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researchgerman german research 1 / 2011 Magazine of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Cover: Landsat 7 / Ronald W. Hayes, USGS In the satellite image: the imposing 1 /2011 Manicouagan crater in Canada with a diameter of approximately 100 kilome- tres. This as well as other craters still puzzle geologists and chemists.

Commentary Matthias Kleiner The Horror That Puts Everything in Perspective 2 After the catastrophe in Japan: Science between helpfulness, integrity and excellence

Life Sciences Uwe Schütz and Christian Billich To the Limits 4 Unique data set: Radiologists accompany ultra-marathon runners across Europe

Natural Sciences Mario Trieloff Tracing the Tracks of Cosmic Rain 10 Asteroid collision 470 million years ago still fascinates geochemists today

Antje Boetius Tiny Helpers Fight the Spill 14 Bacteria contribute to degrading oil contaminants in the sea

Humanities and Social Sciences Regina Göckede Hard Roads to Unfamiliar Places 20 How exile influenced the architects of the “Neues Bauen” even after 1945

Engineering Sciences Rainer Drewello, Burkhard Freitag, Christoph Schlieder New Tools for Ancient Ruins 24 An innovative database system makes historical archives accessible

german research on the road Rembert Unterstell “I still have a suitcase in Dresden …” 29 Solar System: Tracing the Tracks of Cosmic Rain | After Fukushima: The Horror That Puts Young Indian scientists on a tour through ’s research landscape Everything in Perspective | Ultra-Marathon: To the Limits | Oil Catastrophe: Tiny Helpers Fight the Spill | Modern Architecture: Hard Roads to Unfamiliar Places | Database System: New Tools for Ancient Ruins | Networking: “I still have a suitcase in Dresden …” 2 Commentary german research 1 / 2011 german research 1 / 2011 3

Matthias Kleiner find nothing more important to discuss than a federal minister’s doctoral thesis, this affair has now definitely been cut down to size. The Horror That Puts And yet all these topics can be seen in connection. After all, it is the best science that can provide the most effective help. And only a research community that Everything in Perspective values integrity above all else will be taken seriously and accepted as helper. Allow me therefore to make a few comments on the two events that were on our minds Between humility and helpfulness: The disaster in Japan is also a turning point for the during the weeks prior to the disaster. scientific community. What tasks it must tackle now, how it can help in big and small One of these events turned the world upside down ways – and what both have to do with integrity and excellence by incriminating and indicting the research community even though it was the actual victim. We must counter such degradation – which was careless at best, coldly calculated at worst – with our most elementary prin- ciples of honesty, truthfulness and trust, as well as the rules of good scientific practice, and we must shed light on the facts. And this is exactly what the research com- e still have the dramatic media images before with special poignancy. As an engineering scientist, I munity has been doing vis-à-vis society and its political our eyes: workers in Fukushima struggling was reminded by the pictures from Fukushima once representatives. W to prevent a nuclear meltdown; recovered again of concepts such as humility, doubt, prudence Even the affair itself has taught us a lesson. If the bodies in Sendai in the aftermath of the tsunami; people and modesty. benefits of doctoral qualification within regulated and in Tokyo, Natori and elsewhere trying to get back to their But asking about limitations also raises questions well-structured settings are becoming more obvious

lives as much as possible. And the whole world still looks about the capabilities of science and what it can do Illustration: DFG / Frenz now, then this will be a fortunate consequence of an to Japan in shock and trepidation. to help. What can and should we do now, after the unfortunate occurrence. This is the very type of doc- None of this was on anyone’s mind on 10 March, disaster? torate that has been gaining traction, with increasingly when we discussed within the DFG Executive Com- Paradoxical though it may sound, science and re- good results, in DFG-funded projects, Collaborative Re- mittee who should win the next Eugen and Ilse Sei- search had already done much to mitigate the effects search Centres and Research Training Groups, as well bold Prize, an award given to Japanese and German of the disaster before it even happened. Without the ig ways of helping can be complemented by small as in the Excellence Initiative’s Graduate Schools and researchers for outstanding contributions to promot- insights from geology and physics, from statics and the ways of helping. The DFG Executive Committee Clusters of Excellence. ing a better understanding of the other country. That materials sciences, that went into the construction of Bwould like to enable German-Japanese coopera- As part of this Excellence Initiative, the Joint Com- afternoon, we were delighted by the large number of tall buildings and technical facilities, the destruction tion projects to offer emergency assistance to Japanese mission of the DFG and the German Council of Science prizeworthy nominations. And like the jury, we felt would probably have been even more devastating. And partners. For example, measurements or experiments and Humanities selected, just days before the disaster confident to have selected two extraordinary winners now, scientific data centres in Germany and elsewhere currently not feasible in Japan could be done in Ger- in Japan, the new projects that will now be allowed in chemists Kazuyuki Tatsumi and Gerhard Erker – all help out by sending to Japan satellite images of cit- many instead. to compete with the institutions already being funded the more because they jointly lead the first German- ies, buildings and streets, taken before and after 11 Above all, there is a deep sense of sadness and sym- under the Excellence Initiative. That it would be an Japanese Research Training Group in Nagoya and Mün- March, as an important tool for rescue workers on the pathy. We commemorate the victims of the disaster. We exciting and tough contest, strengthening science and ster, where they combine their own excellent research ground and for reconstruction efforts in the destroyed fear and hope with our colleagues and friends, and with research and even our country as a whole, is something with the training of young scientists. Less than 18 hours regions. all those who must now struggle with the consequences. we expected even before the picks were made – and later, the earth shook. The most important tasks for the scientific commu- We wish, from the bottom of our heart, that their plight we were right. Put in the right perspective, it is a bright nity, however, arise from the lessons the disaster has will soon improve. And we will do anything we can to spot, even in these days of trouble, that gives us hope he disaster in Japan is also a turning point for taught us – as hard as it is to say so. The warning sys- help, wherever our help is wanted. for the future. the scientific community – and an appropriate tems, for instance, that were buried by the tsunami in T moment to pause. The quake and the flood have spite of safeguards, must be made even more robust. t may appear highly inappropriate to segue from the reminded us of a truth that is often doubted but contin- And because even Fukushima will not immediately end disaster in Japan and scientific aid to plagiarism, hon- ues to assert itself: At the end of the day, humankind and the nuclear age, reactor safety must be improved fur- Iest scholarship and the first results in the second phase its technologies are no match for nature and its forces. ther. Finally, if we want to prioritise the production and of the Excellence Initiative. After all, 11 March 2011 is

And the exploding reactor block raises questions about use of renewable energies, it is especially the scientific a horror that puts everything in perspective. And if it Prof. Dr.-Ing. Matthias Kleiner science’s responsibility and limitations once more and community that will be called on. was baffling even prior to that for an entire nation to is President of the DFG. 4 Life Sciences german research 1 / 2011 german research 1 / 2011 5

