. He later founder effect, which was caused when some became a U.S. citizen. Mayr married in 1935 geographic quirk or partial die-off caused a and fathered two daughters. population to be founded by a few individu- While writing his List of New Guinea Birds als. The work of Theodosius Dobzhansky (1941), Mayr immersed himself in , (1900–1975) on evolution was important to and developed a new definition of species that Mayr’s own thoughts. In the late 1940s, Mayr rapidly became widely accepted. Instead of founded the Society for the Study of Evolu- categorizing species by their morphological tion, edited its journal, and helped push for- differences or genetic differences, he looked ward what became known as the modern at a species as being a group in nature in evolutionary synthesis. which the individuals interbreed with each Mayr became curator of the Whitney- other and are geographically isolated from Rothschild Collection in 1944, then moved McClintock, Barbara 177 on to Harvard University in 1953 as the that he invited her to take the class in genet- Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology. ics offered to graduate students. Her focus on From 1961 to 1970, he served as director of cytology, genetics, and zoology led to a B.S. Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology. in 1923, an M.A. in 1925, and a Ph.D. in He continued his efforts to create a new sys- 1927, all from Cornell. tematics of evolution in his 1963 book, Ani- McClintock specialized in , mal Species and Evolution. the chromosomes of plants and their genetic Mayr turned to the history of his discipline makeup. She used maize for her genetics stud- and evolution in the late 1950s. After his re- ies because the plant could be self-fertilized. tirement in 1975, he pursued historical stud- McClintock grew her own maize and by ap- ies ever more vigorously. He published The plying new staining techniques, found that she Growth of Biological Thought:Diversity,Evolution, could stain the chromosomes of the maize and and Inheritance in 1982, 974 pages long, and identify them individually under a micro- One Long Argument: Charles Darwin and the Gen- scope. Her dedication to her research, her esis of Modern Evolutionary Thought in 1991. long hours and complete concentration, be- These important contributions are examples came the stuff of legend. After she graduated of combining the scholarship of historical re- with her doctorate, McClintock remained at search with the experience and point of view Cornell for four years as an instructor in the that come from practicing the scientific disci- botany department. She formed the core of a pline under study. Among his many honors productive group of graduate students and were a National Medal of Science in 1970 and faculty engaged in genetics research, includ- the Balzan Prize in 1984. ing Marcus M. Rhoades (1903–1991), Har- See also Dobzhansky,Theodosius; Evolution; riet Creighton, and George W. Beadle History of Science; Zoology (1903–1989). Beadle later won a Nobel prize References in 1958 for his work in genetics. McClintock Greene, John, and Michael Ruse, guest editors. and Creighton were the first to show that “Ernst Mayr at Ninety.” Biology and Philosophy 9 chromosomes carried hereditary information. (1994): 263–427. From 1931 to 1936, McClintock con- Mayr, Ernst. “How I Became a Darwinian.” Pp. 413–423 in The Evolutionary Synthesis: ducted research in California, Missouri, Ger- Perspectives on the Unification of Biology. Edited many, and at Cornell, funded by fellowships by Ernst Mayr and William B. Provine. from the National Research Council, the Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980. Rockefeller Foundation, and the Guggen- heim Foundation. Bias against women in sci- ence made it difficult for her to obtain a fac- McClintock, Barbara (1902–1992) ulty appointment, even though she was by Barbara McClintock discovered transposable then respected as one of the top geneticists in genes, or “jumping genes,” in the late 1940s, the world and the foremost expert in maize though her discovery was not appreciated for genetics. She finally obtained a faculty posi- another two decades. Barbara McClintock tion as an assistant professor at the University was born in Hartford, Connecticut, where of Missouri in 1936. After five years, she re- her father was a physician. Her mother op- alized that the administrators of the univer- posed any of her daughters’ gaining higher sity would not allow her to advance there, so education, fearing that it would hurt their she quit, and friends found her a position at marriage prospects. Her father supported her the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a re- entry into Cornell University in 1919. Two search laboratory sponsored by the Carnegie years later McClintock took the only course Institution. She remained there for the rest of in genetics available to undergraduates and so her life, happy to engage in full-time re- impressed her instructor with her enthusiasm search. In 1944 she became the president of 178 Medawar, Peter

the Genetics Society of America and was also immune system in order to engage in organ elected to the National Academy of Sciences, transplants. Peter Brian Medawar was born in only the third woman so honored. Rio de Janeiro, where his father was a busi- During the 1940s at Cold Spring Harbor, nessman. Educated in English schools, McClintock discovered that the genes in Medawar attended Magdalen College at Ox- chromosomes could move from chromosome ford University, where he received his first- to chromosome.These transposable genes, or class degree in zoology in 1936. He became a “jumping genes,” were regulated by “control- fellow of Magdalen College, teaching and ling genes,” which suppressed or allowed the conducting research in the growth of tissues expression of a gene. She presented her the- and pathology. Medawar married in 1937 and ory in 1951, but then-current scientific opin- fathered two sons and two daughters. ion held that chromosomes were immutable. During World War II,Medawar studied the McClintock failed to persuade her colleagues problem of skin graft rejection in burn vic- that her discovery of transposable genes was tims and developed techniques that made significant until, in the 1960s and early possible the use of a patient’s own skin for 1970s, molecular biologists discovered a sim- grafts. After the war, Medawar earned his ilar phenomenon in bacteria. D.Sc. from Oxford in 1947 and that same After Francis Crick (1916–2004) and year became a professor of zoology at the James D. Watson (1928–) discovered the University of Birmingham. He continued to structure of DNA in 1953, research in genet- research transplantation issues, especially ics increasingly focused on the molecular why grafts were rejected. He developed a level. Traditional biologists like McClintock, concentrated form of fibrinogen, a com- who looked at the whole organism with a ho- pound found in blood, which could be used listic sense of intuition, were increasingly to glue the nerve endings in skin grafts. pushed to the margins. Later in life, when her Medawar drew attention for his work and discovery of transposable genes was recog- was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in nized as significant, McClintock received the 1949 and knighted in 1952. He moved to 1983 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology, University College, London, in 1951. one of many awards and honorary doctorates When Medawar learned of the proposed recognizing her influence. theory of acquired immunological tolerance See also Crick, Francis; Foundations; Genetics; developed by the Australian medical physician Nobel Prizes;Watson, James D. Frank Macfarlan Burnet (1899–1985), he References chose to investigate further. This theory ar- Keller, Evelyn Fox. A Feeling for the Organism:The gued that the immune system learned while Life and Work of Barbara McClintock. San in the womb and shortly after birth how to Francisco:W.H. Freeman, 1983. distinguish which substances are foreign to McGrayne, Sharon Bertsch. Nobel Prize Women in Science. Second edition. Secaucus, NJ: Carol, the body and thus what to reject. Most scien- 1998. tists thought that this ability was innate. Nobel e-Museum. “Barbara McClintock— Medawar proved that Burnet’s theory was Autobiography.” http://nobelprize.org/ correct.This led other immunologists to real- medicine/laureates/index.html (accessed ize that they could prevent the immune sys- February 13, 2004). tem from rejecting foreign substances and led to the development of techniques widely used to transplant organs. Medawar, Peter (1915–1987) Medawar and Burnet shared the 1960 The immunologist Sir Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. From demonstrated acquired immunological toler- 1962 to 1971, Medawar served as director of ance, an important step in understanding the the National Institute for Medical Research at Media and Popular Culture 179

Mill Hill.Though a stroke forced him into re- paleontology; George Gamow (1904–1968) tirement, he remained active in research. covered many subjects in his Mr. Tomkins With the publication of The Uniqueness of the books; and Jacques Cousteau (1910–1997) Individual in 1957, Medawar began a publish- brought the wonders of the ocean to televi- ing career of ruminations on the nature of sci- sion viewers as well as readers. Science fic- ence that made him a well-known philosoph- tion short stories, novels, movies, and televi- ical and popular writer. His Advice to a Young sion shows often incorporate the scientific Scientist (1979) and The Limits of Science process and scientific theories into their sto- (1984) are particularly thoughtful and lucid. ries, though with mixed success at creating See also Medicine; Nobel Prizes; Organ deeper scientific understanding. Often the Transplants writers of science fiction movies and televi- References sion shows seem to have only a vague under- Medawar, Peter. Memoir of a Thinking Radish:An standing of the scientific ideas they are trying Autobiography. Oxford: Oxford University to use. Press, 1986. In The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolu- Nobel e-Museum. “Peter Medawar—Biography.” http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/ tion (1959), the English molecular physicist index.html (accessed February 13, 2004). and novelist C. P. Snow (1905–1980) de- scribed the gulf of understanding between scientists and literary intellectuals: the people Media and Popular Culture within these two cultures understand their The media (newspapers, magazines, and tele- own cultures, but scientists often do not ap- vision) are often the primary means by which preciate the humanities, and intellectuals in members of the lay public learn about science the humanities do not understand science. and scientists learn about developments in Snow advocated education to overcome the fields other than their own. Magazines like ignorance on both sides. National Geographic, Scientific American, Nature, Critics in the 1980s and 1990s often ac- Discover, New Scientist, and Natural History are cused the media of scientism, which is the targeted toward different market segments, uncritical acceptance of the scientific point of expecting different levels of education from view, which assumes that the practice of sci- their readers. Popularizers of science, who ence is a rational endeavor uninfluenced by translate complex terminology and concepts social or ideological factors. This criticism for the lay audience, include television per- contains echoes of Snow’s point about the sonalities, with one of the latest being the two cultures.The writings of social construc- popular “Bill Nye the Science Guy” in the tionists and others who relentlessly pointed United States. out the human foibles that they saw as intrin- The science fiction writers Isaac Asimov sic to scientific endeavors led to the so-called (1920–1992) and Arthur C. Clarke (1917–) science wars of the 1980s and 1990s. gained as much prominence for their popular The portrayal of science is also distorted science writings as for their fictional tales of by the considerable public attention and scientific wonder. Active scientists, often media coverage that big science projects re- among the top of their field, have also written ceive, giving the impression that most science popular works to communicate with a larger occurs in these big projects, when most sci- audience. Carl Sagan (1934–1996), Stephen ence is actually done by individuals or small Hawking (1942–), and Fred Hoyle (1915– teams. Pharmaceutical companies engage in 2001) wrote effective popular works on as- advertising, vigorously promoting medicinal tronomy and cosmology; Stephen Jay Gould drug use and trying to define the public dis- (1941–2002) and Edward O.Wilson (1929–) cussion over new drugs and new diseases. wrote on evolutionary theory, zoology, and Portrayals of scientists at times are pure 180 Medicine hagiography, especially when the scientists vate insurance programs and government- are medical researchers who have solved a se- sponsored coverage have delivered effective rious medical problem; at other times, scien- health care to most citizens of those coun- tists are portrayed as engaged in amoral tam- tries. Children in the United States now typ- pering with the natural order, especially ically receive twenty against scientists engaged in nuclear or weapons re- eleven diseases before they are two years old. search. Whereas at the start of the twentieth century, See also Asimov, Isaac; Big Science; Clarke, no more than half of all children reached Arthur C.; Cousteau, Jacques; Gamow, adulthood, basic sanitation and vaccination George; Gould, Stephen Jay; Hawking, campaigns make it possible for most children Stephen; Hoyle, Fred; National Geographic in industrialized nations to grow up. Society; Sagan, Carl; Science Fiction; Social Chronic diseases of affluence (obesity, can- Constructionism; Sociology of Science; cer, heart disease, and geriatric conditions), Wilson, Edward O. References as opposed to infectious diseases, now preoc- Labinger, Jay A., and Harry Collins, editors. The cupy health care providers in developed One Culture? A Conversation about Science. countries. Plastic surgery enables the affluent Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001. to pursue culturally conditioned images of McRae, Murdo William, editor. The Literature of beauty.The birth control pill, other forms of Science: Perspectives on Popular Science Writing. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1993. birth control, the availability of abortions, Nelkin, Dorothy. Selling Science: How the Press Covers and antibiotics for the more common sexu- Science and Technology. Revised edition. San ally transmitted diseases have enabled a Francisco:W.H. Freeman, 1995. change in sexual mores throughout the devel- Tuomey, Christopher. Conjuring Science: Scientific oped world. Symbols and Cultural Meanings in American Life. In developing countries, improvements in New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. basic sanitation and basic vaccination against childhood diseases have dramatically dropped mortality rates and helped these countries surge in population. Infectious diseases have Medicine continued to be a major problem. Many de- Modern medicine emerged in the nineteenth veloping countries lie along the equator, and century, when the development of the germ malaria, the greatest remaining scourge, still theory of disease, the discovery of anesthesia kills millions annually and incapacitates many to control the pain of surgery, and improved millions more. Development of an effective sanitation began to curb the horrors of infec- vaccination against malaria has struggled in tious diseases. The first half of the twentieth the face of neglect by the citizens of devel- century brought more advances, including oped countries, who are rarely personally af- the discovery of penicillin in 1928 and its fected by the disease, and the intrinsic diffi- widespread use during World War II, after culty of the problem. Mosquito control by scientists developed a way to mass-produce synthetic pesticides such as DDT (dichloro- penicillin in beer vats. The further develop- diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) proved effective, ment of specialized antibiotics allowed physi- but too expensive, and the side effects of the cians to target particular types of bacteria and pesticides are now better appreciated. has banished many diseases from developed The Austrian-born Canadian endocrinolo- countries. gist Hans Selye (1907–1982) demonstrated The second half of the century saw an in- how physiological stress affects the human creasing number of discoveries, and the prac- body, fundamentally changing the perspec- tice of science and medicine grew ever closer. tives of scientists on how hormones and other In developed countries, the expansion of pri- chemicals in the body react to stress. Physi- Medicine 181

other organs or tissues is now commonplace in developed countries. International cooperation in health care, fostered by private foundations and organiza- tions like the World Health Organization (WHO), has led to considerable successes in delivering basic health and sanitation care to developing countries. The worldwide small- pox vaccination campaign, led by WHO, eradicated that dreaded disease in 1979, ex- cept for a few samples retained in govern- ment laboratories. Jonas Salk (1914–1995) and Albert Sabin (1906–1993) both created polio vaccines in the 1950s, ending a scourge that crippled children. WHO has targeted polio as the next disease to be eradicated A United Nations doctor examines a child in Mzimzina, through worldwide vaccination. Uganda, in 1967. (Corel Corporation) The evolutionary struggle between hu- manity and pathogens has led to exotic new threats, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Ebola, and Lassa fever. cians came to accept that physiological stress Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (related to mad could contribute to many problems, includ- cow disease and scrapie in animals) is in a ing heart attacks, arthritis, allergies, kidney class of its own, in that it is apparently caused disease, and inflammatory tissue diseases. by prions, pathogens the size of a molecule. Improvements in technology provided new The overuse of antibiotics in developed tools for diagnosis and treatment. The heart- countries eventually led to the evolution of lung machine, invented by the physician John new antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. In H. Gibbon (1903–1956), was first success- the United States, nonprescription antibi- fully used in 1953, enabling the heart and otics could be purchased up until the 1950s, lungs to be stopped, their functions per- and many countries still have no effective formed by the machine, while doctors oper- control over the purchase of antibiotics.The ated. The development of computerized to- rise of multiple-drug resistant bacteria has mography (CAT) scans, magnetic resonance brought back diseases, such as , imaging (MRI), and ultrasound technologies that doctors had thought remained only has allowed doctors to noninvasively examine among the poor and negligent. The new an- the inside of the body. Improved radiation tibiotic-resistant strains of diseases are an ex- therapy is used to fight cancer. Lasers have cellent example of Darwinist natural selec- been applied to eye surgery and other types of tion in action, and have led to efforts by surgery that require extremely fine control. physicians to reduce the use of antibiotics The first successful organ transplant oc- when not warranted. curred in 1954 in Boston when a patient re- The physiologist Robert Edwards (1925–) ceived the kidney of his twin brother and lived and gynecologist Patrick Steptoe (1913– for another eight years. Improved surgical 1988) developed in vitro fertilization, a med- techniques and the development of antirejec- ical technique for removing a mature egg tion drugs have created a situation in which from a woman, fertilizing it with donor the transplantation of hearts, livers, kidneys, sperm in the laboratory, allowing it to divide blood vessels, bone marrow, corneas, and several times until it becomes a blastocyst, 182 Meteorology and implanting the blastocyst in a uterus.The Lerner, Barron H. The Breast Cancer Wars:Hope, patient Lesley Brown was impregnated with Fear, and the Pursuit of a Cure in Twentieth-century her own egg fertilized by her husband’s America. New York: Oxford University Press, sperm. On July 25, 1978, a daughter named 2001. McKeown,Thomas. The Role of Medicine: Dream, Louise Joy was delivered by caesarian sec- Mirage, or Nemesis? Oxford: Basil Blackwell, tion, becoming the world’s first “test-tube 1979. baby.” In vitro fertilization and other assisted Porter, Roy. The Greatest Benefit to Mankind:A reproductive technologies have raised new Medical History of Humanity. New York: Norton, ethical issues and laid the essential ground- 1997. work for the possible future genetic engi- neering of children. Advances in genetics and the Human Meteorology Genome Project increased our understanding The Norwegian meteorologist Vilhelm Bjerk- in all areas of medicine. In 1989, the team led nes (1862–1951) strongly urged that the cen- by Lap-Chee Tsui (1950–) discovered the tral purpose of meteorology was accurately gene that caused the genetic disorder cystic predicting future weather. Based in Bergen, fibrosis, a necessary first step to eventually Norway, Bjerknes founded an influential sci- overcoming that disease.The study of the im- entific movement called the Bergen School of mune system has led to new therapies and meteorology, emphasizing measures of at- ways to combat autoimmune diseases. The mospheric pressure and vigorously promot- issue of cloning, long a staple of science fic- ing Norwegian methods of air-mass and tion, became a very real problem in the 1990s frontal analysis. These methods understood when animals were successfully cloned. The the weather in terms of distinct air masses new field of bioethics has been created to deal and the fronts formed on the boundaries be- with the difficult ethical and moral issues that tween the masses. medical advances have created. The United States established a national weather service in 1870, initially located See also Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; within the War Department.The army Signal Bioethics; Birth Control Pill; Carson, Rachel; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Office established a network of around 500 Cloning; Edelman, Gerald M.; Edwards, observers who sent in reports via telegraph. Robert; Elion, Gertrude B.; Genetics; Human In 1891, the functions of the weather service Genome Project; In Vitro Fertilization; moved to a new National Weather Bureau, Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth; Lasers; Levi- part of the Department of Agriculture. Montalcini, Rita; Medawar, Peter; Other nations established similar national or- Microbiology; National Institutes of Health; Neuroscience; Organ Transplants; ganizations. The Americans eventually Pharmacology; Population Studies; Prions; adopted the practices of the Bergen School Psychology; Sabin, Albert; Salk, Jonas; Selye, and began to publish weather charts with the Hans; Smallpox Vaccination Campaign; now familiar lines showing pressure Steptoe, Patrick;Tsui, Lap-Chee;World differences and weather fronts. Military op- Health Organization;Yalow, Rosalyn References erations during World War II demanded ac- Bloom, Samuel William. The Word as Scalpel:A curate weather information, and the U.S. History of Medical Sociology. New York: Oxford Army and Navy trained 8,000 weather offi- University Press, 2002. cers. In 1943, the U.S. Navy flew the first Cooter, Roger, and others, editors. Medicine in airplane into the eye of a hurricane to collect the Twentieth Century. New York: Routledge, scientific data. Sverre Petterssen (1898– 2002. Garrett, Laurie. The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging 1974), the chief weather forecaster for the Diseases in a World out of Balance. New York: British bombers flying from Britain over Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1994. Germany, discovered the jet stream. After Meteorology 183 the war, surplus radar equipment and air- Research Programme (GARP) in the 1960s planes, sounding rockets, and advances in and 1970s. electronics all gave meteorologists more In the 1950s, some scientists became ex- tools. cited by the idea of weather modification.At- In the 1950s, meteorologists in the United tempts to promote rainfall by cloud seeding States became concerned about the anemic with silver iodide and other chemicals spread condition of their profession. Only about ten from aircraft showed poor results.The Amer- doctorates in meteorology were granted each ican military continued this effort during the year from 1953 to 1957, and many practical Vietnam War, trying to encourage rainfall in meteorologists relied on experience rather the Vietnam region to inhibit their enemy’s than education, leading to meteorology hav- ability to move. As a result of these efforts, ing the lowest education level of any scientific the United Nations General Assembly passed discipline.The National Academy of Sciences a “Convention on the Prohibition of Military and the National Science Foundation (NSF) or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental both studied the problem of meteorology’s Modification Techniques” in 1976, and many underdevelopment, and beginning in 1958, nations, including the two superpowers, the NSF more than doubled its funding for signed and ratified the treaty. what became known as the atmospheric sci- Computers and satellites completely trans- ences. In 1962, the American Meteorological formed the practice of meteorology. The Society changed the name of its Journal of Me- mathematician John von Neumann (1903– teorology to the Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 1957), the “father of computers,” used early and started a new journal, the Journal of Ap- electronic computers in the early 1950s to try plied Meteorology, not only indicating the to model the weather. Since then, computers growth in the field and the recognition that have come to be used to manage the mass of meteorology was more than just weather data involved in meteorology, including mea- , but also reflecting an expanded surements of temperature, pressure, and hu- scientific effort to understand the complete midity from collection stations, and they are nature of the atmosphere. The NSF estab- also used in sophisticated - lished the National Center for Atmospheric ing efforts. In 1960, the National Aeronautics Research (NCAR) in 1960 at the University and Space Administration (NASA) launched of Colorado in Boulder. The center hired a Tiros 1, the first satellite of many designed for permanent staff, purchased a powerful com- meteorology.Transmitting back television and puter, and became a strong central laboratory infrared images, the Tiros series proved its for the expanded professional vision of mete- worth when Tiros 3 tracked Hurricane Carla orologists. in 1963, allowing hundreds of thousands to Open-air nuclear testing from the late evacuate before Carla reached land, proving 1940s to the early 1960s pushed radioactive the value of weather satellites. In addition to particles high into the atmosphere, and mon- the United States, the former Soviet Union, itoring of these particles allowed meteorolo- the European Space Agency,Japan, China, and gists to trace upper-air wind patterns. These India have all launched weather satellites, studies led to concern about the effects of which have revealed unknown cloud forma- open-air testing on public health and directly tions and allowed scientists to follow the de- to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty between velopment of storm systems. The World Me- the Soviet Union and United States. The In- teorological Organization (WMO), part of ternational Geophysical Year of 1957–1958 the United Nations, coordinates the exchange included significant atmospheric science ef- of information between different countries forts. Other international weather monitor- and their weather satellites. Since 1966 no ing efforts included the Global Atmospheric tropical storm has escaped detection and 184 Meteorology tracking, and meteorologists now know ex- South America. This temperature phenome- actly what is happening anywhere in the non has predictable effects on the weather of world. New instruments are regularly devel- both North and South America. oped for weather satellites, allowing them to The study of atmospheric chemistry led to measure temperatures at different altitudes, a better understanding of the ozone layer wind speed, and other types of ever more high in the stratosphere. In the early 1970s, granular data. scientists discovered that man-made chloro- The meteorologist Edward N. Lorenz fluorocarbons (CFCs) reacted strongly with (1917–) applied computers to modeling the ozone and could deplete the ozone layer, atmosphere and mathematically showed in which protects life on the ground from harm- 1963 that a small change in initial conditions ful ultraviolet radiation. Further research can have a dramatic effect on later events. found that the ozone layer was already dete- This is why is so difficult riorating, including the formation of a hole in and becomes more unreliable the further out the ozone layer over Antarctica.The Montreal the meteorologist tries to forecast. Lorenz’s Protocol international agreements of 1987, work became a foundation for the later de- 1990, and 1992 agreed to phase out the use velopment of chaos theory, which is a new of CFC gases. mathematical understanding of physical phe- In the 1980s, scientists determined that nomena represented by systems of nonlinear the average temperature on Earth was rising, equations. The dynamics of the atmosphere on the order of approximately 0.6 degree are often used as a classic example of chaos Celsius (1 degree Fahrenheit) during the theory in action. twentieth century.This led to concerns about Advances in oceanographic studies since global warming, which became a major issue World War II have also helped meteorologists in the scientific community and popular po- understand the role of the oceans and seas in litical discourse in the 1980s and 1990s and the atmosphere. The geologist and oceanog- on into the twenty-first century. Meteorolo- rapher Wallace S. Broecker (1931–) showed gists have joined scientists from other disci- that a thermohaline circulation system in the plines in an effort to build better mathemati- northern Atlantic delivers heat from the cal models of Earth’s atmosphere, many so tropics up to the water off northwest Europe. complex that only supercomputers can run This effect is now called Broecker’s Conveyor them. Deep-core drilling, especially in Belt; it has a major impact on the weather of Greenland, has been used to recover data on Europe, making that part of the world much past climate fluctuations. warmer and much more habitable than would See also Associations; Broecker,Wallace S.; Chaos be the case without the thermohaline circula- Theory; Cold War; Computers; Deep-Core tion system. Drilling; El Niño; Environmental Movement; In the 1920s, Sir Gilbert Walker, who Global Warming; International Geophysical headed the Indian Meteorological Service, Year; Lorenz, Edward N.; National Science documented that when the air pressure over Foundation; Neumann, John von; Oceanography; Ozone Layer and the Pacific Ocean was high, the air pressure Chlorofluorocarbons; Satellites over the Indian Ocean was low, and vice References versa. In 1969, another meteorologist ex- Fleming, James Rodger, editor. Historical Essays on panded on this observation with his descrip- Meteorology, 1919–1995. Boston: American tion of the El Niño Southern Oscillation Meteorological Society, 1996. Friedman, Robert Mare. Appropriating the Weather: (ENSO).The El Niño episodes, coming every Vilhelm Bjerknes and the Construction of Modern four or five years, are caused by a rise in the Meteorology. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University water temperature off the western coast of Press, 1989. Microbiology 185

Mazuzan, George T.“Up, Up, and Away:The proven that bacteriophages contain deoxyri- Reinvigoration of Meteorology in the United bonucleic acid (DNA) surrounded by a pro- States: 1958–1962.” Bulletin of the American tein shell and that DNA is what contains the Meteorological Society 69, no. 10 (October elusive genes of heredity. Delbrück, Luria, 1988): 1152–1163. Nebeker, Frederik. Calculating the Weather: and Lewis shared the 1969 Nobel Prize in Meteorology in the 20th Century. San Diego: Physiology or Medicine. Academic, 1995. The zoologist James D. Watson (1928–) Smith,W.L., and others. “The Meteorological and the biologist Francis Crick (1916–2004) Satellite—Overview of 25 Years of Operation.” drew on the work of the phage group when Science 231, no. 4737 (January 31, 1986): 455–462. they discovered the structure of the DNA Williams, James Thaxter. The History of the Weather. molecule in 1953. Microbiology continued to Commack, NY: Nova Science, 1999. serve an important role in developing the sci- ence of genetics. Microbes, especially the bacterium Escherichia coli (E.coli), found in the human colon, serve as living laboratories for Microbiology molecular biologists; they became the basis Microbiology became a field of study be- for the discovery of genetic engineering and cause of the invention of the microscope in remain the continuing foundation of the the early seventeenth century. Advances in multibillion-dollar biotechnology business. microscopy in the twentieth century—the Because some microbes act as pathogens in transmission electron microscope (1931), the human body, microbiologists have always scanning electron microscope (1942, com- been engaged in medical research. In the mercialized 1965), and scanning tunneling 1940s, fungal infections were a rare problem microscope (1979)—helped scientists see for humans, outside of minor problems like microbes, such as protozoans, algae, molds, athlete’s foot. Fungal infections soon became bacteria, and viruses, in more detail.The ear- a problem following surgery, especially organ liest life-forms were microbes, and the Pre- transplants, from the increased use of in- cambrian Era, prior to 550 million years dwelling catheters and the increased use of ago, lacked any known fossils until the pale- broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs. In the obotanist Elso Barghoorn (1915–1984) and 1950s and 1960s, a number of effective anti- others discovered microfossils in the 1950s. fungal agents were discovered and synthe- Evolutionists think that only single-celled life sized. Beginning in the late 1960s, microbiol- existed until the evolution of multicellular ogists found to their surprise that some fungi life at the beginning of the Cambrian Era. secreted chemicals that acted as antimicro- In the 1940s, a collection of scientists, in- bials. Later research found antimicrobials cluding the German-born physicist Max Del- being produced in bacteria for use against brück (1906–1981), the Italian-born physi- other bacteria and to defend themselves from cian Salvador E. Luria (1912–1991), and the being consumed by protozoa. Fungi also cre- American microbiological chemist Alfred D. ate chemicals that kill insects that consume Lewis (1908–1997), became interested in them. bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect Since the late nineteenth century, microbi- bacteria. Working at different institutions in ologists have been aware of symbiosis, a situ- the United States, but freely sharing their ation in which two different organisms live work, the so-called phage group often met at together and serve each other’s purposes. An the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long example of symbiosis occurs in lichens, Island, funded by the private Carnegie Foun- where a fungus and algae mutually exist to- dation. By 1952 the trio and their teams had gether, with the algae providing food through 186 Microbiology

Group of Escherichia coli bacteria under an electron microscope (Charles O'Rear/Corbis)

photosynthesis and the fungi providing shel- flu, which is a different virus every year as the ter. A later researcher proposed in 1927 the virus rapidly mutates. principle of symbiogenesis, the creation of Biological weapons have only rarely been new species when older species combine on used in wars, but their possible impact as the microbial level. The microbiologist Lynn weapons of mass destruction has encouraged Margulis (1938–) revived this theory forty governments to fund scientific research into years later as her serial endosymbiosis theory the offensive use of bacteria and viruses as (SET). Initially the theory was ignored, but weapons and how to defend against such by the end of the 1970s, microbiologists had weapons. Anthrax, botulism, smallpox, glan- come to accept that bacteria exchanged genes ders, and Yersinia pestis (cause of the Black with each other. Death) are among the many microbes that This ability for bacteria to accelerate the have been developed into weapons by mili- process of natural selection through gene tary scientists.The 1972 Biological and Toxin transfer is thought to have important implica- Weapons Convention banned the continued tions for the theory of evolution. Even with- manufacture and development of biological out symbiogenesis, the process of natural se- weapons and required the destruction of ex- lection is seen most readily in bacteria and isting stocks, though the Soviet Union and its viruses, which undergo quicker evolution be- successor state, Russia, did not adhere to the cause of the short time spans between gener- treaty and continued a large biological ations. Natural selection is apparent in the weapons program well into the 1990s. Miller, Stanley L. 187

See also Barghoorn, Elso; Biology and the Life Walther Löb (1872–1916) also conducted Sciences; Biotechnology; Crick, Francis; chemistry experiments similar to what Urey Enders, John; Evolution; Genetics; Margulis, proposed in the early part of the twentieth Lynn; Organ Transplants; Pharmacology; century, though his motivation was unrelated Symbiosis;War;Watson, James D. References to theories of the early Earth’s atmosphere. Chadarevian, Soraya de. Designs for Life: Molecular A year later, Miller asked Urey if he could Biology after World War II. Cambridge: perform the experiment. Urey thought that Cambridge University Press, 2002. the experiment carried a high risk of failure Dixon, Bernard. Power Unseen: How Microbes Rule and discouraged the graduate student, but the World. Cambridge: Oxford University Press, 1996. Miller persisted, and Urey finally agreed that Koprowsky, Hilary, and Michael B. A. Oldstone, the young man could devote no more than a editors. Microbe Hunters—Then and Now. year to the effort. Miller designed a simula- Bloomington, IL: Medi-Ed, 1996. tion of the early Earth’s atmosphere using Society for General Microbiology. Fifty Years of two glass flasks connected via glass tubes. Antimicrobials. Cambridge: Cambridge One flask contained water that Miller heated University Press, 1995. Wakeford,Tom. Liaisons of Life: From Hornworts to to create water vapor, representing the ocean, Hippos, How the Unassuming Microbe Has Driven and the other flask contained methane, hydro- Evolution. New York:Wiley, 2001. gen, and ammonia, representing the atmos- phere. He reasoned that lightning would have been common and introduced a continuous Miller, Stanley L. (1930–) electrical discharge to simulate lightning and Stanley L. Miller conducted a famous experi- encourage chemical reactions. ment that showed that the prebiotic chemi- Within a couple of days, the experiment cals present on early Earth could form amino changed color, and further investigation acids, the building blocks of life. Stanley showed that amino acids, the essential build- Lloyd Miller was born in Oakland, Califor- ing blocks of life, had been formed as a result nia. After earning a B.S. in chemistry from of the experiment. After some difficulty con- the University of California at Berkeley in vincing others of the validity of their experi- 1951, Miller entered graduate school at the ment, Urey and Miller published their results University of Chicago. He heard a lecture by in the journal Science in May 1953. Though Harold C. Urey (1893–1981), a 1934 Nobel many scientists now think that the early laureate in chemistry for his discovery of Earth’s atmosphere was not chemically reduc- heavy hydrogen, in which Urey proposed that ing and did not contain the chemicals used by the atmosphere of early Earth, when life was Miller, the influential Miller-Urey experi- still absent, was chemically reducing, com- ment remains an iconic classic. The as- posed of water vapor, methane, hydrogen, tronomer Carl Sagan (1934–1996) believed and ammonia. Urey suggested that someone that the Miller-Urey experiment was the key should perform an experiment to see if this event that persuaded scientists that perhaps primeval soup could lead to organic com- life on Earth was not a unique event in a vast pounds. Unknown to Urey, the Russian bio- universe. The discovery of amino acids in a chemist Aleksandr Oparin (1894–1980) and carbonaceous meteorite recovered in Murchi- the British scientist J. B. S. Haldane son, Australia, in 1969 lent further credence (1892–1964) had also arrived independently to the idea that forming amino acids in the at similar conclusions in the 1920s. Given universe was easier than originally thought. their priority, their view of the early atmo- Earning his doctorate in 1954, Miller sphere of Earth became known as the spent a year as a fellow at the California In- Oparin-Haldane theory.The German chemist stitute of Technology, and five years on the 188 Minsky, Marvin faculty of the department of biochemistry at coined in a two-month summer workshop at Columbia University, before settling in the Dartmouth College in 1956 organized by chemistry department at the University of John McCarthy (1927–) and Minsky. In California, San Diego. He has remained ac- 1958, Minsky joined the faculty of the Mas- tive in studying early conditions in Earth’s at- sachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Mc- mosphere and in the emerging field of astro- Carthy joined him at MIT and a year later biology, also known as exobiology. Miller they founded the MIT Artificial Intelligence received the 1983 Oparin Medal from the Project.The project became the Artificial In- International Society for the Study of the telligence Laboratory in 1964. For a time Origin of Life. Minsky served as director of the laboratory, See also Chemistry; Geology; Sagan, Carl; Search but found he did not like administrative tasks, for Extraterrestrial Intelligence so he became Donner Professor of Science in References the department of electrical engineering and Henahan, Sean. “From Primordial Soup to the computer science in 1974 and Toshiba Profes- Prebiotic Beach.” http://www. sor of Media Arts and Sciences in 1990. accessexcellence.org/WN/NM/miller.html The first two decades of AI research were (accessed February 13, 2004). “Stanley Miller’s 70th Birthday.” http:// dominated by researchers at MIT. Minsky exobio.ucsd.edu/birthday_70.htm (accessed made important contributions in robotics, vi- February 13, 2004). sual perception, computational geometry, and basic theories of AI and computation. Minsky also promoted the computer lan- Minsky, Marvin (1927–) guage Logo, used to teach programming to The mathematician Marvin Minsky is one of children, and later helped found the Thinking the pioneers of research in artificial intelli- Machines Corporation. Minsky devoted and gence. Marvin Minsky was born in New York; continues to devote much of his intellectual his father was an eye surgeon, and his mother energy to developing and expounding a was a Jewish activist. Minsky attended private mechanistic theory of the mind, arguing that schools where his gifts were recognized, and consciousness is actually an illusion, and thus after brief service in the U.S. Navy, Minsky there is no difference between machines and entered Harvard University in 1946. Initially humans. Many researchers in the fields of AI majoring in physics, he expanded his interests and cognitive science do not support this into psychology after becoming fascinated more extreme view. Among Minsky’s many with how the mind worked, and finally grad- awards are the 1970 Turing Award from the uated in 1950 with a B.A. in mathematics. Association of Computing Machinery. Minsky moved to Princeton University, See also Artificial Intelligence; Cognitive Science; where a colleague and he built in 1951 the Computers Snarc ( Neural-Analog Reinforce- References ment Computer). Made out of 400 vacuum “Marvin Minsky.” http://web.media.mit. tubes, the machine was an early attempt at edu/~minsky/ (accessed February 13, 2004). creating a learning system based on neural Minsky, Marvin. The Society of Mind. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988. nets modeled on those the human brain uses. He earned a Ph.D. in mathematics from Princeton in 1954, then returned to Harvard as a junior fellow, where he worked on mi- Molina, Mario (1943–) croscopes and patented a scanning micro- The chemist Mario Molina discovered, with F. scope. Minsky married in 1952 and fathered Sherwood Rowland (1927–), that chlorofluo- two daughters and a son. rocarbon (CFC) gases damaged the ozone The term artificial intelligence (AI) was first layer of the atmosphere. Mario José Molina Monod, Jacques 189 was born in Mexico City,where his father was Small amounts of CFCs have the potential to a lawyer and also involved in politics. His rapidly reduce the amount of ozone. The aunt, a chemist, encouraged his early interest ozone layer protects life on Earth from the in chemistry, and his family sent him to a harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation. boarding school in Switzerland at the age of Molina and Rowland published their findings eleven so that he might learn German, rea- in the journal Nature in 1974, and their labo- soning that a chemist could use a knowledge ratory discovery was later confirmed by of that language. Molina entered the National measurements of the ozone layer.The realiza- University of Mexico (UNAM) in 1960 and tion that continued use of CFCs would de- majored in chemical engineering. After earn- plete the ozone layer, with catastrophic re- ing his B.S. in 1965, he went to the University sults for human civilization, led to the of Freiberg in Germany for two years of grad- Montreal Protocol international agreements uate research.After a year as an assistant pro- of 1987, 1990, and 1992 to phase out the use fessor at UNAM, Molina moved to the Uni- of these gases. versity of California at Berkeley in 1968 to In 1975, Molina became a faculty member work with George C. Pimentel (1922–1989) at Irvine and continued to work on environ- on a doctorate in physical chemistry. - mental chemistry. His wife often collabo- mentel’s group had invented the chemical rated with his research team. Tiring of the laser several years earlier, and Molina became duties of academia, Molina moved to the an expert on chemical lasers.After earning his Molecular Physics and Chemistry Section at Ph.D. in 1972, Molina remained at Berkeley the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 1982 in for a year to continue his research on chemi- order to devote himself to research. In 1989 cal dynamics. Luisa Tan, a fellow graduate stu- he returned to academia as a professor at the dent in Pimentel’s group, became Molina’s Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Molina wife in 1973.They later had a son. was elected a member of the National Acad- In 1973, Molina moved to the University emy of Sciences in 1989 and a member of the of California at Irvine as a postdoctoral fellow Academia Mexicana de Ingenieria in 1990. In on Rowland’s research team. Rowland of- 1995, Paul Crutzen (1933–), Rowland, and fered Molina several possible projects, and Molina received the Nobel Prize in Chem- Molina decided on the topic most outside his istry, the only Nobel prize in the sciences area of expertise so that he might learn more. won by a Mexican. At a workshop, Rowland had listened to a See also Chemistry; Crutzen, Paul; presentation by the biophysicist and inventor Environmental Movement; Jet Propulsion James Lovelock (1919–) on recent measure- Laboratory; Lovelock, James; Meteorology; ments of the level of CFCs in the atmosphere. Nobel Prizes; Ozone Layer and All CFCs are made by human industry, and Chlorofluorocarbons; Rowland, F. Sherwood they were used at that time mainly in aerosol References Newton, David E. The Ozone Dilemma:A Reference cans and air conditioners. Molina and Row- Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA:ABC-CLIO, 1995. land began to investigate what happened to Nobel e-Museum. “Mario Molina—Auto- CFC molecules in the atmosphere. They biography.” http://nobelprize.org/medicine/ found that when the CFCs reach the ozone laureates/index.html (accessed February 13, layer, high in the atmosphere, ultraviolet radi- 2004). ation from the Sun breaks down the CFC molecules. Each CFC molecule consists of one atom of carbon, one of fluorine, and Monod, Jacques (1910–1976) three of chlorine (CFCl3).The released chlo- The microbiologist Jacques Monod and his rine atoms rapidly react with ozone mole- colleagues proposed the existence of messen- cules, converting them to normal oxygen. ger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and operons to 190 Monod, Jacques

also brought him up to date with the rapidly changing fields of microbiology and genetics. Monod returned to Paris to complete his doctorate in 1941 at the Sorbonne.With the German occupation of France during World War II, Monod left science and became a leader in the anti-Nazi Resistance. For a time he was a member of the French Communist Party, but resigned because of the insistence by Josef Stalin (1879–1953) that the non- Darwinian ideas of agricultural geneticist Trofim Lysenko (1898–1976) be supported by all party members. After the war, Monod joined the Institut Pasteur as a laboratory director in a depart- ment run by André Lwoff (1902–1994). Monod continued his studies of the actions of enzymes and proteins in bacteria. With the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953 by Jacques Monod, microbiologist, 1975 (Sophie Bassouls/ Francis Crick (1916–2004) and James D. Corbis Sygma) Watson (1928–), the field was revolution- ized. In 1957, François Jacob (1920–) joined Monod in his research, and they developed the theories of mRNA, operons, and al- explain how enzymes and proteins are cre- losteric transitions to explain how informa- ated and used within cells. Jacques Lucien tion was transferred from DNA to form en- Monod was born in Paris, where his father, a zymes and proteins inside cells. A key result painter, had married an American. At the age of these theories is an understanding of how of seven, the family moved to Cannes, and repressor genes turn on and turn off the cre- Monod came to think of himself as a southern ation of enzymes and proteins. Frenchman instead of a Parisian, even though Monod married an archaeologist in 1938 he spent most of his professional life in Paris. and fathered twin sons, Olivier and Philippe, His father’s interest in science and Darwinism both of whom became scientists, one a geol- led Monod to a career in biology, though he ogist and the other a physicist. Monod re- considered a career as a musician and re- ceived many honors for his scientific work mained an avid amateur musician throughout and his wartime activities, including the 1965 his life. Monod moved to Paris in 1928 to at- Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, tend the Faculty of Science at the University which he shared with Lwoff and Jacob. In of Paris for a degree in the natural sciences. 1959, Monod became a professor of the He graduated in 1931, then went to work at chemistry of metabolism at the Sorbonne; in the Roscoff marine biology station. His men- 1967, he became a professor at the College of tors there led him to realize that his univer- France; and in 1971, he became director of sity education was sadly out of date, and he the Institut Pasteur, where he vigorously and developed a keen interest in microbiology dogmatically pursued a program of reform, and genetics, along with a belief in the im- emphasizing the pure pursuit of science. He portance of the chemical and molecular un- published a book, Chance and Necessity, in derstanding of biological processes. Time 1971 that promoted his existentialist human- spent at the California Institute of Technology ist beliefs, arguing that all biological evolu- Müller, K. Alex 191 tion was the result of pure chance. Diagnosed mentor, supervising his doctoral work and with a terminal disease, Monod returned to bringing Bednorz to the laboratory perma- Cannes to die at the age of sixty-six. nently in 1977. In 1982, Müller became an See also Cold War; Crick, Francis; Genetics; IBM Fellow, and in 1985, Müller gave up his Lysenko,Trofim; Microbiology; Nobel Prizes; management position to devote himself com- Watson, James D. pletely to their joint research.Their goal was References to find new materials that would supercon- Lwoff, André. “Jacques Lucien Monod, 9 February duct electricity at higher temperatures. 1910–31 May 1976.” Biographical Memoirs of the Superconductivity had been discovered in Fellows of the Royal Society 23 (1977): 385–412. Nobel e-Museum. “Jacques Monod—Biography.” 1911. By the time Müller became interested http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/in in the problem, the best superconducting dex.html (accessed February 13, 2004). metal available had to be cooled to 23 degrees kelvin before the electricity flowed with no loss of energy to resistance from the metal. Müller, K. Alex (1927–) This was too cold for commercial applica- K. Alex Müller and his colleague discovered tions. Müller and Bednorz chose to start that certain materials can achieve supercon- working with oxides instead of metals. The ductivity at higher temperatures than previ- work required great precision and attention to ously suspected. Karl Alexander Müller was detail. Reading of the French development of born in Basel, Switzerland. When he was a new barium-lanthanum-copper oxide, eleven years old, his mother died, and he Müller and Bednorz tried it and obtained su- then attended the Evangelical College in perconductivity at 35 degrees kelvin in Janu- Schiers for seven years. After his obligatory ary 1986. They published their results in a military service, Müller entered the Swiss minor journal, hoping to obtain priority of dis- Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), re- covery yet keep quiet enough so that they ceiving a doctorate in physics in 1958. He could continue to pursue their studies without joined the Battelle Memorial Institute in competition.They failed to escape notice, and Geneva and became manager of a group their discovery set off a rush among physicists using magnetic resonance to investigate lay- to find other superconducting materials. Be- ered compounds. In 1962 he accepted an ap- cause of the economic potential of supercon- pointment on the faculty of the University of ducting materials, allowing the transmission of Zürich and was invited to become a re- electricity without loss, the Nobel committee searcher at the IBM Zürich Research Labora- quickly awarded the prize—one of the few tory a year later. Müller became a professor times in their history. Müller and Bednorz at the University of Zürich in 1970 and head shared the 1987 Nobel Prize in Physics. of the physics group at the laboratory in See also Nobel Prizes; Physics 1972. Müller married in 1956 and fathered a References son and a daughter. Matricon, Jean, and Georges Waysand. The Cold A young student, (1950–), Wars:A History of Superconductivity. New came to the laboratory in 1972 as a summer Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, researcher. Bednorz worked on the same 2003. Nobel e-Museum. “Alex Muller—Autobiography.” strontium-titanium oxide that interested http://nobelprize.org/ physics/laureates/ Müller, and the older man became Bednorz’s index.html (accessed February 13, 2004). N

