The original documents are located in Box 28, folder “ - Test Project” of the Betty Ford House Papers, 1973-1977 at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library.

Copyright Notice The copyright law of the (Title 17, United States Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted material. Betty Ford donated to the United States of America her copyrights in all of her unpublished writings in National Archives collections. Works prepared by U.S. Government employees as part of their official duties are in the public domain. The copyrights to materials written by other individuals or organizations are presumed to remain with them. If you think any of the information displayed in the PDF is subject to a valid copyright claim, please contact the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library. apollo•soyuz test pro1ect• 3KcnepHMeHT8HbHhlti npoeKT <> -<>


Aleksey A. Valeriy N. Kubasov Thomas P. Stafford Donald K. Slayton Vance 0. Brand .. ~ (/) -z:





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ASTP PRIME CREWS-These five men compose the two prime crews of the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project docking in orbit mission scheduled for . They are Thomas P. Stafford (standing on left), commander of the Ameri­ can crew; Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov (standing on right), commander of the Soviet crew; Astronaut Donald K. Slayton (seated on left), American docking module pilot; Astronaut Vance D. Brand (seated in center), American command module pilot; and Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov (seated on right), engineer of the Soviet crew.


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JSCL-129 i:r U.S. GOVERNMENT PR INTING OFFICE: 1975 671-188/ 5 Nl\S/\Facts An Educational Publication of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NF-52/5-75

APOLLO SOYUZ TEST PROJECT In mid-July 1975, three American astronauts and Apollo-Soyuz will open the way to an inter­ two Russian cosmonauts will bring their spacecraft national space rescue capability and to future together in Earth orbit, exchange visits, and con­ international manned space missions that would duct joint scientific and technical experiments. The eliminate duplications of effort and thereby con­ principal goal of this Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, tribute to economies and in space opera­ the world's first international manned space flight, tions. In perspective, the important result of is to test compatible rendezvous and docking sys­ this international manned mission may be the ­ tems for manned spacecraft. tual confidence and trust it creates--confidence and Apollo-Soyuz rendezvous. Rendezvous occurs about 50 hours trust that may be significant not just for what peo­ after Soyuz launch. The spacecraft dock about an hour later. ples working together may accomplish in space but Command Module is readied for flight. American part of docking system (foreground) and cylindrically shaped Docking Module (background) during check-out. also for what peoples working together may achieve • Instrument, at rear, with subsystems required for on Earth. power, communications, propulsion, and other functions. Existing Spacecraft Used Among the major modifications of Soyuz for the Apollo-Soyuz is named for two tried and tested joint program are a new type of docking mechan­ spacecraft-the American Apollo and Russian ism, additional communications equipment to ac­ Soyuz-that have been adapted for the mission. commodate the United States ultra-high frequency Apollo is fundamentally the same craft that waited of 296 MHz, a transponder (a combined receiver­ in during the Apollo lunar and transmitter that beams a signal when triggered by that later carried astronauts between Earth and another signal) for Apollo use in ranging (dis­ Apollo-Soyuz Mission Profile. the experimental manned . tance calculation) during rendezvous, and align­ Apollo consists of the cone-shaped Command ment aids to aid Apollo in docking. Module in which the men live, eat, and work; and Soyuz's internal atmosphere consists of Soyuz Apollo the cylindrical Service Module with its en­ and at an Earth level of 760 gines, propellant, oxygen, and electrical power mHg (millimeters of ), or 14.7 pounds per A. Launch. 1. Launch. supplies. As in the Apollo and Skylab programs, the square inch. Apollo's atmosphere is pure oxygen at B. Soyuz- separation. 2. Separation of Saturn 18 first stage. Service Module will be jettisoned when Apollo about 260 mHg (5 pounds per square inch) . To 3. Second-stage separation. begins the atmosphere-entry portion of its descent facilitate crew transfer, Soyuz pressure will be re­ C. Solar panels, that generate electricity to Earth. The astronauts will return in the Com­ duced to about 520 mHg ( 10 pounds per square from , unfold. 4. Apollo turnaround. mand Module. inch) during docking and re-pressurized to D. Soyuz turnaround. 5. Apollo extracts Docking Module from Among major modifications to the Command/ before atmosphere entry. Equipment to reduce and second stage. Service Module for Apollo-Soyuz are an increased increase pressure has been added to Soyuz. The E. Soyuz continues to final orbit. 6. Apollo turnaround. number of propellant tanks for the reaction control lowered air pressure in Soyuz enables the men to (orientation and stabilization) system, added equip­ transfer from Soyuz to Apollo without a lengthy F. (8) Rendezvous. 7. Apollo orbit circularization. ment required to operate the new Docking Module period in the to breathe pure oxygen and G. (9) Joint activities. 8. (F) Rendezvous. and the American-Russian rendezvous and docking wash nitrogen from their bodies. Otherwise, the men would be subject to the bends, a painful con­ 9. (G) Joint activities. systems, and provisions for scientific and technical H. Deorbit. experiments. dition caused by nitrogen gas bubbles in the body I. Separations of Orbital, Descent, and 10. Apollo jettisons Docking Module. The Soyuz has been the primary Soviet manned tissues. Instrument Modules. 11. Turnaround and rocket firing for deorbit. spacecraft since its introduction in 1967. It consists Docking Module Is New of three basic modules: 12. Service Module jettison. NASA developed and constructed a Docking J. Descent and of Descent Module • Orbital, located at the forward end, used by the in . U.S.S. R. Module that will also serve astronauts and cosmo­ 13. Descent and landing near . crew for work and rest in orbit. nauts as an airlock and transfer corridor between • Descent, with main controls and crew couches, Apollo and Soyuz. It holds two suited crewmen and used by crew during launch and return to Earth. is attached to the forward end of Apollo. 2 3 The Docking Module and Soyuz use a com­ patible docking system designed by NASA and Soviet engineers. Such a system will later be em­ ployed on the United States , on Soviet manned spacecraft, and possibly future spacecraft of other nations, providing international space rescue capabilities as well as facilitating fu­ ture international manned space requiring docking of two or more . Proven Launch Vehicles Used Saturn IB launches Apollo into Earth orbit. Saturn IB was employed for the Earth-orbital Apollo test flights prior to the launches and for Skylab, the first American Earth-orbital space station program. Saturn IB has a first-stage thrust of 720,000 kilograms ( 1.6 million pounds) . Soyuz is launched by the Raketa Nosityel Soyuz, or Soyuz Rocket . The Soviet Union has used this rocket vehicle in all Soyuz missions, including Soyuz 4 and 5 which achieved the first manned transfer between spacecraft on July 16, 1969. Mission Highlights The mission plan calls for the Soviet Union to rocket Soyuz from the launch complex near the in Kazakhstan. Initially, Soyuz's orbit will be elliptical. However, the Soyuz will exe­ cute one or two maneuvers to circularize its orbit at an altitude of 225 kilometers (140 ). About 7 ~ hours after the Soyuz launch, Apollo will be rocketed into orbit from the John F. Ken­ nedy Space Center in . After separating from Saturn, Apollo will turn about, maneuver to the forward end of Saturn, and dock with and extract the Docking Module housed there. Apollo will then execute a series of maneuvers that will result in rendezvous and docking with Soyuz. The docking will occur about 52 hours after the Soyuz launch. The spacecraft will remain docked for approximately two days as exchange visits and joint experiments are conducted. Then, they will be separated. The Soyuz is expected to remain in orbit for an additional 43 hours before returning to Earth. It will land in Kazakhstan. Apollo will operate in space for approximately six days after separation. It will land in the Pacific near Hawaii. Experimental Activities Twenty-seven experiments planned for Apollo­ Soyuz involve space , space processing and manufacturing, Earth surveys, and . A few examples: • The stable and relatively prolonged mission will be employed to gain more data on a compara-