Uwe Schütz and Christian Billich To the Limits

Two marathon runs every day for 64 days: the TransEuropeFootRace pushed not only the participants to their limits, but also the radiologists accompanying the athletes who used the latest techniques to study how the runners’ bodies responded to the ultra-stressful conditions Illustration: Schütz 6 Life Sciences german research 1 / 2011 german research 1 / 2011 7

t was a matter of superlatives: 4,500 kilometres right across Europe: The study protocol had to be I the TransEuropeFootRace 2009 the TransEuropeFootRace from Bari to expanded in view of the numerous started in Southern Italy and went the North Cape. Radiologists from the experts from the fields of experi- all the way to the North Cape – a University of Ulm accompanied the run- mental radiology, sports medicine distance of more than 4,500 kilo- ners and carried out research. Below: and orthopaedics, cardiology, neu- metres. This ultra-marathon, held the project logo. rology and psychiatry who were from 19 April to 21 June, is the interested in this unusual group of most extreme multistage competi- test subjects, the study design and tion in the world. This means that a separate trailer. The semi-trailer the collected data. The test subjects even very experienced and fully fit and the specially hired high-per- were randomly assigned to modu- ultra-runners must go beyond their formance truck tractor weighed a lar- and topic-related MRI protocols endurance limit and pain threshold total of 37 tonnes. that had been specially created in an every day to finish each run and The adventure could begin. interdisciplinary content. The study hold their own in the competition. This included solving not only the team also used newly developed MR This extreme footrace aroused complicated issues of insuring the techniques. the curiosity and medical interest vehicles and large equipment, but Each test subject was scanned of two radiologists from the Uni- also a number of applications for in the MRI every 3 – 4 days, which versity Hospital of Ulm. Their idea permits required for the trans-Eu- meant 15 –17 MR examinations was to study changes in the human ropean route: EU driving licences, over a period of 68 days. The sub- musculoskeletal system, the cardio­ driver and company tachograph jects were also randomly assigned vascular system and the central cards, certificates of exemption for to other examinations, and proto- nervous system as a result of ultra- HGV transports on Sundays and cols were created for daily urine and marathon stress using the modern public holidays, exemption from blood sampling as well as biometric measuring technique of magnetic HGV tolls in the various countries and longitudinal clinical studies. resonance imaging (MRI). This idea (Austria, Germany, Italy) and cus- Running as far as their feet can carry them: ultra-marathoners have to face their pain was developed into the first lon- toms papers to export the MRI out irectly after the end of the race, threshold every day. Below: Even the running shoes have their own stories to tell … gitudinal study of extreme stress of the EU (Sweden to Norway) and international research teams

Billich D under defined conditions – two / to reimport it into the EU (Norway started the scientific evaluation marathon distances every day for to Finland). and interpretation of the data that 64 days without a break. Particu- should help to answer a number lar focal points were changes and fter consultations with the or- of questions. A primary focus is adaptation responses of the organ A ganisers of the TransEurope- the musculoskeletal system. Here, systems without sufficient regen- FootRace, the study could com- questions focussed on stress- and eration time. mence. Forty-four ultra-runners overstress-induced changes in the The team’s most important tool (66 %) volunteered as test sub- lower extremities due to running.

was a 1.5 tesla MRI scanner mounted Illustration & Graphic: Projektarchiv Schütz jects. During the 64 daily stages, All tissue systems – subcutane- on a mobile unit, the only one of its which brought the study team as ous tissue, muscles, ligaments, fas- kind in Europe. It was transported well as the runners to their physi- cia, tendons, bones and cartilage by a semi-trailer weighing a total cal and mental limits of endurance, – were studied with special quan- of 27.5 tonnes. The semi-trailer highly complex data were collected titative and qualitative MR tech- had an internal diesel generator to according to the specifications of niques. This should help explain power the helium cooling circuit the study protocol. By the end, how the different tissues react to for the MRI over the ten-week pe- the team had travelled more than the severe stress that continued for riod. However, it did not generate 11,000 kilometres, used more than days and weeks without any pauses enough electricity for continuous 25,000 litres of diesel, crossed 14 for regeneration or even resting MRI measurements and was there- international borders and three Al- phases because two marathon dis- fore supplemented by a more pow- pine passes as well as the Baltic Sea tances had to be completed every

erful external diesel generator (140 twice. And huge amounts of data day. How does the water content Illustrations: Schütz kVA) that had to be transported on had been collected. and collagen matrix in the carti- 8 Life Sciences german research 1 / 2011 german research 1 / 2011 9

lage of the knee and ankle behave and associated changes in muscula- motivation and pain processing? These issues were addressed by in such a situation? Or what sort ture were analysed with new MRI Is there a volume increase in cer- recording electrocardiograms at of degeneration or modification or techniques. tain regions of the brain that are regular intervals and by studying even damage occurs here? In the field of neuroradiology, responsible for controlling the legs? the occurrence of “functional dis- Special cartilage degeneration so-called ice-water and electrostim- Or had some of the runners devel- turbances” over the 64-day period. markers in the blood were analysed ulation pain tests in combination oped brain oedema due to electro- A comparison of the diagnostic lab- and compared to the recorded MR with functional MRI should provide lyte shifts? oratory (stress) parameters and the data. It is surprising, particularly new insights. One key question measured ECGs with the cardio- for those outside the running com- is whether such long-term run- f great interest is a longitudi- MRI data promises to shed light on munity, that in spite of the daily ning stress causes changes in brain O nal analysis with respect to these questions. runs, the leg muscles of the ath- plasticity and whether processing tissue changes in the entire body. letes degenerated owing to the im- of pain in athletes can be clarified The runners inevitably lost weight n summary: the enormous data mense energy consumption. Little is in more detail. For example, how over the weeks in spite of consum- I pool collected during the Trans­ known about this phenomenon at do finishers and non-finishers dif- ing enormous amounts of calories. EuropeFootRace and the many the cellular level. These catabolism fer mentally with respect to their When and where does catabolism study topics call for an evaluation as an interdisciplinary coopera- tive effort. The legendary staying

MRT images recorded after the individual stages of the race provide fine details of how the extremities adapt and change. Illustration: Schütz power of long-distance runners is needed in this case as well. The profile and consequences of ultra- A runner before an examination in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Each test distance running stress at the or- subject was examined in the MRI 15 – 17 times during the ultra-marathon. ganic, suborganic and cellular lev- els have been documented. They will provide detailed information (break down of substances) occur is unavoidable in view of the huge on changes and adaptations of the in body tissues? These questions are data pool and the very different various organ systems. being addressed by means of spe- study topics. cial whole-body MRI techniques in This is also apparent in the field collaboration with MRI researchers of cardiovascular studies. Even at the Department of Experimental fully fit endurance athletes are ex- Radiology at the University Hospital pected to show adaptive changes of Tübingen. that can be documented by MRI. Modern cardiovascular examina- here are very complex ques- tion methods can be used to de- T tions on stress-related progres- tect and evaluate the progress of sive changes in the body and tissue organic adaptation processes. Dr. Uwe Schütz texture. The data are currently be- But many questions remain is a specialist for orthopaedics and trauma ing analysed in detail with respect unanswered. For example, does surgery and is a specialty registrar for radio­ to the distribution of fat, water running stress cause clockwise logy at the Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology of the University and muscles in collaboration with rotation of the heart axis? Or, in Hospital of Ulm. PD Dr. Beat Knechtle (BIA, biom- spite of being very fit, do the test Dr. Christian Billich etry), an ultra-athlete and expert subjects show an increase in heart is a specialty registrar in the Department of in sports medicine. Furthermore, muscle mass or cardiac volume, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology of the University Hospital of Ulm.