Nambu, Yoichiro (1921–) munity, led by future Nobel laureate The Japanese-born physicist Yoichiro Nambu Shinichiro Tomonaga (1906–1979), gradually made important contributions to under- revived. In 1952, after receiving his D.Sc. standing quarks and was the first to propose from the , Nambu came that quarks act as if they are connected by to the United States at the invitation of the strings. Yoichiro Nambu was born in Tokyo, Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton Japan, but the great earthquake of 1923 com- University. He chose to remain in America pelled the family to move back to his father’s and became a faculty member at the Enrico hometown of , near Kyoto. His father, a Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago. schoolteacher with a nonconformist attitude, Nambu proposed the existence of gluons to owned an eclectic personal library. Nambu hold together quarks, worked on supercon- suffered through his regimented schooling, ductivity, and successfully predicted the exis- and he only found a more congenial intellec- tence of new particles, including the . tual atmosphere when he went to college in In 1970, the same year that he became a Tokyo in 1937. U.S. citizen, Nambu realized that quarks act Drafted into the army,Nambu was eventu- as if they are connected by strings. This in- ally rescued from digging trenches to work sight led to further work by Nambu and oth- on the army’s radar project. The Japanese ers and the development of string theory in navy and army pursued separate radar proj- the 1980s. String theory provided a promis- ects with no interservice cooperation, and ing avenue to the development of a grand Nambu was even assigned the task of stealing unified theory to unify the four known forces scientific documents from the navy project, of quantum physics, a goal long sought after which he did by deceiving an unsuspecting by physicists. Nambu retired from the Uni- professor. Nambu’s grandparents died in an versity of Chicago in 1991; received the Na- American bombing raid, though his parents tional Medal of Science, the , and survived. After the war, he married his assis- the (the latter from the tant, and then returned alone to Tokyo as a Japanese government); and shared the research assistant at the University of Tokyo, 1994–1995 Wolf Physics Prize. where he slept on his desk for three years. See also Bardeen, John; Gell-Mann, Murray; Nambu later fathered two children. Grand Unified Theory; Particle Physics; The vibrant prewar Japanese physics com- Physics

193 194 Nanotechnology

References In 1979 the German physicist Gerd Binnig Brown, Laurie M., and Yoichiro Nambu. (1947–) and the Swiss physicist Heinrich “Physicists in Wartime Japan.” Scientific American Rohrer (1933–), working at the International 279, no. 6 (December 1998): 96–103. Etori, Akio. “Elemental Genius.” Look Japan 42 Business Machines (IBM) Zürich Research (May 1996): 24–25. Laboratory, invented the scanning tunneling Makerjee, Madhusree. “Profile:Yoichiro Nambu.” microscope (STM), an important tool for the Scientific American 272, no. 2 (February 1995): nascent field, capable of imaging down to the 37–39. atomic level. The STM can manipulate con- ductive material, and in 1989, the IBM physi- cist used an STM to arrange Nanotechnology thirty-five xenon atoms to spell the micro- Research on manufacturing objects on the scopic word IBM. IBM later developed the scale of 100 nanometers or less is called Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) in 1986, nanoscience or nanotechnology. The 1986 which can manipulate nonconductive mate- book by the molecular nanotechnologist K. rial on the atomic level. More practical ex- Eric Drexler (1955–), Engines of Creation:The amples of nanotechnology emerged in the Coming Era of Nanotechnology, popularized the 1990s, with molecular-engineered nano- term nanotechnology and introduced his vision products eventually making up a worldwide of a world dominated by nanoengineering. market of over $40 billion. Drexler first published a paper on molecular Arguments similar to those opposing ge- manufacturing systems in 1981, drawing on netically modified organisms are also offered the ideas of the Nobel laureate physicist against nanotechnology. Critics of nanotech- Richard P. Feynman (1918–1988). Drexler nology fear that nanobots that could self- later earned the first doctorate in molecular replicate might run out of control, like bacte- nanotechnology in 1991 from the Massachu- ria run amok. What mechanisms in nature setts Institute of Technology (MIT), where his might stop nanobots? Nanotubes, micro- thesis supervisor was the artificial intelligence scopic tubes made of carbon atoms, are a pioneer Marvin Minsky (1927–). major advance in nanotechnology with many By building microscopic objects atom by applications. Researchers at DuPont injected atom, nanoengineers hope for revolutionary nanotubes into the lungs of rats, and 15 per- advances in the material sciences, leading to cent of the rats died within a day from block- advances in computers.The ultimate dream is age of their airways. Studies such as the to create “nanobots,” microscopic robots with DuPont study lend credibility to the argu- the ability to manipulate matter on a molecu- ments of critics. lar level. The next step is replicating assem- In the 1990s, the National Science Founda- blers, generic nanobots that can create more tion (NSF) coordinated nanotechnology re- copies of themselves. Medicine might benefit search and funding under a National Nano- from advanced sensors for disease detection, technology Initiative. The National Institutes new therapies, and new implants, as well as by of Health (NIH) also funded nanoscience and using nanobots to operate on internal organs nanotechnology research project grants in bi- or repair the interior of human cells.Vigorous ology and medicine through the NIH Bio- advocates of the potential for nanotechnology engineering Consortium. Research in nan- often paint scenarios of future possibilities otechnology gained a boast, becoming a big that are derided by critics as mere science fic- science project, when the U.S. Congress allo- tion, and indeed, science fiction authors in the cated $3.7 billion in 2003, to be spent over a 1990s used nanotechnology extensively in four-year period, on nanotechnology re- their stories, often as a kind of magic. search. The funds aimed to establish a net- Nash, John F. 195

Nash, John F. (1928–) The mathematician John F. Nash made im- portant contributions to game theory, which became an important part of later economic theories. John Forbes Nash Jr. was born in Bluefield, a prosperous town in West Virginia, where his father was an electrical engineer and his mother was a former schoolteacher. His mathematics skills were recognized at a young age, and his parents arranged for him to take extra classes at the local Bluefield College while still in high school. In 1945, he entered the Carnegie Institute of Technology Scanning tunneling microscope photograph of the word (now Carnegie-Mellon University) with a IBM spelled in xenon atoms (Courtesy of IBM) full scholarship, the Scholarship, majoring in chemical engineer- ing. He soon switched to chemistry, then to mathematics. In two years he earned his B.S. work of university-based technological re- and the faculty awarded him an M.S. in addi- search centers, and included an effort to fund tion because of his recognized genius and research into the ethical issues that might ability. Harvard University and Princeton arise from nanotechnology. Observers ex- University both offered him fellowships; he pect many of the ethical issues to be similar to chose Princeton because it was closer to issues already familiar from the field of home and they seemed more eager to have bioethics. him come to the school. The economist (1902– 1976) and mathematician John von Neu- See also Artificial Intelligence; Big Science; Bioethics; Biotechnology; Feynman, Richard; mann (1903–1957) had developed the con- Medicine; Minsky, Marvin; National Institutes cept of game theory, and published in 1944 of Health; National Science Foundation; their influential Theory of Games and Economic Particle Physics; Science Fiction Behavior. Nash took their ideas, expanded References them, gave them a firmer mathematical basis, Drexler, K. Eric. Engines of Creation:The Coming Era and wrote his dissertation, receiving his of Nanotechnology. New York:Anchor, 1986. Editors of Scientific American. Understanding Ph.D. in 1950. His work was published in Nanotechnology. New York:Warner, 2002. that same year as “Noncooperative Games” in “The Foresight Institute: Preparing for the . At the age of Nanotechnology.” http://www.foresight.org/ twenty-two, Nash had already done the work (accessed February 13, 2004). that would make him famous. He published McCarthy,Wil. Hacking Matter: Levitating Chairs, Quantum Mirages, and the Infinite Weirdness of three more papers on game theory in the Programmable Atoms. New York: Basic, 2003. next three years, expanding his work to co- Mulhall, Douglas. Our Molecular Future: How operative games, two-person bargaining Nanotechnology, Robotics, Genetics, and Artificial games, and mutually optimal threat strategies Intelligence Will Transform Our World. Amherst, in those kinds of games, as well as creating NY: Prometheus, 2002. what became known as Nash equilibria. The Rieth, Michael. Nano-Engineering in Science and Technology:An Introduction to the World of Nano- Hungarian exile John C. Harsanyi Design. River Edge, NJ:World Scientific, (1920–2000) and the German Reinhard Sel- 2003. ten (1930–) both expanded on Nash’s work, 196 National Aeronautics and Space Administration and in the 1960s, game theory became an in- National Aeronautics and Space tegral part of economic theory. Administration (NASA) Nash accepted a position as a faculty mem- The National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- ber at the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- tration (NASA) is an example of Big Science; ogy (MIT), married a physics student in under its aegis, the U.S. government spends 1957, gained tenure in 1958, and began to billions of dollars a year on the scientific ex- experience . In 1959, while his ploration of space, the development of space wife was pregnant, Nash resigned from MIT technology, and sustaining a manned pres- and admitted himself to the psychiatric ward ence in space.The launch of the first artificial of a hospital. He was diagnosed as a paranoid satellite, Sputnik I, by the Soviet Union on schizophrenic, and psychoanalysis failed to October 4, 1957, shocked the United States. help him, since his problem was biological in The American answer was Explorer 1, origin. After he was released from the hospi- launched by the on Janu- tal, Nash spent some time wandering Eu- ary 31, 1958. Both efforts were part of the rope. His wife divorced him in 1963, and he International Geophysical Year of 1957– lived with his mother and sister when not in 1958, an international effort to learn about mental hospitals. Eventually his wife allowed the planet, but the underlying sense of com- him to live with her and their son, but they petition came from the cold war. Putting did not remarry. satellites into orbit, then people into orbit, Nash eventually came to control his men- and finally men on the Moon, as part of the tal illness by force of rationality, without Apollo project, was driven by the competi- drugs or psychotherapy.An important part of tion for international prestige between the this process was rejecting any thoughts about two superpowers, attempting to establish the political matters. He began to work on math- ideological superiority of either communism ematical problems again and to visit old or democracy through demonstrations of friends and haunts at Princeton. Nash shared technological superiority. the 1994 Nobel Prize in Economics with The United States Congress passed the Harsanyi and Selten. Nash had been consid- National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, ered for the prize ever since the mid-1980s, and NASA was born on October 1, 1958.The but his mental illness caused the Nobel com- earlier National Advisory Committee on mittee to exercise caution. Nash’s lack of a Aeronautics (NACA), with 8,000 employees formal university affiliation also concerned and three research centers, became part of them, so Princeton created the new title of NASA. Elements of the rocket research pro- visiting research specialist to give Nash an ac- grams of the navy and army joined NASA, ademic home. His life and illness were por- and the contract with the California Institute trayed in the Oscar-winning 2001 movie, A of Technology’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Beautiful Mind. builder of Explorer 1, was transferred from the U.S. Army to NASA. See also Economics; Mathematics; Neumann, The Soviets again beat the Americans by John von; Nobel Prizes; Psychology putting the first man into space when Yuri A. References Gagarin performed a single orbit of Earth on “John F. Nash, Jr.—Autobiography.” http:// April 12, 1961. NASA’s Project Mercury, al- nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/index.html ready under way, put Alan B. Shepard into (accessed February 13, 2004). space in a suborbital flight on May 5, 1961, and Nasar, Sylvia. A Beautiful Mind:A Biography of John Forbes Nash, Jr.,Winner of the Nobel Prize in the first American into orbit on February 20, Economics, 1994. New York: Simon and 1962. On May 25, 1961, in his first state of the Schuster, 1998. union address, President John F. Kennedy National Aeronautics and Space Administration 197

Aerial view of NASA's Johnson Space Center near Houston,Texas (Courtesy of NASA) urged Congress to commit the United States which American astronauts lived in space to landing a man on the Moon and returning aboard a small space station. During the him safely to Earth before the end of the Apollo-Soyuz mission of 1975, American as- decade.The Apollo project consumed NASA’s tronauts and Soviet cosmonauts rendezvoused for a decade. On July 21, 1969, men in space and shook hands inside a temporary walked on the Moon. From 1969 to 1972, a tunnel connecting the two spacecraft. Most of total of twelve astronauts walked on the the 1970s was devoted to designing and build- Moon, the only men to ever do so. ing a reusable space shuttle. On April 12, After $25 billion was spent on the Apollo 1981, the first space shuttle lifted off. Getting project, congressional appropriations for the most complex technical invention of all NASA declined in the 1970s. NASA ran three time to work on the first try was an impres- Skylab missions in 1973 and 1974, during sive engineering achievement. The reusable 198 National Geographic Society shuttle proved to be so expensive that ex- References pendable rockets remained cheaper for put- Bilstein, Roger E. Orders of Magnitude:A History of ting most satellites into orbit. Losses of the the NACA and NASA, 1915–1990 (NASA SP- 4406).Washington, DC: Government Printing space shuttles Challenger in 1986 and Columbia Office, 1989. in 2003 marred the program. Burrows,William E. This New Ocean:The Story of In 1982, NASA began planning for a per- the First Space Age. New York: Random House, manent space station. Over the years, interna- 1998. tional partners joined the effort, and in 1998 McDougall,Walter A. The Heavens and the Earth:A the International Space Station began con- Political History of the Space Age. New York: Basic, 1985. struction in orbit. Permanent crews began National Aeronautics and Space Administration. habitation in 2000. NASA was joined by Rus- http://www.nasa.gov/ (accessed February 13, sia, the European Space Agency, Japan, and 2004). Canada in this effort. Proposals for a manned lunar base and a manned Mars mission have been stymied by projected high costs and the National Geographic Society lack of a cold war to provide motivation. Founded in 1888 in Washington, D.C., by a Besides manned spaceflight, NASA de- group of renowned explorers and scientists, voted considerable attention to scientific ex- the National Geographic Society is the largest ploration.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory ad- popular science society in the world.The So- ministered all of the interplanetary spacecraft ciety originally focused on elite members of that NASA built, eventually visiting all of the society, promoting understanding of geo- planets except for Pluto. Orbiting telescopes, graphical issues. Beginning in 1900, Gilbert like the Hubble Space Telescope, gave as- H. Grosvenor (1875–1966) transformed the tronomers a view of the cosmos unobscured National Geographic magazine from a profes- by the atmosphere. Various efforts searching sional journal into a mass-market magazine. for extraterrestrial life (SETI) were also fully Circulation quickly grew,reaching 10 million funded or partially funded by NASA. members of the Society in 1980. Grosvenor The efforts of NASA-funded contractors served as editor in chief of the magazine from and NASA employees led to major advances 1903 to 1954 and as president of the Society in microelectronics, computers, rocket tech- after 1920. His son and grandson continued nologies, sensors, and spin-off products. Con- in his footsteps. The magazine grew famous siderable medical research gave NASA doc- for its photographs of exotic things, peoples, tors an understanding of the long-term effects places, and animals, becoming the primary of zero gravity on the human body.NASA also window that many Americans used to view continued the efforts of the earlier NACA in their world. National Geographic maps be- creating new aircraft technologies and con- came standard fare in most American school- ducting research in aviation. A notable avia- rooms and homes. Appalled at geographic il- tion achievement came in the 1960s with the literacy among the American population, the X-15 program, which involved a rocket-pow- Society began creating educational materials ered airplane that actually left the atmosphere and training teachers in geography in the and then glided back to Earth. 1970s. The Society sponsored exploration and See also Apollo Project; Big Science; Cold War; scientific expeditions around the world. The Computers; European Space Agency; magazine brought reports of these expedi- International Geophysical Year; Jet Propulsion tions back to Society members, and television Laboratory; Satellites; Search for Extraterrestrial Life; Shoemaker-Levy Comet specials reached an even larger audience.The Impact; Soviet Union; Space Exploration and Society became a key sponsor of the scientific Space Science;Telescopes;Voyager Spacecraft investigations of ancient hominids and con- National Institutes of Health 199 temporary primates by the Leakey family, be- dren received the vaccine, who then infected ginning with Englishman Louis S. B. Leakey about 120 more people, leaving 11 dead and (1903–1972) and his protégés: the English- three-fourths of the victims paralyzed with woman Jane Goodall (1934–), the Canadian polio. Biruté Galdikas (1946–), and the American The NIH eventually grew to include Dian Fossey (1932–1985). The Society also twenty-seven institutes and centers. Their sponsored the oceanographic expeditions of names and founding dates are the National the French explorer Jacques Cousteau (1910 Cancer Institute (1937); Center for Scien- –1997). Long active in the conservation tific Review (1946); National Heart, Lung, movement, the Society has embraced the en- and Blood Institute (1948); National Insti- vironmental movement, though some critics tute of Dental and Craniofacial Research believe that the Society is not aggressive (1948); National Institute of Allergy and In- enough in the cause of environmentalism. fectious Diseases (1948); National Institute See also Anthropology; Archaeology; Cousteau, of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Dis- Jacques; Environmental Movement; Fossey, eases (1948); National Institute of Mental Dian; Goodall, Jane; Leakey Family; Media and Health (1949); National Institute of Neuro- Popular Culture logical Disorders and Stroke (1950);Warren References Grant Magnuson Clinical Center (1953); Bryan, C. D. B. The National Geographic Society: 100 National Library of Medicine (1956); Na- Years of Adventures and Discovery. New York: Abrams, 1987. tional Institute of Child Health and Human Grosvenor, Gilbert M. “A Hundred Years of the Development (1962); National Institute of National Geographic Society.” The Geographical General Medical Sciences (1962); National Journal 154, no. 1 (March 1988): 87–92. Center for Research Resources (1962); Cen- National Geographic Online. http://www. ter for Information Technology (1964); Na- nationalgeographic.com/ (accessed February 13, 2004). tional Eye Institute (1968); John E. Fogarty International Center (1968); National Insti- tute of Environmental Health Sciences (1969); National Institute on Alcohol Abuse National Institutes of Health and Alcoholism (1970); National Institute on In 1798 the federal government established Drug Abuse (1973); National Institute on the Marine Hospital Service for sick and dis- Aging (1974); National Institute of Arthritis abled seamen.The Service grew, and in 1887 and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases a laboratory for the study of bacteria, the (1986); National Institute of Nursing Re- Laboratory of Hygiene, was created at the search (1986); National Institute on Deaf- Marine Hospital on , New York. ness and Other Communication Disorders The laboratory later moved to Washington, (1988); National Human Genome Research D.C., and took on ever greater responsibili- Institute (1989); National Center for Com- ties. In 1930, the Hygienic Laboratory be- plementary and Alternative Medicine came the National Institute of Health.A 1935 (1992); National Center on Minority Health private grant of land led to the laboratory and Health Disparities (1993); and National moving to Bethesda, Maryland, in 1938. Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengi- Congress kept adding responsibilities and neering (2000). funding to the organization, and in 1948 it The federal Centers for Disease Control became the National Institutes of Health and Prevention (CDC), founded much later (NIH). One of the darker days in NIH history than the NIH, overlaps at times with the occurred in 1954 when a batch of NIH- NIH in its responsibilities, causing duplica- approved Salk polio vaccine included viruses tion of efforts and bad feelings between the that had not been deactivated. Eighty chil- organizations. In general, though, the NIH 200 National Science Foundation concentrates on basic research, and the United States that encouraged continued fed- CDC works on recognizing and controlling eral involvement in developing new science communicable diseases. and technology. The cold war helped moti- Federal funding of the NIH exceeded $13 vate the American government in this area, billion in 2000. In terms of funding, the NIH and in 1950 the Congress created the Na- is an example of Big Science, though about 80 tional Science Foundation (NSF). Bush percent of their funds are allocated in grants wanted an independent board to control the to medical researchers at universities, hospi- NSF, but the federal government retained tals, and medical centers around the nation, control. The president appointed, and the and the balance is used to run their own ex- Senate confirmed, the NSF director and tensive laboratories and administer the NIH. members of the policymaking National Sci- The development of NIH represents one of ence Board, following a practice common for the first cases in which the United States other senior federal positions. Congress ceded control of research money to The physicist Alan T. Waterman (1892– the scientific community, allowing scientific 1967) served as the first director (1951– review committees to decide where money 1963), choosing to downplay the role of the should be spent. More than eighty Nobel lau- NSF as a coordinator of federal science re- reates have received funding from the NIH, search. He did not want to antagonize the and five Nobel laureates have come from NIH other established agencies in the federal gov- laboratories. In 1984, a team headed by ernment, such as the National Institutes of Robert Gallo (1937–) at the NIH and a Health (NIH) and the Atomic Energy Com- French team both discovered the retrovirus mission (AEC), by creating turf battles. Wa- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which terman concentrated on funding basic re- causes AIDS. The Human Genome Project, search efforts and developing new scientific started in 1990 as a joint project between the talent through graduate fellowships and post- United States Department of Energy (DOE) doctoral positions.The NSF accepted propos- and the NIH, led to the successful mapping of als from scientists and used peer review the genes in the human body. boards to judge their merits and allocate See also Big Science; Biotechnology; Centers for funding. In 1962, officials in the Office of the Disease Control and Prevention; Human President of the United States assumed the Genome Project; Medicine; Nobel Prizes; little-used coordination function of the NSF. Pharmacology; Psychology; Salk, Jonas At first the NSF tended to favor the elite References universities, but that gradually changed, espe- National Institutes of Health. http://www. cially since Congress wanted to spread around nih.gov/ (accessed February 13, 2004). The NIH Almanac. Bethesda, MD: National the largesse. The NSF started with an annual Institutes of Health, 2000. budget of only $225,000, much less than the Strickland, Stephen P. The Story of the NIH Grants $33.5 million that Bush had proposed in Program. Lanham, MD: University Press of 1945.The NSF did not control research labo- America, 1988. ratories of its own, as the NIH and AEC did, but contracted with universities to establish and run laboratories funded by the NSF. National Science Foundation When the Soviet Union launched the first The American electrical engineer Vannevar artificial satellite, Sputnik I, in 1957, the Bush (1890–1974) directed the Office of Sci- United States reacted with alarm. Funding entific Research and Development during for scientific and technological research in- World War II. As the war drew to an end, creased, as well as funding to educate scien- Bush wrote an influential report, Science— tists and engineers. The NSF benefited from The Endless Report, for the president of the this trend, and an increasingly larger portion Neumann, John von 201 of the NSF budget went to big science proj- search Projects Agency (ARPA), later became ects, such as the failed Mohole Project of the the Internet. In 1986 the NSF sponsored the early 1960s, which aimed to drill through the NSFNET “backbone” to connect five super- mantle of the Earth, specialized ships for computing centers together. The backbone oceanography, and the (a also connected ARPAnet and CSNET to- system of 27 radio telescopes in New Mex- gether.The funding from the NSF at this time ico) for radio astronomy. The NSF partici- played a crucial role in the expansion of the pated in the International Geophysical Year Internet. When ARPAnet was dismantled in (IGY) of 1957–1958, especially concentrat- 1990, the Internet was thriving at universities ing on research in Antarctica. After the IGY and technology-oriented companies. The ended, the NSF remained the lead federal NSF backbone was later dismantled, when agency funding a continuing presence and re- the NSF realized that commercial and non- search on the frozen continent. The NSF profit entities could keep the Internet run- budget in 1983 passed $1 billion, and reached ning and growing on their own. $3.7 billion by the end of the century. See also Big Science; Cold War; International In general the NSF avoided controversy. In Geophysical Year; Internet; National Institutes the early 1950s, however, when Senator of Health; Universities Joseph McCarthy questioned the loyalty of ac- References ademic scientists who received NIH funding, Appel,Toby A. Shaping Biology:The National Science the NSF took note and declared that the NSF Foundation and American Biological Research, 1945–1975. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins would not require security checks for their University Press, 2000. scientists, though they would not fund the re- England, J. Merton. A Patron for Pure Science:The search of a known communist. McCarthyism National Science Foundation’s Formative Years, faded before any possible negative political 1945–1957.Washington, DC: National Science consequences of this decision emerged. Fund- Foundation, 1982. National Research Council. 50 Years of Ocean ing of projects occasionally ran Discovery: National Science Foundation, 1950–2000. afoul of criticism from members of Congress, Washington, DC: National Academy, 2000. encouraging the NSF to minimize projects in National Science Foundation. http://www.nsf. the social sciences. In the 1970s the NSF gov/ (accessed February 13, 2004). moved beyond basic research to fund Re- search Applied to National Needs (RANN), such as efforts to alleviate pollution, solve Neumann, John von (1903–1957) urban problems, and handle energy issues. The mathematician John von Neumann made Critics feared that RANN could dilute the tra- important contributions to many areas of ditional emphasis on basic research, and the mathematics and quantum physics before NSF canceled the program in 1978, returning turning to computers and developing the the- to its primary mission, though engineering oretical foundations of digital electronic and other applied disciplines did continue to computers. Johann (later anglicized to John) get funding on a reduced scale. von Neumann was born to a Jewish family in Part of the charter of the NSF required the , , where his father was a organization to help increase communica- banker. His family recognized his extraordi- tions among scientists. Besides sponsoring nary intelligence as a child and hired a private publications, workshops, and educational tutor to supplement his education. During programs, the NSF created the Computer 1919, when a brief communist government Science Network (CSNET) in 1981 to pro- gained control of Budapest in the chaos after vide universities that did not have access to World War I, the family found it prudent to ARPAnet with their own network.ARPAnet, stay away, leaving von Neumann with a life- the network created by the Advanced Re- long abhorrence of communism. 202 Neumann, John von

Von Neumann entered the University of project in 1944 at the University of Pennsyl- Budapest in 1921 to study mathematics, but vania Moore School of Electrical Engineer- his father feared that employment opportuni- ing. The ENIAC was a high-speed electronic ties in that field were limited, so von Neu- calculator designed to create artillery ballistic mann agreed to also study chemistry.While tables, which was being built by J. Presper pursuing his Budapest studies, he also studied Eckert (1919–1995) and John Mauchly at the University of Berlin and the Swiss Fed- (1907–1980).While building ENIAC, Eckert eral Institute of Technology in Zurich. He and Mauchly developed for their next com- earned a degree in chemical engineering puter the concept of a stored program, where from the latter institution in 1925.When he data and program code resided together in received his doctorate in mathematics from memory.This concept allowed computers to the University of Budapest in 1926, von Neu- be programmed dynamically so that the ac- mann was only twenty-two years old and al- tual electronics and connections did not have ready publishing mathematical articles. His to be changed with every program. dissertation described the axiomatization of Von Neumann expanded on the concept of . In 1927, he studied at the Univer- stored programs and laid the theoretical sity of Göttingen as a Rockefeller Fellow and foundations of all modern computers in a met the American physicist J. Robert Oppen- 1945 report and later work. His ideas were heimer (1904–1967). Von Neumann then embodied in what came to be known as the worked as a lecturer in mathematics at the .The center of the University of Berlin for three years, while architecture is the fetch-decode-execute re- conducting research into the relationship be- peating cycle, in which instructions are tween quantum physics and theory. fetched from memory and then decoded and In 1930, von Neumann moved to Princeton executed in a processor.The results of the in- University in America, where he began as a struction change data that are also in mem- visiting lecturer, becoming a full professor ory. Eckert and Mauchly deserve equal credit and one of the original members of Prince- with von Neumann for their innovations, ton’s Institute for Advanced Study only three though von Neumann’s elaboration of their years later. His prowess in mathematics and initial ideas and his considerable prestige lent numerous original contributions made him a credibility to the budding movement to build leading theorist. With the economist Oskar digital computers. Eckert and Mauchly went Morgenstern (1902–1976), von Neumann on to build the first commercial computer, developed the concept of “game theory,” and the UNIVAC, in 1951. Von Neumann went the two men published in 1944 their influen- back to Princeton and persuaded the Institute tial Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. for Advanced Study to build their own pio- Von Neumann became a U.S. citizen in neering computer, the IAS (derived from the 1937, allowing him to obtain the necessary initials of the institute), which he designed. security clearances during World War II. He He also developed a theory of automata, in- worked on the Manhattan Project with Op- cluding the idea of self-replicating automata. penheimer, where he championed the implo- In 1954, von Neumann was appointed as a sion method of detonating an atomic bomb, a member of the Atomic Energy Commission method initially ignored by most other scien- (AEC) and moved to the Washington, D.C., tists, but later used. He also lent his wide ex- area. His anticommunist convictions in- pertise as a consultant to other defense proj- formed his aggressive approach to the con- ects.A chance encounter with an army liaison tinued development of nuclear weapons and officer at a railroad station led to his involve- civilian uses of nuclear power. He success- ment with the U.S. Army’s ENIAC (Elec- fully advocated for the creation of a ballistic tronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) missile program to deliver nuclear weapons Neuroscience 203

Neuroscience The term neuroscience emerged after World War II in an effort to expand the traditional boundaries of neurology to include anatomi- cal, physiological, and psychological perspec- tives. In the first half of the century, neurolo- gists had determined that the brain is made of independent nerve cells called neurons and that these neurons are divided by synapses. Electrical signals across the synapses make up brain activity. In the 1920s scientists began to find chemicals called neurotransmitters that can either help or hinder the ability of neu- rons to make electrical connections. Later re- search determined that the brain is born with about 100 billion neurons and that no new neurons are created during an individual’s life. Invented in the 1920s by the German neuropsychiatrist Hans Berger (1873–1941), the electroencephalograph created tracings John von Neumann, mathematician (Library of Congress) on a paper called an electroencephalogram (EEG), which enabled neurologists to make crude evaluations of brain activity. With new tools and insights, neurologists over long distances. Along with honorary began to move away from just the physiology doctoral degrees, von Neumann was elected of reflex action, in which a given stimulus to to the National Academy of Sciences in 1937 the brain or is seen to result and received several national honors for his in a consistent . Neurologists also defense work. In 1957 he died of cancer, per- used brain surgery on primates to understand haps contracted during his work on the Man- which parts of the brain controlled which hattan Project.Von Neumann was a gregari- function. Applying their knowledge to hu- ous man with sophisticated tastes, a mans, they learned that the frontal lobe con- command of four languages, a prodigious trolled the higher functions and that more memory, and an amazing ability to perform primitive functions were located deeper in- calculations in his head. He married in 1930, side, a finding consistent with the idea of bio- fathered a daughter, and divorced in 1937, logical evolution. In the 1940s and 1950s, lo- before remarrying in 1938. Both of his wives botomy operations that severed the neural came from Budapest. connections to the frontal lobe and even See also Cold War; Computers; Mathematics; lobectomy operations that removed part of Nuclear Physics; Particle Physics the frontal lobe were used on difficult-to- References control mental patients.The zoologist Roger Aspray,William. John von Neumann and the Origins Sperry (1913–1994) shared the 1981 Nobel of Modern Computing. Cambridge: MIT Press, Prize in Physiology or Medicine for showing 1990. through surgical procedures on animals and Goldstine, Herman H. The Computer: From Pascal to von Neumann. Princeton: Princeton University humans during the 1960s that the left and Press, 1972. right hemispheres of the brain perform dif- Macrae, Norman. John von Neumann. New York: ferent functions. Pantheon, 1992. The ability of computers to translate large 204 Neuroscience

Multiple MRI brain scans (Tom and Dee Ann McCarthy/Corbis)

amounts of data into images, along with ad- raphy (PET) in 1973, which uses radioactive vances in nuclear physics, led to the develop- tracers and can show neural activity in the ment of much more sophisticated tools for brain. Because of the cost of a nec- analyzing the brain as it functioned. The nu- essary to create the radioactive pharmaceuti- clear physicist Allan M. Cormack (1924– cals and the cost of the machine, there were 1998), a South African who later moved to only about 150 PET installations worldwide America, developed the basic theory of com- at the end of the century. Phelps was among puter tomography (CT) in the early 1960s, the first to use his invention to show in intri- where x-rays are interpreted by mathematical cate detail that different parts of the brain are algorithms to create a two-dimensional image activated when performing the different of a slice of the human body. The electrical mental tasks of talking, listening, reading, and engineer Godfrey N. Hounsfield (1919–), a thinking.This kind of evidence pointed to the researcher at Electric and Musical Industries localization of function within the brain. in England, patented a CT device in the late Newer scanners, such as functional magnetic 1960s, and by the mid-1970s, computed axial resonance imaging (fMRI), do not use a ra- tomography (CAT) scanners were being dioactive tracer. commercially produced. Cormack and Neurologists once thought that the brain Hounsfield shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in inevitably atrophied with age, with a de- Physiology or Medicine for their invention. creasing ability to create new neural connec- The nuclear chemist Michael E. Phelps tions, but neurologists now recognize that (1939–) invented emission tomog- neurons retain the potential to establish new Neutrinos 205 connections throughout the entire life span. more effective at producing consciousness, This is a return to the idea of the earlier plas- memory, and other higher functions of the ticity, where the brain can redevelop dam- mind. This idea is not widely accepted. The aged functions despite localized damage. Nobel laureate Francis Crick (1916–2004) Neuroscientists also moved away from ac- was among other prominent scientists who cepting the localized, connectionist model of also turned to neuroscience in their later the brain that had been dominant in the years, an indication that the field is striving to 1970s, a model according to which only spe- answer fundamental questions and promises cific parts of the brain were thought to do exciting developments in the future. specific functions. See also Cognitive Science; Computers; Crick, Brain scans and a greater understanding of Francis; Edelman, Gerald M.; Feminism; brain chemistry have led to a better under- Medicine; Nobel Prizes; Nuclear Physics; standing of mental disorders with a biological Pharmacology; Psychology basis, such as schizophrenia, some forms of References depression, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s dis- Corsi, Pietro, editor. The Enchanted Loom: Chapters in the History of Neuroscience. New York: Oxford ease. In the 1950s, neurologists suspected University Press, 1997. that excessive amounts of the neurotransmit- Gillick, Muriel R. Tangled Minds: Understanding ter dopamine contributed to schizophrenia. Alzheimer’s Disease and Other . New Drugs designed to address the dopamine York: Dutton, 1998. problem had mixed success. In the 1960s, LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self: How Our Become Who We Are. New York: Viking, 2002. neurologists noticed that abusers of phency- Moir,Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex:The Real clidine (PCP) and people who received low Difference between Men and Women. New York: doses of , an anesthetic, exhibited Penguin, 1989. symptoms similar to schizophrenia. Further Restak, Richard. The New Brain: How the Modern research found that these drugs block the Age Is Rewiring Your Mind. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, NMDA (N-methyl-D-asparate) receptors in 2003. the brain.The discovery of endorphins in the 1970s, the natural opiates of the brain, helped neurologists understand how some people Neutrinos can so readily achieve a natural high and how In 1931, (1900–1958), an addiction works. Some drugs for biologically Austrian and professor of theoretical physics based mental disorders have been developed, at the Federal Technical Institute in Zürich, but they often have substantial side effects. Switzerland, suggested that an undiscovered Studies from scans have led some neurolo- subatomic particle was emitted during beta gists to the conviction that men’s and decay, a form of radioactivity. His proposed women’s brains function differently in many particle would be almost impossible to de- respects. Cognitive psychologists have also tect, and he quickly regretted his hasty sug- come to the same point of view.These con- gestion, fearing possible embarrassment at clusions, flying in the face of the traditional such a notion. The Italian physicist Enrico view within feminism that biological differ- Fermi (1901–1954) took this idea and devel- ences are unimportant, remain controversial. oped it mathematically, calling the unknown The biochemist Gerald M. Edelman particle a . In 1934, Fermi proposed (1929–), who earned his 1972 Nobel prize that in the process of , a neutron for his work on antibodies, later turned to decayed into three particles: a proton, an neuroscience. He developed a theory that electron, and a neutrino. The proposed neu- groups of neural connections in the brain use trino carried a small charge and reacted so a process akin to natural selection to select weakly with other matter that it would be in- from among other groups because they are credibly difficult to detect any evidence of it. 206 Nobel Prizes