Historic meeting in space. Astronaut and cosmonaut greet each other with handshake. Two astronauts are in Docking Module air lock. The other is in Apollo Command Module. Both cosmonauts are in the of Soyuz. Descent Module is behind Orbital Module.

5 ... training and for working group meetings. Joint tests I have been made of such components as the docking system. Representatives of each country will be in the other's during the mission. _Americans also will check out Apollo communica­ tions equipment that will be carried aboard Soyuz prior to the Soyuz launch. Each country's team is being intensively trained in the other's language. Flight documents and pri­ ground and space controls will be labeled in both Russian and English.

Biographies Of The Prime Crews


Astronauts Stafford (light coat, cap) and Ceman (on his left) on Moscow tour with other members of Soviet and Vance D. Brand, Command Module Pilot, was American Apollo-Soyuz technical teams. Ceman is Special May 9, 1931 in Longmont, Colorado. He earned a Assistant to Dr. Glynn S. Lunney, the U. S. Technical Director Bachelor of Science degree in Business from the of Apollo-Soyuz. The American team was in Star City near Moscow for Soyuz familiarization training. In background is University of Colorado in 1953, a Bachelor of Sci­ Cathedral of the Intercession (St. Basil's) Museum. Kremlin is ence degree in Aeronautical from the at right. University of Colorado in 1969, and a Master's Astronauts Slayton (foreground) and Stafford in -up Dock­ degree in Business Administration from the Uni­ ing Module. made of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear versity of , Los Angeles, in 1964. leukocytes in blood samples taken from the astro­ Mr. Brand earned the Cer­ tively low-energy, X-ray background in the sky nauts before and after their mission. Leukocytes tificate of Commendation in 1970 and the NASA detected by studies. Little is are the white cells that attack infectious bacteria. Exceptional Service Medal in 1974. known about this phenomenon. The aim is to Lymphocytes either manufacture antibodies that Mr. Brand and his wife, Joan, have four children. ascertain both the source of the and the battle viruses and other infectious agents or process by which it is derived. Just as studies of transmit information to other cells on how to emission processes contributed to develop­ repel disease. The studies will add to knowledge ment of atomic power , understanding of about the body's defense mechanisms. these X-ray sources may lead to development of improved techniques for generating energy. To Play Important Role • Mixtures of living cells will be separated by elec­ Communications from the docked Apollo and Thomas P. Stafford, Commander, was born in trophoresis into groups, each having a different Soyuz spacecraft will be relayed to Earth through Weatherford, Oklahoma, September 17, 1930. He function. Electrophoresis refers to the movement NASA's Applications Satellite-6, aver­ graduated from the U. S. Naval Academy in 1952. of particles suspended in a fluid under the influ­ satile spacecraft being used for experiments on the Stafford is a recipient of the following honorary ence of an electric field. The weightless spacecraft frontiers of communications, meteorology, and degrees: Doctorate of Science, Oklahoma City Uni­ environment may permit better separation than space science. versity, 1967; Doctorate of Laws, Western State can be obtained on Earth. If so, electrophoretic If Apollo-Soyuz were transmitting directly to University College of Law, 1969; Doctorate of Com­ separation on future space missions such as those ground stations, as has been the practice in past munications, Emerson College, 1969; Doctorate of of the Space Shuttle could be a valuable tool for manned flights, its comparatively low orbit and Aeronautical Engineering, Embry-Riddle Aeronau­ biological research and lead to useful applica­ the limited number of stations would restrict com­ tical University, 1970. tions in preparation of cell transplants and prod­ munications between the astronauts and Mission Special honors have included the NASA Distin­ ucts that can be obtained from cell cultures, such Control to an average of only about 15 minutes out guished Service Medal, two NASA Exceptional as enzymes and antibodies. of each approximately 90-minute orbit. Service Medals, the Johnson Space Center Certifi­ • Observations will be made of Earth features, Applications Technology Satellite-6, however, is cate of Commendation, the Air Force Command processes, and phenomena in many scientific dis­ in constant communications view of nearly half the Pilot Astronaut Wings and Distinguished Flying Donald K. Slayton, Docking Module Pilot, was born ciplines. Among these are surveying the Hima­ from its vantage point about 35,680 kilo­ Cross, the National Academy of Arts March 1, 1924, in , Wisconsin. He earned a layan fields and drainage patterns as an aid meters (22,300 miles) above Earth and, with sup­ and Science Special Trustees Award, and the 1966 Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engi­ to irrigation and control on the Indan Sub­ porting ground stations, Apollo and the ground­ Harmon International Trophy, administered by the neering from the in 1949. continent and mapping extensions of the San based flight controllers will be to communicate Clifford B. Harmon Trust. His honorary degrees include Doctorate of Science Andreas Fault and related fracture systems in for about 50 minutes out of each orbit. His space flights include Gemini 6 as pilot, from Carthage University, Carthage, Illinois, in the United States for oil and mineral exploration Gemini 9 as command pilot, and as com­ 1961 and Doctorate in Engineering from and earthquake studies. Training Grounds Include Both Nations mander. He has logged more than 290 hours in Technological University, Houghton, Michigan, in • Among the life sciences experiments are studies Astronauts, cosmonauts, and Russian and Ameri­ space. 1965. of how may affect the body's re­ can technical support staffs for Apollo-Soyuz have Commander Stafford and his wife, Faye, have He has been awarded two NASA Distinguished sponse or resistance to . Studies will be made numerous visits to each other's facilities for two children. Service Medals, the NASA Exceptional Service