Billich the blood and urine analyses are and if so, to what extent? Or, al- / being studied in collaboration with though unexpected but similar to Contact: Abt. Diagnostische und Interven- the Department of Sports Medicine the skeletal musculature, is there tionelle Radiologie des Universitätsklinikums at the University of Basel (Prof. Dr. a reduction in heart muscle mass Ulm, Steinhövelstraße 9, 89075 Ulm, Germany

Illustration: Schütz Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss). Cooper- due to the generally unavoidable www.transeuropalauf.de ation with other research groups catabolism? www.transeurope-footrace.org 10 Natural Sciences german research 1 / 2011 german research 1 / 2011 11

Mario Trieloff ince its formation, Earth has col- The impact craters visible on the they were so-called “L chondrites”. S lided with extraterrestrial bodies. surfaces of Earth’s Moon, Mars and These take their name from origi- In the beginning of our solar system, Mercury provide information on the nally small rock pellets (Greek chon- Tracing the Tracks impacts of large minor planets were number and frequency of past im- dros, corn) and have a low (L = Low) actually part of the “natural” growth pacts of extraterrestrial bodies. Cra- iron content. They account for 38 process of the terrestrial planets. ter counting and dating techniques percent of all meteorites found in of Cosmic Rain Even today, Earth is hit by relatively have revealed that the number of the world and originate from a sin- large bodies measuring from several extraterrestrial impacts has re- gle, once large, parent asteroid. hundred metres to several kilome- mained approximately constant over The dating of L chondrites with A collision of two large asteroids between Mars and Jupiter occurred 470 million years ago. tres in intervals of a few million the past 3.5 billion years. The mete- the potassium-argon method often Even today, every third meteorite that strikes Earth can be traced back to this prehistoric crash. years. What’s special: Unlike small orites found on Earth are of no use yields a “degassing age” of approxi- From fallen fragments, geoscientists gain new insights into the history of the solar system meteorites, such large objects un- for such an estimate because nearly mately half a billion years. This age dergo very little deceleration in the all of them fell over the past two mil- corresponds to the time at which Earth’s atmosphere. They typically lion years. Older specimens have not the rock that makes up the mete- strike Earth at speeds of between 10 generally survived our planet’s in- orite was melted for the last time, and 70 kilometres per second, vapor- tense weathering processes. or was at least heated to the point ising completely on impact. All that remains is an impact crater. Smaller bodies hit the Earth with Scientists unexpectedly discovered much greater frequency: millimetre- sized grains of dust burn up and va- the remnants of prehistoric, fossilised porise in the atmosphere as shooting meteorites in a Swedish quarry. stars. More seldom are meteoroids, which measure between a few cen- timetres and metres. They survive In a Swedish quarry, research- that the argon – an inert noble gas – the trip through the atmosphere, as ers unexpectedly discovered the contained in the rock could escape. well as the impact with the ground remnants of prehistoric, fossilised After cooling, the radioactive decay – and remain as meteorites. meteorites. of potassium-40 (potassium atomic But there are occasional excep- nuclei with atomic mass 40) resulted he majority of the known me- tions: Approximately 15 years ago, in the formation of argon-40. From T teorites originate from the as- the working group of Birger Schmitz the quantity of argon-40 and its par- teroids between Mars and Jupiter. at Lund University discovered nu- ent nuclide potassium-40, the law These minor planets form the “as- merous remnants of prehistoric, of radioactive decay can be used to teroid belt”, where collisions occur fossilised meteorites in a Swedish calculate the time that has passed frequently. In such crashes, the quarry embedded in limestone from since the last complete degassing. asteroids – once having measured the Middle Ordovician geological It is this time span that defines the hundreds of kilometres across – are era. Based on this, they would be degassing age. shattered into smaller fragments. approximately half a billion years As relatively small bodies, aster- Influenced by the neighbouring gi- old. No other known extraterrestrial oids have only undergone geologic ant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, the object that landed on Earth that long activity of their own immediately asteroids move into elliptical orbits, ago still exists today. The number of following their formation 4.5 bil- Foussat / putting them on track to intersect findings corresponds to a “fall rate” lion years ago, which was brought dpa / the orbit of Mars or Earth. approximately one hundred times about by strong internal heat gen- greater than current rates. eration. The only process that could The extensive weathering made a cause a subsequent strong increase The meteor crater in the U.S. state of mineralogical-chemical assignment in the temperature of the rock, and Arizona is one of the best preserved in of the fossilised meteorites to the thereby degas and thus reset the

Illustration: picture-alliance the world and measures 1,380 metres in known classes of meteorites difficult. potassium-argon clock to zero, was diameter. Schmitz and his staff suspected that heating through energetic collisions. 12 Natural Sciences german research 1 / 2011 german research 1 / 2011 13

In other words: the potassium-ar- n the autumn of 2004, Ekaterina atomic masses present in the mete- Distinctive fragment of the Ghubara me- gon dating method indicates the I Korochantseva, a visiting researcher orite. This excess argon-40 can be teorite, found in the desert of Oman. The time of collision of the meteorite from Moscow, brought pieces of a detected through so-called “isotopic dark rock contains iron inclusions. parent body: the asteroid. meteorite from the desert in Oman marking”. This enabled the project During such cosmic collisions, to Heidelberg, within the scope of team to, for the first time, perform a shockwaves with a peak pressure the then already started DFG project. precise correction and re-determine The agreement of these two val- of several hundred kilobars occur. It was determined that this L chon- the exact degassing age. ues allows the events that occurred Under these conditions, minerals drite also contained relict or “excess” After using this method to date at that time to be reconstructed in and rock are transformed; specialists argon-40 – though in an unexpect- several L chondrites, the age values detail: 470 million years ago, one speak of “impact metamorphism”. edly high concentration. More pre- for the impact metamorphosis could of the largest known collisions in This is very pronounced in L chon- cise analyses showed that the relict be narrowed down much more pre- the asteroid belt shattered a large, drites and indicative of a major en- argon-40 did not – as previously as- cisely to 470 (plus/minus six) mil- minor planet that measured several ergetic collision. Nevertheless, in sumed – simply remain in the origi- lion years. Previously, the degassing hundred kilometres across. As this almost no L chondrites the noble nal material during the heating that age of the L chondrites was believed occurred, the rocks from both aster- gas argon-40 that was present prior occurred as the result of a collision. to be approximately 500 (plus/mi- oids were penetrated by enormous to this event escaped completely. It did indeed escape, but was nus 40) million years. The age of shock waves that lasted seconds. There are still remnants from the then recaptured by other minerals the sedimentary rocks in which the The minerals formed by the high- time prior to the impact in the form in the rock fabric. This small, but fossil meteorites were embedded pressure metamorphosis and their