The theory also predicted that neutrinos about one fourth of the neutrinos expected would have no mass or an incredibly minus- according to the prevailing theories. Possible cule amount of mass. explanations included the possibility that our With the invention of nuclear reactors solar models are slightly flawed or that neu- during World War II, scientists had a strong trinos do possess a slight mass. The Japanese source of beta decay, and some realized that physicist (1926–) of the nuclear reactors provided a wonderful source University of Tokyo organized the Kami- of possible neutrinos. In 1956, the physicists okande experiment using similar principles (1918–1998) and Clyde and found similar results. Davis and Koshiba Cowan (1919–1974) used a solution of water shared the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics with and near a at Savan- x-ray astronomer Riccardo Giaconni (1931–) nah River, South Carolina, to detect the pho- for their work. tons emitted from the reactions that formed During the 1990s, other experiments neutrinos. Reines and Cowan sent a telegram around the world tried to find the missing to Pauli about their discovery, confirming the solar neutrinos, including the Russian-Amer- suggestion that Pauli had regretted, and ican Gallium Experiment in Reines received a share of the 1995 Nobel the Caucasus Mountains and an effort at the Prize in Physics for his work. (Cowan was Los Alamos National Lab in New Mexico. dead by that time and Nobel prizes are not These efforts occasionally announced success awarded posthumously.) at finding neutrinos with mass, but were not The neutrino detected by Reines and able to confirm their results. A new theory, Cowan occurred during the formation of an based on results from the Sudbury Neutrino electron. As scientists used particle accelera- Observatory in Ontario, Canada, has sug- tors to discover an ever greater number of gested that solar neutrinos change type after subatomic particles, they realized that there they are emitted from the Sun but before was more than one type of neutrino. Julian being detected by the Earth-based experi- Schwinger (1918–1994) proposed in 1957 ments, leading to the undercount, since ear- that two forms of neutrinos existed, one as- lier experiments had looked for only a cer- sociated with electrons and the other with tain range of neutrinos. muons. A neutrino associated with the for- See also Astronomy; Nuclear Physics; Particle mation of a muon particle was discovered in Physics 1962. In the 1970s, a neutrino associated References with the formation of a tau particle was es- Franklin, Allan. Are There Really Neutrinos? An tablished in theory.Though the tau neutrino Evidential History. New York: Perseus, 2001. has not been found experimentally, it is com- McDonald, Arthur B., Joshua R. Klein, and David L.Wark. “Solving the Solar Neutrino monly accepted as the third type of neutrino. Problem.” Scientific American 288, no. 4 (April The Sun, powered by nuclear reactions, 2003): 40–49. also emits neutrinos. A series of expensive Solomey, Nickolas. The Elusive Neutrino:A experiments have tried to detect these solar Subatomic Detective Story. New York: Scientific neutrinos as well as neutrinos emitted by dis- American Library, 1997. tant supernovas.The first experiment was or- ganized by the radiochemist Ray Davis (1914–) in the Homestake gold mine in Nobel Prizes South Dakota. Solar neutrinos that passed Alfred Nobel (1833–1896) patented his in- through a huge tank filled with chlorine re- vention of dynamite in 1867, one of 355 acted with chlorine-37 isotopes to create patents made during a vigorous life of re- argon 37. Davis was puzzled to find only search and entrepreneurship that earned Nobel Prizes 207

in their discipline. Occasionally a laureate is not selected, and the prize is not awarded for that year. Records of committee deliberations on prize awards are kept sealed for at least fifty years. Oddly enough, the Nobel Founda- tion was not exempted from Swedish taxes until 1946 and for years was the top taxpayer in Stockholm, sapping its economic vitality. Less constrained and freedom from taxes allowed the foundation to regain a firm footing in the 1950s. In 1968, the Bank of Sweden made a large donation to the foundation to fund The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, selected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.The first economics prize in 1969 was shared by Rag- The Nobel prize functions as the highest honor that scientists nar Frisch (1895–1973) of the University of can receive in their field of expertise. (Corel Corporation) Oslo and (1903–1994) of the Netherlands School of Economics in Rotter- dam for their work, beginning in the 1920s him a fortune. His secret will stipulated that and 1930s, in helping develop economics into on his death, his wealth was to be used to a mathematically rigorous and quantitatively fund annual prizes in physics, chemistry, oriented discipline. physiology or medicine, literature, and The Nobel prizes function as the highest peace. A Nobel Foundation was set up in honor that scientists can receive in their field Stockholm, Sweden, to invest Nobel’s for- of expertise. Scientists have occasionally won tune and coordinate the work of the institu- the Peace Prize, notably the chemist Linus tions that actually choose the recipients of Pauling (1901–1994) in 1962, for his efforts the prizes.The Nobel Peace Prize laureate is to end open-air nuclear weapons testing, and selected by the Norwegian Shorting (parlia- Norman E. Borlaug (1914–) in 1970, for his ment); the Nobel Prize in Physiology or efforts with the Green Revolution. Other sci- Medicine is selected by the Karolinska Insti- ence prizes, such as the Japan Prize and Kyoto tutet; the Nobel Literature Prize is selected Prize, both established in 1985, are modeled by the Swedish Academy; and the Nobel on the Nobel prizes. The Swedish business- Prize in Physics and the Nobel Prize in man Holger Crafoord (1908–1982) and his Chemistry are both selected by the Royal wife, Anna-Greta Crafoord (1914–1994), Swedish Academy of Sciences. funded the annual Crafoord Prize to be The king of Sweden presents the prizes. awarded in those areas not covered by the The first prizes were awarded in 1901, and Nobel Prizes, such as mathematics, astron- for the first twenty-five years laureates were omy, the biosciences, ecology, and the geo- not publicly announced until the award cere- sciences.The Royal Swedish Academy of Sci- mony itself.Though the rules have occasion- ences selects who will receive the Crafoord ally changed, in practice Nobel prizes are not Prizes. awarded posthumously and may be divided among up to three laureates.The co-laureates See also Chemistry; Economics; Green do not have to have worked on the same area Revolution; Medicine; Pauling, Linus; Physics 208 Nuclear Physics

References the superpower stockpiles.The United States Hargittai, István. The Road to Stockholm: Nobel and Soviet Union experimented with putting Prizes, Science, and Scientists. New York: Oxford nuclear weapons not only in bombers and University Press, 2002. Les Prix Nobel annual series. Stockholm: atop ballistic missiles, but into depth Almqvist and Wiksell, International. charges, torpedoes, anti-aircraft missiles, Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin, and Nils Ringertz. The and artillery shells.A considerable amount of Nobel Prize:The First 100 Years. River Edge, NJ: effort went into developing small enough World Scientific, 2001. nuclear weapons to place atop missiles or in Nobel e-Museum. http://nobelprize.org/ suitcases. Some weapons maximized their medicine/laureates/index.html (accessed February 13, 2004). electromagnetic pulse (EMP) to destroy electronics and electrical systems; other weapons were designed to minimize their ra- dioactive fallout, and the neutron bomb, de- Nuclear Physics veloped in the 1970s, was designed to maxi- Fifteen Nobel laureates worked on the Man- mize the radiation effect and minimize the hattan Project, directed by the physicist J. blast effect, killing people and not destroying Robert Oppenheimer (1904–1967), making things. The doctrine of mutual assured de- it perhaps the single project in struction (MAD) made both superpowers with the greatest concentration of brain- reluctant to use their nuclear weapons for power. Only in 1938 had the idea of nuclear fear that a retaliatory strike would destroy fission in a chain reaction, making a bomb their own nation. Some scholars have ar- possible, even been broached.The success of gued, considering the ideological intensity of the project in producing atomic weapons in the cold war between the democracies and 1945 and their use on the Japanese cities of communism, that the fear of nuclear and in August 1945, has- weapons actually prevented a third world tening the end of the war, had multiple con- war. sequences: it set the stage for an arms race Studies of radioactive fallout from nuclear within the context of the cold war; it firmly tests in the 1950s led to efforts to ban above- established physics as the queen of the sci- ground testing, which succeeded with the ences for the next several decades; it created Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963. In 1962, the the potential for other uses of nuclear power; Nobel laureate and chemist Linus Pauling and it created a climate of global fear. (1901–1994) earned a second Nobel Prize, After the Soviets detonated their own the Peace Prize, for his leadership in the an- atomic bomb in 1949, the United States em- titesting movement. In the 1980s a vigorous barked on building a fusion-based device, the antinuclear movement emerged in Western hydrogen bomb. The Hungarian-born physi- Europe and the United States, which led to cist Edward Teller (1908–2003) led the further scientific research, including the find- American effort, which exploded the first ing by the planetary astronomer Carl Sagan hydrogen bomb on Eniwetok Atoll in 1952. (1934–1996) and other scientists that a full- The Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov (1921– scale nuclear war would throw up so much 1989) designed the first Soviet hydrogen dust into the atmosphere that the planet bomb, exploded only a year later in 1953. would be plunged into a nuclear winter.After The nuclear arms race began in earnest, with the fall of the Soviet Union, the superpowers the two superpowers pouring billions of dol- signed a series of treaties during the 1990s to lars and enormous resources into making sharply reduce their stockpiles.With a dimin- tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. Other ished threat of superpower conflict, concerns countries developed their own nuclear arse- among the informed turned to the prolifera- nals, though these were small compared with tion of nuclear technology and the possibility Nuclear Physics 209 that an unstable country or terrorist group might obtain nuclear weapons. The demand for nuclear physicists in- creased sharply after World War II, especially within the superpowers. Graduate programs in nuclear physics at universities expanded to accommodate the demand. The physicists used their newfound connections to govern- ment to successfully lobby for additional funding for other big science projects, such as particle accelerators and other large devices to detect and study ever smaller pieces of matter and energy, including solar neutrinos and cosmic rays. After the end of the cold war, the cancellation of the U.S. Supercon- ducting Supercollider (SSC) in 1993 signaled that the government largesse for physicists had limits. A downside of the increased prominence of physicists was an emerging sense that scientists were irresponsible in de- veloping science and technology that could destroy all life.This ambivalence about scien- tists is easily recognized in postwar movies, books, and popular culture. The Three Mile Island nuclear facility in Pennsylvania A team led by Enrico Fermi (1901–1954), (Greenpeace) the Italian-born Nobel laureate and physicist, built the first fission-based nuclear reactor in 1942 as part of the Manhattan Project. More nuclear reactors followed to create the fuel expended considerable effort to make the re- for the atomic bombs. During the 1950s, nu- actors safe, believing that their designs for clear scientists and nuclear engineers eagerly light-water reactors would automatically shut turned to applying nuclear reactors to every down if controls failed. By 1998, 437 nuclear possible situation. In the military arena, nu- power plants operated in twenty-nine coun- clear power plants replaced oil engines on tries, providing perhaps 5 percent of the submarines, aircraft carriers, and cruisers, world’s electrical supply. France and Japan, especially on U.S. ships. Experimental vessels lacking significant domestic sources of en- included a nuclear-powered airplane and a ergy, invested heavily in nuclear plants. Ex- nuclear-powered merchant freighter. Scien- pensive to build because of safety measures, tists also recognized the potential for nuclear nuclear plants proved to supply cheap elec- reactors to supply electricity, and a small ex- tricity with no air pollution, but at the cost of perimental breeder reactor in Idaho gener- generating large amounts of radioactive ated the first electricity in 1951, though just waste. Occasional accidents, such as those at enough power to light the reactor building. Windscale in the United Kingdom (1957), The Soviet Union started building the first Mayak in Siberia (1957),Three Mile Island in civilian nuclear power plant in 1954, with the Pennsylvania (1979), and Chernobyl in the United Kingdom following a year later, and Soviet Ukraine (1986), plus opposition from the United States started building its first the environmental movement beginning in civilian reactor in 1956. Nuclear engineers the 1970s, led many to question the wisdom 210 Nuclear Physics of nuclear reactors. Curiously enough, coming a favored approach even in the French scientists in the 1970s discovered the United States. Despite billions of dollars in remains of a natural fission reactor in Oklo, research, the promise of fusion remains only Gabon, in Africa, where an underground bed a hope for cheaper, cleaner electricity.At the of uranium ore supported intermittent chain end of the century, fusion researchers hoped reactions over a billion years ago. to build a large research fusion reactor in ei- The process of nuclear fusion combines ther France or Japan, and negotiations on the atoms rather than splitting them apart as nu- ITER (“the way” in Latin) project are contin- clear fission does.The German-born physicist uing in 2004. Hans Bethe (1906–), who fled the Nazis to The announcement in 1989 that two re- America, proposed in 1938 that the process spected chemists at the University of Utah of fusion powered the Sun. A claim in 1951 had discovered a way to generate fusion at by the Argentine president Juan Perón room temperatures electrified nuclear physi- (1895–1974) that his country had built a fu- cists.Within months this “cold fusion” exper- sion reactor astonished the world and turned iment had been dismissed, after other labora- out to be false. In the early 1950s, American tories failed to replicate the claimed results. scientists began to develop a way to use mag- Though there are indications that something netic fields to confine the high-temperature of interest occurred, and some research still plasma necessary for fusion to occur, literally continues, nuclear physicists returned to putting the power of the Sun into a magnetic working on the problem of hot fusion. bottle. The United States Atomic Energy Nuclear reactors and cyclotrons are used Commission sponsored the secret work.The to manufacture radioactive isotopes for med- United States dropped the shroud of secrecy ical treatment. The German physicist Wil- around the fusion effort after the Soviet suc- helm Conrad Roentgen (1845–1923) discov- cess with Sputnik I in 1957, as part of a pub- ered x-rays in 1895, and physicians soon licity effort to show that the United States learned to use x-rays in their medical prac- still engaged in groundbreaking scientific re- tices, including using radium to treat differ- search, though the effort eventually ent forms of cancer. After World War II, nu- foundered on technical difficulties. clear medicine developed ever more American scientists revived their fusion sophisticated methods of radiation treatment research effort in the early 1970s as the nu- for cancer. Computed axial tomography clear industry came under concerted assault (CAT) scanners and to- by the new environmental movement. Fu- mography (PET) scanners, both developed in sion enthusiasts expected a commercial fu- the 1970s, offered even more powerful tools sion reactor to be safer and generate less ra- for physicians to peer inside the human body. dioactive waste than fission reactors. The See also Big Science; Cold Fusion; Cold War; radioactive waste generated by fusion reac- Dyson, Freeman; Environmental Movement; tors would also have a much shorter half-life Ethics; Hydrogen Bomb; Nobel Prizes; than the radioactive waste of fission reactors. Oppenheimer, J. Robert; Particle Accelerators; The 1970s effort continued into the 1980s Pauling, Linus; Physics; Sagan, Carl; Sakharov, Andrei; Soviet Union;Teller, Edward;War before funding fizzled and the United States References Department of Energy elected to begin to Balogh, Brian. Chain Reaction: Expert Debate and work with other countries on the problem, Public Participation in American Commercial spreading the cost of research. The Soviets, Nuclear Power 1945–1975. Cambridge: Japanese, French, and other European coun- Cambridge University Press, 1991. Herman, Robin. Fusion:The Search for Endless tries had already worked on fusion, with the Energy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Soviet method of confinement be- Press, 1990. Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane 211

Kenneth, Fowler,T. The Fusion Quest. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. Mould, Richard F. Chernobyl Record:The Definitive History of the Chernobyl Catastrophe. Bristol, UK: Institute of Physics Publishing, 2000. Rhoades, Richard. Dark Sun:The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995. Wellock,Thomas Raymond. Critical Masses: Opposition to Nuclear Power in California, 1958–1978. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998.

Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane (1942–) The geneticist Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard made important contributions to under- standing developmental biology by explain- ing the genetics of the embryonic develop- ment of fruit flies. She was born Christiane Volhard during World War II, in Magdeburg, Germany, where her father, an architect, served as an air force pilot during the war. By the age of twelve, she determined that she Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard,geneticist, 1995 (Bossu wanted to be a biologist, and her parents Regis/Corbis Sygma) supported her in her interests. Though she was obviously intelligent, poor grades dogged her academic career, and she strug- gled with boredom. She attended followed, before she and Wieschaus were of- University before moving to the University fered a joint research position at the newly of Tübingen in 1964,which had just launched founded European Molecular Biology Labo- a biochemistry major. She studied at the Max ratory in Heidelberg. For three years they Planck Institute for Virus Research in Tübin- worked on fruit flies, developing new tech- gen, learning chemistry, genetics, and molec- niques to screen genetic mutations and pub- ular biology. She earned a diploma in bio- lishing important papers. Nüsslein-Volhard chemistry in 1969 and her doctorate in and Wieschaus bred 40,000 fruit fly families, genetics in 1973.A marriage to a physics stu- each with a single chemically induced genetic dent, which ended in divorce, resulted in her defect, then used a microscope to examine hyphenated last name, Nüsslein-Volhard. thousands of embryos and larvae.The fruit fly She asked the biologist Walter Gehring contains 20,000 genes, and Nüsslein-Volhard (1939–) if she could join his research labora- and Wieschaus found that only 139 are essen- tory in Basel, Switzerland, to conduct post- tial to embryonic development. Other re- doctoral research. She met the American bi- searchers demonstrated that these same ologist Eric Wieschaus (1947–) at the genes are also used for the same purposes in laboratory, and they worked on the embry- other species, including the vertebrates. onic development of the fruit fly, Drosophila Wieschaus moved back to the United melanogaster. A fellowship at Freiburg in 1977 States to a position at Princeton University, 212 Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane and Nüsslein-Volhard returned to Tübingen can Edward B. Lewis (1918–), an early pio- in 1981.Their research was recognized as sig- neer in fruit fly genetics, shared the 1995 nificant because it showed the way to under- Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. standing more complex genetic disorders, See also Biology and the Life Sciences; many of which have their source in embry- Biotechnology; Genetics; Nobel Prizes onic development. Nüsslein-Volhard became References a division director at the Max Planck Institute “Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard—Autobiography.” for Molecular Biology and extended her http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/in work from insects to vertebrates, raising over dex.html (accessed February 13, 2004.) McGrayne, Sharon Bertsch. Nobel Prize Women in 100,000 zebra fish in order to understand Science. Second edition. Secaucus, NJ: Carol, their embryonic development. Her research 1998. using the zebra fish continues today. Nüsslein-Volhard,Wieschaus, and the Ameri- O

Oceanography American bathyscaphe Tr ieste took two crew Oceanography includes the study of the phys- down to the ocean bottom at that site in ical attributes of the oceans and the biological 1960. attributes of the ocean. Studies sponsored by The International Decade of Ocean Explo- the Allied military during World War II ration in the 1970s also promoted interna- greatly enhanced understanding of waves in tional research. Other international efforts, order to help in troop landings, ocean part of Big Science, have included the Inter- acoustics to help in the struggle with subma- governmental Oceanographic Commission rine warfare, and undersea geography. After (IOC), founded in 1960 as part of the United the war, the National Science Foundation, Nations. The International Council for the founded in 1950, became the main source of Exploration of the Sea (ICES), founded in funding for civilian oceanographic research in 1902, expanded its initial focus on fisheries the United States, while the U.S. Navy con- to a broader environmental research agenda. tinued a vigorous research program that in- The 1983–1993 Tropical Ocean Global At- cluded classified and unclassified activities. mosphere study measured the interaction be- Oceanographic institutes, many founded tween the tropical oceans and the atmo- in the 1920s, grew after World War II into sphere. The long-running World Ocean major centers of research. Some of the more Circulation Experiment measured the flow of prominent institutes include the Scripps In- water around the globe. stitution in California,Woods Hole in Massa- Bruce Heezen (1924–1977) and Marie chusetts, Bedford Institute in Nova Scotia,Al- Tharp (1920–) of Columbia University cre- fred-Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven, ated the first maps of ocean floor topography Germany, and the P. P. Shirshov Institute in in 1952.Though eventually the whole world Moscow. The International Geophysical Year was mapped, Heezen and Tharp started with of 1957–1958 included intensive studies of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Tharp discovered a the oceans by many nations. The Soviet re- rift valley in the middle of the ridge, strong search ship Vityaz recorded the deepest spot evidence of continental drift, but because in any ocean in 1957 in the Challenger Deep that theory was vigorously rejected by geolo- of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. gists of the time, her own interpretation of The British research ship Challenger II had the theory did not become accepted until the found the Challenger Deep in 1951, and the theory of plate tectonics was accepted in the

213 214 Oceanography

Beluga whales (Sea World of California/Corbis)

1960s. Studies of the geology of the ocean with the oceans, since the oceans are the main bottom became the key evidence that proved mechanism regulating the temperature of the plate tectonics. planet. For millennia, the oceans have been New technologies allowed scientists to used to wash away the refuse of civilization, sample and observe previously inaccessible and the post–World War II era saw a flourish- depths and enabled major new scientific dis- ing of scientific efforts and political activism coveries. Jacques Cousteau (1910–1997) in- to cope with ocean pollution. vented the Aqua-Lung in 1943, leading to The second half of the twentieth century scuba (self-contained underwater breathing saw the expansion of national fishing fleets apparatus) gear. Undersea habitats, manned funded by government subsidies. By the and unmanned submersibles, new sonar tech- 1990s over two-thirds of all fisheries in the nologies, deep-core drilling, and satellites world’s oceans were either fully exploited or have all extended the human senses. Satellites fish populations had collapsed from overfish- have increased understanding of meteorol- ing. By the application of science and tech- ogy, ocean temperatures, circulation pat- nology—using sonar, factory ships, and enor- terns, and numerous other areas. mous nets—more fish have been harvested The Columbia University geologist Wal- from the oceans in the twentieth century than lace S. Broecker (1931–) has pioneered im- in all previous centuries combined. The de- portant studies of ocean circulation, leading cline of desirable fish populations has led to to the realization of how important the the growth of aquaculture, much of it in in- oceans are to transferring heat and maintain- land ponds, but some in enclosed pens on ing global temperatures. Our emerging un- ocean coasts, growing carp, shrimp, and derstanding of global warming is intertwined salmon. Aquaculture grew from a worldwide Oppenheimer, J. Robert 215 production of 5 million tons in 1980 to 25 the Whale” campaigns, have met with sub- million tons in 1996. Aquaculture uses fish stantial success. meal derived from so-called trash fish as food See also Big Science; Broecker,Wallace S.; and thus continues to strain the ability of the Cousteau, Jacques; Deep-Sea Hydrothermal oceans to produce enough fish. Vents; Environmental Movement; Geology; Although much of the effort of oceanogra- Global Warming; International Geophysical phers has been devoted to the physical attri- Year; Meteorology; National Science butes of the oceans, biologists have also made Foundation; Plate Tectonics; Undersea Exploration their own contributions. Only in the mid- References 1980s were the microscopic Prochlorococcus Bascom,Willard. The Crest of the Wave:Adventures in cyanobacteria found, which are responsible Oceanography. New York: Harper and Row, for more than half of all photosynthesis in the 1988. oceans. Numerous new species have been dis- Borgese, Elisabeth Mann. Ocean Frontiers: Explorations by Oceanographers on Five Continents. covered, many of them existing only at great New York:Abrams, 1992. depths. In 1977, the deep-sea submersible Broad,William J. The Universe Below: Discovering the Alvin found deep-sea hydrothermal vents at Secrets of the Deep Sea. New York: Simon and about 2,700 meters in the Galapagos Rift Schuster, 1997. near the Galapagos Islands.The unique ecol- Lawrence, David M. Upheaval from the Abyss: Ocean ogy surrounding the vents includes large Floor Mapping and the Earth Science Revolution. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, tubeworms, giant clams, and other new 2002. species. Bacteria around the vents use Mann, Janet, and others, editors. Cetacean Societies: chemosynthesis to create energy, converting Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales. Chicago: the sulfides into organic carbon. The more University of Chicago Press, 2000. complex life-forms form symbiotic relation- Rozwadowksi, Helen M. The Sea Knows No Boundaries:A Century of Marine Science under ships with the chemosynthesis bacteria and ICES. Seattle: University of Washington Press, survive off them. 2002. Cetacean research illustrates how biologi- cal research in the ocean has changed. Initial research into cetaceans came from whalers, Oppenheimer, J. Robert who were concerned about cetacean behavior (1904–1967) only insofar as it helped them in catching The influential physicist J. Robert Oppen- more whales for their meat and blubber. Sci- heimer founded and directed the Los Alamos entists first studied cetaceans by examining Laboratory during World War II, where the the carcasses of killed whales and dolphins.As first atomic bombs were designed, and so aquariums acquired cetaceans for public Oppenheimer is known as the “father of the shows, scientists began to study the live be- atom bomb.” Oppenheimer was born to a havior of captive cetaceans. Intrigued by the Jewish family in New York City, where his fa- evidence of strong social behaviors and so- ther was a wealthy merchant and his mother phisticated communications, researchers was a painter. His younger brother, Frank, moved to observing cetaceans in the wild, also became a noted physicist. Oppenheimer and since the 1970s, studies of captive earned a B.A. in physics from Harvard Uni- cetaceans have virtually ended. Just as with versity in 1926, graduating summa cum studies of land animals, cetacean studies have laude. Fascinated by , he spent increasingly turned to identifying individuals, a year at the Cavendish Laboratory at Cam- tagging them, and understanding their behav- bridge University, then a year at the Univer- ior. Beginning in the 1970s, intensive efforts sity of Göttingen, where he earned his doc- by environmental groups to limit and even torate in 1927. After further postgraduate ban whaling, including the well-known “Save study, he accepted faculty appointments at 216 Organ Transplants both the University of California at Berkeley from any of his former influence on nuclear and the California Institute of . In 1963, partially as a gesture of rec- (Caltech). Married in 1940, Oppenheimer onciliation, Oppenheimer was awarded the fathered a son and a daughter. AEC Fermi Medal, which Teller nominated Oppenheimer’s scientific interests ranged him for. widely, and he contributed to many areas, in- See also Big Science; Black Holes; Cold War; cluding work on quantum mechanics, relativ- Ethics; Hydrogen Bomb; Neumann, John von; ity, cosmic rays, and , and made Nuclear Physics;Teller, Edward some of the initial mathematical studies that References later led to the theory of black holes. He Goodchild, Peter J. Robert Oppenheimer: Shatterer of served as a mentor to many students and built Worlds. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981. Herken, Gregg. Brotherhood of the Bomb:The Tangled Berkeley into the largest center for theoreti- Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest cal physics in the United States. Indepen- Lawrence, and Edward Teller. New York: Henry dently wealthy through his inheritance, Op- Holt, 2002. penheimer contributed to the leftist political Smith, Alice Kimball, and Charles Weiner, editors. causes that he favored. He was keenly antifas- Robert Oppenheimer: Letters and Recollections. cist. During World War II, the American and Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980. British collaborated on the Manhattan Project to build the atomic bomb. Oppenheimer ini- tially led the theoretical study group, then be- Organ Transplants came responsible for organizing and building Hindu surgeons in the sixth century B.C. per- the main research laboratory of the project. formed the first known organ transplants, He selected Los Alamos, near Santa Fe, New peeling off patches of skin from the arms of a Mexico, for the laboratory and proved to be a patient to apply to his nose during recon- brilliant scientific administrator, organizing a structive surgery. It was not until the twenti- successful effort that led to the first atomic eth century, however, that anesthesia, blood bombs in 1945. transfusions, and advanced medical tech- In 1947, Oppenheimer moved to Prince- niques allowed more complex organ trans- ton University, where he became director of plants. The first successful organ transplant the Institute for Advanced Study. Oppen- occurred on December 23, 1954, in Boston, heimer also served as the chair of the General when a patient received the kidney of his Advisory Committee within the Atomic En- identical twin brother and lived for another ergy Commission (AEC), which formulated eight years. The donor also survived the ex- military and civilian nuclear policy for the perience. Joseph Edward Murray (1919–) United States. With the cold war becoming performed the procedure and later shared the more intense, the physicist Edward Teller 1990 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine proposed developing the hydrogen bomb. for his achievement. Oppenheimer opposed the project on both In a Denver hospital, the surgeon Thomas moral and practical grounds, and given the E. Starzl (1926–) performed the first suc- anticommunist tenor of the times, his loyal- cessful human liver transplant on May 5, ties were called into question. His enemies 1963, though the patient died three weeks recalled past associations with the American later. Liver transplants are considered espe- Communist Party and in a famous 1954 hear- cially challenging because up to half of the ing, where fellow physicist Edward Teller body’s blood passes through the liver every (1908–) testified against him, Oppenheimer’s minute. Not until the introduction of cy- security clearance was revoked. Although closporine, a new antirejection drug, in 1980 physicists rallied to his support, the United was Starzl able to push the survival rate for States government effectively exiled him liver transplant patients to over 70 percent. Organ Transplants 217

Starzl’s team performed the first combined heart and liver transplant on a six-year-old Texas girl, Stormie Jones, in 1984. Starzl cited her death at age thirteen as one of the reasons for his retirement from active sur- gery. Using heart-lung machines, surgeons de- veloped coronary bypass methods and then moved on to heart transplants. Christiaan Barnard (1922–2001) in South Africa per- formed the first successful cardiac transplant in 1967, replacing the heart of a fifty-four- year-old man with that of a twenty-four-year- old woman who had died in an automobile accident. The patient died of pneumonia eighteen days later. In January 1968, Barnard tried again, and the patient lasted twenty months, eventually dying of chronic rejec- tion. More than 100 other attempts were made in 1968 by more than sixty centers worldwide, with dismal success rates. After Richard Herrick (left) and his identical twin brother, understanding how to control rejection, suc- Ronald. Richard received a kidney from Ronald in 1954 in cess rates improved, until over 90 percent of the first successful organ transplant. (Bettmann/Corbis) heart transplant patients now survive for more than a year.Barney C. Clark received an artificial heart in March 1983 at the Univer- new viruses, and a few objected to using ani- sity of Utah and survived 112 days. Although mals as organ factories. In 1992, Starzl coor- research has continued on artificial organs, dinated the transplantation of baboon livers xenotransplantation (that is, using organs into two men. The first lived seventy-one from animals) currently offers more promise. days and the second only twenty-six days. In In the 1950s, E. Donnall Thomas (1920–) both cases, complications from surgery and developed methods to store and transfuse not liver rejection were the cause of death. bone marrow from animal to animal. In Also in 1992, scientists at Cambridge Uni- March 1969,Thomas and his colleagues per- versity created a breed of transgenic pigs by formed the first successful bone-marrow adding a human gene to the pig’s genome. transplant after correctly matching the pa- The goal of this and other efforts is to create tient to a donor and using drugs to suppress genetically modified pigs that will be better rejection by her immune system. Thomas suited for organ donations because their or- shared the 1990 Nobel Prize in Physiology or gans will not react to human proteins. Medicine with Murray. Improved surgical techniques and the de- On October 26, 1984, a twelve-day-old- velopment of antirejection drugs have led to girl known only as Baby Fae received a ba- the point that the transplantation of hearts, boon heart transplant, and though she died livers, kidneys, blood vessels, bone marrow, shortly thereafter, the issue of using animal corneas, and other organs or tissues is now organs was raised. Some commentators ex- commonplace in developed countries. In pressed horror at the very thought, others 1998, a New Zealander named Clint Hallam worried that such a of tissue between received the first hand transplant, which his species might spawn the creation of deadly body eventually rejected. 218 Ozone Layer and Chlorofluorocarbons

Organ transplants raise a host of ethical is- Molina (1943–) and the American chemist F. sues, especially considering the shortage of Sherwood Rowland (1927–), working at the donated organs. Bioethicists and patients University of California at Irvine, discovered struggle with the questions: where do we get in 1974 that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases the organs, who gets to receive them, and is accelerate the decay of the ozone layer.When it appropriate to increase the organ supply by CFCs reach the ozone layer, high in the at- using animal organs? mosphere, ultraviolet radiation from the Sun See also Bioethics; Medawar, Peter; Medicine; breaks down the CFC molecules. Each CFC Nobel Prizes molecule consists of one atom of carbon, one References of fluorine, and three of chlorine (CFCl3). Caplan, Arthur L., and Daniel H. Coelho, editors. The released chlorine atoms rapidly react The Ethics of Organ Transplants:The Current with ozone molecules, converting them to Debate. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 1998. normal oxygen. Small amounts of CFCs have Hakim, Nadey S., and Vassilios E. Papalois. History of Organ and Cell Transplantation. River Edge, the potential to rapidly reduce the amount of NJ: World Scientific, 2003. ozone. First invented in 1928, CFCs were Munson, Ronald. Raising the Dead: Organ manufactured for use in air conditioners and Transplants, Ethics, and Society. New York: aerosol cans, and became a multibillion- Oxford University Press, 2002. dollar industry by the 1970s. Starzl,Thomas E. The Puzzle People: Memoirs of a Transplant Surgeon. Pittsburgh: University of This laboratory discovery led to hearings Pittsburgh Press, 1992. by the United States Congress in that same Veatch, Robert M. Transplantation Ethics. year. A movement began to ban CFC manu- Washington, DC: Georgetown University facture and use. In 1976, the National Acad- Press, 2000. emy of Sciences published a report support- ing Molina and Rowland’s hypothesis. In 1977, James G.Anderson (1944–) found that Ozone Layer and the concentration of chlorine oxide in the Chlorofluorocarbons upper atmosphere above Texas was much The ozone layer is created by the presence of higher than predicted. On October 21, 1978, an isotope of oxygen (O3) in the strato- the United States banned the manufacture of sphere, which reduces the amount of ultravi- CFC propellants. Other countries followed olet radiation emitted by the Sun that reaches suit and inaugurated international efforts to the Earth’s surface. Ozone molecules are cre- create a far-reaching international accord. ated naturally in the stratosphere, and with- Scientists are by no means united on the out their protection, too many ultraviolet threat from CFCs. Even the biophysicist rays could lead to DNA mutations, cancer, James Lovelock (1919–) published an article and blindness. In 1970, the Dutch-born in 1980 that argued that the threat from chemist Paul Crutzen (1933–) demonstrated CFCs and possible ozone depletion was exag- in an article for the Quarterly Journal of the gerated, though he later changed his mind. Royal Meteorological Society that nitrogen ox- As part of the International Geophysical ides formed naturally by soil bacteria can rise Year, in 1957 the British Antarctic Survey up to the stratosphere. Once in the strato- Team began measuring the ozone layer over sphere, the nitrogen oxide molecules are bro- that frozen continent. In the 1970s, the levels ken apart by sunlight and react with ozone, of ozone began to plummet, down by a hun- accelerating the chemical processes that lead dredfold by 1985. In 1987, Anderson and his to the natural decay of ozone molecules. team from Harvard University used a high- Crutzen’s research was not generally ac- flying U-2 aircraft to measure the ozone layer cepted until the Mexican chemist Mario over Antarctica and found a hole in the ozone Ozone Layer and Chlorofluorocarbons 219 layer. Later a similar hole was found over the is also uncertain. Crutzen, Molina, and Row- Arctic. Scientists still disagree on exactly why land were awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in these holes exist, but the majority think that Chemistry for their work on this problem. depletion of the ozone layer, probably due to See also Chemistry; Crutzen, Paul; CFCs, is the cause.The National Aeronautics Environmental Movement; Global Warming; and Space Administration uses satellites and International Geophysical Year; Lovelock, aircraft to monitor ozone around the world, James; Meteorology; Molina, Mario; National increasing the amount of data for researchers Aeronautics and Space Administration; to draw upon. Rowland, F. Sherwood References The growing realization that continued use Cagin, Seth, and Phillip Dray. Between Earth and of CFCs might deplete the ozone layer with Sky: How CFCs Changed Our World and Endangered catastrophic results for human civilization led the Ozone Layer. New York: Pantheon, 1993. to the Montreal Protocol international agree- Christie, Maureen. The Ozone Layer:A Philosophy of ments of 1987, 1990, and 1992 to phase out Science Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. the use of these gases. Most industrialized Molina, Mario J., and F. Sherwood Rowland. countries signed the Protocol, though China “Stratospheric Sink for Chlorofluoromethanes: and India refused. Alternate chemicals were Chlorine Atom–Catalyzed Destruction of created to substitute for CFCs in air condi- Ozone.” Nature 249 (June 28, 1974): 810–812. tioners and industrial processes. These ac- Newton, David E. The Ozone Dilemma:A Reference cords are held up as monuments to environ- Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1995. mental action. Chlorofluorocarbons are also Reid, Stephen J. Ozone and Climate Change:A greenhouse gases, leading to concerns that Beginner’s Guide. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: they might contribute to global warming.The Gordon and Breach Science, 2000. effect of ozone depletion on global warming P

Particle Accelerators first element discovered that does not occur The various forms of particle accelerators all naturally in nature. use electromagnets to accelerate atomic or Research after World War II led to the de- subatomic particles into a beam. In 1994, an velopment of numerous types of particle ac- estimated 10,000 particle accelerators ex- celerators, some designed to accelerate pro- isted in the world; by 2000, an estimated tons, others electrons or positrons. Some 15,000 particle accelerators existed. Most of particle accelerators are linear, though many the machines are small, used in industrial or are circular in construction.The energy pro- medical applications. Only 110 of these ma- duced is usually measured in MeV (millions chines are used in nuclear and particle physics of electron-volts) or GeV (billions of elec- research, in which subatomic particles are ac- tron-volts). The largest linear accelerator in celerated to near the speed of light and the world is the Stanford linear accelerator smashed against other particles or objects, (SLAC), completed in 1966, 2 miles (3.2 creating a shower of smaller particles.The in- kilometers) long, and after several upgrades, formation derived from studies of atomic and it now produces 50 GeV. Other major cen- subatomic particles in particle accelerators ters of research in America include the Fermi has been the main source of experimental ev- National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, idence for the development of particle Illinois; the Brookhaven National Laboratory physics since 1950. in Upton, New York; and the national labora- The American physicist Ernest O. tory in Los Alamos, New Mexico. Lawrence (1901–1958) and a graduate stu- Before World War II, scientists in Europe dent, David Sloan, built the first linear accel- led the world in nuclear physics research.The erator, a cyclotron, in 1931 at the University flight of physicists from the Nazis and the of California at Berkeley. Lawrence drew on chaos of World War II pushed the United earlier work in Germany and Britain, and re- States into the lead in this field. In 1954, ceived the 1939 Nobel Prize in Physics for twelve European nations created CERN this work. Lawrence created the Radiation (Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nu- Laboratory at Berkeley in 1936, which the cléaire), located near Geneva on the French- university renamed the Lawrence Berkeley Swiss border, in an effort to revive European Laboratory after his death. One of his cy- research in nuclear and particle physics. clotrons artificially produced technetium, the CERN’s first began

221 222 Particle Accelerators

The Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) at CERN in Switzerland (Pierre Vauthey/Corbis Sygma) operation in 1957.As more accelerators have plans to produce collisions of protons and been built over the years, CERN has lived up antiprotons at 40 TeV (trillions of electron- to its promise, creating scientific discoveries volts), began in 1989. Disputes within the and numerous Nobel Prizes.The Large Elec- physics community about where limited gov- tron-Positron Collider (LEP), opened in ernment funding should go, escalating costs, 1989, is the largest scientific instrument ever and federal politics caused the SSC to constructed, a 16.2-mile (27-kilometer) ring founder on federal budget cuts in 1993 after producing 50 GeV.As a serendipitous spin-off being partially built. A major rationale for of CERN’s efforts, the World Wide Web was the SSC, national prestige, no longer mat- invented by a software developer, Tim Ber- tered as much after the cold war ended in ners-Lee (1955–), at CERN in 1991. 1991. The Soviet Union and its successor state, Russia, as well as Japan, China, India, and See also Berners-Lee,Timothy; Big Science; Cold several other countries, have also built parti- War; Particle Physics; Physics cle accelerators for studying nuclear physics References Adams, Steve. Frontiers:Twentieth-Century Physics. and particle physics. As an example of Big London:Taylor and Francis, 2000. Science, large particle accelerators require Herman, Armin, and others. History of CERN. 3 substantial government funding, teamwork volumes. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987, among specialists in diverse fields, and gov- 1990, 1996. ernment support, partially motivated by the Panofsky,Wolfgang. “The Evolution of SLAC and Its Program.” Physics Today 36, no. 10 (1983): desire to enhance national prestige.An ambi- 34–41. tious attempt to build the Superconducting Pickering, Andrew. Constructing Quarks:A Supercollider (SSC) in Texas, with a circum- Sociological History of Particle Physics. Chicago: ference of 52 miles (87 kilometers) and University of Chicago Press, 1984. Particle Physics 223