6 7 Medal, the of the National Aero­ nautic Association, and the Society of Experimental Test Pilots' Iven C. Kinchloe Award and J. H. Doolittle Award. Mr. Slayton was chosen as one of the original seven Mercury astronauts in 1959 but a heart condition, discovered in , precluded his making any space flights. He subsequently served as Coordinator of Astronaut Activities and later as Director of Flight Crew Operations. In March 1972, following a comprehensive medical review by NASA's Director of Life Sciences and by the Fed­ eral Administration, Mr. Slayton was re­ stored to full flight status. Mr. Slayton and his wife, Marjory, have one Flight Engineer Kubasov is a Hero of the Soviet child. Union and a Pilot-Cosmonaut of the U.S.S.R. Kubasov was enlisted in the Soviet cosmonaut unit in 1966. As flight engineer of , he took Cosmonauts part in the group flight with and in . During this mission, he conducted the first experimental welding in space. Valeriy Kubasov and his wife, Lyudmila, have two children.

Part Of 1972 Agreement Apollo-Soyuz was included in an agreement on cooperation in space between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Re­ publics. The agreement was signed May 24, 1972, by President Nixon and Premier Ko­ sygin, Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers. Aleksey Arkhipovich Leonov, Commander, was born May 30, 1934, in Listvayanka, in the Kem­ erovo Region of . He is a graduate of the Chuguyev Air Force School and the Zhukovsky Air Spacecraft Statistics Force Academy. He is also qualified as an Air Force APOLLO Paradrop Instructor. Command Module Commander Leonov is a Rear End Diameter 3.90 meters (12.8 feet) and a Pilot Cosmonaut of the U.S.S.R. He is also a Length 3.66 meters (12 feet) deputy to the Moscow Regional Soviet. In addition, Service Module he is a vice-president of the USSR-Egypt Friend­ Diameter 3.90 meters (12.8 feet) ship Society and a board member of the USSR-Italy Length 6.71 meters (22 feet) Society. Docking Module Commander Leonov was enlisted, together with Diameter 1.52 meters (5 feet) Yuri Gargarin, in 1960 in the first unit of Soviet Length 3.05 meters (10 feet) cosmonauts. He was second pilot in the Earth orbital flight of 2 on May 18, 1965. During that mission, he achieved the world's first extra­ SOYUZ vehicular activity in space. Orbital Module Commander Leonov and wife, Svetlana, have two Diameter 2.29 meters (7.5 feet) Length 2.65 meters (8.7 feet) children. Descent Module Valeriy Nikolayevich Kubasov, Flight Engineer, Diameter 2.29 meters (7.5 feet) Length 2.20 meters (7.2 feet) was born January 7, 1935, in Vyazniki, Vladimir Region. He graduated from the Moscow Aviation Instrument Module Institute in 1958. He is the author of a number of Di ameter 2.77 meters (9.75 feet) studies dealing with the calculation of spacecraft Length 2.29 meters (7.5 feet) trajectories and holds a Master of Science (Engi­ neering) degree. i:I U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE o 1975- 0-574-983

For sale by t he Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government Printing Offic~ 8 Wash ington, D.C. 20402 - Price 30 cents Stock Number 033- 000-00612-8 RENDEZVOUS IN SPACE: APOLLO-SOYUZ

by F. Dennis Williams Public Affairs Officer, Office of International Affairs, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Revised and updated from a manuscript written by Gerald R. Kovacs, Department of History, Indiana University.

A reprint from June 1975 "NASA Report to Educators"