of so-called “relict” argon-40. This subtle difference resulted in a deci- could also be more precisely placed chemical composition allow state- Illustration: Ekaterina Korochantseva “excess” argon poses the greatest sive gain in knowledge: during its on the geologic time scale. Based on ments to be made on peak pressures, problem and is the greatest source brief period of freedom, the excess this new knowledge, the deposition temperatures and cooling rates. of errors in dating the time of the argon-40 was able to mix with other occurred 467 (plus/minus two) mil- The conclusion: during the col- tario, Canada) and Calvin (Michigan, smaller impacts and have fallen to major collision of L chondrites. argon atomic nuclei with different lion years ago. lision, the peak pressure must have USA). Statistically, only two impact Earth as modern L chondrites. They been sustained for approximately craters with such dimensions should make up over a third of all meteorites. A remarkable finding: Researchers present the remnants of a 470-million-year-old fossilised L chondrite in a sawed limestone slab. one second. This is an indicator that have formed during this period. Thus, we continue to feel the effects the impact body was several kilome- The energy released by such large of the cosmic collisions that occurred tres in size; the parent asteroid that impacts was considerable and most 470 million years ago – an event that, was hit, on the other hand, measured likely had global consequences. For without a doubt, had significant con- several hundred kilometres. Metre- example, a 30-kilometre-diameter sequences for our solar system. size fragments subsequently entered crater, such as the Slate Islands in orbits around the sun that intersect Canada, was formed by an impact that of Earth. As a result, for a period explosion that released an amount of one to two million years, approxi- of energy equivalent to ten million mately one hundred times as many Hiroshima bombs. Put in illustrative meteorites fell on Earth as do today. terms: an object the size of the Feld- berg Mountain of the Black Forest ollowing the collision twenty mil- impacted the Earth at a speed of ap- lion years ago, an above-average proximately 50,000 kilometres per F Prof. Dr. Mario Trieloff number of hundred-metre to kilo- hour. heads the research group of geochemistry and metre size fragments also reached Following the impact, large frag- cosmochemistry at the Institut für Geowissen- Earth. This is illustrated even to- ments continued to cross our solar schaften (Institute of Earth Sciences) at the Ru- precht-Karls University of Heidelberg. Together day by eight impact craters, which system. One notably large fragment with Prof. Dr. Klaus Mezger, University of Bern, are between 450 and 470 million smashed into Earth 35 million year he coordinates the DFG Priority Programme years old with diameters from two ago, leaving behind the imposing, “The First 10 Million Years of the Solar System to thirty kilometres: The craters are 100-kilometre-diameter Popigai cra- – a Planetary Materials Approach”. named Neugrund (Estonia), Granby ter (Siberia). From time to time over Contact: Institut für Geowissenschaften, Im (Sweden), Ames (Oklahoma, USA), the past millions of years, metre-size Neuenheimer Feld 234 – 236, 69120 Heidel- berg, Germany

Illustration: Projektarchiv Trieloff Kärdla (Estonia), Tvären (Sweden), bodies have been broken off of other Lockne (Sweden), Slate Islands (On- asteroid fragments as the result of www.rzuser.uni-heidelberg.de/~b53/index.htm 14 Natural Sciences german research 1 / 2011 german research 1 / 2011 15

Antje Boetius Tiny Helpers Fight the Spill

The well in the Gulf of Mexico has been sealed, but the consequences of the ecological catastrophe remain unknown. Contributing to the degradation of the massive contamination are microorganisms that literally devour the oil in the water and on the ocean floor. Marine researchers have been investigating the hungry bacteria for many years Illustration: US Coast Guard Visual Information Gallery (cgvi.uscg.mil/media) 16 Natural Sciences german research 1 / 2011 german research 1 / 2011 17

il catastrophe in the Gulf of Oil escapes constantly from the sunken “Deepwater Horizon” hole by tankers hosing the oil from OMexico: on 20 April 2010, a gas natural sources but does not accu- platform every day. In accidents of the leak. As a result, about 75 per- explosion caused the offshore drill- mulate in the seas and on beaches. this magnitude, the contamination cent of the leaked oil remained in ing platform “Deepwater Horizon” This can be attributed to the activity is so large that methods such as the sea or washed up on shore. to sink. The accident resulted in one of microorganisms. There are two burning off, collecting, vacuuming The light volatile components of the greatest environmental disas- different microbial degradation up or dispersing the oil with the aid of oil reaching the ocean surface ters in the history of mankind. On pathways: aerobic (with oxygen) of chemicals are necessary in order (25 percent) vaporised into the at- 16 July 2010, when the leak at the and anaerobic (without oxygen). to limit the damage to the environ- mosphere. The large quantities of borehole was sealed by capping it, Aerobic degradation is particularly ment. added chemical dispersants were tens of thousands of tons of crude important for natural remediation. able to spread another portion of oil and natural gas had leaked every Here, with the help of microbial il escaping from the deep sea the oil below surface. The bacterial day – with unforeseeable conse- enzymes, oxygen is first integrated O usually has very high gas degradation rates of the petroleum quences for the ecosystem. in the inert hydrocarbons and the content. Thus, in addition to the residues on the water surface and During the course of this event, resulting fatty acids are consumed 700,000 tons of oil that leaked into at depth are, however, unknown. perceived by the public as a cata- as sources of energy. When no more the Gulf of Mexico, an estimated In any case, the oil has not disap- strophic environmental destruction, oxygen is available, anaerobic, very 250,000 tons of natural gas es- peared: in September 2010, the an increased demand developed for slowly growing bacteria, take over, caped as well. Normally, a gas-oil team working with geomicrobiol- knowledge about the possibilities forming poisonous hydrogen sul- mixture rises to the water surface ogist Samantha Joye found massive and limits of bacterial degradation phide from the sulphate in the sea in just a few days due to its lower deposits of oil on the sea floor at of oil in the sea. Burning questions water. density in comparison to water. water depths of 100 –1,500 metres, are: Where did the oil end up? How There are at least 1,000 natural But the smaller the oil drops are by now many more reports are long will it take before the sea and oil springs in the Gulf of Mexico. that form, the longer it takes for available from oil drifting at depth beaches are cleaned? How can the Together, they release up to 200 them to rise. At the “Deepwater or being deposited, including on

bacterial degradation of the oil be tons of oil into the environment per Horizon” accident site, most of the Illustration: MARUM / Wilkop deep water coral reefs. accelerated? What actually happens day. In comparison, approximately oil-gas mixture was – similar to a In the immediate vicinity of nat- to the oil in the deep sea? Can na- 10,000 tons of oil and natural gas salad oil dispenser – discharged un- urally occurring natural gas vents, ture alone overcome the oil spill? were released from the borehole of der high pressure through a small Power pack in action (top): The deep-sea robot “Quest 4000” of the Bremen cluster of ex- an average of up to 0.1– 0.5 percent pipe producing very fine droplets of cellence MARUM. Bottom: Using a manipulator arm, the robot collects numerous asphalt of the gas discharged into the wa- A sticky situation: naturally leaking asphalt on the sea floor. less than a millimetre in diameter. samples from the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico, which are examined later in laboratories. ter column is degraded biologically. Having very little buoyancy, they Our rate measurements at natural drifted laterally through the water oil seeps in the Gulf of Mexico re- column. Measurements, such as veal rates of a similar magnitude for those the marine chemist Richard the easily decomposable hydrocar- Camilli and his team performed in bons, which are discharged in the May and June, found a clear signal form of oil drops. Tar balls on the of such oil dispersal at water depths sea floor are much more difficult of 1,000 –1,300 metres and at dis- to decompose: it takes hundreds of tances of up to 35 kilometres from years for them to be broken down the spill site. by microorganisms as there is very Data released in August 2010 little oxygen in the compact accu- on the whereabouts of the oil by mulations of oil. Likewise, scientists the government agency NOAA from the Centre for Environmen- (National Oceanographic and At- tal Research in Leipzig working mospheric Administration) show with environmental microbiologist that only eight percent of all of the Hauke Harms discovered that oil oil were removed at the surface by buried in Alaska’s beaches as a re- burning or collecting it by ships. sult of the 1989 “Exxon Valdez” ac-

Illustration: MARUM / U Bremen Up to 17 percent of the oil could be Illustration: MARUM / U Bremen cident still leaks poisonous residues captured directly above the bore- to the environment. 18 Natural Sciences german research 1 / 2011 german research 1 / 2011 19 Illustration: MARUM / Wenzhöfer / MARUM Illustration: Illustration: MARUM / Sahling Illustration: MARUM / Schubotz