Particle Physics universities, in an example of what historians Particle physics is the branch of physics that call Big Science. In 1954, twelve European deals with subatomic particles.As the twenti- nations created CERN (Conseil Européen eth century progressed, particle physicists pour la Recherche Nucléaire), located near deconstructed the atom into ever smaller Geneva on the French-Swiss border, which particles. The German built multiple particle accelerators in a suc- (1901–1976), the Englishman P.A. M. Dirac cessful postwar effort to revive European re- (1902–1984), and the Austrian Wolfgang search in nuclear and particle physics. The Pauli (1900–1058) developed quantum elec- particle physics community has tended to di- trodynamics (QED) in the 1920s to explain vide into experimentalists who run the intri- the interactions between electrons and pho- cate experiments and theoreticians who de- tons. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, the velop mathematical models to understand the German-born physicist Maria Goeppert results of the experiments. Mayer (1906–1972) developed the shell New subatomic particles had already been model of the nucleus, explaining how pro- found in research, but the postwar tons and neutrons occupy orbital shells particle accelerators revealed dozens of new around the atomic nucleus. subatomic particles during the early 1950s. After World War II, a second generation of There was little theoretical understanding of theorists refined quantum electrodynamics how to organize them until 1953, when the by mathematically renormalizing it and fixing American theoretical physicist Murray Gell- flawed equations that led to infinite results Mann (1929–) proposed a new property for and problems with how to handle the self- subatomic particles called “strangeness” to energy of particles.The physicists Richard P. help categorize these subatomic particles. In Feynman (1918–1988) and Julian Schwinger the early 1960s Gell-Mann collaborated with (1918–1994), both from New York City, in- the Israeli physicist Yuval Ne’eman (1925–), dependently developed similar theories. The to devise the eightfold way to group the Japanese physicist Shinichiro Tomonaga known particles into a table similar to the pe- (1906–1979), working in wartime isolation riodic table for chemicals. Just as the periodic in Japan, earlier developed a similar system. table successfully predicted the existence of Freeman Dyson (1923–) showed that the unknown chemicals to fill out the table, the three theories were mathematically equiva- eightfold way successfully predicted new par- lent, which led to the 1965 Nobel Prize in ticles with specific characteristics. By the Physics for Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomo- early years of the twenty-first century, over naga. The physics community chose Feyn- two hundred subatomic particles have been man’s mathematical notation system over found experimentally. Schwinger and Tomonaga’s systems, and his Theory also predicted the existence of an- method of graphically drawing particle inter- tiparticles, with the same mass as the corre- actions, dubbed Feynman diagrams, became sponding particle but an opposite value for widely used. the . When a particle and an- Postwar particle physicists heavily relied tiparticle meet, they annihilate each other in on two tools: the particle accelerator to a complete conversion of mass to energy. In smash subatomic particles into ever smaller 1955, the American physicist Owen Cham- particles and the electronic computer to or- berlain (1920–) and Italian-born physicist ganize the volumes of data from their re- Emilio Sergè (1905–1989) used the search. As a matter of national prestige dur- particle accelerator at Berkeley to confirm ing the cold war, the U.S. federal government the theory by creating antiprotons. The two built ever larger particle accelerators in na- physicists shared the 1959 Nobel Prize in tional laboratories, most of them attached to Physics, and numerous other 224 Particle Physics have been found since then. In 1995, re- grand unified theory. String theory later searchers at CERN succeeded in creating combined with supersymmetry to create su- nine atoms of antihydrogen, the first anti- perstring theory. atom, which existed for about 40 billionths of In 1956, the physicists Frederick Reines a second before being annihilated in collision (1918–1998) and (1919– with normal matter. 1974) detected a theoretical particle called In 1964 Gell-Mann proposed a new type the neutrino at a nuclear reactor at Savannah of fundamental matter that in turn formed River, South Carolina. Reines and Cowan had the larger known subatomic particles. Gell- found the neutrino that is created occurred Mann whimsically labeled his proposed mat- during the formation of an electron. In 1962 ter quarks and antiquarks, and suggested that a neutrino associated with the formation of a three “flavors,” or types, existed.The Ameri- muon particle was discovered. Neutrino the- can theoretical physicist Sheldon L. Glashow ory in the 1970s predicted that a third type of (1932–), having published a theory in 1960 neutrino, created during the formation of a unifying the weak nuclear force and the elec- tau particle, should also exist, though the tau tromagnetic force into an electroweak force, neutrino has not been found experimentally. took Gell-Mann’s work and proposed a new The Sun, powered by nuclear reactions, property for quarks called “charm” and the emits neutrinos. In another example of Big existence of a fourth quark. Since then the Science, scientists built huge underground number of quarks has risen to six, and quark experiments to detect solar or stellar neutri- theory is now part of the standard model.The nos.The radiochemist Ray Davis (1914–) or- standard model attempts to combine the four ganized the first experiment in the Home- basic forces (weak nuclear force, strong nu- stake gold mine in South Dakota. Solar clear force, electromagnetism, and gravity) neutrinos that passed through a huge tank into a grand unified theory. Glashow’s elec- filled with chlorine reacted with chlorine-37 troweak theory is also part of the standard isotopes to create argon-37, though scientists model. Gell-Mann received an unshared were puzzled to detect only a fourth of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1969, and Glashow predicted number. shared a 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics. In the See also Big Science; Computers; Dyson, 1970s, Gell-Mann expanded his theory of Freeman; Feynman, Richard; Gell-Mann, quarks into what he called quantum chromo- Murray; Glashow, Sheldon L.; Grand Unified dynamics (QCD). Theory; Mathematics; Mayer, Maria Goeppert; The Japanese-born physicist Yoichiro Nambu,Yoichiro; Neutrinos; Nobel Prizes; Nambu (1921–) also contributed to quark Nuclear Physics; Particle Accelerators; Physics; Schwinger, Julian theory and realized in 1970 that quarks act as References if they are connected by strings. Nambu and Brown, Laurie M., Lillian Hoddeson, and Max others developed this insight into string the- Dresden. to Quarks: Particle Physics in the ory in the 1980s. String theory gets even 1950s. Cambridge: Cambridge University smaller than quarks, dealing with hypotheti- Press, 1989. cal vibrating strings that are near the Planck Crease, Robert P.,and Charles C. Mann. The Second –33 –34 Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Twentieth- length (about 10 centimeters or 10 century Physics. New York: Macmillan, 1986. inches). No instruments can measure objects Gribbin, John. Q Is for Quantum:An Encyclopedia of that small.These strings in turn make up the Particle Physics. New York: Free Press, 1998. larger known elementary particles, such as Pickering, Andrew. Constructing Quarks:A quarks, bosons, and gluons. String theory de- Sociological History of Particle Physics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984. mands complex mathematics using up to Schweber, Silvan S. QED and the Men Who Made It: twenty-six multiple dimensions, and provides Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga. a promising avenue to the development of a Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. Pauling, Linus 225

Pauling, Linus (1901–1994) The chemist Linus Pauling combined quan- tum mechanics with chemistry to explain chemical bonding and later turned his atten- tion to the cause of world peace and nuclear disarmament. Linus Carl Pauling was born in Portland, Oregon, where his father was a pharmacist. He earned a B.Sc. in chemical engineering from Oregon State Agricultural College (now Oregon State University) in 1922. In 1925, he earned his Ph.D. in chem- istry at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).After studying for two years in Eu- rope to learn the new science of quantum mechanics, he returned to Caltech as a fac- ulty member. Pauling’s unique interdiscipli- nary knowledge of quantum mechanics and chemistry enabled him to use x-ray diffrac- tion photography to analyze the crystal struc- ture of inorganic molecules and to revolu- tionize the understanding of chemical bonds. He became a professor of chemistry in 1931, the same year that he earned the Langmuir Prize from the American . His 1939 text, The Nature of the Chemical Bond Linus Pauling, chemist and nuclear test ban activist (Library of Congress) and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals, be- came an influential classic in the field. After establishing his theories of chemical bonding, including the discovery of hybrid orbitals and laureate, Pauling grew more aggressive in his resonance hybrids, he began to apply his antinuclear activities, earning considerable techniques to organic molecules. His studies suspicion from the federal government and of hemoglobin led to the theory of native, de- some other scientists that he was a commu- natured, and coagulated proteins. Pauling nist sympathizer. His 1958 book, No More came close to beating Francis Crick War!, emphasized his pacifist convictions. Be- (1916–2004) and James D. Watson (1928–) coming concerned about the accumulation in the race to divine the structure of the DNA of radioactive fallout in the atmosphere from molecule. Pauling received the 1954 Nobel open-air nuclear weapons testing, Pauling Prize in Chemistry for his work on chemical campaigned for the United States and Soviet bonds, cementing his fame and influence. Union to at least stop open-air testing in the During World War II, Pauling worked interest of public health. His efforts helped with the Office of Scientific Research and lead to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, and Development on developing explosives, he received the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize, the rocket propellants, and an artificial substi- only person to earn two undivided Nobel tute for human plasma. He declined to work prizes, and one of only three to win two on the Manhattan Project to develop the Nobel prizes. atomic bomb and after the war became a In 1964, Pauling left Caltech, spending vocal opponent of further development of three years at the Center for the Study of nuclear weapons. After becoming a Nobel Democratic Institutions in Santa Barbara, 226 Penrose, Roger

California, learning more about international graduated with a B.Sc. in mathematics from relations while continuing his scientific stud- University College in London, where his fa- ies. He then spent two years at the University ther had become a professor of human genet- of San Diego, and four years at Stanford Uni- ics. Penrose and his father gained some popu- versity. In 1968, Pauling coined the term or- lar recognition when they devised some thomolecular medicine to describe his convic- geometrical figures later used by the Dutch tion that vitamin supplements could boost surrealist artist M. C. Escher (1898–1972). the human immune system to protect against Penrose earned his Ph.D. in mathematics at cancer and other ills. His best-known pro- Cambridge University in 1957 and married posal asserted that megadoses of vitamin C in 1959. He spent time as a research fellow or could prevent the common cold and other visiting faculty at various universities in the illnesses. Pauling founded an institute to study United States and England before settling orthomolecular medicine in 1973 and relent- down as a professor of applied mathematics at lessly supported these efforts for the rest of Birbeck College, London, in 1967. his life. Other scientists found mixed results Penrose published his first article on sin- in their own studies of Pauling’s medical gularities, later called black holes, in 1965. ideas, and most tend not to support them. Singularity is the technical term used for what Always engaged in research and writing, is believed to happen to certain stars at the Pauling published over one thousand papers end of their life cycle and what the primor- in his lifetime. Pauling married in 1923, fa- dial point at the beginning of the universe thered three sons and a daughter, and cred- looked like before the Big Bang. Penrose’s ited the support of his wife, the former Ava work intrigued the young Stephen Hawking Helen Miller (1903–1981), with his success, (1942–), and the two mathematicians began both as a helpmeet and in pushing him to be to work on the problem together. The two more aggressive about nuclear weapons dis- mathematicians published a theory in 1970 armament. that argued that though black holes could not See also Chemistry; Cold War; Crick, Francis; be observed, relativistic radiation from near Nobel Prizes;Watson, James D. the event horizon of black holes should be de- References tectable. (The event horizon is the boundary Hager,Thomas. Force of Nature:The Life of Linus of black holes, at which incoming mass or Pauling. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995. light can no longer escape the intense gravity Marinacci, Barbara, editor. Linus Pauling in His Own of the black hole.) Words: Selected Writings, Speeches, and Interviews. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995. Penrose became the Rouse Ball Professor Serafini, Anthony. Linus Pauling:A Man and His of Mathematics at Oxford University in Science. New York: Paragon, 1989. 1973. His interests turned to computers and artificial intelligence, and he published the best-selling The Emperor’s New Mind: Concern- Penrose, Roger (1931–) ing Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics The British mathematician Roger Penrose (1989) and a follow-up, Shadows of the Mind:A contributed important insights to the theory Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness of black holes, as well as to the theory of ar- (1994). He argued that the human brain can tificial intelligence. Roger Penrose was born carry out processes that no computer can do, in Colchester, Essex, England, where his fa- running counter to the general tendency ther, a medical geneticist, and his mother, a among other researchers in the field of artifi- medical doctor, temporarily lived while his cial intelligence. Penrose and Hawking shared father conducted a genetics survey.The fam- the 1988 for their work ily spent World War II across the ocean in on black holes and relativity. Penrose became London, Ontario, Canada. In 1952, Penrose a fellow of the Royal Society in 1972, re- Pharmacology 227

began to apply good scientific techniques to test the efficacy of old drugs and to develop new ones. Pharmaceutical companies arose in the mid-nineteenth century, some of them selling drugs with medicinal value, and others selling drugs based on quackery.A successful British pharmaceutical company, cofounded in 1880 by Henry Wellcome (1853–1936), led to one of the world’s largest private foun- dations, The Wellcome Trust. In the early twentieth century,governments in industrial- ized nations stepped in to regulate the phar- maceutical industry, demanding purity in manufacture and trying to keep claims truth- ful. In the 1990s, the pharmacology industry came under criticism because its drug-testing programs focused on adult males and did not take into account that children, infants, women, and the elderly might react differ- ently to drugs than did adult men in their prime. Some researchers have turned to focus on this issue, though pharmaceutical companies often see solving the problem as Roger Penrose, mathematician (Bob Mahoney/Time Life just increasing the costs of already expensive Pictures/Getty Images) clinical trials. Drug therapies became the foundation of modern medicine. The original scientific ceived the Royal Society in method to search for new drugs was based on 1985, and was knighted in 1994. Penrose re- a hit-or-miss process, in which researchers at tired from Oxford in 1998 and became the universities or pharmaceutical companies Gresham Professor of Geometry at Gresham tried many different compounds on many dif- College in London. ferent diseases to see what would happen. A See also Artificial Intelligence; Astronomy; Black new method, called antimetabolite theory, Holes; Cognitive Science; Hawking, Stephen developed before World War II, focused on References learning how the disease worked, then trying “Roger Penrose.” http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac. to find a compound that interfered with the uk/history/Mathematicians/Penrose.html disease process. The pharmacologist Ger- (accessed February 13, 2004). trude B. Elion (1918–1999) was among those “Wolf Foundation Honors Hawking and Penrose for Work on Relativity.” Physics Today, January who pioneered the use of this method. Elion 1989, 97–98. developed purine compounds to extend the life of leukemia patients, and her 6-MP de- rivative azathioprine suppressed the immune Pharmacology system of the recipient of the first successful Pharmacology, the science of drugs, has a kidney transplant from a nonrelated donor. long history, which began with the study of Advances in genetics that led to the develop- traditional drugs derived from plants and ment of genetic engineering created the next chemicals. In the early nineteenth century, frontier for the pharmaceutical industry. especially in France and Britain, scientists Biotechnology companies, initially founded 228 Pharmacology in the mid-1970s, are now in the forefront of phase and because of obfuscation by the man- pharmaceutical research. ufacturer, the impact of the drug only became The search for a vaccine for poliomyelitis apparent after several years and the birth of (infantile paralysis) obsessed virologists after thousands of affected babies, many born with World War II. All the other major deadly stunted limbs. The drug was withdrawn, childhood diseases had already been con- though it had never been offered for sale in quered, and polio represented the last great the United States because the federal Food challenge. The leading polio researcher, Al- and Drug Administration (FDA), founded in bert Sabin (1906–1993) at University of 1906, has stricter requirements for the intro- Cincinnati College of Medicine, effectively duction of new drugs than any other nation. demonstrated that the polio virus entered the Critics argue that the strictness of the FDA, body through ingestion, rather than through though effective with thalidomide, has also the respiratory system. Work by American caused many to suffer or die while waiting for microbiologist John Enders (1897–1985) and clinical trials to prove the efficacy of new others led to a way to more effectively cul- drugs.Thalidomide was later reintroduced as ture mammalian viruses, a necessary advance an effective drug for other ailments, with in defeating polio. The virologist Jonas Salk stringent guidelines keeping it from pregnant (1914–1995) developed a killed-virus vac- women. cine in 1952, and in 1955 the Salk vaccine Founded in the early nineteenth century in passed its clinical trials and became widely Germany, homeopathy is a form of alterna- used. Sabin’s own live-virus vaccine later be- tive medicine that is based on the theory that came more widely used because of its greater “like cures like”; drugs that produce a given effectiveness. set of symptoms in a healthy person are used Pharmacology is intimately connected to treat a sick person who has that same set of with immunology, the study of the body’s symptoms. Homeopathy also holds as a cen- natural defenses against bacterial and viral in- tral theory that the potency of a drug in- vasions.Teams led by biochemists Gerald M. creases as the drug is diluted into ever smaller Edelman (1929–) and Rodney R. Porter amounts. Homeopathy remains popular in (1917–1985) described the chemical struc- Germany, even though many of its tenets ture of antibodies in the 1960s. Antibodies, conflict with current medical understanding or immunoglobulins, peptides made up of of physiology and drug interactions. Many heavy and light chains, are formed by the im- homeopathic doses are in such small quanti- mune system to destroy viruses and bacteria ties that modern chemistry can barely detect by binding to them. One of the key problems them, and modern pharmacology cannot de- faced by pioneering surgeons when trans- tect a measurable physiological effect. planting organs from one patient to another In the United States, nonprescription an- was that the new body sees the organ as for- tibiotics could be purchased up until the eign tissue and the immune system tries to 1950s, and many countries still have no ef- reject it. Antirejection drugs partially solved fective control over the distribution of an- this problem. tibiotics.The overuse of antibiotics in devel- A German company introduced the drug oped countries has eventually led to the thalidomide in the 1950s, prescribed as a evolution of new antibiotic-resistant strains sleeping pill and an aid to pregnant women of bacteria. The rise of multiple-drug- with morning sickness. Unknown to the resistant bacteria has brought back diseases, manufacturer and physicians, when used dur- such as tuberculosis, that doctors had ing the early phase of a pregnancy, thalido- thought remained only among the poor and mide led to serious birth defects. Because the negligent. The first incurable case of tuber- drug only affected the fetus during a limited culosis appeared in South Africa in 1977, and Pharmacology 229 by 1985 the United States saw its first statis- The fungus ergot grows on rye and simi- tical rise in tuberculosis in over a century. In lar grasses and is a traditional medicine. In 1955, the World Health Organization the 1940s, researchers at a Swiss pharma- launched their Global Malaria Eradication ceutical company isolated lysergic acid di- campaign to combat the most devastating ethylamide (LSD) while studying ergot. disease in tropical countries. By the 1960s, After accidentally ingesting a small amount health care workers began to encounter of LSD, a Swiss researcher experienced vivid drug-resistant forms of malaria, requiring hallucinations.The drug interested psychol- the development of new antimalarial drugs ogists and psychiatrists in the United States, in what has become a biological arms race Britain, and elsewhere, and during the between humans and microbes. 1950s and early 1960s, they experimented Antibiotics have also become important with the drug for psychotherapeutic pur- tools in modern Western agriculture, espe- poses. Other people deliberately took the cially on livestock and fowl farms where mil- drug for entertainment or to experience al- lions of animals live closely together and a dis- tered states of consciousness. Many spoke of ease can spread with startling rapidity. Critics their hallucinations as a religious experi- of this industrialized farming have worried ence. In 1966, the United States banned the that the heavy use of antibiotics will lead to drug, with the last authorized psychothera- more drug-resistant diseases among these an- peutic study ending in 1975. Britain fol- imals and also worry about the amount of an- lowed suit in banning LSD in 1971, as did tibiotics that may still remain in the animal or other Western European countries in the bird flesh after slaughter and sale. 1970s. Despite its illegal status, the use of Drug addiction has always existed, and the LSD to fuel “acid trips” played a significant (then legal) trade in drugs was often an im- role in the counterculture movement of the portant element of international trade.As the 1960s and 1970s in both the United States pharmaceutical industry became regulated, and Western Europe. the sale of drugs became restricted, and an il- legal narcotics trade emerged. Some of this See also Agriculture; Biotechnology; Edelman, business is in drugs used as medicine, but Gerald M.; Elion, Gertrude B.; Enders, John; many of the illegal narcotics are used as stim- Foundations; Genetics; Medicine; Organ ulants or depressants, spawning a black mar- Transplants; Sabin, Albert; Salk, Jonas ket worth tens of billions of dollars, and mak- References ing the illegal trade in narcotics into a major American Institute of the History of Pharmacy. global issue. Many of the drugs, such as http://www.pharmacy.wisc.edu/aihp/ (accessed February 13, 2004). opium, heroin, marijuana, and cocaine, come Davenport-Hines, Richard. The Pursuit of Oblivion: from plants. Other drugs have emerged from A Global History of Narcotics. New York: Norton, research laboratories, some of these drugs, 2002. such as methamphetamines, barbiturates, and Healy, David. The Creation of Psychopharmacology. phencyclidine (PCP, also called angel dust), Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002. Landau, Ralph, Basil Achilladelis, and Alexander with legitimate medical uses. To supply the Scriabine, editors. Pharmaceutical Innovation: burgeoning illegal drug market, chemists Revolutionizing Human Health. Philadelphia: have begun to create designer drugs, which Chemical Heritage Foundation with McGill- are similar to previous drugs but are just dif- Queen’s University Press, 1999. ferent enough not to be on any list of illegal Levy, Stuart. The Antibiotic Paradox: How Miracle drugs.These drugs are usually used for hedo- Drugs Are Destroying the Miracle. New York: Plenum, 1992. nistic purposes, and include 3,4 methylene- Weatherall, Miles. In Search of a Cure:A History of dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, also called Pharmaceutical Discovery. New York: Oxford ecstasy) and ketamine (GBH). University Press, 1991. 230 Philosophy of Science

Philosophy of Science piricist, but not a positivist. Popper’s ideas are The philosophy of science strives to describe supported by many philosophers and scien- the ontological and empirical basis of science. tists, even when they find creating falsifiable Until recently, logical empiricism dominated theories and observations difficult to imple- the philosophy of science; the theory was that ment in actual scientific work. Historical sci- scientists empirically examined the natural ences, such as geology, paleontology, and evo- world and developed natural laws by making lutionary biology, have an almost impossible logical deductions from the results of experi- time meeting Popper’s standards because they ments and observations. Criticisms of this describe events that cannot be repeated or dominant positivist stance have come from his- proven through experiments. torians, philosophers, and sociologists. Paul K. Feyerabend (1924–1994), born in The physicist and historian Thomas S. Vienna, Austria, became a protégé of Karl Kuhn (1922–1996) became the most influen- Popper’s, but later rejected Popper’s “critical tial historian of science of his time with his rationalism” and came to argue in favor of 1962 book, The Structure of Scientific Revolu- “epistemological anarchism.” In brief, Feyer- tions. Kuhn adopted the term paradigm to de- abend believed that the scientific method was scribe the joint worldview, shared practices, really a plurality of different approaches and and accepted theories of a group of scientists. methods, and that the best scientists picked Kuhn argued that scientists usually practiced whatever worked and did not follow any par- “normal science,” in that the current para- ticular form of empiricist methodology. He digm in their field was accepted and experi- later argued against the idea of progress in ments either confirmed the paradigm or re- science, seeing only change. On this point, sulted in minor changes. As time passed, Feyerabend was in sympathy with the social anomalies occurred in observations or exper- constructionists. iments that could not be explained by the Social constructionism emerged in the current paradigm. When enough of these 1970s from the “strong programme” in the anomalies accumulated, the old paradigm be- sociology of science. Social constructionists came ripe for revolution. A new paradigm believe that all knowledge is subjective, a re- emerged that explained the anomalies and in- sult of our social and cultural conditioning, corporated the old paradigm inside it. Many and in the strongest form of social construc- scholars in various disciplines interpreted tionism, thinkers question the ability of sci- Kuhn’s work as a demonstration that the entists to ever describe physical reality objec- practice of science was irrational, subjective tively. Social constructionism is about as far rather than objective, and that perhaps sci- from logical empiricism as one can get. Fem- ence was really just a form of rhetoric. The inist theories of science have also used the later rise of social constructionism drew on ideas of social constructionism to critique the Kuhn, though he disagreed with their episte- gender bias in science, also arguing that a mological relativism. feminist approach to science would be more The philosopher Karl Popper (1902–1994) holistic and not as reductionist. devised the idea of falsifiability to solve the Besides having to defend the validity of problem of induction in the philosophy of sci- their results in the face of deeper method- ence. Falsifiability is the idea that a scientific ological musings of philosophers, scientists theory must include testable conclusions have also found themselves having to defend where if the experiment proves to be false, the merits of the scientific pursuits when ar- then the theory is false. The question of how guing for the large taxpayer-funded projects to distinguish between valid science and pseu- of Big Science. Scientists have also had to de- doscience formed the basis of his life of in- fend the validity of scientific assumptions and quiry, and he considered himself to be an em- conclusions against creationists, religious Physics 231 fundamentalists who interpret scriptures lit- archaeology. By virtue of having invented the erally, radical feminist theorists, postmod- technology, physicists became important ad- ernists, astrologists, and purveyors of pseu- visors on the direction of both military and doscientific theories. civilian nuclear policy in the United States.A See also Big Science, Creationism, Feminism; chemist, Linus Pauling (1901–1994), played Kuhn,Thomas S.; Popper, Karl; Religion; such an important role in the campaign for Social Constructionism the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty that he re- References ceived the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize. Boyd, Richard, Philip Gasper, and J. D.Trout, As the first science, physics of course be- editors. The Philosophy of Science. Cambridge: came part of Big Science, a recipient of gen- MIT Press, 1991. Feyerabend, Paul K. Against Method: Outline of an erous funding from the United States, the So- Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge.Third edition. viet Union, and other industrialized nations. New York:Verso, 1993. In the United States, the federal budget, both Gower, Barry. Scientific Method:A Historical and military and civilian, for physics grew until Philosophical Introduction. New York: Routledge, the late 1960s, then went into decline, surged 1997. Gross, Paul R., , and Martin W. under the presidency of Ronald Reagan Lewis, editors. The Flight from Science and (1911–2004) in the 1980s, and then went Reason. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University into decline again after the end of the cold Press, 1996. war in 1989. The funding of research went Kitcher, Philip. The Advancement of Science: Science not only into , but also into without Legend, Objectivity without Illusions. New basic research, since the atomic bomb had York: Oxford University Press, 1993. Klee, Robert. Introduction to the Philosophy of taught everyone that seemingly innocent Science: Cutting Nature at Its Seams. New York: basic research could lead to powerful Oxford University Press, 1997. weapons. Kuhn,Thomas S. The Structure of Scientific In the second half of the twentieth century, Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago physics expanded our knowledge of a wide Press, 1962. range of things, from the smallest to the biggest. In the late 1940s, the German-born physicist Maria Goeppert Mayer (1906– Physics 1972) explained how protons and neutrons Physicists in the first half of the twentieth occupied orbital shells around the atomic nu- century completely revolutionized physics. cleus. The revision of quantum electrody- The theory of relativity developed by Albert namics (QED) theory in the 1950s by Einstein (1879–1955) led directly to the Richard P. Feynman (1918–1988), Julian quantum theory of the atom, and ultimately, Schwinger (1918–1994), Shinichiro Tomo- the development of atomic weapons, which naga (1906–1979), and Freeman Dyson pushed physics into the forefront as the pre- (1923–) cleared up our understanding of mier science. After 1945, the cold war how to explain the interactions between elec- prompted massive government spending on trons and photons. New subatomic particles nuclear weapons and the development of found in cosmic-ray research and particle ac- more sophisticated conventional weapons, celerators showed that even smaller units of resulting in more funding for scientific re- matter and energy existed. Eventually quark search and development. Nuclear physics be- theory, developed in the 1960s and 1970s by came an important career area, as nuclear en- Murray Gell-Mann (1929–) and others, gineers and scientists developed civilian showed that all these particles were com- nuclear reactors and more sophisticated nu- posed of still smaller particles called quarks. clear weapons, as well as applying nuclear String theory, begun in 1970 by Yoichiro physics to other areas, such as medicine and Nambu (1921–), went beyond quarks, 232 Physics though the complex mathematics of the the- ory and the difficulty of finding physical proof of strings have kept the theory in the realm of informed speculation. By the end of the cen- tury, the standard model of elementary parti- cle interactions had explained three forces (weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force, and electromagnetism) but could not inte- grate the force of gravity into these explana- tions.Theoretical physicists are still searching for a grand unified theory to explain all the forces simultaneously. Astrophysicists saw the size of the known universe repeatedly expand after 1950, as newer optical telescopes, radio telescopes, and satellite observatories pushed back boundaries. Previously suspected physical phenomena, such as neutrinos and extraso- lar planets, were discovered, and at the same time unsuspected phenomena revealed themselves to the new instruments: neutron Two based on superconducting technology stars, pulsars, and quasars. The details of demonstrate the lines of magnetic force with iron nails. (Bettmann/Corbis) quantum mechanics were found to be rele- vant to the largest structures in the uni- verse, and theoretical physicists became cos- mologists, speculating on the origin and ration has come from satellites using their structure of the universe. The Big Bang and sensors on Earth, orbiting telescopes, and the steady state theories of the origin of the robotic spacecraft that explore other planets universe vied for allegiance among cosmol- in the solar system, and from the profound ogists until the accidental discovery in 1964 technological inventions that the space race by two Bell Labs researchers that the uni- has encouraged. The impact of the Shoe- verse contained a low level of uniform back- maker-Levy comet on Jupiter in 1994 pro- ground radiation, which matched the Big vided a powerful reminder that space explo- Bang mathematical model, but found no ration is about more than ideological place in the steady state theory.The English propaganda. There are big rocks up there, physicist Stephen Hawking (1942–) became and eventually Earth will get hit again, as has one of the best-known scientists of the cen- happened so many times before. tury through his research into black holes The Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh and the Big Bang while he struggled with a Onnes discovered superconductivity in 1911 debilitating medical condition. when he found that some metals lost all re- The space age begin with the Soviet sistance to the flow of electrons at tempera- launch of the first artificial satellite in 1957, tures near absolute zero.The American physi- Sputnik I. The cold war inspired the super- cist John Bardeen (1908–1991) and his powers to ideological rivalry and provided colleagues published in 1957 a theoretical the funding to quickly develop ever more foundation for superconductivity.The physi- sophisticated space technology. The Apollo cists K.Alex Müller (1927–) and Georg Bed- project landed twelve men on the Moon, but norz (1950–) discovered a metal in 1985 that the real scientific value from space explo- remained superconductive at a much higher Plate Tectonics 233 temperature, setting off a successful race to Crease, Robert P.,and Charles C. Mann. The find more such metals and promising the cre- Second Creation: Makers of the Revolution in ation of more efficient methods of transmit- Twentieth-Century Physics. New York: Macmillan, ting electricity. 1986. Kevles, Daniel J. The Physicists:The History of a Electronic computers became an impor- Scientific Community in Modern America. Revised tant tool for physicists in all their endeavors edition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, and directly led to the development of chaos 1995. theory. At the end of the century the bur- Kragh, Helge. Quantum Generations:A History of geoning field of nanotechnology also at- Physics in the Twentieth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999. tracted physicists, given the enormous poten- Suplee, Kurt. Physics in the 20th Century. New York: tial and challenges of manipulating matter on Abrams, 1999. the molecular level. In the late 1990s, when ruminations turned to grander thoughts, inspired by the Piccard, Auguste (1884–1962) impending end of the millennium, there were See Undersea Exploration murmurs and even books that proposed that the end of physics was coming, because once a grand unified theory was able to explain all the known universe, physicists would not Plate Tectonics have anything new to do. Ironically enough, The acceptance of the theory of plate tecton- this very sentiment was common a century ics, which explains continental drift, consti- ago, just before Albert Einstein (1879–1955) tutes the most important scientific revolution upset everything that physicists thought they in the earth sciences during the twentieth knew. century. The Germany meteorologist Alfred See also Apollo Project; Archaeology; Wegener (1880–1930) proposed in 1912 that Astronomy; Bardeen, John; Bell Burnell, the continents drift, as evidenced by the Jocelyn; Big Bang Theory and Steady State stratigraphical matches between the geology Theory; Big Science; Black Holes; of continents across oceans, the location of Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan; Chaos Theory; fossils, and the obvious match on maps be- Cold Fusion; Cold War; Computers; Dyson, tween landmasses separated by water. Spe- Freeman; Feynman, Richard; Gamow, George; Gell-Mann, Murray; Glashow, cialists in geology and paleontology ridiculed Sheldon; Grand Unified Theory; Hawking, his theory, especially because Wegener had no Stephen; Hoyle, Fred; Hydrogen Bomb; theory of a mechanism that would allow con- Lasers; Libby,Willard F.; Mathematics; Mayer, tinents to move. Maria Goeppert; Medicine; Müller, K. Alex; After World War II, oceanographers from Nambu,Yoichiro; Nanotechnology; National Science Foundation; Neutrinos; Nobel Prizes; many nations expanded their knowledge of Nuclear Physics; Oppenheimer, J. Robert; the ocean floors, partly by taking samples of Particle Accelerators; Particle Physics; the magnetic characteristics of rocks in the Penrose, Roger; Pulsars; Quasars; Sagan, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Geologists and physicists Carl; Sakharov,Andrei; Schwinger, Julian; from France, Japan, and America had occa- Space Exploration and Space Science;Teller, sionally proposed since early in the twentieth Edward;Tsui, Daniel C.;Wheeler, John A.; Wu, Chien-Shiung century that the polarity of Earth’s magnetic References fields periodically switched, resulting in tell- Adams, Steve. Frontiers:Twentieth-Century Physics. tale alignments within rocks formed from London:Taylor and Francis, 2000. cooling magma. Many scientists did not be- Brown, Laurie, , and . lieve that these flip-flops occurred, but new Twentieth Century Physics. 3 volumes. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1995. evidence soon changed that. Oceanographers also came to realize that 234 Popper, Karl

the geologic patterns they found on the ocean Pangaea, existed 200 million years ago.With floor were the result of sea floor spreading. In the exploration of other planets and moons 1962, an influential article by the geologist by robotic spacecraft, scientists have looked Harry Hess (1906–1969) entitled “History of for evidence that plate tectonics is active in Ocean Basins” proposed that magma was the mantles other than Earth’s mantle.They have lubricant that allowed continental plates to found evidence of past tectonic activity, but move. Frederick Vine (1939–) and Drum- no convincing evidence of current activity. mond Matthews (1931–1997) in Cambridge, The story of plate tectonics is often used as an England, expanded the work of Hess by pro- example of the theory of scientific revolu- posing the hypothesis that the magnetic strips tions developed by Thomas S. Kuhn on the ocean floor were a recording of the re- (1922–1996); the ocean floor magnetic data versals in Earth’s magnetic field. The geo- represent just the kind of nagging physicist Lawrence Morley (1920–) of the that overthrows old paradigms, as it over- Geological Survey of Canada independently threw the old paradigm of static continents proposed a similar hypothesis, and it became and replaced it with the new paradigm of known as the Vine-Matthews-Morley (VMM) continental drift. hypothesis.The VMM hypothesis was not im- See also Geology; Hess, Harry; Kuhn,Thomas S.; mediately accepted. Nature and the Journal of Oceanography; Space Exploration and Space Geophysical Research both rejected Morley’s Science;Volcanoes;Wilson, John Tuzo original article. References The theory of plate tectonics explains that Frankel, Henry. “The Development, Reception, as plates grid together, they create mountains and Acceptance of the Vine-Matthews-Morley Hypothesis.” Historical Studies in the Physical from uplift, and where plates pull apart, they Sciences 13 (1982): 1–39. create rift valleys and opportunities for Glen,William. The Road to Jaramillo: Critical Years magma to well up from deeper in the Earth. of the Revolution in Earth Science. Stanford, CA: Volcanoes and greater earthquake activity Stanford University Press, 1982. exist on the edges of continental plates. The Hallam, Anthony. A Revolution in the Earth Sciences: From Continental Drift to Plate Tectonics. Oxford: Canadian geophysicist John Tuzo Wilson Clarendon, 1973. (1908–1993) developed the concept of hot Menard, Henry W. The Ocean of Truth:A Personal spots, places in the center of plates where History of Global Tectonics. Princeton University volcanic activity pushes upward. Hawaii and Press, 1986. Yellowstone National Park are examples of Oreskes, Naomi, editor. Plate Tectonics:An Insider’s such hot spots, leaving a trail of seamounts in History of the Modern Theory of the Earth. Boulder, CO:Westview, 2002. the Pacific and lava fields in the American Wood, Robert Muir. The Dark Side of the Earth. Northwest as continental plates drift across London: Allen and Unwin, 1985. an upwelling of magma. During the 1960s, geology experienced a revolution, as geologists became convinced Popper, Karl (1902–1994) that continents really do drift. A 1970 article The philosopher Karl Popper devised the idea first used the term plate tectonics. The theory of falsifiability to solve the problem of induc- proved to be a powerful explanatory mecha- tion in the philosophy of science. Karl nism that transformed geology from a science Raimund Popper was born in Vienna,Austria, of particulars into a mature science with a where his father was a successful lawyer with body of integrated knowledge.Acceptance of a library of 10,000 books.At the end of World the theory led to efforts to trace the conti- War I in 1918, Austria entered an extended nents as they have cycled between a single su- period of economic chaos, food shortages, percontinent and more scattered configura- and political upheaval, during which time tions. The last supercontinent, named Popper left the Vienna Gymnasium and en- Population Studies 235 rolled in the University of Vienna, though he versity lectureship in Christchurch, New was too young to matriculate. He attended his Zealand, in 1937 and thus avoided the Nazi classes sporadically, finding formal education takeover of his homeland a year later. He re- boring, and learning mostly from reading mained in New Zealand until the end of books. In 1919, only seventeen years old, he World War II, then accepted a position as formed the question that consumed his life: reader in logic and scientific method at the how does one distinguish between valid sci- London School of Economics at the Univer- ence and ? sity of London. In that same year, 1945, he Believing that people should be able to published two volumes on The Open Society work with their hands, Popper apprenticed as and Its Enemies, attacking totalitarian political a cabinet maker. He completed his appren- philosophies and defending the ideals of ticeship, though he found the work tedious democracy. His 1957 Poverty of Historicism, a and occupied his mind with ruminations on collection of essays, continued in the same philosophy and speculations about the devel- vein, attacking political philosophies such as opment of European classical music. Popper Marxism that derided individuals and as- decided to become a schoolteacher and ob- sumed laws of inevitable political progress. tained a teacher’s certificate in 1923, work- Popper became a full professor in 1949 ing for a year as a social worker with youth. and was knighted in 1965. His prolific pub- In 1925, he enrolled full-time in the Univer- lishing of articles and his two later books, sity of Vienna and the Institute of Education. and Refutations:The Growth of Scien- He also published his first paper in that same tific Knowledge (1963) and the three-volume year. In 1928, he wrote a thesis to get a cer- Postscript to the Logic of Scientific Discovery tification from the Institute of Education, an- (1981–1982), continued a relentless cam- other thesis on axiomatic geometry to obtain paign to promote his views in the philosophy a secondary school teacher’s certificate, and a of science. Many philosophers and scientists thesis to obtain a Ph.D. His work led him to supported his ideas, though they found creat- an introduction to the Viennese Circle of ing falsifiable theories and observations diffi- Philosophers, who became famous for their cult to implement in actual scientific work. positivist philosophy. Popper disagreed with Historical sciences, such as geology, paleon- their approach but profited from the associa- tology, and evolutionary biology, have an al- tion. In 1930, he obtained a job as a school- most impossible task in meeting Popper’s teacher and married a fellow schoolteacher in standards because they describe events that that same year.They had no children. cannot be repeated. Popper then wrote two books, leaving the See also Philosophy of Science first unpublished, but publishing the second References in 1934; its English title is The Logic of Discov- Magee, Bryan. Karl Popper. New York:Viking, ery. He set forth the answer to his earlier 1973. question, arguing that the problem of induc- Popper, Karl. Unended Quest:An Intellectual tion would be solved if scientists would frame Autobiography. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1982. their questions in terms of falsifiability. Re- peated proofs of a scientific theory or scien- tific observation did not make it true; only Population Studies experiments that attempted proof through Since 1950, scientists and other people have falsifiability led to positive proof. His book become increasingly worried about the attracted considerable attention, and he growing human population of Earth. Esti- found himself accepting opportunities to lec- mates place the world population in 10,000 ture in London, Paris, Copenhagen, and B.C.at 6 million humans, all living by hunting other places in Europe. He accepted a uni- and gathering their food. With the invention 236 Population Studies