As many Americans awaken on July 15, Soviet tech­ nicians will be completing an afternoon countdown for a Soyuz rocket booster to be launched from the Bay­ konur complex near in Central Asia, some 2,000 miles southeast of Moscow. Meanwhile, NASA technicians at Kennedy Space Cen­ ter will clear the area around an Apollo and begin loading liquid and into the 224-foot B. Seven and a half hours after Soyuz has begun its journey around the Earth, at 3:50 p.m. EDT, Apollo will roar over the in pursuit. The dual launch of Apollo and Soyuz, beginning the only three months. During this period, its radio beep first manned to be conducted jointly by the and movements revealed information about the United States and the Soviet Union, is the result of of the upper atmosphere, temperatures experienced in years of negotiating, careful planning, and extensive the new environment, and the effectiveness of radio testing. The flight itself, though it symbolizes a new era transmission from space. in U.S.-Soviet relations, is only the last in a series of But the of the had a tremendous tests for a new docking system-a system designed impact on world public opinion. For more than two jointly by engineers of the two nations to give future years, the United States had been publicizing its plans astronauts of both nations a common mechanism for for launching an artificial satellite as part of the 1957 locking their spacecraft together. For those who have International Geophysical Year. Now, with virtually no had dreams of Earth-orbiting space stations supplied advance publicity, the Soviet Union appeared to have and manned by spacecraft from many nations, such a surpassed the United States in a single giant leap. standardized docking system is an essential first step. Soviet representatives had, in fact, made passing Without a compatible docking system, each nation would mention that their government was pursuing investiga­ be limited to its own independent activity during a tions to this end, but such information sounded no period when research and practical applications in alarms in the United States. Now, the resulting political Earth orbit are steadily increasing in value. For others, effects in the United States and in other countries were who have watched the independent progress of the two remarkable. Although the Soviet Union had made sub­ great spacefaring nations, the fact that such a mecha­ stantial progress since the 1917 Revolution, the argu­ nism could be designed and tested jointly will be evi­ ment that the Soviet system was better able than the American to provide developing nations with economic d~~ce i~ itself of a far greater accomplishment-a sig­ n1f1cant increase in understanding between superpowers and technological growth had proved unconvincing to much of the world. Now, in an era of War the that once waged an ideological war that seemed to 1 threaten the safety and security of the entire globe. Soviets had scored a propaganda coup of major pro­ portions. Beginnings in space. On October 4, 1957, the Soviet For people all over the world, the space successes of Union launched the first artificial earth satellite. In the Soviet Union were viewed as symbolic of the overall retrospect, the accomplishment seems a modest one­ tec~nical a~d scientific level of the Soviet society. I operated for three weeks and stayed in orbit During the first few years, the Soviet accomplishments 2 3 greatly enhanced their prestige and influence in the 's Alouette, were launched in 1962 atop U.S. in 1969, the first circumlunar flight to be returned to to involve other nations in a wide range of future space world. Their new convinced many that they h.a? . Earth. activities; a second pane l, composed of representatives Despite a number of formal and informal approaches at the very least equalled the United States. The m1l1- Meanwhile, the United States national space pro- of several government agencies, began reviewing the to Soviet officials in the first years of the space age, no tary implications of the successful launches of. gr~~t gram also made significant advances. The first global possibilities for U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space. The agreement on the nature of specific projects into Earth orbit were lost on few. The sc1en~1f1c cooper~tive photo, the first communications , the enthusiasm of NASA Adm inistrator Paine for seeking acceptable to both sides was reached unt1.1 1962, equipment, animals, and finally cosmo.na~ts that orbited ~f'.er first photograph of the Earth from space, the first dock­ new joint projects was now bolstered by supporting the Earth all rode into space on missiles capable of the first orbital flight by . Chairman N1k1ta ing of manned spacecraft in orbit, the first photographs statements from many quarters. Khrushchev's congratulatory telegram included a state­ carrying nuclear weapons. of , the first orbiting -all were On the other side of the globe, Soviet officials began ment concerning the desirability of cooperative effort In the United States, the Sputnik launch and the U.S. accomplishments in the . The crowning opening their doors. Congratulatory telegrams and in­ by our two nations in the exploration of . following explosion of our own rocket on the achievements-the first manned flight around the Moon, formal expressions of Soviet support for increased space In response, NASA and other U.S. agencie7 provided launch pad brought a flurry of activity. Wit~in a year, the first docking in lunar orbit, and finally the first cooperation flowed from Soviet officials to their U.S. specific proposals for concrete space projects th~t Congress had created a new agency, the National . ~e.ro­ manned landing on the Moon-significantly extended counterparts within days of the Apol lo 11 landing. might be undertaken by the U.S. and USSR. Presi­ nautics and Space Administration, to lead the c1v1l1an man's reach into space. Assured of the President's personal support for a broad dent Kennedy's letter to Khrushchev outlined these as Growing U.S.-Soviet communication. In the latter ha lf initiative, Pa ine sent Mstislav V. Keldysh, President of space effort. . . (1) establishment of an operational world weather satel­ Following 's successful orbital fl1~ht on of the 1960s, as the United States moved toward the the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, a copy of two lite system through coordinated satellite launchings and , 1961, President John Kennedy asked his ad­ successful landing on the Moon, American space offi­ reports on long-range U.S. goa ls in space and expressed global data exchange; (2) exchange of spac~cr~ft tra~k­ visors to present him with a space program ~hat would cials repeatedly offered to undertake additional coopera­ the hope that they would suggest to Ke ldysh, as they ing services; (3) mapping of Earth's with demonstrate American technological leadership and re­ tive efforts with the Soviet Union, but none of these did to him, possibilities for moving beyond the current, each nation launching its own satellites equipped to gain our international prestige. Vice-Presiden~ Lyndon overtures brought an affirmative response from the limited cooperation in space between their two coun­ share this task; (4) an invitation to the Soviet Union to Johnson, chairman of the National Space Cou~cil, passed USSR. tries. In the closing days of 1969 Keldysh replied that provide a ground terminal as part of an international the desired recommendations to the President, who During this period, however, the United States and he agreed on the need to develop U.S.