From left to right: Degasification of fresh asphalt samples from a water depth of 3,000 metres. – A pressure vessel with which the asphalt and oil can be analysed under deep-sea conditions. – Residents of the deep sea: giant clams from the asphalt fields in the Gulf of Mexico.

ow can that be explained? Oil- Furthermore, bacteria that con- known for most dispersants. For their search for food that could be are exposed to the cold, oxygen- sequences. One can only hope that H degrading bacteria are present sume oil act together in concert to animal life, the dispersants are at harmed by the oil in the deep sea. rich, deep-sea water. The ocean society, politics and science will in all of the world’s oceans. If large share the work. Microbial team- least as poisonous as the oil itself, The sinking petroleum residues and currents remove gases and light learn a great deal from this catas- quantities of oil are present, mass work is always an advantageous particularly to larvae and eggs. As tar balls change their habitat. The volatile oil components from the trophe. reproduction of these special bac- principle in natural recycling of or- described above, during the “Deep- natural communities of the deep sea tarry substrate. It becomes cracked teria takes place. In the event of ganic matter. Otherwise, all-round water Horizon” accident, mechani- are adapted to low-nutrient condi- and is colonised by bacteria. The tanker accidents and drilling leaks, super bacteria would have formed cal dispersal of the oil into fine tions. They consist primarily of ani- surface biofilm of oil-degrading the reproduction and degradation in nature. The survivability of labo- droplets could be observed at the mals that dig in the sludge for food microorganisms consumes oxygen. capacity is, nevertheless, too slow to ratory strains in nature is question- discharge point. Thus, it is ques- or which filter nutrients from the In the underlying zones, methane- prevent widespread contamination. able. To date, less than 0.1 percent tionable whether the 2,400 tons bottom water. Such a community producing and anaerobic, sulphate- Thus, the idea of making oil layers of marine bacteria are cultivated, of dispersant that were fed into the changes immediately upon contact reducing bacteria and methane- and oil slicks disappear by spray- because they require conditions for deep sea were actually necessary. with oil. Hence, it is likely that the degrading microorganisms grow. ing them with particularly efficient growth that are difficult to repro- A fundamental examination of the naturally occurring communities They produce hydrogen sulphide. or even genetically modified bac- duce in the laboratory. As a result, effects of dispersants under natu- will disappear almost completely This, in turn, attracts large sulphur Prof. Dr. Antje Boetius, teria colonies is wishful thinking. cultivated strains released in the en- ral conditions is an important pre-­ as a result to pollution. bacteria, which form a thick lawn. Professor for geobiology at the University of Actually, there is no lack of oil-de- vironment are certainly at a disad- requisite for optimising their use in This bacterial lawn is then grazed Bremen, directs the Helmholtz-Max-Planck grading microorganisms in the sea. vantage in comparison with natural future accidents. For this purpose, t the end of 2003, a large, by opportunistic marine animals. Group for Deep Sea Ecology and Technol- ogy at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar Depending on the environmental populations. a better understanding of life and A natural asphalt field was dis- If, after a number of years, the and Marine Research as well as international conditions at the site affected by the its functioning in the deep-sea eco- covered in the deep sea of the Gulf tarry substrate has been detoxified, projects on the ecology and biochemistry of oil as well as the type of oil, diverse acteria require water as their system is also necessary. of Mexico. In 2006, the team work- corals, symbiotic clams and tube gas and oil springs in the sea. microbial communities propagate. B natural environment. The finer The deep sea and the sea sur- ing with marine geologist Gerhard worms may settle on the degraded Contact: Max-Planck-Institut für Marine There must only be sufficient nu- the drops and the larger their sur- face are not separate systems. It Bohrmann (University of Bremen) asphalt. However, the natural deep- Mikrobiologie, Celsiusstr. 1, 28359 Bremen, trients present, such as nitrogen, face, the faster the oil-degrading is, therefore, important that the was able to sample the oil discharge sea communities adapted to life in Germany phosphate and iron; the oil must bacteria can grow. For this reason, whereabouts of the remaining oil in with the new, deep-sea robot the fine mud cannot return to their Microbiological background information not be too compact and oxygen chemical dispersants are often the deep sea be investigated. There QUEST (MARUM) on board the habitat. (author: Prof. Friedrich Widdel) and additional must not be limited. In warm bodies used following oil spills to assist are many types of marine animals research vessel “Meteor”. When At the present time, there are links: www.mpi-bremen.de/Abbau_von_Erdl_durch_­ of water, degradation is generally with this process. The effect on that wander up and down hun- viscous petroleum residues are still many unanswered questions Bakterien_-_Grundlegende_Gesichtspunkte_ faster than in cold bodies. the overall ecosystem is still un- dreds of metres every day during distributed on the sea floor, they regarding the accident and its con- aus_mikrobiologischer_Sicht.html 20 Humanities and Social Sciences german research 1 / 2011 german research 1 / 2011 21

Regina Göckede y dear Scharoun, now it is M your turn. I know it’s late enough.” It’s January 1947 and ex- Hard Roads iled architect Adolf Rading has al- ready been living and working in the Palestinian seaport of Haifa for to Unfamiliar Places several years. Like many prominent representatives of the Weimar archi- tecture avant-garde, he was forced The ’s architecture avant-garde also fell victim to the German to leave his homeland after the Nazi regime. The movement’s leading representatives were driven into exile. These events of 1933. He’s now attempt- circumstances shaped the transformation of the “Neues Bauen”, even after 1945 ing to make contact with colleagues scattered all over the world, as well as with his former office partner Hans Scharoun, who remained in Germany. “Anyhow, I can always

console myself with the fact that 198602.860construction # File Illustration: The Art Institute of / Edward A. Duckett Collection, RyersonDigital and Chicago. of Institute Art The Archives, Burnham I was still the first to write, while people like Mies and Gropius didn’t even think it necessary to respond. May they rest in peace!” In 1933, Adolf Rading and his Jewish wife Else fled the National Talking shop: Mies van der Rohe on the construction site of one of his apartment Socialist terror in . The cou- buildings on Lake Michigan in Chicago, around 1950 / 51. ple fled to southwest France before the advancing German Wehrmacht caught up in the maelstrom of the What links the architects men- forced them to move further, to escalating conflict between the Ar- tioned with other architects, town Palestine, where the letter-writer abs, Jews and British that he leaves planners and theoreticians of what’s is now working as an architectural the recently-founded state of Israel known today as the Classic Modern- and town planning adviser for the in 1950. ist movement, despite their very dif- building department of the British The two emigrants to America ferent destinies, is their affiliation to mandatory administration. mentioned in his letter, Ludwig Mies the architectural avant-garde of the The recipient of his lament, van der Rohe and , Weimar Republic. “Neues Bauen”, as Hans Scharoun, who will later en- fare considerably better. They man- the movement described its socially joy world renown as the architect age to find their feet as influential responsible artistic activities, had of the Berlin Philharmonie concert university lecturers and key figures of one overriding objective: to make a hall, manages to continue working an international modern architecture radical break with the architecture in Germany. While, shortly after the movement. Admittedly, however, of the past and create a better stand- war, Scharoun finds himself between the optimistic spirit of reform fuelled ard of living for large sectors of the the consolidating fronts of the of the by common goals that characterised population. The fact that their build- occupying forces in his role as head 1920s Germany seems to have re- ings, which often resembled simple, of the Senate of Berlin’s municipal ceded into the distant past, and it is white-painted cubes, did not always planning office, Rading becomes so not until the beginning of 1951 that reflect the taste of the masses was a Gropius will recall that “Small Re- gift to the National Socialists. These publik der Geister” [Small Republic polemicised very early against the Car trouble in impassable Tanzania: The of Minds], which was once mustered buildings’ lack of regional conform- architect Ernst May and his wife Ilse dig to transcend national boundaries. But ity and turned criticism of the os- to free their trapped vehicle. Photo taken the rupture caused by exile has long tensibly “un-German” flat roof into