“One Child Only” billboard in Shanghai, China (Wolfgang Kaehler/Corbis)

of agriculture, irrigation systems, and other agriculture, cleaner water, and better sanita- technologies, human population grew. The tion in the cities actually caused the popula- estimated world population stood at 252 mil- tion explosion. He demonstrated that birth lion people in A.D.1,with 170 million of rates did not change significantly, but the those people living in Asia. By 1750, that mortality rate dropped considerably in West- number had grown to 771 million people. By ern Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth 1950, population growth had accelerated, centuries. McKeown later expanded his argu- and the world total had reached 2.53 billion. ment in a 1979 book, The Role of Medicine: Infant mortality and child deaths had de- Dream, Mirage or Nemesis? Other scholars have clined, and life expectancy had gone up; peo- argued that a natural cycle, part of the con- ple had a better chance of surviving to adult- stant struggle between human immune sys- hood and living to old age. tems and mutating diseases, led to a decrease Many commentators have pointed to mod- in the virulence of diseases in the eighteenth ern medicine as the major cause of this up- century that also helped spark the population surge in population. Thomas McKeown boom. (1911–1988), professor of social medicine at So many more people required more food. the University of Birmingham Medical Increased amounts of land were placed under School, argued in 1976 that a careful study of cultivation, and new strains of staple crops the statistics shows that the growth curve were created through the Green Revolution started in Western Europe before modern in the 1950s and 1960s. An American plant Western medicine became effective in the specialist, Norman E. Borlaug (1914–), and late nineteenth century. McKeown argued others developed new strains of wheat and that more abundant food from more efficient rice beginning in the 1940s. Borlaug did not Prions 237 believe that the Green Revolution had solved from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome the population crisis; rather, the increased (AIDS) in Africa, faster population growth is food production had bought time to find a expected on that continent. Studies estimate more permanent solution or set of solutions that world population will reach 9 billion to the problem. Increased use of pesticides around the year 2050, with some 1.9 billion and artificial fertilizers also increased food of those people on the continent of Africa. production. Many scientists believe that Earth’s ecology The philanthropist John D. Rockefeller III cannot sustain the current levels of natural (1906–1978) founded The Population Coun- resource use by the planet’s population, cil in 1952 to promote research into popula- though there is no common agreement on tion control and aggressively promoted fam- what is a sustainable human population for ily-planning programs and contraceptive use the planet. throughout the world. The development of See also Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; the birth control pill in the late 1950s pro- Agriculture; Birth Control Pill; Ecology; vided another tool to control fertility and Ehrlich, Paul R.; Environmental Movement; population in those countries where cultural Foundations; Medicine attitudes had changed to favor smaller fami- References lies. In the 1960s, many scientists grew ever Cohen, Joel. How Many People Can the Earth Support? New York: Norton, 1995. more concerned about the burgeoning popu- Ehrlich, Paul R., and Anne H. Ehrlich. The lation. The entomologist Paul R. Ehrlich Population Explosion. New York: Simon and (1932–) became the best known of those sci- Schuster, 1990. entists and writers sounding a warning call Livi-Bacci, Massimo. A Concise History of World over human population growth when he pub- Population. Second edition. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997. lished his best-selling book The Population McKeown,Thomas. The Role of Medicine: Dream, Bomb in 1968. A zero population growth Mirage or Nemesis? Oxford: Basil Blackwell, movement emerged with interesting conse- 1979. quences.A combination of social changes and economic forces encouraged smaller families in Western industrialized nations, and by the Prions end of the century, most Western industrial- Proteinaceous infectious particles (prions) ized nations had achieved close to replace- are thought to be malformed proteins that ment-only fertility rates. Only immigration cause a class of unique neurological diseases actually raised the population in the United and behave like viruses in some ways. The States and some Western European countries. Harvard-educated American physician Daniel Populations continued to grow in the less in- Carleton Gajdusek (1923–) studied the odd dustrialized European countries and in South neurological disease kuru among the Fore America, Asia, and Africa. Highlanders people of Papua New Guinea in World population passed 6 billion some- the 1950s. Kuru was called the laughing dis- time during the month of October 1999. ease because victims descended into demen- Total world population stood at 6.236 billion tia before dying. Gajdusek believed that pa- in the year 2000, with the bulk of the popu- tients caught the disease when they practiced lation, 3.736 billion, in Asia. Almost half of ritual cannibalism and ate the brains of the all these people lived in cities. If China had dead. Gajdusek showed in the 1960s that in- not implemented harsh population measures jecting brain cells from kuru victims into in 1978, often limiting each ethnic Chinese chimpanzees caused the chimpanzees to con- couple to a single child, China would have tract the disease. Brain tissues from autopsies had an extra 250 million people in 1998. De- of infected people showed characteristic spite the depredations of widespread fatalities holes, and similar symptoms were found in 238 Psychology sheep that died from scrapie. In 1971, Gaj- References dusek showed that victims of the rare Rhodes, Richard. Deadly Feasts:Tracking the Secrets of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) showed a Terrifying New Plague. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997. symptoms similar to victims of kuru and Ridley, Rosalind M., and Harry F. Baker. Fatal scrapie. Scientists surmised that a virus Protein:The Story of CJD, BSE, and Other Prion caused these diseases and characterized it as a Diseases. Oxford: Oxford University Press, “slow virus” because it sometimes took 1998. decades after the initial infection to kill. Gaj- dusek shared the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physi- ology or Medicine for his work. Psychology When a patient of the American neurolo- The science of psychology emerged in the gist Stanley B. Prusiner (1942–) died of CJD later part of the nineteenth century in Ger- in 1972, Prusiner devoted his career to un- many as a joint branch of physiology and phi- derstanding the cause of the disease. In 1982, losophy. Psychiatry emerged from the prac- he published his theory that a protein caused tice in the nineteenth century of assigning CJD, as opposed to a virus. He named these physicians to be superintendents of insane proteins prions and argued that they were asylums. The first scientific psychologists, passed from infected people and destroyed such as the German Wilhelm Wundt brain tissue. Prusiner struggled to obtain and (1832–1920), the Englishman Francis Galton maintain his research funding from the Na- (1822–1911), and the American E. B. Titch- tional Institutes of Health (NIH) in the face of ener (1867–1927), clearly focused on empir- widespread skepticism about his theory. ical studies of repeatable external phenomena Prusiner later grouped CJD, scrapie, kuru, that could be quantified, such as perception and possibly Alzheimer’s together as prion and sensory stimulus.They deliberately mod- diseases. In the 1980s, Prusiner’s team and eled their new science on the traditional other scientists identified a gene for creating physical sciences.With the exception of Gal- the protein, called the cellular prion protein, ton, these pioneers frowned upon applied or PrPC.They determined that the PrPC was psychology, not wishing to challenge psychia- natural and harmless and that a variant called try in the art of healing, but rather concen- scrapie prion protein, or PrPSc, actually trated on applying science to limited exami- caused the prion diseases. nations of human behavior. But soon the In 1996, a new variant of CJD appeared in American psychologist G. Stanley Hall Britain, apparently caused by eating meat (1884–1924) and others began to apply psy- from cows infected with bovine spongiform chology to education and aptitude testing. encephalopathy (BSE), or mad cow disease. The theory of behaviorism, first estab- The use of infected cattle brains and infected lished by the work of the famous Russian sheep brains in cattle feed to increase protein physiologist (1849–1936) and content was thought to be responsible for the greatly expanded in the 1920s by the Ameri- spread of BSE. The death of a dozen people can psychologist John B. Watson (1878– from CJD led to a massive campaign to de- 1958), became the first of many theories stroy much of the cattle in England and dis- from the ranks of psychologists to compete continue the use of brains to supplement with the all-encompassing nature of the the- feed. Prusiner received the 1997 Nobel Prize ory of psychoanalysis promoted by the Aus- in Physiology or Medicine for his work, trian neuropsychiatrist Sigmund Freud though his theory of prions has remained (1856–1939). Following the lead of Hall, controversial. later psychologists moved beyond just educa- See also Genetics; Medicine; National Institutes tion counseling and aptitude testing to create of Health; Nobel Prizes clinical psychology, in which the theories of Psychology 239 psychology served as tools in mental health tial analysis, self-directed encounter groups, care. This innovation was bitterly contested and addiction recovery clinics. within the profession, and it is no accident Only after World War II did clinical psy- that members of the medical profession, chology rise to become a significant scientific under such leaders as Freud, rather than psy- and social force, complementing and com- chologists, were the first to extensively de- peting with the medically based discipline of velop twentieth-century mental health care. psychiatry, especially in the United States. Psychology, unsure of itself as a science, Universities opened counseling centers that slowly made the transition into healing. offered educational counseling and psy- The psychologist B. F. Skinner (1904– chotherapy. Mainline Protestant religions 1990) carried the banner of behaviorism that began to incorporate training in clinical psy- had been left by Watson.As a strict behavior- chology into their pastoral education pro- ist, Skinner believed that nurture dictated all grams, turning ministers and pastors into action and that nature played no role. He re- professionally trained psychotherapists. Reli- jected free will or any notion of unconscious gious leaders have always had a therapeutic motivation. Mainstream psychologists did role in society, though this embracing of not accept his theory, but the extreme nature modern psychology was ironic, in that sur- of his stance and the articulate manner in veys showed that of all the scientific and which he presented his ideas continue to scholarly disciplines, psychologists and psy- make him a useful standard to measure later chiatrists harbored the most negative atti- psychological theories against. tudes toward organized religion, with the ex- The American psychologist Carl R. Rogers ception of philosophers. With the middle (1902–1987) advocated client-centered ther- class growing more prosperous, psychothera- apy beginning in the 1940s, a form of therapy pists inspired by Rogers, Freud, and other in which therapists urged clients to find their theorists began to offer psychotherapy to own paths to health.The therapist was a facil- more than just institutionalized patients and itator and was not to impose her or his own the wealthy. Especially in the United States, values on the client.This positive ideal of the psychotherapy became popular,and society at individual as being able to self-heal became a large became psychologized, using psycho- characteristic of humanistic psychology, as did logical terms and viewing relationships the ideal of self-realization. Rogers used the through pop psychology. Movies, books, term client, rather than patient, to emphasize magazine articles, seminars, and popular dis- the nonmedical and noncoercive nature of his course spread the message. treatment. The American psychologist Abra- Almost unnoticed amid the expansion of ham H. Maslow (1908–1970) also promoted the field was a 1952 article by the English humanistic psychology with his theory of self- psychologist Hans J. Eysenck (1916–1997), actualization, developed in the 1950s and who reported that after reviewing twenty- early 1960s. Maslow’s theory postulated a four studies he found no empirical evidence pyramid of needs, with basic physiological re- that neurotic patients who received psy- quirements at the bottom, love and esteem in chotherapy recovered any more frequently the center, and self-actualization as the cap- than those not treated by a psychotherapist. stone. Unless restrained by social norms or Studies found that the form of psychological neuroses, people naturally strive to self-actu- treatment often did not make a difference, alize once the other needs are fulfilled, though and even indicated that at times, psychother- few ever achieve that pinnacle. Other human- apy made patients, or clients, worse than if istic psychological flavors of psychotherapy they had not been treated at all by a psycho- became prominent in the 1960s and 1970s, logical professional. Appalled by the lack of such as logotherapy, Gestalt therapy, existen- scientific rigor in the selection of therapeutic 240 Psychology modalities, the psychologists Sol Garfield The spirit of the 1960s looked to liberate (1918–) and Allen E. Bergin (1934–) edited a and empower the victims of society wherever leading textbook, the Handbook of Psychother- they were found. The awful conditions in apy and Behavior Change: An Empirical Analysis mental hospitals drew the sympathy and in- (1971), which went through multiple edi- dignation of social activists, and the activists tions, in an effort to alert their colleagues to also questioned the prerogative of psychia- this problem. trists to institutionalize people against their So how are clients who seek psychother- will. In the late 1960s, a vigorous antipsychi- apy healed? Multiple researchers have indi- atry movement began, launching a well- cated that healing occurs when the psy- meaning deinstitutionalization process. The chotherapist creates an environment of trust asylums quickly emptied their patients onto and expertise, forming a therapeutic alliance. the streets to be cared for by community- The psychotherapist’s personal characteris- based treatment programs. Most of these tics of understanding, empathy, and concern programs have failed and homelessness has are the major factors in healing.The psychia- increased. trist Jerome Frank (1909–) has pointed out By the 1970s, the older rigid schools of that this alliance does not even have to be a psychoanalysis and behaviorism had begun to face-to-face relationship. Ironically enough, a fade. Humanistic psychology and eclecticism self-help book can also provide many of these have increasingly become the norm, though same elements to a lesser degree and thus no unified psychological paradigm has serve as a healing mechanism for the reader. emerged. Eclectic psychotherapists reject This form of healing, whether based on ver- rigid adherence to any particular school of bal conversation or through a book, only psychology or treatment modality. They works if the client accepts the causal explana- choose from among a menu of options based tions of the psychotherapist; the talking cure on the needs of each individual client. The requires the patient’s cooperation. emphasis on self-realization and breaking so- Without a doubt, psychopharmacological cial and psychological barriers within femi- drugs can have a significant impact regardless nism also played a role in breaking the hold of of the cognitive cooperation of the patient. the older schools.The notable book Toward a Doses of lithium carbonate have been success- New Psychology of Women (1976), by the femi- fully used to treat bipolar disorder, also called nist psychiatrist Jean Baker Miller, helped manic-depressive psychosis, in which the suf- promote the idea that psychologists had ne- ferer alternates between periods of manic eu- glected to develop an accurate understanding phoria and depression. The antidepressant of women. Prozac, the first of the selective serotonin re- Genuine advances in psychology are hard uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), introduced in 1986, to achieve because human subjects are diffi- works by interfering with the reabsorption of cult to study and because repeatability is the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. hard.There have been notable achievements. Prozac is also used to treat obsessive-compul- The experimental psychologist Harry F. Har- sive disorder and bulimia nervosa, and is even low (1905–1981) used studies of maternal used by some mentally healthy people as a deprivation with rhesus monkeys to show psychological cosmetic to enhance their pro- that love is a primary drive for primates and ductivity.At the end of the century, very few humans. He changed the way that modern psychological disorders were readily treated psychologists look at the need for affection by drug therapy, despite a few outstanding between adults and the need for affectionate successes. The social and cultural context of mother-child relations, though his methods the disturbed person still determined most of would not pass an ethics review board today. a given problem’s parameters. The Swiss-born psychiatrist Elisabeth Kübler- Psychology 241

Ross (1926–2004) found that terminally ill telligence was a multifaceted concept, not people and people in mourning pass through easily reduced to a single number. In the a series of five stages: denial and isolation, 1990s, the idea of emotional intelligence anger, bargaining, depression, and then ac- (EQ) became common, though it was not ceptance. She also promoted the hospice quantified as a number; rather it was seen as movement and contributed to thanatology, a characteristic that indicated who would be the study of death. more likely to be successful in life, regardless The zoologist-turned-sexologist Alfred of their IQ score. A high EQ indicates the Kinsey (1894–1956) published two books, ability of an individual to control and channel Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and emotions to serve long-term goals. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953), The 1980s saw the rise of the recovered- that astonished Americans with their revela- memory movement, based on the theory that tions that what was considered sexually de- the memory of traumatic events like sexual viant behavior, such as masturbation and ho- abuse is repressed. Some victims came for- mosexuality, was much more widespread ward with stories of abuse that they remem- than commonly assumed. Later critics found bered years after the abuse, either as a result that Kinsey’s scientific techniques inevitably of psychotherapy or prompted by a flashback. led to biased results, overstating the inci- These repressed memories were often vague dence of different sexual practices in an effort or ambiguous, and the number of specific de- to promote his social agenda. The detailed tails usually increased with time.The issue of physiological and psychological work of the repressed memories was always controver- physician William H. Masters (1915–2001) sial, but in the 1990s neurologists and psy- and the psychologist Virginia Johnson chologists who specialized in how memory (1925–) established a firm medical basis for actually works argued that there was not a sexology and the emergence of clinical sex mechanism for the kind of repression that the therapy. recovered-memory movement postulated.At The study of primates by Jane Goodall times, sometimes using hypnosis, zealous (1934–), Dian Fossey (1932–1985), and oth- psychotherapists had led their patients to be- ers made important contributions to how we lieve that abuse had occurred when it really view human behavior.A form of behaviorism had not. has been revived with the study of sociobiol- ogy and evolutionary psychology by the zool- See also Bioethics; Cognitive Science; Dawkins, ogists Edward O. Wilson (1929–) and Richard; Feminism; Fossey, Dian; Goodall, Jane; Harlow, Harry F.; Kinsey,Alfred C.; Richard Dawkins (1941–). The role of Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth; Masters,William H., dreams and their role in consciousness have and Virginia Johnson; Medicine; National always intrigued cognitively oriented psy- Institutes of Health; Religion; Rogers, Carl chologists.The discovery in 1953 that dreams R.; Skinner, B. F.; Sociobiology and correspond to rapid eye movement (REM) Evolutionary Psychology;Wilson, Edward O. and that most other mammals also experi- References Danziger, Kurt. Constructing the Subject: Historical ence REM has raised many questions with no Origins of Psychological Research. New York: satisfactory answers. Cambridge University Press, 1990. Intelligence tests, often giving a single nu- Fancher, Raymond. The Intelligence Men: Makers of meric (IQ) score, were the I.Q. Controversy. New York: Norton, 1985. first created in the early part of the twentieth Goleman, Daniel. Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. New York: Bantam, century. They fell into disfavor after the 1995. 1960s, when social activists objected to racist Hacking, Ian. Rewriting the Soul: Multiple or social assumptions made in the tests, and Personality and the Sciences of Memory. when the realization began to grow that in- Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995. 242 Pulsars

Herman, Ellen. The Romance of American Psychology: idea that two white dwarfs or neutron stars Political Culture in the Age of Experts. Berkeley were in such tight orbit about each other that and Los Angeles: University of California they acted as a single lighthouse emitting Press, 1995. radio waves. Although such a model pro- Kramer, Peter D. Listening to Prozac. Revised edition. New York: Penguin, 1997. duced radio pulses, it seemed unlikely that Leahey,Thomas Hardy. A History of Psychology: Main white dwarfs or neutron stars could orbit Currents in Psychological Thought. Sixth edition. close enough to get such rapid pulses. The Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003. third theory proposed that the pulses were Wulff, David M. Psychology of Religion: Classic and produced by a white dwarf that oscillated in Contemporary Views. New York:Wiley, 1991. intensity. Such stellar had already been detected in visible light from a white dwarf. (White dwarfs are dense stars smaller Pulsars than Earth but as bright as the Sun.) In October 1967, a Cambridge University As for neutron stars, they were not yet ac- graduate student, Jocelyn Bell Burnell, dis- tually known to exist; the theoretical possibil- covered the first pulsar as she analyzed the ity that such stars existed had been proposed data from a radio telescope while looking for in 1934 by the astronomers Walter Baade quasars. Bell Burnell noticed a half-inch of (1893–1960) and Fritz Zwicky (1898–1974). squiggles on a chart that intrigued her. She After a star reached the supernova stage of its called it a bit of “scruff.”Working bac kward, stellar evolution, they theorized, the rem- she found that the small signal corresponded nants collapsed into a neutron star, a star in to sidereal time, 23 hours and 56 minutes, which gravity became so strong that only indicating that it came from the same spot in closely packed neutrons remained. In Novem- the sky as Earth rotated beneath that spot. A ber 1967, before the public announcement of more sensitive recorder installed in Novem- the discovery of pulsars, the Italian astrophysi- ber allowed Bell Burnell and Antony Hewish, cist (1939–) speculated that a her academic advisor and the builder of the rotating neutron star, spinning very quickly, telescope, to look at the scruff in more de- would broadcast radio waves because of its in- tail. They found that the signal pulsed in in- tense magnetic field. In June 1968, the Amer- tensity every 1.33 seconds. This was much ican astronomer Thomas Gold (1920–) too fast for a variable star, and its eerie regu- brought together Bell Burnell’s discovery and lar intensity made some on their team won- Pacini’s theory in an article for Nature. der if they had actually stumbled across a In , another pulsar was dis- transmission from an extraterrestrial intelli- covered in the constellation of Vela, visible gence. A second signal, discovered in De- from the Southern Hemisphere of Earth.This cember in a different part of the sky, pulsed pulsar pulsed ten times more rapidly than at a rate of 1.2 seconds. With the signals so other pulsars and lay within the visible rem- far apart, thoughts of extraterrestrial intelli- nants of a supernova. A month later, a pulsar gence were laid to rest. Bell Burnell and the found in the midst of the colorful Crab Neb- team had discovered a new phenomenon. ula burst thirty times a second. The Crab When Hewish announced the discoveries in Nebula consists of the remnants of a star that February, Bell Burnell had already found an- went supernova in A.D. 1054, as recorded by other two pulsars. Chinese astronomers. Fred Hoyle (1915– All stars radiate radio waves, but the in- 2001) and his colleagues had speculated in tensity and period frequency of pulsars elec- 1964 that a neutron star with an intense mag- trified astronomers. Three theories quickly netic field might exist in the , emerged.The first two were variations of the but they did not predict the existence of pul- Pulsars 243 sars. These discoveries confirmed that neu- See also Astronomy; Bell Burnell, Jocelyn; tron stars actually existed and that pulsars Quasars;Telescopes were rapidly rotating neutron stars, formed References in the aftermath of supernovas. It is now Greenstein, George. Frozen Star: Of Pulsars, Black Holes, and the Fate of Stars. New York: thought that most pulsars do not have visible Freundlich, 1983. supernova remnants around them because Lyne, Andrew, and Sir Francis Graham-Smith. the remnants have dissipated.A pulsar discov- Pulsar Astronomy. Cambridge: Cambridge ered in 1982 broadcast at a period of 1.6 mil- University Press, 1990. liseconds, indicating that the neutron star was spinning at a rate of more than 600 revolu- tions a second. Q

Quantum Mechanics of the spectrum. Schmidt applied Hubble’s See Particle Physics; Physics Law and found that the object was very far away. Hubble’s Law was named after Edwin Powell Hubble (1889–1953), who discov- Quantum Physics ered that all galaxies are receding from each See Particle Physics; Physics other as part of an expanding universe. Hub- ble also found that the faster a galaxy was re- ceding, the farther away it was and the more Quasars its spectra shifted toward the longer wave- Quasars, quasi-stellar radio sources, are the lengths of the red end of the spectrum. brightest and most distant objects known in Schmidt’s analysis showed that 3C273 must the universe. In 1956, radio astronomers at be 3 billion light-years away, and to be visi- Cambridge University undertook their third ble, it must be much brighter than a normal survey of the sky, seeking out radio sources galaxy. and creating a catalogue. In the late 1950s The quasar 3C48 had been detected ear- and early 1960s, astronomers tried to iden- lier, but misclassified as a star by the two as- tify visible objects that might be associated tronomers who examined it. Within two with known interstellar radio sources. The years, ten such quasars had been located, and British astronomer Cyril Hazard, while at since then hundreds more possible quasars the University of Sydney, used the passage of have been identified.The Einstein x-ray satel- the Moon in front of the location of the radio lite observatory showed in 1980 that quasars source 3C273 (the radio object numbered are also powerful x-ray emitters. Pho- 273 in the third Cambridge University cata- tographs from the Hubble Space Telescope in logue) to determine that a faint visible star the 1990s confirmed theories that predicted (twelfth magnitude) was located in the same that quasars were located within galaxies and place as 3C273. The Dutch-born Maarten that they possessed jets of matter shooting Schmidt (1929–), at the California Institute out from them. In 1979, astronomers looked of Technology, obtained a spectral recording at two quasars that were close to each other for 3C273 and found in 1963 that its hydro- and were so similar to each other that they gen lines strongly shifted toward the red end proposed that an intermediate galaxy was

245 246 Quasars

X-ray picture of the quasar 3C273 (Corbis)

bending the light from a single quasar to cre- energy being emitted by large spinning black ate two images.This “gravitational lensing ef- holes found at the center of galaxies, where fect” has also been found with other quasars. stars are literally being consumed by the rav- Such a great red shift invited suspicion that enous gravity . Matter shooting from the the quasars were actually much closer, but black hole forms jets thousands of light-years just receding from us.After this idea was dis- long, and the matter is moving so fast that counted, theorists turned to the proposal that relativistic effects are created. spinning black holes, a theoretical possibility with no positive proof at that time, were the See also Astronomy; Black Holes; Satellites; source of the great energy of quasars. Telescopes Quasars have gradually become identified as References one of the proofs that black holes exist. The Kembhavi, Ajit K., and Jayant V.Narlkar. Quasars current thinking about quasars is that they are and Active Galactic Nuclei. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. distant objects that give hints about the first Schmidt, Maarten. “3C 273: A Star-like Object couple of billion years after the Big Bang.The with a Large Red-Shift.” Nature 197 (1963): great energy output of quasars is the result of 1040. R

Religion geological strata are the result of the flood People often view and experience religion described in Genesis, that biological evolu- and science as intellectual and cultural forces tion is wrong, and that Earth was divinely in conflict.This point of view emerged from created within the last ten thousand years. the conflict between Western religious tradi- Mainstream scientists have reacted strongly tions and the theory of natural selection de- against creationism. veloped by Charles Darwin (1809–1882). Contemporary scholars now recognize that Darwin and other geologically minded scien- the relationship between religion and science tists argued that Earth had existed for far is a complex story and has varied throughout more than the six thousand years found by a history. In the last century, science has become literal interpretation of the Judeo-Christian a dominant force in culture and society, Book of Genesis. Darwin and his successors though religion still maintains a significant also taught that humans were not unique cre- hold. Some historians of science, such as the ations of God, but were just an evolved form Englishman Herbert Butterfield (1900–1979), of primate, sharing a common ancestor with Stanley L. Jaki (1924–), and Reijer Hooykaas modern primates, with apes, chimpanzees, (1906–1994), have argued that Judeo- and monkeys. Darwinism, along with other Christian culture actually laid the groundwork aspects of modern thought, prompted a con- for the development of modern science.They servative backlash and the revitalization of have pointed out that the Jews abandoned the fundamentalist and evangelical forms of cyclic view of history,so common in other cul- Christianity at the beginning of the twentieth tures, and that they viewed nature as a creation century. In the Islamic world, modern of one God, operating by laws and in accor- thought has inspired a similar phenomenon. dance with justice, and not as created and gov- Although many religious people have ac- erned by an animistic milieu of spirits and commodated themselves to the idea of Earth forces, guided by caprice. Thus, they have ar- being billions of years old and the theory of gued, thinkers came to the conclusion that Darwinist evolution, many fundamentalists, God’s laws and nature’s laws could be discov- clinging to a literal interpretation of the ered not only by revelation but also by human Bible, have not. Creationist science is a strain investigation. While science can trace its ori- of scientific endeavor devoted to proving that gins to ancient Greece, Greek philosophers

247 248 Religion believed in one god and much of Greek phi- term in 1970 to describe losophy was adopted by early Christianity. his idea that human beings observe the uni- Many scientists have held or continue to verse with those constants because of the fact hold strong religious views and have found that human beings exist in order to make minimal conflict between the two spheres, such observations, otherwise human beings while others have abandoned the religious be- would not exist. Later theorists, such as John liefs taught to them as children in favor of sci- Barrow and James J.Tipler, who collaborated entific materialism or some vague sense of an to write The Anthropic Cosmological Principle unknown creator. Most Judeo-Christian scien- (1986), proposed a theory of a World Ensem- tists who seek to reconcile their traditional re- ble, in which many parallel universes were ligious beliefs with modern views on biologi- created at the time of the Big Bang, with all cal evolution have abandoned a strict literal possible combinations of physical constants, interpretation of Genesis, arguing that the days and only our universe has the right combina- in the biblical account are really geological tion of constants to make life possible. ages, or even abandoning Genesis and arguing Tipler’s book, The Physics of : Mod- for a form of divinely guided evolution via nat- ern Cosmology, God and the Resurrection of the ural selection. Other scientists, such as the zo- Dead (1994), went even further, proposing ologist Richard Dawkins (1941–), have that would achieve absolute strongly attacked religion and defended their power and absolute knowledge at the Omega own atheistic or agnostic points of view. Point, the culmination of the evolution of the When the theory of the Big Bang began to universe. At that point, simulations of all in- gain prominence in the late 1940s, theolo- telligent life-forms would be resurrected. gians were intrigued, since it seemed to be a The anthropic principle has had little impact variation on the idea of creation out of noth- on mainstream physics, and these specula- ingness, as described in Genesis. Pope Pius XII tions, as with most esoteric cosmology, have (1876–1958) spoke positively in 1951 of the had little impact on religious discourse. idea of a primeval atom. Fred Hoyle Advances in medicine have produced ethi- (1915–2001), creator of the steady state the- cal issues that religious traditions have ory of the universe, complained bitterly that adapted to. Inexpensive and effective meth- one reason people supported the Big Bang is ods of birth control have forced religious that it resonated with their desires for divine people to revisit their assumptions about sex- creation. Ironically enough, other theologians ual activity and choices about having chil- found the steady state theory, which required dren. The process of in vitro fertilization, the continuous creation of matter to fuel the perfected by Patrick Steptoe (1913–1988) expansion of the universe, to be more con- and Robert Edwards (1925–) in 1978 with genial to their theological point of view.The the first human “test-tube baby,” faced consid- possibility of extraterrestrial life, a possibility erable opposition from religious authorities seriously entertained by scientists, has obvi- before they were successful. Other issues of ous implications for religious theologies, since bioethics, such as the right to die, assisted sui- most theologies are very human-centered. cide, and abortion, have engaged theologians, As our knowledge of physics advanced and arguments based on religious beliefs are during the twentieth century, scientists no- often the criteria that individuals use when ticed that their equations allowed many pos- facing the difficult decisions involved. sible solutions.They also realized that certain With the successful cloning of Dolly the physical constants were in such a range that sheep in 1996 from an adult somatic cell, peo- they allowed life to exist. Any other values, ple immediately asked themselves whether hu- and life would never have evolved on Earth. mans could be cloned. The idea struck at the The astrophysicist coined the core of personal identity, and most religious Rogers, Carl R. 249 leaders came out against the idea of human Rogers, Carl R. (1902–1987) cloning.The sociobiologist Edward O.Wilson The American psychologist Carl R. Rogers (1929–) is among those who have welcomed promoted an influential approach within hu- cloning and other genetic engineering ad- manistic psychotherapy, an approach that he vances as ways for humans to take conscious called client-centered therapy. Carl Ransom control of human evolution, but his position is Rogers was born in Oak Park, Illinois, where apparently in the minority. Bioengineering his father,Walter A. Rogers, was a successful holds the promise of eventually being able to businessman who bought a farm for the fam- create babies with designed characteristics and ily to live on. His father ran the farm based will prompt considerable controversy if the on the latest scientific principles, prompting techniques are ever developed. Rogers to enroll at the University of Wis- A revived interest in the psychology of re- consin with a major in agriculture. Having ligion during the 1950s accompanied the been raised in a religious household, he then adoption of secular psychotherapeutic train- decided to become a Protestant minister in- ing and techniques by mainline Protestant stead and changed his major to history.While clergy. Attitudes of psychologists of religion in college, he visited China as part of the on how to best pursue their studies have var- World Student Christian Federation Confer- ied quite a bit. There are those who follow ence, and the experience began his personal the classic scientific technique of reduction- process of breaking away from the theology ism, but others have opposed in that his parents had taught him. After gradu- any form, insisting that religion is unique in ating from Wisconsin in 1924, Rogers en- all essential respects. rolled in the Union Theological Seminary. See also Big Bang Theory and Steady State The psychology courses at the seminary in- Theory; Bioethics; Birth Control Pill; spired him to begin to take similar courses Cloning; Creationism; Dawkins, Richard; at Columbia University Teachers College, Edwards, Robert; Evolution; Medicine; and he decided to abandon his plan of be- Philosophy of Science; Psychology; Search coming a minister. He received his M.A. de- for Extraterrestrial Intelligence; Steptoe, gree in 1928 and his Ph.D. in 1931 from Patrick References Teachers College. Rogers married in 1924 Barbour, Ian G. When Science Meets Religion: and fathered a son and a daughter. Enemies, Strangers, or Partners? San Francisco: Rogers began working with children in HarperSanFrancisco, 2000. 1928, first at the Society for the Prevention Brooke, John Hedley. Science and Religion: Some of Cruelty to Children in Rochester, New Historical Perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. York, and later while teaching at the Univer- Lindberg, David C., and Ronald L. Numbers, sity of Rochester. He wrote two books on editors. God and Nature: Historical Essays on the measuring personality in children and clini- Encounter between Christianity and Science. cally treating children. In 1940, Rogers be- Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986. came a full professor in clinical psychology at Margenau, Henry, and Roy Abraham Varghese. Ohio State University, and as he prepared his Cosmos, Bios,Theos: Scientists Reflect on Science, God, and the Origins of the Universe, Life and lectures, he realized that his ideas about psy- Homo Sapiens. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1992. chotherapy were not in line with the pre- Wilson, David Sloan. Darwin’s Cathedral: Evolution, dominant methods. His optimistic opinion of Religion, and the Nature of Society. Chicago: people contrasted with the dour pessimism of University of Chicago Press, 2002. Freudian psychoanalysis. Three books, Coun- Wright, Robert. Three Scientists and Their Gods: Looking for Meaning in an Age of Information. seling and Psychotherapy (1942), Client-Centered New York: Random House, 1988. Therapy (1951), and On Becoming a Person Wulff, David M. Psychology of Religion: Classic and (1961), introduced and established his idea of Contemporary Views. New York:Wiley, 1991. nondirective, client-centered therapy, in 250 Rowland, F. Sherwood

chology at the University of Chicago from 1945 to 1957, then moved to the University of Wisconsin from 1957 to 1962, before fi- nally moving to California and founding the Center for Studies of the Person in La Jolla. He remained active toward the end of his life conducting workshops and seminars, and writing books that advanced the cause of hu- manistic psychology. Elements of humanistic psychology and its goal of self-realization, as well as the philosophy of client-centered psy- chotherapy, became dominant influences in clinical psychology in the 1970s and re- mained so at the end of the century. See also Psychology References Kirschenbaum, Howard. On Becoming Carl Rogers. New York: Delacorte, 1979. Rogers, Carl R. On Becoming a Person:A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1961. Thorne, Brian. Carl Rogers.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1992.

Carl R. Rogers, psychologist, 1979 (Roger Ressmeyer/ Corbis) Rowland, F. Sherwood (1927–) The chemist F. Sherwood Rowland discov- ered, with his research associate Mario Molina (1943–), that chlorofluorocarbon accordance with which he referred to the (CFC) gases damage the ozone layer of the at- person seeking help as a client, not a patient. mosphere. Frank Sherwood Rowland, nick- Rogers’s client-centered therapy always named Sherry, was born in Delaware, Ohio, urged that clients should find their own paths where his father was a professor of mathe- to health, while psychotherapists act as facili- matics at Ohio Wesleyan University. He en- tators and do not impose their own values. joyed naval history as a boy and played with Rogers also came to believe that the empathy naval miniatures.An accelerated path through and the genuine nature of the psychotherapist school led to his high school graduation at age had more to do with the effectiveness of the sixteen, and he went to college at Ohio Wes- treatment than the therapeutic techniques leyan. After two years, Rowland left to join that the psychotherapist employed. the navy, but World War II ended before he Client-centered therapy became a major completed basic training. He returned to element of humanistic psychology, and school and graduated with a B.A. in 1948, Rogers became a prominent leader among with a triple major in chemistry, physics, and clinical psychologists. He served as president mathematics. Always drawn to competitive of the American Psychological Association athletics, Rowland played college basketball (APA) in 1946–1947 and received the Distin- and baseball, as well as playing a few sum- guished Scientific Contribution Award from mers with a Canadian semiprofessional base- the APA in 1956. He was a professor of psy- ball team. Rowland, F. Sherwood 251

In 1948 Rowland began graduate studies fluorine, and three of chlorine (CFCl3). The in chemistry at the University of Chicago released chlorine atoms rapidly react with under the tutelage of Willard F. Libby ozone molecules, converting them to normal (1908–1980), who had just developed the oxygen. Small amounts of CFCs have the po- method of carbon-14 dating that proved so tential to rapidly reduce the amount of useful in archaeology. In research sponsored ozone.The ozone layer protects life on Earth by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), from the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet Rowland worked on radiochemistry.In 1952, radiation. Molina and Rowland published he earned his doctorate and married. His their findings in the journal Nature in 1974, wife and he later had a daughter and a son. and their laboratory discovery was later con- Rowland accepted a position as an instructor firmed by measurements of the ozone layer. at Princeton University and four years later The realization that continued use of CFCs moved to the University of Kansas as an assis- would deplete the ozone layer, with cata- tant professor. In 1964, he moved to the strophic results for human civilization, led to Irvine campus of the University of California, the Montreal Protocol international agree- which opened the following year. The in- ments of 1987, 1990, and 1992 to phase out volvement of his daughter, Ingrid, in the en- the use of these gases. vironmental movement and the general tem- Rowland actively campaigned for CFC re- per of the times prompted Rowland in 1970 duction and he continues to conduct research to change his research from radiochemistry on atmospheric chemistry with his students. to environmental issues. In 1971, his research When his regular AEC funding ended, he showed that current mercury levels in tuna turned to the National Aeronautics and Space and swordfish were consistent with levels of Administration (NASA) for funding. Row- mercury from preserved specimens of fish, land has received many awards for his scien- one hundred years old, found in museums. tific work, including being elected to the Na- At a workshop in 1972, Rowland listened tional Academy of Sciences in 1978. Paul to a presentation by the biophysicist James Crutzen (1933–), Molina, and Rowland were Lovelock (1919–) on recent measurements awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. of the level of CFCs in the atmosphere. All See also Chemistry; Crutzen, Paul; CFCs are made by human industry, and they Environmental Movement; Libby,Willard F.; were used at that time mainly in aerosol cans Lovelock, James; Meteorology; Molina, Mario; and air conditioners. Working with Mario National Aeronautics and Space Molina, a native of Mexico and new postdoc- Administration; Nobel Prizes; Ozone Layer toral fellow, Rowland began to investigate and Chlorofluorocarbons References what happened to CFC molecules in the at- “F. Sherwood Rowland—Autobiography.” http:// mosphere. They found that when the CFCs nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/index.html reach the ozone layer,high in the atmosphere, (accessed February 13, 2004). ultraviolet radiation from the Sun breaks Newton, David E. The Ozone Dilemma:A Reference down the CFC molecules. Each CFC mole- Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, cule consists of one atom of carbon, one of 1995. S

Sabin, Albert (1906–1993) ologist John Enders (1897–1985) on a new Although the virologist Albert Sabin failed to way to culture mammalian viruses allowed develop the first effective vaccine for polio, virologists to create enough material to work he did develop the live-virus form of vaccine with, which helped the polio researchers. used today. Albert Bruce Sabin was born in Sabin became the leading polio researcher of Bialystok, Russia, which later became part of the day after demonstrating that the polio Poland. His family moved to America in virus entered the body through ingestion, 1921, and Sabin graduated from high school rather than through the respiratory system. two years later. Working odd jobs, he put His approach was similar to that which had himself through New York University, earn- succeeded with other viruses—to develop a ing a B.S. degree in 1928 and an M.D. in vaccine made of viruses so weakened that 1931. He became a medical researcher, they were not virulent, but would provoke spending time in England and on the staff of the human body to produce antibodies. the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Re- The virologist Jonas Salk (1914–1995) de- search, before settling at the University of veloped a killed-virus polio vaccine in 1952 Cincinnati College of Medicine in 1939. and began to test it. Sabin strongly objected to Sabin married in 1935 and fathered two Salk’s vaccine, fearing the long-term conse- daughters. During World War II, he served quences of such an approach.Testing of Salk’s with the U.S. Army Medical Corps, develop- vaccine was expanded and proved effective, ing vaccines for use against and and Salk became an international celebrity. Japanese . In 1946, he returned to Sabin continued to work on his own version Cincinnati and applied himself to the prob- of the vaccine, and after successful tests with lem of finding a polio vaccine. chimpanzees, he tested the vaccine in 1955 on The private National Foundation for Infan- volunteer prisoners. Later tests conducted in- tile Paralysis funded Sabin’s research to find a ternationally, including in the Soviet Union, vaccine for poliomyelitis (infantile paralysis). proved effective. Sabin vaccine could be given Polio usually did not result in paralysis or orally, maintained its effect death, but its possible effect on children, longer, was cheaper to manufacture, and was when most childhood diseases had finally more effective against the different polio been controlled in the United States, particu- strains.The Sabin polio vaccine eventually be- larly terrified parents. Work by the microbi- came the more commonly used vaccine in the