-USSR coop­ program using U.S. communications satellites. announced on , 1961, an urgent national priority: the Soviet Union were among the dozens of nations eration further. He suggested that in three or four months Jn view of the extensive cooperation already under­ to land a man on the Moon and to return him safely to signing the in 1967. These nations, they return to the subject and agree on the time and way between the Un ited States and many other nations, Earth before the end of the decade. and the others signing in succeeding years, agreed that place for a meeting. the agreement signed by Anatol iy Blagonravov of the space is free for exploration and use by all countries, In the succeeding months, the movement toward U.S.­ International cooperation. During the first years of Soviet Academy of Sciences and Hugh L. , that shall be carried out for the benefit Soviet space cooperation broadened and gathered space activity, international cooperation in space w.as Deputy Administrator of NASA, in June 1962 represented of all humanity, and that the Moon and other celestial momentum. In correspondence, at an informal dinner in endorsed by both the United States and the Soviet a very sma II step toward cooperation between the two bodies shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes. New York, at private meetings, at an international space Union. Because of the military implications of the ad­ nations that were most active in space. This was followed in 1968 by a supplemental treaty con­ meeting in Leningrad, officials from NASA and other vanced propulsion and guidance technology, some areas This first agreement on space cooperation between the cerning assistance by nations to astronauts in distress. interested organizations suggested possible opportuni­ -booster development, for example-were clearly not United States and the Soviet Union provided for mutual The rapid progress of NASA's lunar program wa s ties for cooperative effort. suited for intimate cooperation between the super­ exchange of data from weather satellites, mapping of accompanied by steady growth in U.S. cooperative space During these months, several U.S. officials suggested powers. th'e Earth's magnetic field through an exchange of re­ activities with other nations. From 1965 through 1969, that the two nations work together to develop a common In the realm of scientific research, however, NASA sults from independent satellite launches, and a com­ a dozen separate U.S. launches carried satellites from docking mechanism for use on future spacecraft. In July quickly advertised its willingness to engage in coop­ munications experiment using the U.S. satellite Echo 11. Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy 1970, a year after the first landing on the Moon, the erative projects with other nations, and a number of In 1965, stimulated by a Soviet suggestion, negotia­ and the ten-nation European Organ iza­ Embassy of the USSR in Washington conveyed a message programs to launch sounding rockets and sm.all 7atel­ tors agreed on a plan to prepare a joint review of space tion. Foreign scientists also provided experiments to be from Academician Keldysh: Soviet officials were ready to lites were agreed to in the early 1960s. The first inter­ and medicine, the first U.S.-Soviet cooperative included in U.S. spacecraft and shared the responsi­ begin discussions leading to the development of common national satellites, the United Kingdom's Ariel and effort in an area directly related to manned spaceflight. bility for analyzing data gathered by U.S. instruments. docking mechanisms for space stations. After a decade of compilation and review, the U.S.­ But even in early 1969, when new NASA Administrator Agreement is reached. In October, U.S. and Soviet Left, Explosion of the U.S.S.R. editorial board has approved this impressive U.S. Vanguard on the Thomas Paine embarked on another campaign to el icit officials met in Moscow for preliminary technical discus­ launch pad in 1957. Below, joint work for publication in the coming months. Soviet cooperation in defining mutually desirable space sions. Th is first joint session led to basic agreements in Britain's Aerial satellite, Although U.S. space cooperation with dozens of na­ projects, the results were disappointing. Despite the several areas. Three joint working groups were formed, launched by the U.S. in tions flourished in the 1960s, joint efforts with the great potential for space cooperation between the two each with responsibility for a portion of the effort neces­ an early example of Soviet Union were limited to a very modest exchange cooperation. nations most actively exploring the cosmos, no new sary to create a new docking system. These working of results and some small attempts at coordinating the joint effort had been undertaken for several years. teams would adapt procedures and systems developed two vigorous independent national programs. Until July 20, 1969, when American astronauts landed independently by the two nations so that future vessels From the launch of Sputnik in 1957 through the 1960s, their lunar module on the dusty surface of the Moon, would be able to dock in space. This first meeting not the recorded a number of firsts: in the pursuit of a more extensive program of space coop­ only produced a formal agreement to design compatible 1959, the first spacecraft to escape Earth's , eration between the United States and the Soviet Union rendezvous and docking systems for future manned I; also in 1959, the first pictures of the far side of the produced no hint of success. spacecraft, it also led to a plan of action for ·their Moon, by ; in 1960, the first recovery of orbited If the landing on the Moon awakened mankind to both development. animals; in 1961, the first manned orbital flight, with the needs of Earth and the potential of the The success of the rendezvous and docking meeting in Yuri Gagarin in l; in 1962, the first spacecraft species, the accomplishment also stimulated a new in­ October was followed by an agreement to substantially to fly past Mars, Mars l; in 1964, the first multi-manned terest in international space activity. Congressional expand U.S.-Soviet space cooperation by establishing flight with a crew of three in ; in 1965, the first resolutions endorsed an increased effort to bring about five new joint working groups. NASA Deputy Administra­ walk in soace, by Aleksey Leonov, now commander of cooperation with all nations and to share the benefits of tor and Academ ician Keldysh met in January the Soviet prime crew for the Apollo-Soyuz mission; in the Apollo success with the entire world. An advisory 1971 and agreed to the formation of new working groups 1966, the first spacecraft to impact , 3; and panel created by President Nixon recommended steps to further cooperation in programs for weather sate!- 4 5