Illustration: Lore Greulich, München around 1936. since been rendered irreversible. a long-term issue. 22 Humanities and Social Sciences german research 1 / 2011 german research 1 / 2011 23

Moscow in 1932. When the Sovi- A keen observer: Mies van der Rohe ets attitude towards the well-paid examines the model of the Farnsworth foreigners worsens, many of them House during the first major monogra­ find that they are unable to return phic exhibition of his work at the New to Germany: stigmatised as “Kultur- York Museum of Modern Art. The picture bolschewisten” (“cultural Bolshe- was taken in 1947. vists”), they became stateless. Ernst May travels via Vienna to East Africa, arriving in Tanganyika, Bosphorus of complications follow- which is ruled by the British. Here, ing a severe asthma attack. as well as in the neighbouring col- In Germany, meanwhile, the ony of Kenya and the Protectorate of openly practised violence against Uganda, he will work as a farmer, an Jews, persistent calls for boycotts and architect and a town planner until mass layoffs are making it difficult, if

his return to Germany in 1953. The not impossible, for members of the Illustration: The / William Leftwich, Edward A. Duckett Collection, Ryerson and Burnham Archives, The Art Institute of Chicago. Digital File # 198602.081216-03 former pioneer of minimalist hous- movement to continue their work. ing now designs country estates for The founding director of the Bau- privileged British colonists. Bruno haus, Walter Gropius, fails to return world unchallenged. Instead, many while also investigating the emer- Taut, on the other hand, returns to Berlin after a lecture tour of Italy of the now-forgotten members of the gence of new networks. The project’s to Berlin in February 1933, where in 1934, initially settling in London. movement are forced into unfulfilling aim is to uncover the fractured his- he is already wanted by the police. Upon receiving a call from Harvard professional compromises. tory of the exiled Weimar Modern Aided by friends, he manages to es- in 1937, he sets off for Boston, where Some, like Ludwig Hilberseimer, architecture movement. Although cape to Switzerland in early March, he will, from now on, head the fa- who achieved notoriety in the 1920s the architects, who were scattered from where he travels to Japan on mous “Graduate School of Design”. for his “inhospitable” urban designs, all over the world, maintain a deci- a tourist visa. Others, like Ludwig Mies van remain active in the architectural sive role in the theoretical debates Until 1936, the architect, who der Rohe, are watching and waiting. and town planning sectors during on and constructed manifestations

Illustration: -Archiv Berlin / Bernard Newman today is renowned for his Berlin When anticipated orders fail to mate- their time in exile, but question and of a globalised Modern architectural housing estates, now designated a rialise, he, too, must face the fact that revise their previous positions based movement, their individual works UNESCO World Heritage Site, will it’s time to go. In 1938, Mies takes up on what they experience. For others, are defined by more than the ideas “In the New Network”: In 1946, Walter Gropius founded The Architects’ Collaborative. work primarily in journalism. In ad- an offer from Chicago to set up the like the Berlin architect and town and conceptual pathways of their The photo shows him (bottom centre) surrounded by his colleagues in Richard Lippold’s dition to designing everyday objects, architecture department at the fu- planner Erwin Anton Gutkind, the common Weimar origins. Instead, “World Tree” sculpture. The Harvard Graduate Center is in the background. he is also the author of the 1937 study ture Illinois Institute of Technology. criticism of modernism causes him to they have been influenced in at least “Houses and People of Japan”. Like Gropius, he will play a decisive abandon his practical building activi- equal measure by their continuing Despite his intensive focus on his role in determining the development ties altogether and devote himself to estrangement from such unique cir- In this vein, the 1927 pilot settle- to leave the country even before Hit- adopted country, Japan, for Taut, re- of North American post-war archi- architectural history and theory. cumstances. ment in Stuttgart-Weißenhof, now ler’s accession to power. mains merely a stopping-off point. tecture over the next years. Until now, no sustained study has considered a milestone of modern In vain he attempts to obtain a visa been made of these architects’ di- architecture, was stigmatised as an opular targets of the Nazis’ hate for the United States, when he is he year 1938 brought the last verse fates. A project entitled “Neues “Arab village”. With the dramatic P campaign are two of the “Neues offered the directorship of the archi- T major wave of emigration for Bauen in der Fremde” (“Neues Bauen worsening of the economic condi- Bauen” movement’s most successful tecture department at the Academy the architects of the “Neues Bauen”. Abroad”), which was launched at the tions towards the end of the 1920s, representatives: Ernst May, formerly of Fine Arts in Istanbul, as well as of Contrary to indications by several University of Technology in Cottbus the vehement criticism escalates the influential head of the Frankfurt the building department at the Turk- success stories, the exodus of the in the autumn of 2008, aims to ad- afresh. While the architects of “Neues Hochbauamt (Municipal Building ish Ministry of Education, through “Neues Bauen” from Germany is, for dress this research desideratum. This Bauen” meanwhile enjoy high re- Department), who, together with Martin Wagner, the former head of many of its proponents, inextricably project will undertake 26 case studies Dr. Regina Göckede gard abroad, the continued attacks numerous students and colleagues, Berlin’s municipal planning depart- linked with isolation, despair and in order to examine the multifaceted is assistant professor in the Art History depart- against renowned figures and insti- decamps to the Soviet Union in ment, now exiled to Turkey. Taut failure. The majority of the exiled transformation of German modern ­ment at the Brandenburg University of Tech- tutions, such as the Bauhaus school, 1930; and , head ar- accepts the challenge and leaves Ja- architects do not triumph over flight architecture abroad for the first time. nology in Cottbus. which closed its doors in 1933, cause chitect of Berlin’s GEHAG housing pan in November 1936. After two and expulsion to carry the architec- Researchers will explore the per- Contact: Lehrstuhl Kunstgeschichte, Konrad- several members of the movement association, who also emigrates to years of hard work, he dies on the ture of the Weimar Republic into the sistence and loss of old group ties Wachsmann-Allee 8, 03046 Cottbus, Germany 24 Engineering Sciences german research 1 / 2011 german research 1 / 2011 25

Rainer Drewello, Burkhard Freitag, Christoph Schlieder New Tools for Ancient Ruins