253 254 Sagan, Carl

United States and internationally. Sabin went Gerard Kuiper (1905–1973), a pioneer in on to work on vaccines for other viral diseases planetary astronomy, mentored Sagan in this and received numerous honors before his re- field. The field exploded in importance with tirement from the in the coming of the space age and the launching 1971. He served as a research professor at the of robotic spacecraft to explore other planets. University of South Carolina in Charleston Sagan served as a key consultant with the Jet from 1974 to 1982. Propulsion Laboratory and the National Aero- See also Enders, John; Foundations; Medicine; nautics and Space Administration (NASA) Pharmacology; Salk, Jonas from the 1960s through 1990s. References Early in his career, Sagan developed the ar- Chanock, Robert M. “Reminiscences of Albert gument (based on prior work by the as- Sabin and His Successful Strategy for the tronomer Rupert Wildt in 1940) that Venus Development of the Live Oral Polio Virus was heated by a greenhouse effect created by Vaccine.” Proceedings of the Association of American Physicians 108, no. 2 (March 1996): 117–126. the high concentration of carbon dioxide in its Melnick, Joseph L. “Albert B. Sabin.” Biologicals atmosphere, a prediction later borne out by 21, no. 4 (December 1993): 299–303. spacecraft sensors. Sagan and his first graduate Paul, John R. A History of Poliomyelitis. New Haven: student, James Pollack (1938 –1994), also ar- Yale University Press, 1971. gued that the changing features of Mars visible in telescopes from Earth were the result of dust storms, not biological changes in the form of plants. Later discoveries by the Sagan, Carl (1934–1996) Mariner spacecraft confirmed the correctness A prominent planetary astronomer, Carl of this theory as well. Sagan also worked on Sagan also gained fame as a science popular- understanding the possible prebiotic condi- izer. Carl Edward Sagan was born in Brook- tions on Earth that promoted the creation of lyn, New York, the son of a Jewish Ukrainian life, and he is acknowledged as one of the immigrant who worked in the garment in- founders of the field of astrobiology. dustry, eventually becoming a factory man- In the 1960s, Sagan began a parallel career ager. As a child, Sagan was intensely inter- as a popularizer and strong advocate of sci- ested in science, with a special love of ence, even while continuing to produce a sig- astronomy, and he was excited by the ideas of nificant amount of scientific work. He proved space travel and science fiction. He graduated to be a talented writer, and his 1977 book, from high school at the age of sixteen and The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolu- went to the University of Chicago on a schol- tion of Human Intelligence, sold a million copies arship. His undergraduate education was un- worldwide and won a Pulitzer Prize. Sagan usually broad in the sciences and humanities. cofounded The Planetary Society in 1980 to He earned a general and specific honors B.A. promote the exploration of space by advocat- degree in 1954 and a B.S. in physics in 1955. ing continued government and private ef- He remained at Chicago to earn an M.S. in forts. Sagan’s 1980 public television series, physics in 1956 and a Ph.D. in astronomy and Cosmos, introduced viewers to a wonder-filled astrophysics in 1960.After a fellowship at the universe and proved immensely popular. University of California at Berkeley, Sagan Sagan appeared as a guest on popular late- joined the faculty at Harvard University in night television talk shows and wrote 1962. After being denied tenure at Harvard, columns for popular magazines. Among his he moved to Cornell University in 1968. other books were ruminations on astronomy, Sagan followed his interests and specialized comets, space travel, evolution, asteroid haz- in planetary astronomy at a time when it was ards, and opposition to the Strategic Defense a backwater in the larger field of astronomy. Initiative (commonly called “Star Wars”). Sagan, Carl 255

Carl Sagan, planetary astronomer and science writer, holds the plaque he helped design. (Noel M. McKinnell/Corbis)

In the 1980s, Sagan and other researchers ages from Earth on it and a selection of concluded that a massive exchange of nuclear sounds, including sounds of nature and voice weapons between the Soviet Union and greetings in fifty-five languages. Sagan’s United States would not only kill millions, novel, Contact, published in 1985, described but would result in so much dust being raised the results of first contact with an alien by the explosions that the world’s tempera- species via radio transmissions.The novel be- ture would drop and Earth would experience came a movie shortly after his death. a “nuclear winter.” Sagan came to this conclu- As a young man, Sagan believed that sion because he noticed that temperatures on UFOs might be extraterrestrial vehicles and Mars had dropped during a massive dust that Mars had canals on its surface.After dis- storm observed by an orbiting Mariner abusing himself of these ideas, he became a spacecraft. strong advocate of what he characterized as Sagan also advocated an intensive search rational thinking, and an effective critic of for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). In his UFOs and creationism. His last book, The role as a NASA consultant, Sagan, with oth- Demon-Haunted World:Science as a Candle in the ers, created plaques of greetings, carried by Dark (1996), debunked many pseudoscien- the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft in case an tific notions. alien intelligence encountered the craft at Sagan married Lynn Alexander in 1957. some unknown time in the future. He also They had two sons before divorcing in 1963. coordinated something similar for the Voy- Lynn remarried, and she retained her new ager spacecraft, each of which carried a 12- married name of Lynn Margulis (1938–) inch, gold-plated copper disk with 115 im- even after her divorce. Margulis became 256 Sakharov, Andrei

The plaque of greeting carried by both Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts (Courtesy of NASA)

well-known as an advocate of symbiosis and Sakharov, Andrei (1921–1989) the Gaia hypothesis and for her popular sci- Andrei Sakharov is credited with designing ence writings, coauthored with her son, Do- the Soviet hydrogen bomb and later became rion Sagan. Sagan married again in 1968 and famous for his dissident activities in the had another son before divorcing in 1981. He causes of peace and human rights. Andrei then married Ann Druyan, a collaborator on Dmitrievich Sakharov was born in Moscow, Cosmos and some of his science writings, and where his father was a professor of physics at had three more children. Sagan died in Seat- the Lenin Pedagogical Institute. He attended tle, Washington, after a two-year struggle Moscow State University, and upon his grad- with myelodysplasia. uation in 1942, he worked as a munitions en- See also Astronomy; Cold War; Creationism; Jet gineer in a factory during World War II. Propulsion Laboratory; Margulis, Lynn; Media Sakharov married in 1943 and eventually fa- and Popular Culture; National Aeronautics and thered three children. Space Administration; Search for After the war, Sakharov studied at the Extraterrestrial Intelligence; Space Exploration Lebedev Institute of the Soviet Academy of and Space Science;Voyager Spacecraft Sciences and earned a doctorate in the physi- References Davidson, Keay. Carl Sagan:A Life. New York: cal and mathematical sciences at age twenty- Wiley, 1999. six. His mentor, Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm Poundstone,William. Carl Sagan:A Life in the (1895–1971), brought Sakharov into the So- Cosmos. New York: Henry Holt, 1999. viet nuclear weapons program. The Soviets Salk, Jonas 257 exploded their first atomic bomb in 1949; publicly condemned the Soviet invasion of Sakharov developed a design like a layer cake Afghanistan, the authorities exiled him to the for a hydrogen bomb, which used the fission closed city of Gorky. In 1986, his exile of an atomic bomb as a trigger to create a ended, thanks to the liberalization program thermonuclear explosion.The Americans ex- of (1931–), and he was ploded their first hydrogen bomb in 1952, elected to the Congress of People’s Deputies and the Soviets exploded their first hydrogen shortly before his death. bomb nine months later in 1953. Sakharov See also Big Science; Cold War; Ethics; Hydrogen was credited with the major scientific ad- Bomb; Nobel Prizes; Nuclear Physics; Soviet vances of the Soviet hydrogen bomb and Academy of Sciences; Soviet Union;Teller, elected to the Soviet Academy of Sciences.At Edward age thirty-two, he was the youngest person References ever elected to the academy. He continued Lourie, Richard. Sakharov:A Biography. Hanover, NH: Brandeis University Press, 2002. theoretical and practical work on nuclear Sakharov,Andrei. Memoirs.New York: Knopf, 1990. weapons and nuclear reactors while living a privileged life in the Soviet Union. In the late 1950s, Sakharov opposed con- tinued nuclear testing because of the environ- Salam, Abdus mental effects on the atmosphere, but kept SeeThird World Science his objections confined to official channels. In 1963, he joined other scientists in discredit- ing Trofim Lysenko (1898–1976), a geneticist favored by Josef Stalin (1879–1953) who Salk, Jonas (1914–1995) damaged Soviet agriculture and the Soviet The virologist Jonas Salk developed the first practice of genetics with his unscientific the- effective polio vaccine, becoming an interna- ories. As the 1960s progressed, Sakharov be- tional celebrity and founding the institute came a public dissident, opposed to the re- that bears his name. Jonas Salk was born in pression inherent in Soviet society. In 1968, New York City, where his intelligence was he published an essay,“Thoughts on Progress, recognized early. He graduated from a high Peaceful Coexistence, and Intellectual Free- school for gifted children at age fifteen and dom,” calling for an end to the cold war and entered the City College of New York.With a advocating human rights. The Soviet govern- B.S. degree awarded in 1934, he entered ment removed him from nuclear weapons re- New York University’s School of Medicine. search and assigned him to the lowest possi- Salk obtained his M.D. in 1939 and followed ble position at the Lebedev Institute that a his mentor, the virologist Thomas Francis Jr. member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (1900–1969), to the University of Michigan. could hold. He continued his scientific in- During World War II, Francis headed the quiries into quantum mechanics, quarks, and Army Influenza Commission. Francis be- the idea of antiquarks. lieved that vaccines from dead viruses could After the death of his first wife, Sakharov work as well as the more common vaccines married a fellow dissident,Yelena G. Bonner, derived from live viruses. Francis and Salk in 1971. He became ever more vocal as a dis- worked on creating flu vaccines using killed sident, and his status as a scientist trans- viruses and found some success. formed him into an important symbol.When In 1947, Salk moved out on his own to the he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975 for University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, his dissident activities, Soviet authorities re- where he headed the Virus Research Labora- fused to allow him to leave the Soviet Union tory. He continued to work on influenza vac- to accept the prize. In 1980, when Sakharov cines, which the army funded, but his interest 258 Salk, Jonas

Jonas Salk, virologist, 1954 (Bettmann/Corbis)

soon turned to poliomyelitis (infantile paral- tained funding from the foundation to sup- ysis). Polio usually did not result in paralysis port his research. or death, but its effect on children sometimes In 1948, John Enders (1897–1985) and his included paralysis or death, which particu- colleagues succeeded in culturing the polio larly terrified parents at a time when most virus in normal human cells. Up to that time, childhood diseases had finally been controlled the polio virus had only been cultured in in the United States.The country considered human nerve cells and in live monkeys. Salk itself in the midst of an epidemic, and a Na- used this discovery to more quickly culture tional Foundation for Infantile Paralysis raised viruses. Other researchers established that private money to combat the disease. Salk ob- there existed three types of polio, which Sanger, Frederick 259 helped Salk isolate the viruses. Experiments See also Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; with his viruses on monkeys in 1952 created Crick, Francis; Enders, John; Foundations; high levels of antibodies. Salk tested the virus Medicine; Pharmacology; Sabin, Albert on himself, his family, and his staff, before References Carter, Richard. Breakthrough:The Saga of Jonas starting the first trials on children.The trials Salk. New York:Trident, 1966. demonstrated higher levels of polio antibod- Salk Institute for Biological Studies. http://www. ies in the subjects. The use of a killed-virus salk.edu/ (accessed February 13, 2004). vaccine proved controversial, and Albert Smith, Jane S. Patenting the Sun: Polio and the Salk Sabin (1906–1993), the leading polio re- Vaccine. New York:William Morrow, 1990. searcher of the day, objected to such an ap- proach, fearing long-term dangers. In 1953, the National Foundation for In- fantile Paralysis supported Salk in a larger Sanger, Frederick (1918–) trial on children. When word of the trial The British biochemist Frederick Sanger re- leaked to the press, Salk became an instant ceived two Nobel prizes in chemistry. Fred- celebrity. The trials expanded to include erick Sanger was born in Rendcombe, nearly 2 million children, with the results an- Gloucestershire, England, where his father alyzed by a team headed by Francis. Pro- was a physician. Before arriving at Saint nounced a success in 1955, the Salk vaccine John’s College, Cambridge University, began to be used in mass immunizations. Salk Sanger decided to change his ambitions from received a Congressional Gold Medal in medicine to science because he wanted to be 1955, as well as the 1956 Albert Lasker single-minded in his activities. In 1939, he award, and he became the Commonwealth graduated with a B.A. in biochemistry. His Professor of Medicine at the University of Quaker beliefs led him to avoid military ser- Pittsburgh. Sabin eventually developed a live- vice as a conscientious objector during World virus vaccine, and after successful interna- War II, though he did not remain committed tional tests, Sabin’s vaccine began to be used to Quakerism later in life. The British gov- in the United States in 1962, eventually su- ernment allowed him to continue to study for perseding Salk’s vaccine. his Ph.D. degree, and he graduated in 1943. Salk used his fame to set up an indepen- Sanger married in 1940 and fathered two dent laboratory, the Salk Institute for Biolog- sons and a daughter. Sanger remained at ical Studies in La Jolla, California. He at- Cambridge as a researcher until 1951, when tracted other luminaries, such as Francis he joined the staff of the Medical Research Crick (1916–2004), to relocate to the insti- Council (MRC). A researcher his entire life, tute. By the end of the century, the institute he never took a position that included exten- employed over nine hundred researchers. sive teaching duties and only later gained ad- Salk married the day after receiving his ministrative duties. Private income from his M.D. in 1939 and fathered three sons. The mother’s inheritance helped support his com- marriage ended in divorce in 1968, and he mitment to research. remarried three years later. Starting with A passion for understanding the sequence Man Unfolding in 1972, Salk published sev- and structure of organic molecules domi- eral optimistic books for popular audiences nated his life. Mostly working alone, Sanger on the implications of biology for humanity. developed new techniques for sequencing In the 1980s, Salk returned to directing amino acids and eventually described the research; he unsuccessfully tried to develop complete sequence of insulin in 1953. He a vaccine to combat the new scourge of chose insulin when other researchers looked acquired immunodeficiency syndrome at other proteins because he could easily buy (AIDS). insulin in its pure form. Sanger received the 260 Satellites

1958 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work, Satellites and he found the award opened more oppor- The Russian physicist Konstantin Tsiolkovksy tunities to him in terms of funding, staff, and (1857–1935) developed the principles that resources. In 1962, Sanger moved to the later led to rockets and spacecraft. He pro- newly built Laboratory of Molecular Biology posed the artificial satellite, a man-made ana- at Cambridge, still part of the Medical Re- logue to natural satellites like the Moon, in an search Council. 1895 book. This vision inspired early rocket Sanger became interested in sequencing inventors, and the impetus of World War II nucleic acids, which form the basis of de- led the Germans to develop sophisticated oxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic rocket technology. After the war, the Soviet acid (RNA) molecules. Unlike his earlier Union and United States used captured Ger- solitary work, Sanger’s later work profited man technology, scientists, engineers, and from considerable collaboration with stu- technicians to create their own rocket tech- dents and postdoctoral students. Sanger and nology. Although rocket development be- his colleagues developed dideoxy, some- came an important part of the cold war with times called , a method the development of nuclear-tipped missiles, still used to rapidly sequence genes. In spacecraft enthusiasts had not forgotten the 1979, Sanger’s team produced the first com- dream of artificial satellites.A 1956 book ed- plete genome sequence of an organism, the ited by the U.S. physicist James A.Van Allen 10 bases and 5,000 base pairs of the bacte- (1914–), Scientific Uses of Earth Satellites, de- riophage phi-X174. For this work, Sanger scribed the many possible uses of satellites. shared the 1980 Nobel Prize with Paul Berg Launching an artificial satellite became one of (1926–) and Walter Gilbert (1932–). (Berg the goals of the International Geophysical and Gilbert had made important advances in Year (1957–1958).The Soviets surprised the the creation of the science and technology of world by launching Sputnik I on October 4, genetic engineering.) Only three people 1957. In their haste to beat the Americans, have been awarded two Nobel Prizes. they made the first satellite very simple, with Sanger’s innovations made possible the few scientific instruments. On November 3, Human Genome Project and further ad- 1957, the much larger Sputnik II was vances in genetic engineering. Other awards launched with a dog, Laika, aboard, as well as for Sanger included becoming a fellow of many more scientific instruments. Laika died the Royal Society in 1954, a member of the in orbit. Order of Merit in 1986, and a Companion The embarrassed Americans compounded of Honour in 1981. their embarrassment on December 6, when See also Biotechnology; Chemistry; Genetics; the launcher of the first American satellite, Gilbert,Walter; Human Genome Project; Vanguard 1, exploded on launch. The Ameri- Nobel Prizes cans launched the first successful American References satellite, Explorer 1, on January 31, 1958.The “Frederick Sanger—Autobiography.” satellite discovered zones of radiation around http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/in Earth, later named the Van Allen Radiation dex.html (accessed February 13, 2004). Jones, Glyn, and Kate Douglas. “The Quiet Belts in honor of the creator of the scientific Genius Who Decoded Life.” New Scientist 144, instrument that detected the radiation. Scien- no. 1946 (October 8, 1994): 32–35. tists later learned that Earth’s magnetic field created these belts of radiation and that the belts helped protect Earth from some of the more harmful effects of solar radiation. Sanger, Margaret (1879–1966) The cold war drove competition between See Birth Control Pill the Soviets and Americans, and science bene- Satellites 261

A painting of one of the twenty-four satellites that make up the Global Positioning System (AP/Wide World Photos) fited. Arthur C. Clarke (1917–) had pro- was formed to launch and maintain commu- posed the idea of communications satellites in nications satellites for member nations of the 1945, but his idea was lost and only belatedly free world. Satellite data links, satellite rediscovered as the idea became a reality. phones, and revolutionized Early efforts relied on radio signals bouncing how scientists communicated and provided a off experimental communications satellites way for scientific knowledge to be more ef- made of aluminized Mylar balloons that ex- fectively broadcast and popularized. Since the panded in space after delivery into orbit. Tel- beginning of the space age, over 5,000 satel- star 1, launched in 1962, was paid for by the lites have been launched. American Telephone and Telegraph corpora- Satellites also revolutionized the practice of tion, beginning commercial exploitation of meteorology. The first high-altitude photo- space. Later satellites provided television and graph to reveal new cloud formations was telephone relays between ground stations. By taken from a V-2 rocket captured from the 1964, satellites were being placed in geosyn- Germans and launched in 1947. In 1959, the chronous orbit, 22,300 miles (35,880 kilo- American satellite Explorer 6 took pictures of meters) above the equator, where their orbit Earth from orbit. In 1960, the National Aero- kept them in station over the same place on nautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth. Also in 1964, (International launched Tiros 1, the first satellite of many de- Satellite Organization) signed for meteorology.The first ten satellites 262 Satellites

of the Tiros (Television and Infra-Red Obser- States began to take images for commercial vation Satellite) series developed the technol- sale to all customers, offering resolution of ogy, and the following nine Tiros satellites ground objects smaller than two meters. formed an operational system. Tiros 3 tracked The same technology used for weather Hurricane Carla in 1963, allowing hundreds satellites and Earth observation satellites was of thousands to evacuate before Carla reached refined by the U.S. and Soviet militaries to land and thus proving the value of weather create military reconnaissance satellites. The satellites.The satellites also revealed unknown requirement for the U.S. military to always cloud formations and allowed scientists to be able to precisely locate their personnel and readily follow the development of storm sys- equipment anywhere on Earth’s surface led tems. More advanced satellites from the to the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS). United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eu- An experimental system of ten satellites was ropean Space Agency followed the Tiros se- launched between 1978 and 1985.An opera- ries. Japan, China, and India have also added tional system of twenty-four satellites, their own satellites to the system.The World launched between 1989 and 1994, now al- Meteorological Organization (WMO), part lows those with a GPS receiver to locate of the United Nations, coordinates exchang- themselves on the surface of Earth with up to ing information between different countries 10 meters’ accuracy. U.S. military users have and their weather satellites. No tropical storm better resolution. GPS changed the practice has escaped detection and tracking since of scientific fieldwork by allowing exact 1966, and even though satellites have only measurements of continental drift, pinpoint- made weather forecasting better, not perfect, ing the location of geological formations, ar- meteorologists now know exactly what is chaeological sites, animal populations, and happening anywhere in the world. any other application requiring the precision Satellites containing telescopes and other that GPS offers. sensors have completely revolutionized solar, interstellar, and interplanetary astronomy. See also Astronomy; Clarke, Arthur C.; Cold NASA launched in 1990 the most famous of War; European Space Agency; International Geophysical Year; Space Exploration and Space these satellites, the Hubble Space Telescope. Science A manufacturing flaw in the main telescope’s References mirror required a 1993 space shuttle visit for Chaisson, Eric J. The Hubble Wars:Astrophysics Meets space-walking astronauts to repair the defect. Astropolitics in the Two-Billion-Dollar Struggle over NASA’s Landsat program changed the way the Hubble Space Telescope. New York: HarperCollins, 1994. that we look at our planet. The first three Curtis, Anthony R. Space Satellite Handbook.Third Landsat satellites, launched in 1972, 1975, and edition. Houston: Gulf, 1994. 1978, transmitted back data to be converted Mack, Pamela E. Viewing the Earth:The Social into colored pictures. The pictures revealed Construction of the Landsat Satellite System. topological features, geological fault lines, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990. crop and vegetation patterns, hidden archaeo- Tedeschi, Anthony Michael. Live via Satellite:The Story of COMSAT and the Technology That Changed logical sites, pollution concentrations, ocean World Communication.Washington, DC: and surface temperature patterns, and tropical Acropolis, 1989. rain forest depletion. Other Earth observation Tucker,Wallace, and Karen Tucker. Revealing the satellites followed from the Soviet Union, Universe:The Making of the Chandra X-Ray France, the European Space Agency, Japan, Observatory. Cambridge Harvard University Press, 2001. India, Canada, and China, as well as further Williamson, Mark. “‘And Now the Weather’:The U.S. satellites in the Landsat series and other Early Development of the Meteorological efforts. In the 1980s and 1990s, commercial Satellite.” Transactions of the Newcomen Society 66 satellites from Russia, France, and the United (1995): 53–76. Science Fiction 263

Schwinger, Julian (1918–1994) finite results and problems with how to han- The American physicist Julian Schwinger dle the self-energy of particles. Richard P. made important contributions to the theory Feynman (1918–1988), a fellow New Yorker, of quantum electrodynamics (QED). Julian independently developed a similar theory, as Seymour Schwinger was born in New York did Shinichiro Tomonaga (1906–1979), City, where his father worked as a dress de- working in war-imposed isolation in Japan. signer and manufacturer. A child prodigy, he Freeman Dyson (1923–) showed that the quickly moved through the public school sys- three theories were mathematically equiva- tem and graduated at age fourteen. He en- lent, and the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics was tered the City College of New York and began shared among Schwinger, Feynman, and to work on quantum mechanics. Schwinger Tomonaga. Feynman’s mathematical notation published his first paper in the system for QED was accepted by the physics when only sixteen years old. I. I. Rabi community over the systems created by (1898–1988), a Polish-born physicist who Schwinger and Tomonaga. later won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physics, Schwinger proposed in 1957 that two took notice of the young man and arranged forms of neutrinos existed, one associated for a scholarship to bring Schwinger to Co- with electrons and the other with muons. A lumbia University. He earned his B.S. in neutrino associated with the formation of a physics in 1936 and spent time studying at the muon particle was discovered in 1962. University of Wisconsin at Madison and Pur- Schwinger also mentored Sheldon Glashow due University before earning his Ph.D. in (1932–), who shared in the 1979 Nobel Prize physics at Columbia in 1939, while still only in Physics for his work on quarks. twenty-one years old. After two years at the Schwinger’s later research pursued a varia- University of California at Berkeley, conduct- tion of the search for a grand unified theory. ing research with J. Robert Oppenheimer In 1972, Schwinger accepted a position at the (1904–1967), Schwinger joined the faculty at University of California at Los Angeles, Purdue. where he died in 1994. During World War II, Schwinger worked See also Dyson, Freeman; Feynman, Richard; on the Manhattan Project at the University of Glashow, Sheldon L.; Grand Unified Theory; Chicago for a time before spending the rest of Neutrinos; Nobel Prizes; Oppenheimer, J. the war at the Radiation Laboratory at the Robert; Particle Physics; Physics Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where References he worked on radar.When the war ended, he Martin, Paul C., and Sheldon L. Glashow.“Julian Schwinger: Prodigy, Problem Solver, joined the faculty of Harvard University and Pioneering Physicist.” Physics Today 48, no. 20 became a full professor in 1947, one of the (1995): 40–46. youngest ever appointed to that rank at Har- Mehra, Jagdish, and Kimball A. Milton. Climbing vard. Also in 1947, Schwinger married; the the Mountain:The Scientific Biography of Julian marriage produced no children. Schwinger. New York: Oxford University Press, The English mathematician and theoretical 2000. physicist P.A. M. Dirac (1902–1984) devel- oped the original theory describing the rela- tionship between electromagnetic fields and Science Fiction charged particles, though it was widely rec- Science fiction is the literature of the scientific ognized as flawed. Schwinger was part of the age. Born in adventure pulp magazines during second generation that refined the theory. the first half of the twentieth century, the sci- Schwinger developed a new theory of QED ence fiction genre began to mature in the to renormalize Dirac’s theory and fixed 1940s and 1950s. Although many of the early flawed mathematical equations that led to in- stories suffered from simplistic characters and 264 Science Fiction

juvenile plots, speculations on the impact of place of seeming magic. Often the cyperpunk science and technology, and extrapolations of vision turned depressing and pessimistic, possible future directions of science and tech- though the 1990s saw cyberpunk themes ab- nology, have proved to be insightful and use- sorbed into the more optimistic mainstream ful. Isaac Asimov (1920–1992), prolific writer of science fiction, just as the earlier New Wave of both popularized science and science fic- movement was absorbed. tion, thought the genre was dominated by ad- Commentators have noted a difference be- venture themes up to 1939 and by technology tween “soft” science fiction and “hard” science themes until 1950, with sociological themes fiction. Soft science fiction usually concen- becoming dominant after 1950.Although pre- trates on psychological or sociological dominant themes are apparent, the genre has themes. Hard science fiction is informed by a been characterized by wide variation in qual- sustained effort to make the proposed science ity and diversity in content. and technology plausible. Noted authors of In the 1950s, writers in the Soviet Union hard science fiction include Asimov, Stephen and communist Eastern European countries Baxter (1957–), Greg Bear (1951–), Gregory used science fiction as a way to break away Benford (1941–), David Brin (1950–), from the confines of government-encouraged Arthur C. Clarke (1917–), Michael Crichton socialist realism in literature. The works of (1942–), James P. Hogan (1941–), Larry the Polish Stanislaw Lem (1921–) and the So- Niven (1938–), Frederik Pohl (1919–), Brian viet brothers Arkady Strugatski (1925–1991) M. Stableford (1948–), and Olaf Stapledon and Boris Strugatski (1931–) effectively (1886–1950). Poul Anderson’s Tau Zero delved into philosophical and ethical ele- (1970) follows the story of a starship that ac- ments of science. Although often viewed as a celerates so close to the speed of light that quintessentially American genre, science fic- they witness the end of the universe and a tion has found practitioners in many coun- new Big Bang. Gregory Benford’s Timescape tries, and the genre has international appeal. (1981) is a time travel novel that strives to In the 1960s a New Wave movement out of maintain scientific plausibility.Robert L. For- Britain expanded the bounds of science fiction ward’s Dragon’s Egg (1980) portrays how life from conventional space travel stories. Tradi- might exist on a neutron star. Impending eco- tional science fiction was optimistic about the logical collapse and global warming are por- future, whereas New Wave authors tended to- trayed in David Brin’s Earth (1987). Practic- ward pessimism, had a taste for dystopian so- ing scientists such as Carl Sagan (1934– cieties, and enjoyed breaking taboos.The New 1996), Fred Hoyle (1915–2001), and Robert Wave forced the genre into more complex L. Forward (1932–2002) have also written stories, more adult discussions of sexuality, hard science fiction. The best science fiction and a willingness to examine every possible remains in the written format, with most sort of question about the future. movies and television series in the genre en- In the early 1980s, computers inspired the gaging in little scientific rigor. cyberpunk movement in the genre. Oddly Science fiction has effectively examined enough, the rise of personal computers was many of the possibilities that arise from space almost completely absent from science fiction exploration, the possible success of the search prior to the 1970s, but cyberpunk fiction for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), quan- made up for that, describing worlds where tum reality, and the implications of extrasolar computers and the flow of data completely planets containing life. Even before scientists transformed human relationships and the and the general population became concerned common reality that everyone experienced. about environmental issues, science fiction The exciting possibilities of nanotechnology often incorporated environmental themes, at times turned the cyberpunk world into a particularly overpopulation and ecological Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence 265

A still photograph from the science fiction movie 2001: A Space Odyssey (Underwood & Underwood/Corbis)

collapse. Although successful predictions of Search for Extraterrestrial future science or technology are easy enough Intelligence to come by, science fiction is at its best when The search for extraterrestrial intelligence portraying the scientific method as a way to (SETI) is the attempt to find other intelli- knowledge and the implications of scientific gent life in the universe. Although science and technological advances. Science fiction fiction writers made intelligent extraterres- has also excited many young people to pursue trial aliens part of their staple fare from the science or engineering as a career choice. beginning, scientists only occasionally spec- See also Asimov, Isaac; Big Bang Theory and ulated on this area. In 1950, the nuclear Steady State Theory; Clarke, Arthur C.; physicist and Nobel laureate Enrico Fermi Environmental Movement; Extrasolar Planets; (1901– 1954) asked the obvious question: if Hoyle, Fred; Media and Popular Culture; extraterrestrial beings are common, where Nanotechnology; Sagan, Carl; Search for are they? The physicists Giuseppe Cocconi Extraterrestrial Intelligence; Space Exploration (1914–) and Phillip Morrison (1915–) pub- and Space Science lished a paper in the journal Nature in 1959 References Adliss, Brian, and David Wingrove. Tr illion Year proposing that the new radio technology al- Spree:The History of Science Fiction. New York: lowed us to listen for deliberate radio trans- Atheneum, 1986. missions from extraterrestrial civilizations Clute, John, and Peter Nicholls. The Encyclopedia around other stars.The astronomer Frank D. of Science Fiction. New York: St. Martin’s Drake (1930–), who worked at the National Griffin, 1993. Radio Astronomical Observatory in Green Disch,Thomas M. The Dreams Our Stuff Is Made Of: How Science Fiction Conquered the World. New Bank, West Virginia, had already been for- York: Free Press, 1998. mulating plans to do just that. He proposed Goswami, Amit, and Maggie Goswami. The Cosmic to listen for extraterrestrial transmissions Dancers: Exploring the Physics of Science Fiction. from two nearby stars,Tau Ceti and Epsilon New York: Harper and Row, 1983. Eridani. Each star was similar to our own Hartwell, David. Age of Wonders: Exploring the World of Science Fiction. Revised edition. New York: Sun. Drake called the effort Project Ozma, Tor, 1996. after the queen of Oz in the Frank Baum Nicholls, Peter. The Science in Science Fiction. New novels. York: Knopf, 1983. On April 8, 1960, Drake and his colleagues 266 Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence began to listen at the 1,420-megahertz fre- 1970s. In 1977, they received an intense sig- quency, based on the idea that this frequency nal, dubbed the “wow” signal, that was never is emitted by hydrogen, the most basic atom. repeated and entered the folklore as an in- Although this first effort did not bear fruit, triguing mystery. These efforts around the Drake continued to emphasize the subject in world expanded their search beyond the his research. He developed a mathematical original frequency of 1,420 megahertz. equation, known as the Drake formula, that Eventually electronic devices were developed attempted to calculate the chances of even- to simultaneously record many frequencies tual success.The values for several factors in and automatically record frequencies while the equation are completely unknown. How radio telescopes performed other research. often are planets formed around stars? How An effort in the 1990s at the radio telescope many of those planets will develop condi- at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, was called tions hospitable to life? How many of those SERENDIP III (Search for Extraterrestrial planets will develop life? How often will life Radio Emissions from Newly Developed In- eventually evolve intelligence and develop telligent Populations); it recorded 10,000 the technology to communicate via radio hours of time. The Planetary Society, co- through interstellar space? What is the aver- founded by Carl Sagan, funded the age lifetime of an extraterrestrial technolog- SERENDIP projects.Analyzing the data from ical civilization? SERENDIP III required massive amounts of The next efforts in SETI occurred in the computer processing power, and an innova- Soviet Union, where Nikolai Kardashev tive project called SETI@home allowed per- (1932–) and Vsevolod Troitsky participated in sonal computers in homes to be used in this several listening efforts. Instead of concen- effort. The SETI@home program ran as a trating on individual stars, the Soviets screen saver, periodically downloading over searched large sections of the sky, hoping to the Internet new units of data to work on and find extraterrestrial civilizations that broad- returning the results of data that had been cast powerful signals. Radio telescopes processed. Over a million people worldwide bloomed around the world in the 1960s and have downloaded and run this program. afterward, but SETI had such a low probabil- NASA periodically funded SETI efforts ity of success that time on radio telescopes until congressional action suspended this sup- remained hard to obtain. The regular radio port in 1993. SETI advocates turned to pri- pulse of the first pulsar,discovered in 1967 by vate donors to fund their continued efforts.A Jocelyn Bell Burnell, made some wonder if major organization in this private effort was she had actually stumbled across a transmis- the SETI Institute at Mountain View, Califor- sion from an extraterrestrial intelligence.The nia, founded in 1984 by Drake, Carl Sagan, discovery of other pulsars and a natural ex- and others. In 2003, NASA resumed funding planation removed that tantalizing possibility. SETI efforts. Other efforts at SETI in the United States In 1974, Drake and others engaged in an eventually resumed. The National Aeronau- obvious extension of SETI. Using the dish at tics and Space Administration (NASA) pro- Arecibo, a message in binary code was trans- posed a Project Cyclops in the mid-1970s to mitted toward the Great Cluster in the con- build a large radio telescope array dedicated stellation Hercules. The message included a to SETI.The proposed effort, costing billions visual representation of the formulas for the of dollars, was not funded, but the research four chemicals that form DNA molecules, a became a basis for many other efforts. description of the solar system, and other in- The All Sky Survey at Ohio State Univer- formation. The NASA Pioneer spacecraft, sity has regularly used their radio telescope as launched to visit Jupiter and Saturn, eventu- part of a long-running SETI effort since the ally left the solar system, and each carried a Search for Extrraterrestrial Intelligence 267

The 1,000-foot-wide dish of the Arecibo Radio Telescope as viewed from its cable-suspended receiver (Roger Ressmeyer/Corbis) plaque of greeting in case an alien intelligence Exobiologie, and the Australian Centre for encountered the craft at some unknown time Astrobiology. The University of Washington in the future. NASA’s Voyager space probes began a graduate program in astrobiology, each carried a 12-inch, gold-plated copper funded by a grant from the National Science disk with 115 images from Earth on it and a Foundation. Astrobiologists have drawn en- selection of sounds, including natural sounds couragement from the discovery of life in and voice greetings in fifty-five languages. deep-sea hydrothermal vents, on the fringes The astronomer Carl Sagan coordinated the of volcanoes, and even in the frigid waters of selection of the material. Lake Vostok near the South Pole in Antarc- The discovery of extrasolar planets in tica. Landings by robotic craft are planned to 1995 added enthusiasm to the SETI effort, seek primitive life in possible liquid oceans beginning an effort to determine a value for under ice mantles on large moons of Jupiter one of the unknowns in Drake’s formula. In and Saturn. the 1990s, the new interdisciplinary disci- If any extraterrestrial intelligence were pline of astrobiology was born.Astrobiology, found, it would certainly have a dramatic reli- also called exobiology or bioastronomy, tried gious, social, and scientific impact on human- to understand the processes of life on Earth ity. Socially marginal movements of quasi- better in order to understand how life might religious advocates claim that extraterrestrial emerge and persist on other planets. NASA aliens have already visited Earth.They point to formed an Astrobiology Institute in 1998, unidentified flying objects (UFOs), alien ab- part of a surge in international efforts that in- duction accounts, and the notion that ancient cluded the Centro de Astrobiologia in Spain, alien astronauts taught science and technolo- the French Groupement de Recherche en gies to the ancient civilizations of Earth. 268 Selye, Hans

See also Astronomy; Bell Burnell, Jocelyn; Deep- remain at McGill, where he became a lec- Sea Hydrothermal Vents; Extrasolar Planets; turer in biochemistry in 1933. He moved up Internet; Lovelock, James; National the academic ranks to become a professor Aeronautics and Space Administration; and director of the Institute of Experimental National Science Foundation; Sagan, Carl; Science Fiction; Space Exploration and Space Medicine and Surgery at the University of Science;Telescopes;Volcanoes;Voyager Montreal. Spacecraft In 1936, Selye injected laboratory rats References with sex hormones and found that the hor- Asimov, Isaac. Extraterrestrial Civilizations. New mones caused ulcers, damaged the outer tis- York: Crown, 1979. Darling, David. Life Everywhere:The Maverick Science sue of the adrenal glands, and shrunk the of Astrobiology. New York: Basic, 2001. lymphatic structures, leading to eventual Dick, Steven J. The Biological Universe:The death. Further research showed that inject- Twentieth-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate and ing any toxic substance caused the same re- the Limits of Science. New York: Cambridge action. Selye concluded that physiological University Press, 1996. stress damaged the body’s endocrinologic Parker, Barry. Alien Life:The Search for Extraterrestrials and Beyond. New York: Plenum, system. He developed a theory that stress 1998. caused an alarm reaction, mobilizing the SETI Institute. http://www.seti-inst.edu body’s defenses to a state of resistance, and (accessed February 13, 2004). finally led to a stage of exhaustion that might Shklovskii, Iosef Shumeulovich, and Carl Sagan. result in death. He published an extensive Intelligent Life in the Universe. New York: Holden-Day, 1966. monograph, Stress, in 1950 expounding and Sullivan,Walter. We Are Not Alone:The Continuing defending his theory.Though he faced resis- Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. Revised tance to this theory from other physicians, edition. New York: Dutton, 1993. his experiments and consistent results even- tually changed their minds. Physicians came to accept that physiological stress could con- Selye, Hans (1907–1982) tribute to many problems, including heart The endocrinologist Hans Selye demon- attacks, arthritis, allergies, kidney disease, strated how physiological stress affects the and inflammatory tissue diseases. Germ the- human body, fundamentally changing the ories and other basic physiological explana- perspective of scientists on stress. Hans Hugo tions had to be supplemented by the idea of Bruno Selye was born in Vienna,Austria, to a stress. wealthy family; his father was a surgeon. Ed- Selye retired from the University of Mon- ucated at first by governesses, Selye attended treal in 1977, but continued to direct the In- a private secondary school in Czechoslovakia, ternational Institute of Stress, which he had then entered the German University of founded the previous year.A skilled and pro- Prague in 1924. Studies at the University of lific writer, author of over forty books and Paris and University of Rome supplemented over a thousand articles, Selye wrote for both his study at the German University, where he his colleagues and lay audiences. In his later obtained his M.D. in 1929.Two years later he years, he promoted a code of ethics designed received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from to minimize negative stress in the lives of the same university.Drawn to research rather people; the code emphasized self-direction of than clinical practice, he obtained a Rocke- goals and observation of the Golden Rule. feller fellowship to study at Johns Hopkins Selye married three times, fathering five chil- University for a year, and then for another dren, and received numerous honors, includ- year at McGill University in Montreal, ing the Companion of the Order of Canada. Quebec. Fluent in ten languages, he chose to A well-deserved Nobel prize eluded him. Shoemaker, Eugene 269

Eugene Shoemaker, planetary geologist, before the Barringer Crater in Arizona, 1988 (Roger Ressmeyer/Corbis)