agreed on hardware tests, training exercises, and mission U.S. astronauts with the Soyuz spacecraft in exercises to be conducted before the flight; they at facility known as Star City, just outside formulated mutually acceptable policies for handling Moscow. The Soviet crew members practiced in an various situations that might arise in space; and they Apollo training device in . The teams that will established guidelines for the exchange and be in the U.S. and Soviet mission control centers during public release of information concerning the joint flight. the joint flight also exchanged visits and were trained Although each of these areas would be more extensively in control center operations. negotiated during future meetings, the basic plan was A total of nine astronauts and eight cosmonauts have firmly established when the session concluded on April received extensive training in all aspects of the joint 6, 1972. flight. The Apollo prime crew is commanded by Thomas On May 24, 1972, President and Aleksey P. Stafford, 45, a brigadier general in the U.S. Air Force, Kosygin, Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, a veteran of three , and an astronaut for more On May 24, 1972, Richard M. Nixon and Alexei signed an agreement "concerning cooperation in the than a dozen years. Stafford flew to within eight miles Kosygin signed a cooperative Space Agreement. exploration and use of outer space for peaceful pur­ of the surface of the Moon on Apo llo 10, the last test poses." The leaders formally endorsed the arrangements flight to precede the lunar landing in 1969. In 1965, previously agreed to at a lower level and established lites, atmospheric sounding rockets, space sciences, the Stafford participated in the first rendezvous in space the two nations' determination to test the compatible environment, and space biology and medicine. Two of when he and Walter Schirra brought the Gemini 6 to docking system with an experimental Apollo-Soyuz flight the projects to grow from the Low-Keldysh meeting were within a half-dozen feet of . In 1966, Stafford in 1975. Above, Joint crew training at Johnson Space Center an exchange of lunar samples and a joint study of the commanded Gem ini 9 during a three- flight in Earth The purpose of the new standardized system being during a " walk-through" of the first day. Below, Soviet Bering Sea using satellites, research ships and specially orbit. flight controllers during a briefing at Houston. designed for spacecraft and space stations was, in the equipped . Donald K. "Deke" Slayton, Apollo docking module words of the Nixon-Kosygin agreement, "to enhance the At the January meeting, Low suggested to Keldysh that pilot, has called himself the world's oldest space rookie. safety of manned flight in space and to provide the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft be considered for a test Slayton, 51, was one of the first seven U.S. astronauts for conducting joint scientific missions in the flight of the new docking system the two nations would selected in and was to have piloted the second future." The new docking system would provide the two be developing. Then, in March, Low reported the recent U.S. spacecraft to orbit the Earth, unti I a very slight nations with a steppingstone to cooperation in space. developments in U.S.-Soviet cooperation to the Con­ heart irregularity was discovered. A comprehensive medi­ gressional committees that oversee the U.S. space pro­ ASTP development. Subject to continuing budget ap­ cal review in 1972 found Slayton physica lly qualified for gram. NASA officials held regular discussions with sen­ proval from the Congress, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project spaceflight, and he wi ll make his first trip into space on ators, representatives, and staff members from Senate was underway. During the three years to follow, well July 15. and House committees throughout the negotiations with over a hundred U.S. engineers, astronauts, and project The third U.S. prime crewmember is Vance D. Brand, the Soviet Academy of Sciences. officials have traveled to the Soviet Union to meet with 44. An astronaut for eight years, Brand tra ined as a back­ NASA and Soviet officials met again June 21-25, 1971, their counterparts, and a similar number of Soviet per­ up crewmember for the lunar landing mission in Houston to discuss the technical requirements for sonnel have visited the United States. At these joint and for the last two missions to use the Skylab space sta­ compatible docking systems. Among the areas consid­ working group meetings, every aspect of the proposed tion. Brand has been named Apollo command module ered were radio and visual systems necessary for ren­ mission that required coordinated effort was discussed. pilot for his first spaceflight. Leonov was the first person to walk in space when he dezvous and docking, differences in the communications Astronauts and cosmonauts began receiving language The two-man Soyuz is commanded by Aleksey Leonov, spent 12 minutes outside Voskhod 2. Flight engineer for and environmental control systems used by the two instruction in preparation for the flight. Engineers agreed one of the first group of Soviet cosmonauts to be chosen, the Soyuz will be Valeriy Kubasov, who flew aboard nations' spacecraft, and the basic functions and design on a design for the docking system, then each nation set and now a in the Soviet Air Force. In 1965, Soyuz 6 in a 1969 fl ight that included a rendezvous with of the proposed docking system. The two groups also about building its own hardware to meet the joint re­ two similar spacecraft, Soyuz 7 and 8. agreed to study the costs and technical feasibility of quirements. As a result, the docking systems are inter­ testing the new docking sysem with existing spacecraft. nally different, but the parts connect perfectly. The men who will fly the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project The spacecraft. The equipment for the Apo llo-Soyuz in July, from left to right: astronauts Slayton, The technical feasibility of a test flight using existing The Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft selected to test Stafford, and Brand; cosmonauts Leonov and Kubazov. Test Project includes both standard systems and new spacecraft was confirmed in the succeeding meeting, the new docking system are different in many important hardware developed specifically for the upcoming flight held November 29- in Moscow; then at the respects. The orbiting Apollo weighs about sixteen tons, The U.S. will use an Apollo spacecraft left in storage Low-Keldysh meeting the following April, U.S. and more than twice as much as Soyuz. Designed for lengthy when the number of lunar landing flights was reduced Soviet delegations agreed that a test flight using U.S. missions to the Moon, Apollo has a larger fuel supply in a cost-cutting effort. Beca use the Apollo command Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz would be desirable. for maneuvering; Apollo also has more spacious interior modu le wa s built with a docking system designed to During the April session, both sides carefully and quarters. During the joint flight, the two Soyuz crew­ work only with U. S. spacecraft like the Apollo lunar completely reviewed the work of the previous eighteen members will remain in space for just under six days; module or the Skyla b space station, some method of months. Before a formal agreement could be signed by with a larger supply of fuel, oxygen, , and food, the incorporating the new compatible docking system de­ the chief executives of the two nations, every major three Apollo astronauts will be able to stay in orbit for signed by America n and Sovie-t engineers had to be element in the proposed Apollo-Soyuz Test Project had nine days, permitting additional scientific experiments to found. to be outlined to the satisfaction of both sides. Before be completed. A second important problem requ ired solution before advising the President of the United States to formally To be certain that no surprises occur when the two a joint flight cou ld be made. The Apollo uses a pure approve such a test mission, NASA officials sought and spacecraft dock 140 miles above the Earth, numerous oxygen atmosphere at about one-third the atmospheric obtained firm commitments from their counterparts in tests were conducted in the U.S. and the Soviet Union. pressure found on the surface of Earth; Soyuz, on the the Soviet Union on the methods and schedules to be The docking system was subjected to extremes of heat other hand, uses a nitrogen-oxygen mix like the air we followed in the coming three years. The two sides care­ and cold and to other stresses that will be encountered breath on the ground, and at normal atmospheric pres­ fully detailed the objeotives of the joint flight; they in the vacuum of space. Soviet trai ning teams familiarized sure-14.7 pounds per square inch. To permit crewmem- 6 7