Architectural monuments are perpetual construction sites, and historical plans, drafts and photographs are essential for their restoration. Yet the archives of many churches, castles and palaces are either in poor condition or diffi cult to access. Cultural researchers and engineering scientists are now adding these sources to a database system in order to increase their usability

rchitects are not computer sci- tremendously signifi cant both for and art historians are, for example, A entists, and computer scientists historical and practical reasons, still using exquisite ink drawings are not cultural studies researchers. they are neither appropriately cata- from around 1900 – an anachronism Just as a computer scientist’s daily logued nor accessible to either pri- in this digital age of almost unsur- tasks do not normally include draw- vate persons or scientifi c research- passable surveying techniques. This ing, cultural studies researchers are ers. And Nuremburg is no isolated purposeful usage of older sources, not required to programme com- example, as the Dombaumeister however, has its advantages. These puters, and interpreting historical [master cathedral architects] who buildings are so complex that even sources is not part of an architect’s manages and restores around 140 the most accurate digital measure- remit. All these differing skills may, major properties in Central Europe ments can be translated into a us- however, be required of someone in- – from Vienna to Trondheim, via able form only through consider- volved with historical monuments. Cologne – will attest. able investment of time and effort. After all, cathedral, castle or palace One major problem with archi- This effort is often avoided, not least complexes are not just converted tectural archives is their incomplete because it is not possible to ensure spaces or Facility Management ob- or outdated document fi ling sys- the longevity of this valuable data jects. Instead, their form, function tems. Written documents, pictures without a long-term archiving so- and history have transformed them and plans are usually categorised, lution. Instead, tried and true solu- into living witnesses to the past, to either chronologically or by source tions are employed. places where architectural, social type, using only the most basic of Yet the fascinating opportuni- and cultural history intersect. systems. Boxes of photographs or ties afforded by digital technologies In architectural monuments, rolls of blueprints do not, however, speak for themselves, particularly historical tradition plays an impor- permit content searches, reducing when these take into account dif- tant role. The two main churches research to games of chance or pa- ferent user requirements and work- in Nuremburg, St Lorenz and St tience. ing habits. The digital age and its Sebaldus, to name just two exam- Architectural monuments are associated qualitative leap require ples, have archives containing 3000 not only historical or technical dual-purpose storage and archiv- papers and documents dating back witnesses, however. They are also ing systems to be established. These to 1580. They also contain around large-scale construction sites. Each 1500 articles published in books time a renovation is undertaken, and magazines, 2200 black and the documentation from the previ- The Cathedral and Old Town in Passau. white photographs, and 6500 slides, ous renovation must be referenced: The Cathedral archive houses numerous

not to mention 1500 hand-drawn consequently, these documents are documents. These are now being indexed Illustration: Dombauhütte Passau maps. While these documents are often accessed and used. Architects with the help of a database. 26 Engineering Sciences german research 1 / 2011 german research 1 / 2011 27

systems must serve two functions. cussions typically centre on nam- Right: On-screen mapping of histori- Firstly, they must be capable of ing and counting methods (“What cal planning documents. Centre: Every managing traditional archive ob- do you call the transition between stone of Passau’s Cathedral is assigned jects. Secondly, they must archive a church’s nave and transept?” a number, enabling extremely precise next-generation documents, with Should structural elements be spatial assignments to be made. Below: all their compatibility issues, in such counted from east to west, or by All the information is added to the Digi- a way as to render them usable and cardinal direction? Should num- tal Monument Archive, where it can be readable in 100 years’ time. bers or letters be used?” And so electronically accessed. Take, for example, the Cathedral on.). Fortunately, the engineering in Passau, where the church masons’ sciences, architecture and art share guild has defined a comprehensive similar tools and a common lan- and digitisation of the existing re- naming key. This key is designed guage: that of the pen, the sketch sources. The effort involved in this to ensure that every last stone of and the plan. Each line and area of task is well-invested, as it provides the building can be catalogued, and crosshatching is a stipulation, while archivists with two standalone so- Illustration: U Bamberg / Kulturinformatik to facilitate access to its data. The every outline is an abstraction that lutions. Linking archives via the simplest way to do this would be can be understood with few words. web would then create a network to “virtually attach” existing docu- It is the normative properties of the of distributed servers within which ments to their appropriate locations line which enables plans to form an specialist information could be ex- – such as towers, wall frescoes, al- almost perfect basis for archiving changed. Whether and how this

tars, or even individual stones of the building data. Illustration: Fritsch could work has been tested using church. It is crucial that the keys to the example of the two Nuremburg the data storage archive are the spa- his is where the Digital Monu- churches. Their document archives tial references for the objects in the T ment Archive (DMA) comes 3D data. What is unique about it is are to be made accessible via the In- inventory system. in. An organisation which offers that the DMA uses a freely defin- ternet, enabling them to be viewed The spatial referencing concept specialist databases for historic able building structure key, which via web browsers. has taken centre stage due to the buildings, the DMA stores docu- begins with the building as a whole Expanding the information base difficulties involved in describ- ments with the most diverse prov- and ends with its individual com- is crucial to this concept. After all, ing buildings which are, because enances, whether these are plans, ponents. Documents to be archived drawings and maps are more than of their history and architectural text and image sources, tables or are attached to “their” locations and lines and planes. Instead, they also

styles, seldom homogenous. Dis- photographs, as well as videos and furnished with metadata, which are contain information which can Screenshot: Dombauhütte Passau assigned to thematic catalogues. This be deciphered by careful reading. enables data pertaining to a struc- One aid in highlighting particular tural element to be found either by features is the MMS (Mobile Map- navigating through a data tree or ping System), which converts the via a plan. Keyword searches and bits and bytes of scanned plans into filtering by thematic category are tangible information, attaches it to also possible. These enable objects the correct position in the drawing to be found by category or theme, and scans it into the Digital Monu- irrespective of their actual position ment Archive. In this way, plans be- in the building. come information databases which Creating a digital archive, how- can be expanded and used for com- ever, requires the prior organisation parisons. In his 2003 publication on the western façade of Cologne Cathe- Left: Restoring the façade of Passau dral, Marc Steinmann illustrated the Cathedral is an arduous process. Above: usefulness of “semantic maps” in Historical graphical material belonging to an exemplary way. In this work, he Illustration: Dombauhütte Passau / Hauck the archives of St. Lorenz’s Church in Nu- analysed the medieval façade plan Screenshot: U Passau / IFIS remburg is studied before being digitised. “F” using all the rules of art (his- 28 Engineering Sciences german research 1 / 2011 german research on the road german research 1 / 2011 29

Rembert Unterstell tory). The sketch, which is pieced things. Whether, however, human- a mixture of Persian (Islamic con- together from sheets of parchment wrought city structures represent text), Uzbek (the local language), and rendered in ink, is both a mi- utter chaos or organic time/space Russian (the official language) and crocosm of the medieval intellec- constructs, is a matter of perspec- German (research interest) termi- tual world and a flawless technical tive. What is certain is that it takes nology. masterpiece. Juxtaposing the de- time to get one’s bearings in urban- Whether state-of-the-art tech- coded knowledge and the draw- ised regions, and the faster these nology can go beyond providing ing would deliver a master plan for areas grow up, the more confusing technical advantages to generate High Gothic. they seem. Even in small mazes, synergies – and thus, to help create people reach their limits very bridges between cultures or define n practice, however, to achieve quickly. new intersections in research – re- I detailed observations of this type One example to support this as- mains to be seen. It will, in future, and intensity is almost impossible. sertion is provided by the old town be impossible to progress without The tremendous dimensions of the of Bukhara in Uzbekistan, which building such bridges. After all, drawing, which is over four metres was built during the 16th century tools are meant to be used for the tall, make things extremely difficult. and which is considered, in princi- benefit of humankind. A semantic map would, doubtless, ple, to be of a readily comprehen- be a blessing for every future user of sible size. It is, in fact so difficult this imposing plan, to say nothing to get one’s bearings there that it of the experiential value gained by is impossible to find one of its 144 observing the meticulously drawn monuments without a guide. Any-