See also Medicine; Nobel Prizes M.S. the following year. He found employ- References ment with the United States Geological Sur- Selye, Hans. The Stress of My Life:A Scientist’s vey (USGS) in Grand Junction, Colorado, Memoirs.To ronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1977. where he worked with the uranium industry Viner, Russell. “Putting Stress in Life: Hans Selye in that area. Later work evaluating the and the Making of Stress Theory.” Social Studies craters formed by nuclear testing in Nevada of Science 29, no. 3 (June 1999): 391–410. gave him an interest in understanding im- pact craters. He earned his Ph.D. from Princeton in 1960 while still working at the Shoemaker, Eugene (1928–1997) USGS. His dissertation proved that the enig- Eugene Merle Shoemaker, a pioneering matic Barringer Crater in Arizona was actu- planetary geologist, specialized in lunar ge- ally the result of a meteorite impact, not ology, impact craters, and searching the sky volcanic action. for comets and asteroids. Born in Los Ange- In 1960, Shoemaker created an astrogeo- les, Shoemaker moved around the United logical section in the USGS to support the States, where his father held many different U.S. space program. During the Apollo proj- types of jobs, including being a teacher, be- ect, Shoemaker was involved as a senior sci- fore his family moved back to Los Angeles. entist and administrator. His work included In 1944, an early interest in geology led him analyzing images from the Ranger, Surveyor, to the California Institute of Technology and Lunar Orbiter spacecraft and Moon lan- (Caltech) at the age of sixteen. He gradu- ders, and determining where it was safe for ated with honors in 1947 and received his the astronauts to land. He wanted to be one 270 Shoemaker-Levy Comet Impact of the Apollo astronauts, but a diagnosis of Shoemaker-Levy Comet Impact Addison’s disease prevented him from achiev- On March 25, 1993, Carolyn Shoemaker dis- ing this dream. covered a comet on film from the 18-inch Retaining his association with the USGS, (0.46-meter) Schmidt wide-view telescope Shoemaker became a professor of geology at at Palomar in southern California. She was his alma mater, Caltech, in 1969. Using the part of a team that included her husband, the 18-inch (0.46-meter) Schmidt wide-view noted planetary geologist Eugene Shoe- telescope at Palomar Observatory, his col- maker, and their colleague, David Levy.Their leagues and he developed a program to search effort was part of a long-term sky survey to for comets and asteroids that passed close to find comets and asteroids, an effort started by Earth. This effort led to numerous discover- Eugene in the early 1970s.As was traditional, ies, including 32 comets and over a thousand the comet was named in honor of its discov- asteroids.The discovery in 1993 of the Shoe- erers.They soon learned that the comet was maker-Levy 9 comet led to a singular event really multiple objects, not a single ball of ice watched and analyzed by astronomers, as the and debris. After the trajectory of the comet comet subsequently broke up and impacted was calculated, astronomers realized that the the planet Jupiter.The implications of impact comet had approached to within 50,000 craters led Shoemaker and others to express miles of Jupiter the previous year and that the concern about future impacts on Earth, with gas giant’s tidal forces had probably frag- possibly catastrophic results for human civi- mented the comet at that time. Even more lization. He helped found the Spaceguard exciting, Jupiter’s gravity had altered the Foundation to coordinate international study comet’s course so that it was coming back to of this threat. impact the planet on its next orbit. Shoemaker married in 1951 and fathered Astronomers pointed the Hubble Space three children, and his wife, Carolyn, in Telescope for the first time at the comet on later years became a full partner in his sci- July 1, 1993, and confirmed the twenty-one entific research. Shoemaker died in 1997 in separate fragments that ground-based as- a car accident near Alice Springs, Australia, tronomers had already identified. From July while researching impact craters. The Near 16, 1994, until July 22, 1994, the fragments Earth Asteroid Mission (NEAR), sent to hit Jupiter in a series of spectacular events. orbit an asteroid, was renamed the NEAR Astronomers in observatories all over the Shoemaker spacecraft in his honor. The world watched and analyzed these impacts. Lunar Prospector spacecraft that impacted The Hubble Space Telescope and space-based the Moon in 1999 carried an ounce of his telescopes also provided observations. The cremated ashes. spacecraft Galileo was en route to the planet and observed the impacts with its instru- See also Apollo Project; Astronomy; Geology; ments. When Galileo entered orbit around National Aeronautics and Space Jupiter in December 1995, it provided close- Administration; Shoemaker-Levy Comet Impact; Space Exploration and Space Science; up analysis of the continuing effects of the Telescopes impacts. Astronomers used the Internet to References quickly send e-mail messages, data files, and Levy, David H. Shoemaker by Levy:The Man Who pictures to each other. Pictures and other in- Made an Impact. Princeton: Princeton formation were released to the world media University Press, 2000. Marsden, Brian. “Eugene Shoemaker as soon as they were received. (1928–1997).” http://www2.jpl.nasa Astronomers were astonished by the dra- .gov/sl9/news81.html (accessed February 13, matic effects on the planet. Great fireballs 2004). erupted on some impacts, one 3,000 kilome- Skinner, B. F. 271 ters high, leaving dark smudges on Jupiter’s where his father was a lawyer. He attended atmosphere, while other fragments were Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, swallowed by Jupiter with barely a trace.The where he earned an A.B. in 1926, majoring in fragments are thought to have been generally English. He intended to be a fiction writer, 1 to 2 kilometers in diameter, with fragment but gave up after a year. After reading psy- G being perhaps 3 kilometers wide. Scientists chology articles by the British philosopher still disagree over how large the comet frag- (1872–1970) and U.S. psy- ments were and exactly what happened in the chologist John B.Watson (1878–1958) on be- atmosphere. The results of the impacts were haviorism, he found a new path in life. In visible for years afterward as disturbances in 1928, he entered Harvard University, earning Jupiter’s atmosphere. an M.A. in 1930 and a Ph.D. in 1931, both in The lesson of Shoemaker-Levy 9 is that the psychology. Skinner remained at Harvard for solar system is filled with asteroids and five years as a researcher before accepting an comets that sometimes collide with planets. academic appointment at the University of Such an impact on Earth would be cata- Minnesota in 1936. Skinner believed that only strophic for human civilization and maybe observed actions could explain human behav- even for all higher life-forms on the planet. ior. As a child, he often built things, and as a Astronomers believe that the mysterious psychologist he built what became known as 1908 explosion in Tunguska, Siberia, was ei- the Skinner box, which provided a controlled ther a small comet or an asteroid hitting environment where rat behavior could be Earth or exploding in the atmosphere. The carefully monitored with only a few variables remote area was devastated. Tunguska was at a time. He developed a theory of operant not an isolated event, since Earth is covered conditioning, according to which positive re- with craters from past impacts. wards or negative rewards created habits of See also Astronomy; Internet; Satellites; behavior in rats, in other animals, and by ex- Shoemaker, Eugene; Space Exploration and tension, in humans. Space Science;Telescopes Skinner married in 1936, fathered two References daughters, and for the second daughter he Levy, David H. Impact Jupiter:The Crash of built a special mechanical crib that she spent Shoemaker-Levy 9. New York: Plenum, 1995. much of her first two years in.The crib stim- Noll, Keith S., Harold A.Weaver, and Paul D. Feldman, editors. The Collision of Comet ulated her with operant conditioning in a Shoemaker-Levy 9 and Jupiter. Cambridge: germ-free environment.When he published a Cambridge University Press, 1996. 1945 article in the popular Ladies’ Home Jour- Spencer, John R., and Jacqueline Mitton, editors. nal describing the crib, some people reacted The Great Comet Crash:The Impact of Comet with interest, trying to market the device, Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. while others were horrified. Verschuur, Gerrit L. Impact! The Threat of Comets During World War II Skinner received a and Asteroids. New York: Oxford University contract to train pigeons with operant condi- Press, 1996. tioning to guide missiles toward a target by pecking at the center of the target’s image. The idea worked, but was never actually im- Skinner, B. F. (1904–1990) plemented. After the war, Skinner became a The psychologist B. F.Skinner became famous professor of psychology at Indiana University. for promoting a theory of strict behaviorism His strict behaviorism had established his sci- that rejected free will or any form of uncon- entific reputation, and in 1948 he returned to scious motivation. Burrhus Frederic Skinner Harvard.That same year he published Walden was born in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, Two, a novel about a utopian community based 272 Skinner, B. F.

Yvonne Skinner, wife of B. F.Skinner, with their daughter and a mechanical crib that he designed to demonstrate his psychological theories (Bettmann/Corbis) on behaviorist principles.This novel attracted tirement in 1974. He received numerous a lot of attention and helped transform Skin- honors, including a Distinguished Scientific ner into a cultural icon. He used the publicity Contribution Award from the American Psy- to promote what he called the “technology of chological Association (APA) in 1958, a Na- behavior,” which he equated with the laws of tional Medal of Science in 1968, and the Gold behavioral science being used to create a bet- Medal of the APA in 1971.Although the most ter world. His Science and Human Behavior radical ideas of his behaviorism are rejected (1953) became a standard text. Later books by mainstream psychology, his name has be- by Skinner argued that language came from come synonymous with a stance that remains operant conditioning, a view rejected by lin- useful when defining different theories and guists in favor of the theories of Noam Chom- schools of thought in modern psychology. sky (1928–), and Skinner promoted using op- erant conditioning principles and learning See also Chomsky, Noam; Psychology machines in education. His 1971 book, Beyond References Freedom and Dignity, argued that the ideas of Bjork, Daniel W. B. F. Skinner:A Life. New York: freedom and dignity were illusions and would Basic, 1993. Skinner, B. F. Particulars of My Life. New York: disappear if people followed the principles of Knopf, 1976. his behaviorism. Wiener, Daniel N. B. F. Skinner: Benign Anarchist. Skinner remained at Harvard until his re- Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1996. Smallpox Vaccination Campaign 273

Smallpox Vaccination Campaign early twentieth centuries made smallpox and Modern medicine completely eradicated the other diseases a distant threat in the industri- deadly disease of smallpox in an international alized West, but smallpox still continued to campaign directed by the World Health Or- kill millions of people a year in Third World ganization (WHO). Smallpox is caused by countries. The Soviet Union, in a period of several strains of the variola virus, leading to relaxed tensions during the cold war, pro- a fever, sores, and possible death. Pockmarks posed to WHO in 1958 that the international often scarred survivors for life.Ancient man- organization launch a program to eradicate uscripts from China and India refer to the dis- smallpox.WHO created a Smallpox Eradica- ease, and the mummy of the ancient pharaoh tion Program in 1958, and in 1967, the am- Ramses V is thought to show evidence of the bitious effort started in earnest, led by the disease. Survivors of the infection are im- U.S. physician Donald A. Henderson mune to further infection. Although not (1928–). Health care workers fanned out strongly infectious, the virus itself is able to around the world, inoculating millions. survive for up to eighteen months outside of Under the original plan, every single person the human body and remain viable. Smallpox received a vaccination, but when the program was one among many diseases that decimated in ran short of vaccine, the medical the native populations after Christopher advisor to the program found that targeting Columbus (1451–1506) opened the New the vaccine in a “surveillance-containment” World to settlement and exploitation by the strategy of vaccinating only those people re- Old World.What made these diseases so dev- cently exposed to smallpox succeeded in astating was not an innate genetic weakness eliminating the disease within the local popu- among the American natives, but the fact that lation. Not everybody on the planet had to be the populations had not been exposed to the vaccinated. diseases before. In a so-called virgin territory Smallpox was the ideal candidate for ab- epidemic, everyone gets sick at the same solute eradication. A single vaccination of- time, and there is no one to care for the ill, fered protection from all strains of the variola unlike an epidemic in Europe or Asia, where virus, and the virus only lived in human be- many of the adults would possess immunity ings. Most other viruses and bacteria also in- from earlier epidemics. The result is a much fect animal hosts and can form a reservoir for higher mortality rate. future infection even if no humans are avail- Folk remedies for smallpox contained con- able as carriers. Although humanitarian mo- siderable wisdom, including transferring pus tives were important in providing the billions from the sore of an infected person into a of dollars necessary to fund the eradication small cut on the skin of an uninfected person. effort, the industrialized nations also wanted The recipient got a mild form of the disease to stop vaccinating their own populations, that gave immunity but did not kill. In a 1721 and could not do this if smallpox remained on smallpox epidemic in Boston, a variation of the planet to cause a possible epidemic. this folk remedy, copied from Turkish prac- Ali Maow Maalin of Somalia contracted tices, helped stem the disease. The English smallpox in October 1977 and gained the dis- physician (1749–1823) no- tinction of being the last person to naturally ticed that milkmaids who contracted cow- acquire smallpox.A year later at the Birming- pox, resulting in minor illness and skin le- ham University Medical School in Alabama, a sions, gained immunity to smallpox. He worker died after contracting the disease in a developed the technique that he called vacci- laboratory. Other laboratory infections also nation to use cowpox to immunize humans to occurred in England. After monitoring for smallpox. further outbreaks, WHO officially declared Vaccination laws in the late nineteenth and smallpox eradicated in 1979. Henderson felt 274 Social Constructionism

fare development program conducted by the Soviet Union for decades, which may well have ended only in the late 1990s, scientists have remained concerned that smallpox may return as a weapon of war or a tool of delib- erate terrorism. See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Medicine; Pharmacology;World Health Organization References Bazin, H. The Eradication of Smallpox: Edward Jenner and the First and Only Eradication of a Human Infectious Disease. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2000. Hopkins, Donald R. Princes and Peasants: Smallpox in History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983. Tucker, Jonathan B. Scourge:The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox. New York:Atlantic Monthly, 2001.

In this 1969 photo a Nigerian girl winces as she gets one of the 100 million vaccinations against smallpox. Social Constructionism (Bettmann/Corbis) The scientific method is followed by scien- tists as a unique method for finding out truths about the physical world and reality. that the effort succeeded in spite of the bu- Postmodern theorists have pointed out the reaucracy of WHO, not because of it.After its human fallibility inherent in scientific en- success with smallpox, WHO turned its at- deavors. Social constructionists, present on tention to polio, coming close to eradicating the cutting edge of sociology, anthropology, it by the end of the twentieth century. Other and history in the 1980s and 1990s, advocate candidates proposed for future eradication a position of cultural and cognitive rela- included the guinea worm, measles, rubella, tivism. Critics of social constructionism have and hepatitis B. argued that postmodernism and social con- As the scars on shoulders from jet-injected structionism only lead to intellectual anarchy shots have faded in the world population and and surrender the best-known technique for new generations are born, the global popula- finding truth. tion has gradually lost its immunity to small- In the early 1970s, the “strong pro- pox. Smallpox officially remains in laborato- gramme” in the sociology of scientific knowl- ries at the Centers for Disease Control and edge emerged from a group of sociologists at Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, and the Insti- the University of Edinburgh, a movement tute for Viral Preparations in Moscow,Russia, that is now also called social constructionism. with concerns that unofficial samples may In the age-old nature vs. nurture debate, so- also remain in other laboratories. Scientists cial constructionists definitely came down on and various public health organizations have the side of nurture, or environment. Social called for the destruction of remaining sam- constructionists believe that all knowledge is ples of smallpox to prevent accidental release subjective, a result of social and cultural con- from the high-containment laboratories. Es- ditioning. Social constructionists make the ar- pecially in light of the secret biological war- gument that cognitive relativism should be as Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology 275 acceptable as moral relativism. Moral rela- See also Philosophy of Science tivism assumes that there are no absolute References moral truths, and thus cognitive relativism Bloor, David. Knowledge and Social Imagery. Second edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, would have to argue that there is not a physi- 1991. cal reality that all humans share and can ob- Gergen, Kenneth J. “The Social Constructionist jectively evaluate. In its most radical form, Movement in Modern Psychology.” American social constructionism denies the possibility Psychologist 40, no. 3 (March 1985): 266–275. of objective scientific knowledge. At its best, Koertge, Noretta, editor. A House Built on Sand: social constructionism brings out the way so- Exposing Postmodernist Myths about Science. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. cial privilege promotes certain scientific ideas Latour, Bruno. Science in Action: How to Follow and pseudoscientific prejudices. The best Scientists and Engineers through Society. work by social constructionists has examined Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987. the softer sciences; these sciences, with their focus on human beings and animals, have such a difficult time attaining objective knowledge Sociobiology and Evolutionary that they are easy targets. Psychology In the 1980s, social constructionism, post- The prominent biologist Edward O. Wilson modernism, and certain developments in the (1929–) published Sociobiology:The New Syn- philosophy of science sparked what became thesis in 1975.A recognized authority on ants known as the science wars. The questioning and other social insects, Wilson considered of social constructionists was not welcomed his book to contain a logical evolution of the by practicing scientists, who vigorously de- ideas in his 1971 book The Insect Societies, fended the scientific method as a way of ob- which combined entomology with popula- jectively obtaining knowledge and defended tion biology. In Sociobiology, Wilson argued the body of scientific knowledge as providing that what biologists had learned about innate a correct view of the universe. behavior in insect and animal societies, along The intellectual vacuum that social con- with insights from the theory of natural se- structionism throve in was vividly demon- lection, could also be applied to understand- strated in 1994 when Alan D. Sokal, a theo- ing human behavior and human society. retical physicist at New York University, The idea was not new, since Charles Dar- published an article, “Transgressing the win (1809–1882) himself had suggested that Boundaries:Toward a Transformative Herme- human society was similar to animal soci- neutics of ,” in an issue on eties, with instincts mediated by reason.The “Science Wars” of the cultural studies journal field of ethology, promoted by Konrad Social Text. The editors admitted that his cre- Lorenz (1903–1989) and others, had laid a dentials as an actual physicist encouraged strong foundation of knowledge about how them to publish his article.The article was a animals behave. But how to explain altruis- nonsensical parody, filled with absurd state- tic behavior, in which an animal or human ments, using the rhetoric of postmodernism might sacrifice its own well-being for oth- and social constructionism.The editors of the ers? An important 1964 article by W. D. journal were not in on the joke when Sokal Hamilton at the University College at Lon- publicly revealed his hoax three weeks later. don, “The Genetic Evolution of Social Be- A storm of controversy erupted, with critics havior,” argued that kin selection was the an- condemning Sokal for his duplicity and oth- swer. Altruistic behavior may not help pass ers applauding his intellectual exposure of on an individual’s genes, but that behavior extreme social constructionism, radical fem- could help pass on the genes in relatives inist epistemology, deconstructive literary helped by the altruistic behavior, leading to theory, and New Age ecology. reciprocal altruism. 276 Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology

Wilson drew these threads together and inborn, but also argued that the urge toward produced a well-written, exhaustively re- religious belief seemed innate. In his own life, searched, powerful book. His comprehensive he believed in scientific materialism, rather theory addressed issues of communication, than any conventional religion. He also ar- altruism, aggression, sex, parental care, social gued that altruistic behavior, which seems hierarchy, dominance, and social behavior, contrary to natural selection, is consistent applying sociobiology to social insects, birds, with natural selection if an individual’s altru- fish and other cold-blooded vertebrates, ele- ism is directed toward close relatives. This phants, carnivores, primates, and finally hu- makes the gene, rather than the individual, mans.Wilson argued that even human ethics the mechanism of natural selection. derived from genetic selection, and that sex- In his push for a science of evolutionary ual morality had a basis in what was best for psychology, the zoologist Richard Dawkins the propagation of a set of genes. Reciprocal (1941–) also promoted the emphasis on barter systems embodied altruism and kin se- genes as the focus of evolution. His first book lection, and perhaps certain genes led to peo- in 1976, The Selfish Gene, argued that natural ple falling into certain classes. Wilson ob- selection occurs on the level of genes, rather jected to extreme behaviorism, of which B. F. than the level of individuals or species. Skinner (1904–1990) is the most prominent Dawkins argued that individuals are just tem- example. He also objected to using only a few porary carriers of genes and that physiology examples from a limited number of species to and behavior can best be explained by the draw broad conclusions about animal and need for genes to propagate. Not all scientists human traits, as in certain popular ethologi- accept Dawkins’s view of evolution, though cal books: Konrad Lorenz, On Aggression evolutionary psychology and its kin, sociobi- (1966); Robert L. Ardrey, The Territorial Im- ology, have become a powerful intellectual perative: A Personal Inquiry into the Animal Ori- current supported by many scientists and gins of Property and Nations (1966); and continue to be controversial. In 1989, mem- Desmond Morris, The Naked Ape:A Zoologist’s bers of the Animal Behavior Society voted Study of the Human Animal (1967). Wilson’s Sociobiology the most important Sociobiology caused a storm of controversy, book on animal behavior ever published. and its critics worried that sociobiology seemed reminiscent of past pseudoscientific See also Biology and the Life Sciences; Dawkins, justifications that condoned racism and Richard; Evolution; Gould, Stephen Jay; viewed humans as genetically determined Lorenz, Konrad; Religion; Skinner, B. F.; Wilson, Edward O.; Zoology rather than individuals more shaped by nur- References ture than by nature. The paleontologist Alcock, John. The Triumph of Sociobiology. New Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002) and geneti- York: Oxford University Press, 2001. cist Richard C. Lewontin (1929–), colleagues Pinker, Steven. How the Mind Works. New York: at Harvard, were among the most vocal crit- Norton, 1997. ics who rejected sociobiology. Much of the Ruse, Michael. Sociobiology: Sense or Nonsense? Boston: D. Reidel, 1979. opposition came from leftist or Marxist ideo- Wilson, David Sloan. Darwin’s Cathedral: Evolution, logues. Wilson was even doused with water Religion, and the Nature of Society. Chicago: by political activists during a presentation at a University of Chicago Press, 2002. meeting of the American Association for the Wilson, Edward O. Sociobiology:The New Synthesis. Advancement of Science in 1978. Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Edition. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Wilson’s next book, On Human Nature 2000. (1978), defended his ideas against his critics Wright, Robert. The Moral Animal: Evolutionary and won a Pulitzer Prize. He acknowledged Psychology and Everyday Life. New York: Random that most human behavior was learned, not House, 1995. Sociology of Science 277

Sociology of Science jects about which to gain objective knowl- The prominent sociologist Robert K. Merton edge. Other work by social constructionists (1910–2003) founded what became known has examined the social relations within sci- as the Mertonian approach to the sociology of entific laboratories, again concentrating on science. Merton advocated understanding how scientific work is done, rather than on science by examining the external social, po- whether scientific knowledge is a valid way to litical, religious, and economic contexts sur- examine physical reality. Some social con- rounding the scientific community. Merton’s structionists have pursued a more controver- most influential books in this area were his sial line of thought, demanding that the re- Science, Technology, and Society in Seventeenth flexivity applied to science should be applied Century England (1938) and The Sociology of to their own scholarship, questioning the Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations methods and standards that sociologists use (1973). Merton was also interested in the to arrive at their own flavor of knowledge. best ways for scientists to maximize their As might be expected from a profession production of scientific knowledge, leading that arose in connection with the need for so- to his strong interest in scientific institutions cial activism, some sociologists have used and scientific careers. Merton and his follow- their scholarship to advocate changes in how ers, though recognizing the social context of science is practiced. Some are concerned science, did not dispute that genuine scien- with only using science in a moral manner, tific knowledge could be achieved through and creating a system of moral responsibility the scientific method. for scientists to acknowledge. Others have A good example of the work of a Merton- demonstrated how the social structures of influenced sociologist is the work of Joseph science and engineering can drive away Ben-David, who sought to find the social con- women and minorities, and these thinkers ditions that facilitate the rise of science and have often recommended effective ways to the practice of science. He found that decen- change pedagogy in order to help women and tralized organizations and a tradition of plu- minorities to succeed in science and other ralism are the most ideal conditions yet in- technical fields. vented. Even if the system of creating See also Feminism; Social Constructionism scientific knowledge decays, the knowledge References remains behind. Ancient Greek science as a Ben-David, Joseph. The Scientist’s Role in Society:A practice died after a brief period of flower- Comparative Study. Upper Saddle River, NJ: ing, but the knowledge continued to be ac- Prentice-Hall, 1971. cepted as dogma for the next two millennia. Bloor, David. Knowledge and Social Imagery. Second edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, In the early 1970s, the “strong pro- 1991. gramme” in the sociology of scientific knowl- Etzkowitz, Henry, Carol Kemelgor, and Brian edge emerged from a group of sociologists at Uzzi. Athena Unbound:The Advancement of Women the University of Edinburgh, a movement in Science and Technology. Cambridge: that is now also called social constructionism. Cambridge University Press, 2000. Kneen, Peter. Soviet Scientists and the State:An Social constructionists believe that all knowl- Examination of the Social and Political Aspects of edge is subjective, a result of our social and Science in the USSR. Albany: State University of cultural conditioning. At its best, social con- New York Press, 1984. structionism points to the way that social Ravetz, Jerome R. Scientific Knowledge and Its Social privilege promotes certain scientific ideas Problems. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971. and pseudoscientific prejudices. The social constructionists have also done good work in their examination of the softer sciences, since Sokal Hoax humans and animals prove to be difficult sub- See Social Constructionism 278 Soviet Academy of Sciences

Soviet Academy of Sciences fine line, as many have done in totalitarian so- As part of his effort to modernize Russia cieties, trying to remain moral and to survive along Western lines, Czar Peter the Great at the same time, and managed to blunt some (1672–1725) founded in 1724 the Academy of the more extreme efforts by communist of Sciences in .The academy ideologues to twist the practice of science. persisted under various names for two cen- The academy under Stalin proved that fruitful turies. After coming to power, the commu- science can still be conducted in an atmos- nists restructured the academy into the phere of fear, restricted communications, and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) imminent threat of arrest. Academy of Sciences in the 1920s. Prior to After Stalin, the situation for scientists be- the Soviet reorganization, most research in came less hazardous, in that they no longer Russia had occurred in universities. The So- feared for their lives, but the government re- viet Academy created a system of institutes mained totalitarian. Contact with foreign sci- (eventually reaching at least 260 in number) entists was always a difficult problem for the to direct the practice of science, creating a Soviets. In 1959, a joint program with the centralized system of control not seen in American National Academy of Sciences other countries (save for imitators in other sponsored international workshops and communist countries). The American Na- started a period of visits to both countries by tional Academy of Sciences and other na- scientists. Soviet scientists were sometimes tional societies in the Western world are pri- threatened with severe consequences to their marily honorific organizations that promote families if they defected. scientific communication and play minor As the rest of Soviet society ossified into a roles in actual research.The Soviet Academy bureaucratic stupor, critics accused the acad- directed not only the practice of science, but emy of being dominated by bureaucrats in- also technology, though in the late 1950s the stead of researchers. When Mikhail Gor- Communist Party removed most of the more bachev (1931–) came to power in 1985, he technologically directed institutes from sought to revitalize the Soviet economy in academy control and assigned them to vari- order to better compete in the cold war. His ous industrial ministries. A new State Com- reform policies of glasnost and perestroika mittee for Coordination of Scientific Re- introduced more economic and social open- search (later renamed the State Committee ness, as well as offering limited democracy.In for Science and Technology) asserted overall 1987, as part of these efforts at revitalization, direction over Soviet science, while the acad- a new rule required directors of academy in- emy continued to do the actual work of re- stitutes to retire at the age of seventy, rather search and development. than holding their positions for life. Other re- Especially during the rule of Josef Stalin searchers were forced to retire or recertify to (1879–1953), scientists who fell under polit- prove that they were still capable in their spe- ical suspicion often died as a result. In 1936 cialties. Gorbachev’s efforts failed in many and 1937 alone, one out of every five as- ways, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union tronomers was arrested. Many of the Soviet in 1991 led to the academy being renamed Union’s best scientists and engineers spent the Russian Academy of Sciences. time at some point in their careers conduct- In 1991, the academy had 337 full mem- ing research in prison laboratories. Sergei bers, 651 corresponding members, and tens Vavilov (1891–1951) served as president of of thousands of researchers and staff working the Soviet Academy of Sciences from 1945 to in their institutes and other organizations. By 1951, yet his own brother, a famous geneti- 1995 the number of scientific articles and re- cist, had starved to death in prison in 1943, ports issued by the publishing arm of the victim of a Stalinist purge. Vavilov walked a academy had declined to about a fifth of its Soviet Union 279

Members of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, 1959 (Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)

former level. By 1996, financing for the acad- Soviet Union emy had dropped to a tenth of its former The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics level. Efforts at cooperative ventures with (USSR) gained superpower status in the af- private corporations were resisted by acad- termath of World War II, as the USSR ac- emy bureaucrats. Many of the best scientists quired an Eastern European empire of satel- took advantage of the end of communism to lite states and developed atomic weapons. move to Western countries and continue The ideological power struggle of the cold their careers there. war dominated global politics until the disso- lution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Commu- See also Associations; Cold War; Soviet Union nist ideological conformity, enforced by spies References for the secret police, permeated the Soviet Fortescue, Stephen. “The Russian Academy of practice of science. The economic and mili- Sciences and the Soviet Academy of Sciences: Continuity or Disjunction?” Minerva: Review of tary needs of the state dictated the fields and Science, Learning and Policy 30 (1992): 459–478. goals of scientific and technological research. Lewis, Robert A. “Government and the The Soviet Academy of Sciences and its nu- Tec hnological Sciences in the Soviet Union: merous institutes (eventually reaching at least The Rise of the Academy of Sciences.” Minerva: 260 in number) directed the practice of sci- Review of Science, Learning and Policy 15 (1977): ence, creating a centralized system of control 174–199. Schweitzer, Glenn E. “US-Soviet Scientific not seen in other countries, save for imitators Cooperation:The Interacademy Program.” in other communist countries. Especially Technology in Society 14 (1992): 173–185. during the rule of Josef Stalin (1879–1953), 280 Soviet Union scientists who fell under political suspicion mechanics and relativity were among the the- often died as a result. ories they thought should be banned. Stalin Stalin strongly supported the theory of elected to support the Soviet Academy of Sci- non-Mendelian genetics promoted by Trofim ences because he wanted the Soviet atomic Lysenko (1898–1976). Lysenko directed the bomb project, run mostly by members of the Institute of Genetics of the Academy of Sci- academy, to succeed. Ironically, the atomic ence of the USSR from 1940 to 1965 and bomb is based on the theories that the Moscow served as president of the powerful V.I. Lenin University physicists proposed to ban. All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The 1949 explosion of the Soviet Union’s As the effective dictator of Soviet agricultural first atomic bomb, partially based on secrets science, Lysenko wielded his power ruth- stolen from the U.S. project at Los Alamos, lessly. Soviet scientists who did not support shocked the world and established the Soviets his ideas found themselves at best unem- as contenders in technological prowess. The ployed, and some Soviet scientists who dis- United States reacted by developing the hy- agreed with Lysenko died from either execu- drogen bomb. The brilliant Andrei Sakharov tion or starvation after being arrested and (1921–1989) designed the first Soviet hydro- taken into custody. Lysenko survived even gen bomb, exploded on August 12, 1953. though widespread adoption of his ideas led Sakharov later gained international acclaim as to agricultural failures. Lysenko’s power de- a human rights activist and internal opponent clined after Stalin died in 1953.The new So- to the Soviet regime. viet leader, Nikita S. Khrushchev (1894– In general, Soviet policy was indifferent to 1971), believed in Lysenko’s Marxist science, the well-being of individuals and the health of but allowed scientific criticism of Lysenko to the environment. Medical doctors engaged in go unpunished. In 1964, after changes in the medical research on prisoners in the Siberian Soviet leadership, Lysenko was finally com- Gulag reminiscent of experiments conducted pletely discredited and exiled to a remote by Nazi doctors on prisoners in concentration agricultural station, though it took time for camps. Industrial concerns poisoned rivers, the effects of his regime to fade. scarred the Siberian forests with acid rain, and Communist ideology also threatened the turned at least two towns into radioactive integrity of other sciences. During World War wastelands.Although environmental concerns II, Stalin relaxed restrictions in order to help held a low rank among Soviet priorities, sci- the war effort; after the war, he reimposed entific studies of the danger of airborne lead control. Postwar conferences were organized pollution did lead the Soviets to ban leaded in chemistry, ethnography, astronomy, and gasoline in major cities in 1967, earlier than physiology, at which scientists were encour- similar efforts in Western nations. aged to draw back from Western science and When the Soviets launched the first artifi- only practice science in harmony with com- cial satellite, Sputnik I, in 1957, they seemed to munism. Claims of Russian and Soviet prior- take the lead in the cold war technological ity in many common inventions were also contest to show which political and economic promoted, making it seem that, oddly ideology was most effective.The second Sput- enough, everything of importance had been nik carried a dog named Laika into orbit, and invented there first. the Soviets orbited the first man in April 1961. Physicists at Moscow University took the In response, the Americans launched the postwar opportunity to attack physicists in the Apollo project a couple of months later, with institutes of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, the intent of landing a man on the Moon and accusing them of being enamored of Western returning him safely to Earth before the end of culture and promoting science not in accor- the decade.The Soviets launched a secret pro- dance with communist principles. Quantum gram to beat the Americans, but suffered a Space Exploration and Space Science 281 crippling setback when a rocket exploded on Space Exploration and Space the pad and killed dozens of key engineers and Science technical personnel. The Soviets announced Early efforts at space exploration used high- that they were not interested in following the altitude balloons and sounding rockets that U.S. lead. During a thaw in the cold war, a pe- briefly left the atmosphere, taking photo- riod of détente, the United States and the graphs and sensor readings before falling back USSR cooperated on the Apollo-Soyuz mission to Earth. On October 4, 1957, the Soviet of 1975, during which American astronauts Union launched the first artificial satellite, and Soviet cosmonauts rendezvoused in orbit Sputnik I. The effort by both the Soviets and and shook hands inside a temporary tunnel the Americans to launch satellites was a focus connecting the two spacecraft. of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of The collapse of the Soviet Union, with the 1957–1958, an international project orga- Russian Federation and other republics divid- nized to understand Earth better.The second ing up the nation, did not reverse the eco- Sputnik carried a dog named Laika into orbit, nomic decline that had begun in the 1970s. and instruments monitored her condition The practice of science suffered from lack of until the air ran out. The first U.S. effort to funding, despite the large number of well- launch a satellite exploded on the launch pad educated scientists. Many scientists fled to on December 6, 1957.The second effort, Ex- Western countries to continue their careers plorer 1, launched on January 31, 1958, car- there. Large U.S. subsidies allowed the Rus- ried instruments that detected cosmic rays. sian space program to continue to function The scientific team led by and participate in the International Space Sta- discovered that radiation belts, created by tion project. Other U.S. and European subsi- Earth’s magnetic field, surrounded our dies helped keep scientists in sensitive career planet.This phenomenon was named the Van fields employed, in order to encourage them Allen radiation belts. not to leave for totalitarian nations and work Both the Americans and the Soviets on weapons of mass destruction. Some Rus- launched dozens of satellites during the first sians, benefiting from a strong mathematical three decades of the space age with scientific education system, found employment work- instruments for studying Earth, the local re- ing as programmers for Western companies. gion of space, and astronomical objects. See also Apollo Project; Big Science; Cold War; Weather satellites allowed major advances in Environmental Movement; Hydrogen Bomb; meteorology and the ability to make weather Lysenko,Trofim; Sakharov,Andrei; Soviet predictions. Efforts by the National Aeronau- Academy of Sciences tics and Space Administration (NASA) to References miniaturize electronic components became Berstein,Vadim J. The Perversion of Knowledge:The True Story of Soviet Science. Boulder, CO: an important contribution in the U.S. com- Westview, 2001. puter industry. Graham, Loren R. Science in Russia and the Soviet The Ranger, Surveyor, and Lunar Orbiter Union:A Short History. Cambridge University projects sent unmanned robotic craft to the Press, 1993. Moon to scout the way for the astronauts of ———. What Have We Learned about Science and Technology from the Russian Experience? Stanford, the Apollo project. Though most Ranger CA: Stanford University Press, 1998. probes experienced technical failures, the last Josephson, Paul R. Red Atom: Russia’s Nuclear Power three smashed into the Moon while sending Program from Stalin to Today. San Francisco: back television pictures; Surveyor probes ac- W. H. Freeman, 2000. tually landed; and the Lunar Orbiters used Kneen, Peter. Soviet Scientists and the State:An Examination of the Social and Political Aspects of radar and photography to chart the surface of Science in the USSR. Albany: State University of the Moon, searching for safe landing sites for New York Press, 1984. the Apollo astronauts. The Luna series of 282 Space Exploration and Space Science probes by the Soviets included numerous fail- many more probes than the United States, ures, but also included the first image of the but were plagued by persistent failures at far side of the Moon, taken by Luna 3 in Oc- launch or during the long journey to the tober 1959, and the first successful soft land- other planets. Soviet probes were mass-pro- ing on the Moon with Luna 9 in 1966. duced and attempted to maintain Earth-like Six pairs of Apollo astronauts visited the conditions within their large spacecraft. The Moon from 1969 to 1972, gathering rock more expensive American spacecraft were samples and exploring. Three Soviet probes produced individually, with each component successfully landed on the Moon, took soil rigorously tested and designed to work in the samples, and returned them to Earth. Other vacuum of space. Soviet landers brought robotic lunar rovers Mariner 5 arrived at Venus only a few days that moved about, sending back television after Venera 4. Spacecraft bound for other pictures.All these efforts revealed a wealth of planets were often launched during a short information about the Moon.They found that window of time when Earth and the target craters on the Moon extended in size all the planet were in the right positions, meaning way down to microscopic size, since there that Soviet and U.S. probes often arrived at was no atmosphere to burn up smaller mete- their destinations together. When Mariner 5 ors.The Moon possesses no magnetic field to passed behind Venus, its radio signal passed protect it from the solar wind and cosmic through the planet’s atmosphere. U.S. as- rays.The maria of the Moon, which look like tronomers measured the strength of the re- plains in telescopes, were formed by volcanic turning signal to learn the density of the at- lava flows over three billion years ago. The mosphere. Venus possessed a surface oldest rocks found on the Moon are 4.3 bil- atmospheric pressure one hundred times lion years old, comparable to the oldest rocks greater than Earth’s surface.The surface tem- found on Earth. The question of the Moon’s perature was a scorching 800 degrees Fahren- origin, whether it was formed at the same heit (427 degrees Celsius).Venus became the time as Earth or later, has not been resolved. textbook example of a runaway greenhouse Evidence of past water or ice has not been effect, where carbon dioxide clouds retain the found, though tantalizing hints of ice in Sun’s heat. Later Soviet Venera probes suc- craters at the Moon’s poles were found in the ceeded in reaching the surface of Venus and 1990s by the Clementine and Lunar Prospec- transmitting back scientific readings, as well tor orbiting scientific satellites, perhaps de- as a limited number of television pictures. posited by the impact of comets. Venera probes were also the first to orbit The Americans and Soviets also sent scien- Venus in the 1970s. The American Magellan tific spacecraft to other planets. On Decem- orbiter mapped Venus from 1990 to 1994 ber 14, 1962, the U.S. Mariner 2, the first with radar, penetrating the mystery of the successful interplanetary probe, flew by ever present clouds.The lack of many craters Venus.The probe determined that Venus pos- led scientists to conclude that widespread vol- sessed neither radiation belts nor a magnetic canism had resurfaced most of the planet field. Four days after the spacecraft passed about 500 million years ago. Magellan also Venus, the electronics on Mariner 2 failed found no evidence of plate tectonics. from the heat of the Sun.The Soviets achieved Mariner 4 flew by Mars on July 15, 1965, their first success with interplanetary probes coming within 6,200 miles of the surface. A when Venera 4 flew by Venus on October 18, television camera took 21 pictures.The murky 1967. It dropped a probe into the atmo- pictures transmitted back to Earth surprised sphere. Higher than expected atmospheric astronomers by revealing a cratered surface pressure crushed the probe before it reached much like Earth’s Moon. By analyzing the the planet’s surface. The Soviets launched strength of Mariner 4’s radio signals as they Space Exploration and Space Science 283 passed through the Martian atmosphere, scien- In 1976, two American Viking orbiters tists determined the surface pressure of the at- reached Mars and each released a lander. mosphere. This measurement revealed a very These landers returned pictures from the thin atmosphere, with a surface pressure equal surface of the planet showing a red, rocky to less than 1 percent of Earth’s atmosphere at landscape. Onboard laboratories tested the sea level. The atmosphere contained mostly Martian soil and failed to find traces of bacte- carbon dioxide, with only a tiny amount of rial life. In 1996, a meteorite from Mars re- water vapor. Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 passed by covered from the ice of Antarctica contained Mars on July 31, 1969, and August 5, 1969, microscopic structures that some scientists respectively. Passing as close as 2,100 miles interpreted as microfossils from a past era from the surface, Mariner 6 returned 75 pic- when Mars had been younger, wetter, and tures, and Mariner 7 returned 126 pictures. more congenial to life. The meteorite was Even with these pictures, only a tenth of the designated ALH84001, being the first one re- planet’s surface had been photographed by covered from the Allan Hills in Antarctica in spacecraft. The probes confirmed the low 1984. Other scientists have disputed the evi- pressure of the atmosphere and determined dence from the meteorite, but hold out hope that Mars did not possess a magnetic field. A that fossils will be found by some future ex- temperature reading of the southern polar cap pedition to the red planet. returned a measurement of –190 degrees In the 1990s, NASA started to build Fahrenheit (–124 degrees Celsius). Despite cheaper interplanetary probes with fewer ca- the cold, cratered surface, scientists held out pabilities and more limited scientific instru- hope that Mars had possessed a denser atmos- ments, unlike their early more expensive phere during an earlier epoch millions of years spacecraft, which had more redundant sys- ago and that perhaps life had thriven then. tems aboard and a full range of instruments. Mariner 9 entered orbit around Mars on The result was more failures of NASA space- November 13, 1971. A great dust storm ob- craft, especially some high-profile Mars scured the surface of the planet, and the probes in the 1990s.A success came with the probe orbited for a month before clear pic- Mars Pathfinder mission in 1997, which tures were possible. The Soviets made nu- landed the robotic rover called Sojourner. In merous attempts to send probes to Mars, all 2004, two further rovers were successfully of which failed for various reasons until Mars landed to search for geological evidence of 2 and Mars 3 reached Mars in 1971 shortly water and past life. after Mariner 9. Both Soviet probes dropped Mariner 10 flew by Venus on February 5, descent modules to examine the surface, then 1974, then went into orbit around the Sun. went into orbit around the planet. Both de- This orbit passed Mercury, the planet closest scent modules failed, and the Soviet orbiters to the Sun, three times, on March 29, 1974, circled the planet, operating on automatic September 21, 1974, and , 1975. programs, taking futile pictures of the dust The probe’s instruments were specially hard- storm. Ground controllers on Earth repro- ened to withstand the fierce radiation of the grammed Mariner 9 to wait until the dust Sun, and a sunshade, shaped like an umbrella, storm cleared before beginning research in also protected the spacecraft. Mariner 10 earnest. Among the 7,239 pictures returned found that Mercury possessed a slight mag- were what looked like ancient dry riverbeds netic field and no atmosphere.The first flyby and runoff channels, suggesting that free- took the probe within 435 miles of the sur- flowing water must have existed on Mars in face of the planet’s dark side. The second the past.The many discoveries included Valles flyby went past the sunlit side of the planet. Marineris, a great canyon that stretched a The final encounter passed only 125 miles quarter of the way around the planet. from the dark side. Pictures returned by the 284 Space Exploration and Space Science