bers to from Soyuz to Apollo, engineers had to Tyuratam, east of the Aral Sea. If one of the Soyuz spacecraft will reveal the quantity of atomic nitrogen materials that cannot be produced on Earth because of include an airlock to equalize the pressure. A launches is unsuccessful, or if the Apollo is unable to and atomic oxygen to be found in the region 135 miles the distorting effect of the 's gravitational forces. transfer from the Soyuz atmosphere to the low-pressure follow within a few days of the Soyuz launch, the second above the Earth. A Soviet scientist has prepared one of the samples to oxygen of Apollo would cause the "bends," a condition Soyuz will be available for the joint flight. Following the joint experiments, Soyuz will dock with be inserted into the furnace. Other joint studies concern experienced by deep-sea divers when they come back By the time the flight itself begins, every procedure Apollo in a further test of the new docking system. Later the effects of cosmic rays on bacteria, and the move­ to the surface too quickly and nitrogen gas bubbles will have been worked out in detail, and many of the on Saturday, following undocking, Apollo will its ment of microbes between crewmembers and the interior form in their body fluids. possible problems will also have been carefully re­ engines briefly and begin moving away from Soyuz. surfaces of the two spacecraft. viewed. As the Soyuz stands ready on the launch pad Soyuz will descend from orbit and land in the south ASTP CSM/DOCKING MODULE The U.S. crew will conduct several independent in the Soviet Union, television pictures of the crew and central USSR near early Monday morning. projects to record various forms of radiation rocket will be relayed to the U.S. mission control center The Apollo spacecraft will continue in orbit, with from within our -the -and from the in Houston from the Soviet mission control center at astronauts Stafford, Slayton, and Brand conducting sev­ universe beyond. Two other experiments will measure Kaliningrad, outside Moscow. Throughout the flight, eral scientific experiments and making science demon­ the relative movement of the Apollo command module in communications between the spacecraft and the global strations before they splash into the Pacific Ocean relation to an advanced tracking networks of the two nations will be relayed to southwest of Hawaii at 5:18 p.m. EDT, Thursday, July 24. launched last year and in relation to the docking module, flight controllers on both sides of the Earth. The control U.S. experiments. Because this will be the last U.S. which will be sent spinning away by the crew after the centers will be linked by lines for telephone, teleprinter, manned spaceflight in Earth orbit until the first Space docking experiments are concluded. By detecting small and television to permit rapid communication between Shuttle launch in 1979, NASA officials are taking advan­ changes in the relative of the spacecraft, scien­ all of the participants as the flight progresses. tage of the joint mission to carry on severa l scientific tists can map areas where the Earth's gravity is sl ightly Fortunately, the problem presented by differences in The ASTP mission. The Soyuz will be launched first research projects during the nine-day flight. In addition greater because of concentrations of beneath the the two spacecraft atmospheres and the need to adapt the to take advantage of the fact that Apollo has a greater to the two experiments mentioned above, which require surface. Tracking of satellites from the ground has re­ Apollo to use the new docking system were resolved by fuel capacity and is better able to close the gap with the participation of both the U.S. and Soviet spacecraft, vealed larger concentrations, while sma ller differences combined action: the U.S. built a new piece of equip­ Soyuz once the two spacecraft are in orbit. Apollo will three other joint experiments and 22 independent U.S. can be detected by instruments here on the surface. ment and the Soviets made a modification to the Soyuz. follow in 71/2 hours, with subsequent launch opportuni­ experiments are planned for the flight. The Apollo experiments will fill the gap between these Since the existing Apollo could not be changed to ties on each of the five succeeding days. Many of these experiments will explore areas investi­ two. accommodate the new docking system without consid­ About an hour after Apollo is launched, the command gated by the crews of the Skylab space station, which In two medical experiments, an electric field will be erable work and expense, the U.S. decided to build a module will turn around in orbit, connect with the dock­ completed its work in February 1974. Inside the docking used to separate blood samples into their constituents. small docking module-an airlock ten feet long and five ing module, and begin moving away from the second module, an electric furnace will be used to experiment In another form of space cooperation, Germany provided feet in diameter with the new docking system on one stage of the rocket that placed Apollo in orbit. on the processing of materials in space, a field that may the equipment for one of these two electrophoresis ex­ end and a system compatible with the Apollo on the During the succeeding 42 hours, from Tuesday eve­ someday return great dividends in the form of new periments. The investigations will help to determine other. The Saturn I B rocket used to launch Apollo will ning (July 15) to just after noon on Thursday, the Apollo also carry the 4,400-pound docking module, and the and Soyuz crews will slowly and carefully guide their astronauts will turn the Apollo around and connect it to spacecraft to dock some 137 miles above the Earth. SCIENCE DEMONSTRATIONS FROM SPACE matter how the are launched, they must the docking module after they are in Earth orbit. Seven or more Apollo maneuvers will be required to always rotate in a plane. To eliminate the need for a lengthy adaptation period dock with Soyuz-each changing the Apollo's initial During the flight of Apollo-Soyuz, the astronauts for crewmembers passing from Soyuz to Apollo, Soviet velocity- about 17,500 miles an hour-by less than fifty will conduct some sc ience demonstrations that will Chemical reactions in foams-will involve the mix­ engineers will reduce the aboard miles an hour to bring it closer and closer to Soyuz. utilize the unique conditions of the spaceflight en­ ing of chemicals in zero g by shaking them to a foam. Soyuz by about one-third- to 10 pounds per square inch After docking is completed and a check is made of the vironment in a way not possible on Earth. These After a certain delay, a chemical reaction will occur, - while the two spacecraft are linked. The smaller differ­ new system, Apollo astronauts Stafford and Slayton wi 11 demonstrations, which are in addition to the 27 ex­ turning the colorless foam to a deep red. The stability ence in pressures allowed the United States to simplify open the hatch from the command module to the docking periments to be conducted, should be of great interest of the foam, as well as the time of reaction, will be and reduce the cost of the docking module, since crew­ module, leaving Vance Brand behind in Apollo. At 3:26 to science teachers and their students. They will be noted and compared to ground-based studies. members will not be required to spend long periods in p.m. EDT Thursday afternoon, the two U.S. crewmembers recorded on picture film and made available Capillary wicking-on Earth, the action of wicks is a 1- the airlock. The change also will make enough time wi II open the hatch to Soyuz and greet the Soviet crew. later for showing in high school science classes. The ways the result of two forces, adhesion and gravity. available to permit all crewmembers to participate in Three more crew transfers will be made on Friday, demonstrations are: Even when the wicking proceeds horizontally, some the exchange of visits. assuring that all of the U.S. and Soviet crewmembers The "book" -will show that a book­ influence of gravity exists. In orbit, the wicking action The docking module includes virtually everything nec­ will crawl through the airlock for at least one visit in the shaped object can rotate very stably about two of its should proceed without the disturbing influence of essary to meet the compatibility requirements for other's spacecraft, an important part of the test of symmetry axes (those of least and greatest moments gravity. The rate of ca pi I lary action in different wicks Apollo. Only minor changes were necessary in the Apollo procedures and equipment developed for future coop­ of inertia), but no matter how carefully it is started placed in a law surface-tension fluid will be observed command module itself, for example the installation of erative work. rotating about the third symmetry axis the book soon and compared with rates on Earth. controls for the docking module. At 8:02 a.m. Saturday morning, the Apollo and Soyuz undergoes an interesting flip-flopping motion which Liquid spreading-liquids, when brought in contact The Soviet side bui It new, modified Soyuz spacecraft will undock and Apollo will move about 650 feet away will be visible with the object rotating slowly and with solid surfaces, have a tendency to spread over the specifically for the planned joint mission-each with the from Soyuz to provide an artificial for unsupported in zero g. entire surface, provided that cohesive forces between new compatible docking system included as an Leonov and Kubasov to observe. The cosmonauts will molecules of the liquid are smaller than adhesive part of the Soyuz design. Two unmanned test flights photograph the outer atmosphere of the and wi 11 Planetary -two metal spheres tethered to­ forces between molecules of liquid and molecules of were made with the new configuration, and in December also record the effects of the Apollo steering rockets as gether by fine thread will be launched with rotation the id. Under Earth gravity, this wetting action takes 1974 Soviet back-up crewmembers for the joint flight they fire their gases into the vacuum around the U.S. but no translation about their center of mass, so as place only when the flow of the liquid along the surface rehearsed the entire mission independently during the spacecraft. Then Apollo will fly around Soyuz, beaming to orbit about each other in a plane. A pair with both proceeds in a horizontal or downward direction. How­ six-day flight of . special lights to a or "retroreflector" on Soyuz equal will be a double-star model. A pair with ever, under the zero-g conditions, a wetting liquid will Two of the new Soyuz spacecraft will be prepared for and back to a spectrometer on the Apollo. The amount of one heavy and one light sphere will model a sun­ spread evenly over a surface irrespective of its launch from the Baykonur launch complex near light absorbed as the beam travels between the two planet or planet-moon or black-hole-star-system. No orientation. 8 whether the unique space environment may offer a better BIBLIOGRAPHY means of isolating viruses, enzymes, and other small American Assembly. Outer Space: Prospects for Man and particles for analysis and whether this space technique Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1962. may someday play an important role in helping to combat Aviation Week and , May 5, 1975. Special diseases here on Earth. issue on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. One of the more interesting Apollo experiments con­ Frutkin, W. "Apollo-Soyuz: A Substantial Engagement," Aeronautics and Astronautics, December 1974, pp. 24-25. tinues a study conducted during the Skylab flights. The ---. "The International Age in Space," AIAA Student U.S. astronauts will focus their eyes and cameras on the Journal, October 1974, pp. 30-33. Earth, studying such features as snow cover in the ---. "International Cooperation in Space," Science, July Himalayan Mountains, the Great Salt Lake, deserts in 24, 1970, pp. 333-339. both hemispheres, developing weather patterns, and ---. International Cooperation in Space. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1965. A factual account empha­ conditions in the . sizing efforts of the U.S. to promote international space Although the Soviet crew may also conduct scientific cooperation, by NASA's Assistant Administrator for Inter­ experiments during their flight no similarly extensive pro­ national Affairs. gram of research has been planned for Soyuz. Soviet Goldsen, Joseph M. (ed.). Outer Space in World Politics. cosmonauts completed their most recent scientific mis­ New York: Praeger, 1963. A selection of articles on the implications of the new space technology for the military, sion aboard a Salyut space station early this year. politics, and international relations. Despite the many scientific experiments added to the , Dodd L., and Linda C. Cicoritti. U.S.-Soviet Coopera­ first of the new international docking system, tion in Space. Coral Gables, FL: Center for Advanced Inter­ the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project will cost the United States national Studies, U. of , 1974. An edited collection of only a little more than the Applications Technology Satel­ documents relating to Soviet-American efforts since 1957. Harvey, Mose L. "An Assessment of US-USSR Cooperation in lite which will be used to relay communications from the Space," Proceedings of the A.A.S. 9th Memorial Apollo to a in Spain. With the Soviet Union Symposium, International Cooperation in Space Operations contributing a significant portion of the total costs, and and Exploration, A.A.S. Science and Technology Series, the U.S. using a left-over Apollo, the overall expense of March, 1971. the project to the average American wi II be just a little Jastrow, , and Homer E. Newell. "The Space Program more than one dollar. and the National Interest," Foreign Affairs, April 1972, pp. 532-544. Kash, Don E. The Politics of Space Cooperation. Lafayette, The new compatible docking system is now a reality. IN: Studies, 1967. An interpretative ac­ All that remains to accomplish is the final flight test count of U.S. participation in international space programs to prove its effectiveness in space. Two nations with expressing the view that space cooperation will create an atmosphere for peaceful cooperation in other fields. great differences have shown during the intervening Sheldon, Charles S. Review of the Soviet Space Program: years that they can work together to their mutual benefit. With Comparative United States Data. New York: McGraw­ The new system developed by the United States and H i 11, 1968. Provides a wealth of statistical and historical the Soviet Union may be used on future space stations information about Soviet and U.S. space programs. and on the shuttles that will carry crews to and from Shelton, William. "The United States and the Soviet Union: Fourteen Years in Space," The Russian Review, xxx, 4, space. October 1971, pp. 322-334. During the designing of the new docking system, U.S. Smolders, Peter, Soviets in Space. London: Lutterworth Press, and Soviet representatives have, on occasion, disagreed 1973. A popular history of the Soviet space program. as they struggled with the difficult technological prob­ Sobel, Lester A. Space: From Sputnik to Gemini. New York: lems to be solved. In the end, however, they resolved Facts on File Inc., 1965. Summarizes events in the conquest of space from the launch of Sputnik I to 1965: scientific each of these conflicts to the satisfaction of both sides. achievements, national and international developments. When American engineers and managers required infor­ U.S. Congress. Manned Space Flight: U.S.-Soviet Rendezvous mation about the Soviet spacecraft to assure the safety and Docking. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Manned of the American crew and the success of the joint flight, Space Flight of the Committee on Science and Astronautics Soviet officials provided the necessary assistance. Still, U.S. House of Representatives. Washington: U.S. Govern­ ment Printing Office, 1972. to protect certain technological innovations used in each --- . Space Agreements with the Soviet Union. Hearing nation's spacecraft, information about manufacturing before the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences techniques and the internal workings of advanced space U.S. Senate. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, equipment has not been exchanged. 1972. This first international manned spaceflight is a dra­ ---. U.S.-U.S.S.R. Cooperative Agreements. Report of the Subcommittee on International Cooperation in Science matic climax to years of quiet effort on both sides, a and Space of the Committee on Science and Astronautics significant step that may lead to a truly international U.S. House of Representatives. Wa shington: U.S. Govern­ era in space-an era in which all nations share the work ment Printing Office, 1972. and the reward of space exploration. Although the Apollo­ Van Dyke, Vernon. Pride and Power: The Rationale of the Soyuz flight offers no guarantee of future cooperation Space Program. Urbana: Universi ty of Illinois Press, 1964. An interpretive account of the American spa ce program; between the great spacefaring nations, it does illustrate Chapter 14 summarizes international developments and the potential for joint work in space-work that nations problems involving space cooperation. may do together despite their ideological differences. APOLLO SOYUZ TEST PROJECT MISSION SEQUENCE