The seventh space shuttle launch, Cape Canaveral, Florida, June 18, 1983 (Corbis)

probe showed a surface covered with craters The astronomer Carl Sagan coordinated the and ancient lava flows. No other U.S. or So- selection of the material. viet spacecraft have visited Mercury. The Galileo spacecraft arrived around The Americans also launched probes to Jupiter in December 1995. On its way to the investigate the outer planets. Pioneer 10 gas giant, it flew by two different asteroids, reached Jupiter in 1973, taking over three and discovered that the second asteroid, hundred pictures. Pioneer 11 reached Jupiter named Ida, had its own moon. Ida was only 34 a year later and used the planet’s gravity to miles (55 kilometers) wide at its longest axis, propel it toward an encounter with Saturn. and the moon was under a mile (1.5 kilome- Both of the Pioneer craft eventually left the ters) in diameter. Galileo also took pictures of solar system, and each carried a plaque of the Shoemaker-Levy comet impact on Jupiter greeting in case an alien intelligence should in July 1994. Galileo released a descent probe encounter the craft at some unknown time in into Jupiter that used the atmosphere to break the future. Voyager 1 and 2 also toured the gas its fall before discarding its heat shield and de- giants before leaving the solar system, each ploying a parachute. The probe radioed back carrying a 12-inch, gold-plated copper disk data until pressure within the atmosphere of with 115 images from Earth on it and a se- Jupiter crushed it. Galileo itself orbited lection of sounds, including natural sounds around Jupiter, making repeated flybys of the and voice greetings in fifty-five languages. gas giant’s moon. Evidence for liquid water Steptoe, Patrick 285 under a surface of frozen ice on Europa and Steptoe, Patrick (1913–1988) other large moons was discovered, and scien- Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards (1925–) tists hold out hope that primitive life-forms perfected the process of in vitro fertilization have evolved there. Running low on maneu- (IVF) and created the first human test-tube vering fuel, Galileo was plunged into the at- baby. Patrick Christopher Steptoe was born mosphere of Jupiter in 2003, sending back in Witney, Oxfordshire, England, where his data as it succumbed to radiation and pres- father was a church organist and his mother sure. Galileo was not sterilized before launch, was a social worker. His mother taught him and scientists were concerned that if they al- perseverance in the face of disappointment, a lowed the spacecraft to continue to orbit, trait that served him well later. In 1939, Step- without any way of maneuvering, it might toe graduated from the University of Lon- crash into Europa and contaminate the ocean don’s Saint George’s Hospital Medical with Earth microbes. School, specializing in obstetrics and gyne- Other spacecraft from the United States, cology. With the coming of World War II, the Soviet Union (now Russia), and the Euro- Steptoe joined the Royal Naval Reserve as a pean Space Agency (ESA) have examined surgeon.When his ship was sunk in the Battle comets, asteroids, and the Sun. NASA, the of Crete in 1941, Steptoe was taken prisoner ESA, and the Italian Space Agency launched by the Italians. He was exchanged later in the the Cassini mission in 1997. In 2004, Cassini war. is scheduled to go into orbit around Saturn’s After the war, he completed further post- moon,Titan, and release the Huygens probe, graduate study in his specialty and set up a which will descend by parachute to Titan’s practice in Oldham General and District surface. Hospital in Oldham, near Manchester. He See also Apollo Project; Big Science; Cold War; worked for five years to perfect his ability Computers; European Space Agency; with the laparoscope, a narrow tube with a International Geophysical Year; National fiber-optic light at the end that allowed a sur- Aeronautics and Space Administration; Plate geon to peer into the abdominal cavity. Step- Tectonics; Sagan, Carl; Satellites; Search for toe became the first surgeon in England to Extraterrestrial Life; Shoemaker-Levy Comet learn to use this new instrument and per- Impact; Soviet Union;Voyager Spacecraft References fected its use despite much criticism from his Beatty, J. Kelly, Carolyn Collins Peterson, and colleagues. This skill helped Steptoe deter- Andrew Chaikin, editors. The New Solar System. mine the causes of infertility and perform dif- Fourth edition. New York: Cambridge ficult operations. Steptoe published La- University Press, 1999. paroscopy in Gynaecology in 1967. Burrows,William E. Exploring Space: Voyages in the Solar System and Beyond. New York: Random In 1968, Steptoe and Robert Edwards, a House, 1990. physiologist at Cambridge University, began Fischer, Daniel. Mission Jupiter:The Spectacular to work together. Edwards had perfected a Journey of the Galileo Spacecraft. New York: technique for in vitro fertilization, that is, Copernicus, 2001. fertilizing human eggs with donated sperm in Gatland, Kenneth. Illustrated Encyclopedia of Space the laboratory in a petri dish. A major cause Technology:A Comprehensive History of Space Exploration. New York: Harmony, 1981. of infertility in women is when blockage of Murray, Bruce. Journey into Space:The First Three the fallopian tubes or oviducts prevents eggs Decades of Space Exploration. New York: Norton, from reaching the uterus. Steptoe used his 1989. skill to extract mature eggs from the ovaries Sheehan,William. The Planet Mars:A History of of volunteers, and Edwards fertilized them in Observation and Discovery. University of Arizona Press, 1996. the laboratory. In 1972, Steptoe implanted a Walter, Malcolm. The Search for Life on Mars. fertilized egg into a uterus for the first time. Cambridge, MA: Perseus, 1999. None of the approximately thirty women in 286 Symbiosis their test group who became pregnant car- Symbiosis ried the babies for more than a trimester. Symbiosis, from the Greek word for “living Funding for their experiments was cut amid a together,” is defined as the intimate associa- general outcry from Members of Parliament, tion of two different types of organisms.The religious leaders, and other scientists.Among German botanist Heinrich Anton de Bary the objections was fear that a successful tech- (1831–1888) first used this term at a meet- nique would not stop at helping infertile cou- ing at the University of Strasbourg in 1878. ples, but would lead to genetically engi- He described lichens as an example of sym- neered babies and the use of surrogate biosis: lichens consist of fungus and algae mothers. Steptoe financed the continuation mutually existing together, with the algae of their research from his practice, which in- providing food through photosynthesis and cluded legal abortions, and the two scientists the fungi providing shelter. Although the moved their work to a smaller hospital in term symbiosis is often used as though it were Oldham, Dr. Kershaw’s Cottage Hospital. simply synonymous with the term mutualism, Continued criticism from their colleagues which describes a situation in which both caused Steptoe and Edwards to suspend re- symbionts benefit from their relationships, porting on their research. They persisted symbiosis also includes commensalism, in amid many failures until late 1977, when Les- which two species coexist but are not as inti- ley Brown was impregnated with her own mately associated with each other as in mu- egg, fertilized by her husband’s sperm. Step- tualism, and parasitism, in which one of the toe and Edwards decided to implant the egg symbionts benefits at the expense of the after it had divided only three times and was other symbiont. only eight cells large, instead of waiting for it In his 1927 book, Symbioticism and the Ori- to get larger as they had done up until then. gin of Species, Ivan E. Wallin (1883–1969) On July 25, 1978, a daughter named Louise proposed the term symbiogenesis, to describe a Joy was delivered by Caesarian section. The situation where new species are created when world press proclaimed the world’s first test- older species combine on the microbial level. tube baby. Other scientists condemned symbiogenesis as Steptoe and Edwards continued their col- Lamarckianism, the discredited theory of the laboration, and their clinic succeeded in pro- inheritance of acquired characteristics, as op- ducing over a thousand babies for infertile posed to the Darwinian assertion that traits couples.Their technique of in vitro fertiliza- are randomly acquired by mutation and then tion and successful implantation of the egg succeed or fail through natural selection. into a uterus is now used throughout the in- Interest in symbiosis was revitalized in the dustrialized world. Surrogate mothers have late 1960s by the microbiologist Lynn Mar- also carried to term babies created with eggs gulis (1938–). Margulis published her serial that are not their own, leading to legal issues. endosymbiosis theory (SET) in 1967, and fol- In his personal life, Steptoe’s marriage led lowed with a book, Origin of Eukaryotic Cells, to a son and a daughter. Steptoe was elected in 1970. Margulis proposed that eukaryotic a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1987 a year cells, which contain nuclei, evolved when before his death. non-nucleated bacteria fused together bil- See also Biotechnology; Edwards, Robert; In lions of years ago. She also argued that Vitro Fertilization; Medicine chloroplasts, which convert sunlight into en- References ergy via photosynthesis, were originally free- Edwards, Robert G. “Patrick Christopher Steptoe, living microbes that symbiotically merged C.B.E., 9 June 1913—22 March 1988: with other cells. As evidence accumulated in Elected F.R.S. 1987.” Biographical Memoirs of the the 1970s, SET came to be accepted, though Fellows of the Royal Society 33 (1987): 213–233. Margulis’s contention that most evolutionary Symbiosis 287

Queen hypothesis, first proposed in the 1970s and based on an allusion to the Red Queen in the novel Alice in Wonderland, hosts and parasites must continually evolve in order to survive. If it fails to evolve to meet new challenges from parasites or other species, a species will die off. The founding of the International Symbio- sis Society in 1997, along with growth in pro- fessional journals and conferences devoted to symbiosis, has laid the institutional frame- work for interdisciplinary work. Such work, by emphasizing the role of symbiosis in co- evolution, has begun to change theories of evolution from a strictly Darwinist approach, which sees species as distinct and unique, to a view that sees microbes as often exchanging genes and microbial species boundaries as more fluid. Now scientists accept that mi- crobes can transmit induced characteristics, and that organelles are really former bacteria that have fused with other cells. See also Evolution; Genetics; Margulis, Lynn; Red polypores fungus grows on a tree. (Hal Horwitz/Corbis) Zoology References Margulis, Lynn. Symbiotic Planet:A New Look at Evolution. New York: Basic, 1998. change is the result of symbiogenesis is not Margulis, Lynn, and Dorion Sagan. Acquiring Genomes:A Theory of the Origins of Species. New widely accepted. Margulis expanded on sym- York: Basic, 2002. biosis by proposing in her 1981 Symbiosis in ———. Microcosmos: Four Billion Years of Evolution Cell Evolution that cilia and other locomotion from Our Microbial Ancestors. New York: Summit, appendages of microbes originally came 1986. about when spirochetes merged with archae- Paracer, Surindar, and Vernon Ahmadjian. Symbiosis:An Introduction to Biological Associations. bacteria. This hypothesis is not widely ac- Second edition. New York: Oxford University cepted. If symbiosis is important in evolu- Press, 2000. tion, what is the role of sexual reproduction? Sapp, Jan. Evolution by Association:A History of Sexual reproduction mixes and combines the Symbiosis. New York: Oxford University Press, genes of parents to produce unique children, 1994. accelerating the pace of evolution. Wakeford,Tom. Liaisons of Life: From Hornworts to Hippos, How the Unassuming Microbe Has Driven In the continuous struggle between hosts Evolution. New York:Wiley, 2001. and parasites, evolution keeps changing the nature of the host and parasites. In the Red T

Telescopes this is the 3.6-meter telescope at the Euro- Ever since their invention in 1608, tele- pean Southern Observatory (ESO) in La scopes have extended the human senses into Silla, Chile, built in 1976. The ESO also in- the cosmos, and remarkable technical ad- troduced adaptive in 1989, which ad- vances since 1950 have unveiled new won- just the image with a computer-controlled ders. In 1948, the world’s largest optical tel- mirror to remove the twinkle effect from escope was completed at Mount Palomar in light coming through the atmosphere. The California, with a reflecting mirror 5 meters proposed Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the in diameter. In 1976, the Soviets built a ESO at Paranal Observatory in the Atacama problem-plagued 6-meter reflector at Se- desert in northern Chile will have four 8.2- lencukskaja in the Caucasus Mountains. Cre- meter mirrors, and will use active and adap- ating even larger mirrors that would not tive optics to create the equivalent of a 16.4- collapse under their own weight proved dif- meter telescope. ficult, and in the 1970s other technologies Computers have revolutionized astronomy were developed for optical telescopes. In- by allowing tighter control of telescopes to stead of using a single reflecting mirror, help in analyzing and enhancing images. multiple mirrors were carefully configured Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) have re- to create the effect of a much larger tele- placed film as a way to collect the images, scope. The first effort, the Multiple Mirror leading to much more accurate images, since Telescope on Mount Hopkins in Arizona, they can collect ten times the light that good was finished in 1979 and used six 1.8-meter film can record. Astronomers have also used mirrors.The equivalent single collector mir- optical telescopes to go beyond the range of ror would have had to be 4.5 meters in di- the human eye to examine the cosmos in the ameter. The Keck telescope on infrared and ultraviolet ranges, though the at- in Hawaii used thirty-six 1-meter mirrors to mosphere makes such observations difficult create the equivalent of a 10-meter tele- from the ground. scope. Astronomers recognized long before the Another innovative technology for optical space age that if they could get their tele- telescopes is active optics, in which thin mir- scopes beyond the atmosphere, they would rors are continually adjusted. An example of see so much more. The premier satellite

289 290 Telescopes telescope is the Hubble Space Telescope bining multiple smaller dishes into a config- (HST), named after the important American uration to create the equivalent of a much astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble (1889– larger radio telescope. The largest of these 1953); it was launched from a space shuttle observatories was built in New Mexico in in 1990. The HST is very much like the spy the 1970s and consisted of twenty-seven satellites developed by the United States and steerable dish telescopes organized into Soviet Union during the cold war, except three long arms. Radio astronomy led di- that it is looking out instead of down at rectly to the discovery of quasars and pul- Earth. The engineers working on the HST sars, and contributed to the confirmation of received minimal help from their colleagues the existence of black holes. in the military because of the classified na- X-ray telescopes in space have consti- ture of the spy satellites. A major issue was tuted another important development. X- overcoming problems with the extreme dif- rays are absorbed by Earth’s atmosphere, so ferences in temperature between the heat early efforts after World War II to detect x- caused by direct sunlight and the cold caused rays from outer space relied on quick peeks by shadows in space. The technical marvel with instruments mounted atop rockets. In came with another problem: a flaw in the 1970, Uhuru, the first satellite with an x-ray mirror had to be compensated for with com- observatory, was launched, its observatory puter processing until a repair mission by as- based on the use of an ionization chamber. tronauts from another space shuttle added The American space station Skylab, launched additional optics and electronics. The HST in 1973, contained an x-ray mirror tele- revolutionized astronomy, with clearer pic- scope and was used to study x-rays from the tures than any possible from the ground.The Sun. American, European, and Japanese HST greatly increased the number of esti- satellites have continued the effort since mated galaxies, increased the known size of then. Satellite observatories have also exam- the universe, and provided compelling pho- ined the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet tographs of the Shoemaker-Levy comet im- areas of the spectrum. pact on Jupiter in 1994. See also Astronomy; Black Holes; Pulsars; Another important extension of human Quasars; Satellites; Shoemaker-Levy Comet perception came with the development of Impact; Space Exploration and Space Science radio telescopes. Radio astronomy began in References the 1930s when scientists recognized that Chaisson, Eric J. The Hubble Wars:Astrophysics Meets radio signals, just another part of the elec- Astropolitics in the Two-Billion-Dollar Struggle over the Hubble Space Telescope. New York: tromagnetic spectrum, came from outer HarperCollins, 1994. space. The skills acquired during World War Edge, David O., and Michael J. Mulkay. Astronomy II, especially in work with radar signals, Transformed:The Emergence of Radio Astronomy in proved useful when astronomers turned to Britain. New York:Wiley, 1976. radio astronomy after the war. In the 1950s Preston, Richard. First Light:The Search for the Edge of the Universe. New York:Atlantic Monthly, and 1960s, ever larger steerable dishes were 1987. built to pick up signals from the sky. Steer- Smith, Robert W.,and others. The Space Telescope:A able dishes allowed the radio telescopes to Study of NASA, Science,Technology, and Politics. follow a radio source across the sky. The New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989. largest dish ever built was not steerable; it Tucker,Wallace, and Karen Tucker. The Cosmic was 305 meters in diameter, and filled a Inquirers: Modern Telescopes and Their Makers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986. small valley near Arecibo, Puerto Rico. The ———. Revealing the Universe:The Making of the Cambridge University astronomer Martin Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Cambridge: Harvard Ryle (1918–1984) designed a way for com- University Press, 2001. Teller, Edward 291

Edward Teller, physicist and “father of the hydrogen bomb” (Library of Congress)

Teller, Edward (1908–2003) quickened, and his desire to drop chemical The physicist Edward Teller championed the engineering prompted his father to talk to design and construction of a successor to the his professors.The professors convinced the atomic bomb and became known as the “fa- elder Teller that his son would be able to find ther of the hydrogen bomb.” Ede Teller was employment as a physicist. Teller began born in Budapest, Hungary, then part of the studies of physics at the University of Mu- Austro-Hungarian Empire, where his father nich in 1928.When a street trolley severed was a lawyer. His mathematical ability was his foot, he delayed his studies to recover noticed early, and he graduated from gym- and learn to use a prosthetic. He then nasium in 1925. He attended Karlsruhe moved to the University of Leipzig to study Tec hnische Hochschule for two years, with the physicist Werner Heisenberg studying chemical engineering to satisfy his (1901–1976) and obtained his doctorate in father’s desire that he learn a practical pro- theoretical physics in 1930 at the age of fession, while he also pursued his interests twenty-two. After another year at Leipzig, in physics and mathematics.With the devel- he worked as a research assistant at the Uni- opment of quantum mechanics, his interest versity of Göttingen for two years. 292 Teller, Edward

When the Nazis came to power,Teller re- Ulam (1909–1984) and Teller solved the alized that his Jewish heritage put him at risk, major technical problem by electing to use x- and he moved to Denmark to study with the rays generated by an atomic bomb trigger to physicist (1885–1962) for a year. start the fusion reaction in the hydrogen Teller married in 1934 and fathered a son and bomb. The first hydrogen bomb was ex- a daughter. In Copenhagen Teller met the ploded in 1952 on the atoll of Eniwetok, and Russian-born George Gamow (1904–1968). Teller became the father of the hydrogen Gamow invited Teller to come to George bomb. Washington University in Washington, D.C., After a brief return to the University of as a professor of physics. In his six years at Chicago,Teller convinced the Atomic Energy George Washington University, from 1935 to Commission (AEC), which set civilian and 1941,Teller turned from his research on ap- military nuclear policy for the nation, to es- plying quantum mechanics to physical chem- tablish the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory istry to studying nuclear physics. Gamow and at the University of California at Berkeley. Teller collaborated to create the Gamow- This laboratory combined important civilian Teller selection rules for beta decay. work in nuclear physics with military con- Teller adopted American citizenship in tracts to design new generations of nuclear 1941 as he became involved in the secret weapons. Teller was the associate director of atomic research that grew into the Manhattan the laboratory from 1954 to 1958 and from Project. He worked initially at the University 1960 to 1975, with a brief two-year stint as of Chicago, then joined the theoretical study director from 1958 to 1960. group led by J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904 A political conservative and ardent anti- –1967) at the University of California, communist, Teller encouraged the United Berkeley. When Oppenheimer founded the States to build an ever larger nuclear arsenal Los Alamos Laboratory in New Mexico, to counter the Soviet Union. He testified Teller followed him there. In late 1941, against Oppenheimer in the infamous 1954 conversations between Enrico Fermi AEC hearing that resulted in Oppenheimer (1901–1954) and Teller led to speculation losing his security clearance and being forced that a more powerful type of bomb, a super- from government service. This testimony bomb based on fusion instead of fission, was caused a rift in the physics community, one possible.Teller advocated research into fusion group considering Teller something of a hero, bombs as well as fission bombs, but Oppen- the other a pariah. Teller also supported the heimer chose to concentrate on the techni- civilian use of nuclear energy, including the cally less challenging fission bomb. use of atomic bombs to build canals and in Though disturbed by the destruction that other large excavation projects, though such the atomic bombs wrought on Hiroshima and plans were later abandoned. Nagasaki,Teller did not question the morality In the 1980s Teller became a vocal advocate of working on the bomb. was too of the Reagan Administration’s Strategic De- great a threat. After three years at the Uni- fense Initiative (SDI), commonly referred to versity of Chicago, Teller returned to Los as “Star Wars.” SDI was not popular with many Alamos in 1949 as an assistant director.When physicists, an attitude that Teller blamed on the Soviets demonstrated their own atomic fallout from the Oppenheimer decision rather bomb in 1949, the American government de- than the technical difficulties inherent in the cided to pursue the hydrogen bomb based on idea. In 1987 he published Better a Shield Than fusion. Teller led this effort. Flawed calcula- a Sword: Perspectives on Defense and Technology in tions by Teller initially delayed the super- defense of SDI. Teller received the 1962 En- bomb project, but eventually other scientists rico Fermi award from the AEC and the Na- corrected the errors. In 1951, Stanislaw tional Medal of Science in 1982. Third World Science 293

See also Big Science; Cold War; Ethics; Gamow, The career of one of the rare examples of a George; Hydrogen Bomb; Nuclear Physics; Third World scientist earning a scientific Oppenheimer, J. Robert; Sakharov,Andrei Nobel prize is instructive. Abdus Salam References (1926–1996) grew up in Pakistan, where his Blumberg, Stanley A., and Louis G. Panos. Edward Teller: Giant of the Golden Age of Physics. New father worked as an official in the Department York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1990. of Education. Raised as a Muslim, he remained Teller, Edward, with Judith Shoolery. Memoirs:A devout his entire life.At the age of fourteen he Twentieth-Century Journey in Science and Politics. earned the highest scores ever recorded on en- Cambridge, MA: Perseus, 2001. trance exams for the University of the Punjab, where he earned a master’s degree in 1946. He traveled to England in order to attend Saint Third World Science John’s College at Cambridge University. Pak- The term Third World came to be used during istan gained its independence from England the cold war to describe the industrially un- while Salam was studying theoretical physics, derdeveloped nations not aligned with either earning a doctorate in 1951. Salam returned the United States and its allies or the Soviet to Pakistan, intent on creating a school of re- Union and its allies. In the 1990s it became search, but found that he needed to return to more common to refer to the north-south di- Cambridge to continue his own research. In vide, since most of the developed nations are 1957 he became a professor of theoretical located in the Northern Hemisphere and physics at Imperial College, London. Salam most of the underdeveloped nations are in made important contributions in the 1960s to the Southern Hemisphere. Of course there combining the weak nuclear and electromag- are exceptions, such as the countries of Cen- netic forces into the electroweak theory of tral America,Australia and New Zealand, and quantum electrodynamics. For this work he the Middle East. Third World science can be shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics with defined as scientific activities that affect the Steven Weinberg (1933–) and Sheldon Lee Third World or the science practiced by sci- Glashow (1932–). entists based in the Third World. Salam founded the International Centre At the end of World War II, most Third for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, World nations were colonies of Western Eu- Italy, in 1964, later renamed the Abdus Salam ropean nations. In the next decade, most International Centre for Theoretical Physics, colonies achieved independence, sometimes as a place for Third World scientists to come as a result of peaceful action and sometimes during their summers so that they might en- after armed revolt. Most Third World nations gage in research and social networking with struggled with burgeoning populations, un- their peers before returning to their home derdeveloped economies, and underdevel- universities for the school year. The Italian oped educational systems. Students who government funded the center, under the sought higher education usually traveled to sponsorship of the United Nations Educa- the universities in the United States or West- tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization ern Europe. During the height of the cold (UNESCO) and the International Atomic En- war, scholarships to universities in the Soviet ergy Agency (IAEA). Salam devoted his Union and China supported students from Nobel prize money to his quest to help Third nations that the communists sought to influ- World science. ence.The United States and its allies also of- Salam founded the Third World Academy fered scholarships for similar purposes. For of Sciences (TWAS) in 1983, with headquar- example, in 1985–1986, 42 percent of the ters at the ICTP.Like other international and physics graduate students in American uni- national academies, TWAS awarded prizes, versities came from foreign countries. offered small research grants, provided a 294 Tsui, Daniel C. forum for scientists to communicate, and was fortunate in that many of the teachers published a regular newsletter, proceedings were educationally overqualified for their po- of its conferences, and monographs on Third sitions, a consequence of the shortage of uni- World science. Somewhat more unusually for versity and research jobs after years of civil a scientific academy, TWAS also offered a war in China and the additional disruptions of program to supply spare parts for equipment World War II. Tsui graduated in 1957, and and donations of scientific books and period- though he had been accepted into a medical icals to Third World countries. school at the National Taiwan University, he Besides basic scientific research, Third hesitated to leave Hong Kong before knowing World scientists often concentrate on urgent how his parents were doing. The following issues within their countries, such as environ- year, his Lutheran pastor arranged for him to mental degradation, health care problems, enter Augustana College in Rock Island, Illi- and agriculture. Although the scientists who nois.The awarding of the 1957 Nobel Prize in launched the Green Revolution of the 1950s Physics to Chen Ning Yang (1922–) and through 1970s used Third World locations, Tsung-Dao Lee (1926–) for their work in el- like the International Rice Research Institute ementary particles inspired Tsui and many in the Philippines at Los Banos, to conduct other Chinese students to realize what was their research, the researchers were usually possible.Tsui remained in the United States, from First World nations. intent on attending graduate school, and See also Associations; Cold War; Glashow, since Yang and Lee both had attended the Sheldon L.; Green Revolution; Nobel Prizes University of Chicago, Tsui chose to attend References the same university for his graduate studies. “Abdus Salam—Biography.” http://nobelprize. After graduating from Augustana College in org/physics/laureates/index.html (accessed 1961, Tsui moved to Chicago, earning his September 18, 2004). Ph.D. in physics in 1967.Tsui married an un- Selin, Helaine. Encyclopaedia of the History of Science,Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western dergraduate at the University of Chicago in Cultures. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1997. 1964 and fathered two children. He later be- Third World Academy of Sciences. http://www. came a U.S. citizen. ictp.trieste.it/~twas/index.html (accessed Tsui joined the research staff of the famed February 13, 2004). Bell Laboratories at Murray Hill, New Jersey, where he worked on solid-state physics and devoted himself to studying the . Transistors Edwin H. Hall (1855–1938) discovered in See Computers 1879 that a transverse electric field is created when electrical current passes through a solid material. The power of the effect is directly Tsui, Daniel C. (1939–) related to the force of the magnetic field The Chinese-born experimental physicist present. In 1980, the German physicist Klaus Daniel C.Tsui and a colleague discovered the von Klitzing (1943–) created a Hall effect in fractional . Daniel Chee silicon at temperatures near absolute zero Tsui was born in an impoverished village in and found that the electrical current changed Henan Province, China, where his illiterate in steps as the magnetic field was changed. parents hoped for something better than a life This quantized Hall effect earned Klitzing the of drought, flood, and war.They managed to 1985 Nobel Prize in Physics. send him to Hong Kong in 1951, where he The German-born physicist Horst L. began his formal schooling.After a year and a Störmer (1949–) came to Bell Labs in 1977 half, he entered Pui Ching Middle School. He and partnered with Tsui on his projects.They Tsui, Lap-Chee 295

Daniel C.Tsui, experimental physicist (Rick Maiman/Corbis Sygma)

started to examine the quantum Hall effect See also Nobel Prizes; Particle Physics using a gallium-arsenide-based semiconduc- References tor and the powerful at the Francis “Daniel C.Tsui—Autobiography.” http://www. nobelprize.org/physics/laureates/1998/ Bitter Magnet Laboratory at the Massachu- tsuiautobio.html (accessed September 18, 2004). setts Institute of Technology (MIT). In 1982, “Horst L. Störmer—Autobiography.” http:// they discovered the fractional quantum Hall nobelprize.org/physics/ (accessed September effect when they found that electrical current 18, 2004). changes in even smaller steps than Klitzing had found, even fractional to the charge of an electron. The American theoretical physicist Tsui, Lap-Chee (1950–) Robert B. Laughlin (1950–), also at Bell The Chinese-born molecular geneticist Lap- Labs, provided a theoretical explanation for Chee Tsui led one of the teams that identified the fractional quantum Hall effect. Laughlin the gene that causes cystic fibrosis (CF). Lap- speculated that at near-zero temperatures, Chee Tsui was born in Shanghai, China, and and in a high magnetic field, electrons behave grew up in Hong Kong. He earned a B.Sc. in like a fluid rather than particles.Within a few biology in 1972 and an M.Phil. in biology in months of their discovery, Tsui realized an 1974, both from the Chinese University of ambition to teach by becoming a professor of Hong Kong. Coming to the United States, he electrical engineering at Princeton Univer- earned his Ph.D. in biological sciences in sity in 1983 and remains active in teaching 1979 from the University of Pittsburgh.After and research. Tsui shared the 1998 Nobel a year as a postdoctoral investigator at the Prize in Physics with Störmer and Laughlin Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tsui joined for their discovery. the Department of Genetics at the Hospital 296 Tsui, Lap-Chee for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, where Project, eventually serving as president of he began to work on CF. In 1985,Tsui helped Human Genome Organization, the interna- identify a genetic marker for CF in chromo- tional collection of scientists involved in the some 7. Human Genome Project.Tsui received many A joint group headed by physician-geneti- honors, including an appointment as univer- cist Francis Collins (1950–) at the University sity professor in the Department of Medical of Michigan and Tsui and John Riordan at the Genetics and Microbiology at the University Hospital for Sick Children pursued the gene of Toronto, election as a Fellow of the Royal or genes that caused the disorder. Their ef- Society in London and of the Royal Society of forts were funded by private and public Canada, and numerous honorary degrees. sources: the Howard Hughes Medical Center, Tsui is married and is the father of two sons. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Canadian Cystic Tsui later became active in scientific efforts Fibrosis Foundation, and National Institutes in Hong Kong, in addition to his activities in of Health. In 1989, the group found success Canada, becoming head of the Genome Re- and spent five months confirming their re- search Centre at the University of Hong sults (a single gene) before publishing their Kong. In 2002,Tsui became the vice-chancel- discovery in three articles in the same issue of lor of the University of Hong Kong. Science. The discovery of this gene is the nec- See also Biotechnology; Foundations; Genetics; essary first step to eventually overcoming the Human Genome Project; Medicine; National disease, and Tsui has remained active in or- Institutes of Health ganizing international research in this area. References Later research has showed that the CF gene is “Biography of Lap-Chee Tsui.” http://www.genet. part of the genetic instructions to create a sickkids.on.ca/~lapchee/bio.html (accessed September 18, 2004). protein called the cystic fibrosis transmem- “Lap-Chee Tsui.” http://www.genet.sickkids.on. brane regulator (CFTR). ca/~lapchee/ (accessed September 18, 2004). Tsui participated in the Human Genome U

Undersea Exploration Trench, located near Guam in the Pacific Up until the twentieth century, much of what Ocean. The Challenger Deep had been dis- occurred under the waters of the seas of covered in 1951 by the British research ship Earth remained a mystery.Then technologi- Challenger II, and was not again visited by sci- cal innovations allowed scientists to explore entists until a Japanese robotic submersible under the oceans. Initially deployed as instru- explored the Deep in 1995. ments of war, submarines allowed explo- The next step into undersea exploration ration of the ocean depths. After World War was to move beyond the ungainly bathy- II, engineers built specialized submarines scaphes to create deep-sea submersibles.The called bathyscaphes to survive the intense Alvin, the first of these craft, was built in pressures of the deep ocean.A pioneer in ba- 1964 by the Woods Hole Oceanographic In- thyscaphes was the Swiss-born Belgian physi- stitution and the Office of Naval Research. In cist Auguste Piccard (1884–1962), who had 1977, the Alvin discovered deep-sea hy- set the world altitude record in a balloon in drothermal vents at about 2,700 meters in 1932. Having turned his attention to the sea, the Galapagos Rift near the Galapagos Is- Piccard and his son, Jacques Piccard (1922–), lands. The unique ecology surrounding the built a bathyscaphe called the Tr ieste after vents includes large tubeworms, giant clams, World War II. The French bathyscaphe and other new species. Bacteria around the FNRS-3 and Tr ieste competed in 1953 with vents use chemosynthesis to create energy, deep dives into the Mediterranean. In dives converting the sulfides into organic carbon. below 10,000 feet (3,000 meters), the FNRS- The more complex life-forms form symbi- 3 and Tr ieste discovered previously unknown otic relationships with the chemosynthesis species and unusual geological features, de- bacteria and survive off them. Besides the spite their limited ability to move laterally small scientific submersibles that carried a underwater.The U.S. Navy purchased the Tr i- few crew members, unmanned robotic sub- este, and the younger Piccard accompanied mersibles called remotely operated vehicles the U.S. naval officer Don Walsh (1931–) on (ROV) were developed in the 1970s and have a record-setting dive to the deepest part of proved a low-cost alternative to manned sub- the ocean. On January 23, 1960, the Tr ieste mersibles and are able to penetrate depths reached a depth of 35,800 feet (10,912 me- that the manned craft do not normally reach. ters) in the Challenger Deep of the Mariana In 1990, the Japanese finished the Shinkai

297 298 Undersea Exploration

The deep-sea submersible Alvin (Ralph White/Corbis)

6500, the world’s deepest-diving manned divers to remain underwater for days at a submersible. With the end of the cold war, time, decompressing only once at the end of American military and Russian military sub- the dive. Saturation diving required divers to mersibles and resources began to be used by have undersea habitats to live in. The 1960s civilian scientists. Also, previously classified and 1970s saw numerous habitats developed information, such as sea floor gravity data around the world to serve as observation sta- collected by the U.S. Navy, was released. tions, laboratories for oceanographers, and In 1943, the French naval officer Jacques homes for divers. Among the more well- Cousteau (1910–1997) successfully devel- known habitats were Conshelf (France), Cher- oped his “Aqua-Lung,” based on the invention nomor (Soviet Union), Helgoland (West Ger- of an automatic gas-feeder valve by Émile many), and the U.S. Sealab, Tektite, Hydrolab, Gagnon. This scuba (self-contained underwa- and Aquarius habitats. The success of these ter breathing apparatus) gear allowed humans habitat programs encouraged some futurists to freely venture into shallow waters. Diving to predict a future of undersea cities and vig- before scuba was confined to using inverted orous exploitation of the ocean’s resources by bells for air supply, physical conditioning to a new underwater civilization.The number of hold one’s breath during a free dive, or hard- habitats faded until only three were in use by hat diving that obtained oxygen through 2000. hoses from the surface. The deep-sea drilling ship Glomar Chal- The development of saturation diving in lenger was launched in 1968, funded by the the late 1950s by the U.S. Navy allowed National Science Foundation (NSF).This ship Universities 299 traveled the world as part of the Deep Sea See also Archaeology; Cold War; Cousteau, Drilling Project, drilling holes around the Jacques; Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents; world and collecting core samples. These Geology; International Geophysical Year; samples definitively proved the existence of Meteorology; National Science Foundation; Oceanography; Plate Tectonics continental drift, hypothesized by the theory References of plate tectonics. In 1970, the Challenger Ballard, Robert D., with Will Hively. The Eternal crew used sonar and a reentry cone to suc- Darkness:A Personal History of Deep-Sea cessfully reenter a previously drilled hole, a Exploration. Princeton: Princeton University technique that allowed replacing worn drill Press, 2000. Bascom,Willard. A Hole in the Bottom of the Sea:The bits.The Challenger retired in 1983 after ex- Story of the Mohole Project. New York: tracting over 19,000 core samples. In 1985, Doubleday, 1961. the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Broad,William J. The Universe Below: Discovering the Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Secrets of the Deep Sea. New York: Simon and Earth Sampling (JOIDES) converted an oil Schuster, 1997. exploration vessel into a drilling ship, the Kaharl,Victoria A. The Water Baby:The Story of Alvin. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. JOIDES Resolution, to continue the work of Lawrence, David M. Upheaval from the Abyss: Ocean the Challenger. Floor Mapping and the Earth Science Revolution. Institutional support of undersea explo- New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, ration has come from private institutions 2002. like the Scripps Institution in California, Miller, James W.,and Ian G. Koblick. Living and Working in the Sea. New York:Van Nostrand Woods Hole in Massachusetts, Bedford In- Reinhold, 1984. stitute in Nova Scotia,Alfred-Wegener Insti- tute in Bremerhaven, Germany, and P.P. Shirshov Institute in Moscow. Government Universities organizations, such as the National Science Universities in the Western world have been Foundation (NSF); the American National the wellspring of scientific training and inno- Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration vation ever since medieval times. Prior to the (NOAA), founded in 1970; and their coun- twentieth century, scientists in the United terparts in Japan, Russia, and various Euro- States usually funded their research out of pean countries, have also supported under- their own pockets or from university funds. sea exploration. In the first half of the twentieth century, pri- Undersea exploration has been driven by vate foundations became important sources more than scientific curiosity. The sea is a of funding, especially in the health sciences. major source of protein to feed the planet’s During World War II, federal funding in the human population, and international bodies United States poured into university-based coordinate the management of fisheries. Off- scientific research. After the war, the federal shore oil drilling is a major source of oil, with government chose to continue supporting further efforts being made to drill into ever basic and applied scientific research at univer- greater depths. Underwater archaeology, ex- sities, using many mechanisms to deliver amining shipwrecks and drowned human funding, including the military, the National habitation sites, received a tremendous boost Science Foundation (founded in 1950), the from the invention of scuba gear. Since the National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 1960s, underwater archaeology has flour- tion (founded in 1958), and the National In- ished. Our emerging understanding of global stitutes of Health (founded in its current warming is greatly aided by increasing form in 1948). knowledge of the oceans, since the oceans are In the postwar world, the number and size the main mechanism regulating the tempera- of universities grew, as did the amount of sci- ture of the planet. entific research undertaken and the number 300 Universities of students being educated. Big science proj- decentralized university system, with major ects, especially particle accelerators and tele- funding coming from state governments, the scopes, were often put under the sponsorship federal government, university alumni, pri- of a university or a consortium of universi- vate donations, and commercial companies. ties. Most scientific research funding in the Scientific institutes in France and Germany United States now comes from sources out- are important centers of basic scientific re- side the university itself, from commercial search in addition to the universities. In the companies, government organizations, and Soviet Union, the Soviet Academy of Sciences the military, even when that research is being conducted most basic research in its own carried on at the universities. At the turn of academy institutes, often in association with the millennium, approximately half of all universities. basic research in the United States was being Much of the research in Japan occurs in conducted in universities, with the rest being corporations rather than universities. Some conducted in government institutes, in com- critics, both inside and outside the country, mercial companies, or privately. Much of the have argued that science that breaks bound- research done at universities now follows the aries and pushes the edges is inhibited by the priorities of funding sources rather than the Japanese cultural predilection toward con- personal interests of researchers. formity and respect for authority. The elite The story of Stanford University is a good universities of the Japanese university system example of the changes in the U.S. university. also strongly tend to hire from among their Founded in 1885 by a railroad baron and his own graduates rather than on merit. Labora- wife as a memorial to their son, the private tory space and research funding are usually university included scientific research among allocated equally among Japanese university its founding goals. Stanford became a leading professors, rather than through any sort of West Coast university, and postwar federal competitive process. government funding transformed the univer- sity.The federally funded Stanford linear ac- See also Associations; Big Science; Foundations; celerator (SLAC), completed in 1966, be- Integrated Circuits; Internet; National came the largest linear accelerator in the Institutes of Health; National Science Foundation; Particle Accelerators; Soviet world. Researchers from Stanford helped in- Academy of Sciences;Telescopes vent integrated circuits and create the micro- References electronics, computer, and software indus- Coleman, Samuel. Japanese Science: From the Inside. tries in the surrounding “.” The New York: Routledge, 1999. Stanford Research Institute (SRI) became a Crease, Robert P. Making Physics:A Biography of leading research think tank for the American Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1946–1972. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. military. Stanford in the form of SRI also be- Geiger, Roger L. Research and Relevant K