details, which prove an object of one wishing to carry out an analysis Illustration: Unterstell fascination for every visitor. of one of the town’s quarters and Clearly delineated structures its Islamic buildings, particularly have, however, always had their one involving different scientific detractors. Austrian writer Arthur disciplines, will quickly realise the Schnitzler, a representative of the advantages and opportunities of a “I still have a suitcase Viennese Modern Age movement plan-based inventory system. in around 1900, coined the dic- Such a system becomes indis- tum that order is unnatural, and pensable as soon as the researchers in Dresden …” that chaos is the natural order of involved need to communicate in An opportunity to make new contacts in the international research community – following the 60th Nobel Laureate Meeting at Lake Constance, twenty young Indian researchers embarked on a tour of Germany’s research landscape, visiting universities and institutes Prof. Dr. Rainer Drewello serves as professor for conservation science around the country. We spoke with two of the participants about their experiences at the Institute for Archaeology, Historic Monuments and Art History (IADK) at the University of Bamberg. resden tastes of the future – at rently studying at the Birla Institute one of 20 “high potentials” from Prof. Dr. Burkhard Freitag Dleast according to Srivarsha Raj- of Technology and Science in Pilani, across India to be awarded a DFG is Director of the Information Management shekar from Rajasthan in northern Rajshekar returned to the CBG last scholarship to attend July’s Nobel Department at the University of Passau. India. Rajshekar was so impressed autumn to study zebra fish and Laureate Meeting in Lindau and Prof. Dr Christoph Schlieder that she elected to leave her suit- learn laboratory techniques for six participate in an extended tour is head of Computing in the Cultural Sciences case at the Max Planck Institute months as part of her undergradu- of Germany’s research landscape. Department at the University of Bamberg. of Molecular Cell Biology and Ge- ate studies. Could this be the begin- Of the 40,000 young researchers Contact: Prof. Dr. Burkhard Freitag, Universi­ netics (CBG) at 108 Pfotenhau- ning of a successful career in sci- nominated to attend the meet- tät Passau, 94030 Passau, Germany erstraße, Dresden. “People are so ence and research? ing, just 675 researchers from 68

Illustration: Dombauhütte Bamberg www.monarch-project.eu helpful here”, says the 21-year-old Following a gruelling selection countries were invited to convene www.uni-bamberg.de/buchara-projekt student with a winning smile. Cur- process, Srivarsha Rajshekar was at the small island town on Lake 30 german research on the road german research 1 / 2011 german research 1 / 2011 31

Constance. In Lindau the talented Meetings and discussions with researcher from the Shivaji Univer- young Indian researchers met with Indian researchers currently work- sity in Kolhapur, Maharashtra, who 59 laureates from the disciplines of ing in Germany rounded off the said that he would be keen to re- physics, chemistry, medicine and programme and helped to promote search in Germany “for at least a few physiology respectively. Flush with Germany’s standing as an interna- years” in spite of the language barrier. excitement, the visitors were full tional research hub. And the ques- And as Dhawale pointed out, while of praise for the “powerful aura of tion on everyone’s lips? Just how German is no doubt the preferred scientific enthusiasm” and “the in- much German do you need to know language in lecture halls across the spiring and open discussions” that to get by in Germany? The rather country, English is the lingua franca characterised the meeting. sceptical tone of this question has in research laboratories working at At the invitation of the DFG, 212 much to do with the high-profile an international level. Meanwhile, Indian students and post-doctoral of India’s academic elite, whose ex- Dhawale has already made contact researchers have participated in the pertise is sought after both in India with a number of physicists in Leip- Lindau Experience since 2001, en- (in particular by industrial interests) zig, and is now one step closer to a joying the opportunity to meet and and abroad. While German research- position at a German laboratory. talk with a host of high-powered ers have an excellent reputation on intellectual giants. “If the mere aura the Indian subcontinent, the hopes hawale and his compatriots of scientific discovery can inspire and dreams of most young Indian Dwere keen to learn more about Srivarsha Rajshekar returned to Dresden and motivate, then Lindau is the researchers are still focussed on the the funding opportunities avail- following the tour to study laboratory go-to place”, explains Rajshekar. USA, where they are able to work in able through German science and techniques. an English-speaking environment. research organisations, and experts eipzig, Dresden, Jena and Bonn We spoke with 27-year-old nano from the DFG Head Office in Bonn L were the stations on their week- researcher and physicist Dr Dattatray and from the Alexander von Hum- outline the available programmes and long informational tour of universi- Sadashiv Dhawale, a post-doctoral boldt Foundation were on hand to funding prospects. The programme’s Gaining insights: Visits to laboratories and other research facilities prompted a host of ties and institutes in East and West blend of first-hand information, re- questions on scientific methods (above) and equipment (below). Germany, which included side trips Dresden’s famous Procession of the Princes, the largest porcelain mural in the world. search facility tours and face-to-face to Neuschwanstein Castle and the meetings with colleagues makes for Wartburg along the way. Organised a huge success, explained biochem- by the DFG’s office in New Delhi, ist Professor Michael Famulok from the young researchers received a Life and Medical Sciences (LIMES) warm welcome at laboratories and at the University of Bonn. Famulok, research centres around the coun- a Leibniz prizewinner and member try. The guests were impressed by of the Advisory Committee at the the sheer diversity and interdiscipli- DFG office in India, encouraged the nary focus of the various research young researchers to draw on their activities; in particular the collab- experiences and new contacts – and oration in the fields of chemistry to set their sights on Germany. and physics at the Leipzig School In the meantime, Srivarsha Raj­ of Natural Sciences – Building with shekar has done just this. Follow- Molecules and Nano-objects, and ing the Lindau tour, she completed the MPG Institute for Chemical a six-month stay at a laboratory in Physics of Solids in Dresden. The Dresden. Back home in India, the Indian researchers were also struck 21-year-old continues to recall the by the level of interdisciplinary co- German “taste of the future”. operation in the fields biology and chemistry; evident, for example, Dr. Rembert Unterstell at the Leibniz Institute for Natural is Publishing Executive Editor of “german research”.

Product Research and Infection Bi- Illustrations: Unterstell ology in Jena. www.dfg.de/indien 32 Impressum german research 1 / 2011

The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Founda- Research Training Groups are university training programmes established tion) is the central self-governing organisation responsible for promoting for a specific time period to support young researchers by actively involv- research in Germany. According to its statutes, the DFG serves all branches ing them in research work. This focusses on a coherent, topically defined, of science and the humanities. The DFG supports and coordinates research research and study programme. Re­search Training Groups are designed to projects in all scientific disciplines, in particular in the areas of basic and ap- promote the early independence of doctoral students and intensify inter- plied research. Particular attention is paid to promoting young researchers. national exchange. They are open to international participants. In Interna- Researchers who work at a university or research institution in Germa- tional Research Training Groups, a jointly structured doctoral programme is ny are eligible to apply for DFG funding. Proposals will be peer reviewed. offered by German and foreign universities. Other funding opportunities The final assessment will be carried out by review boards, the members of for qualified young researchers are offered by the Heisenberg Programme and which are elected by researchers in Germany in their individual subject the Emmy Noether Programme. In so called Reinhart Koselleck Projects, the DFG areas every four years. supports especially innovative research undertakings by outstanding scien- The DFG distinguishes between the following programmes for research tists and academics. funding: In the Individual Grants Programme, any researcher can apply for fi- The Excellence Initiative aims to promote top-level research and nancial assistance for an individual research project. Priority Programmes allow improve the quality of German universities and research institu- researchers from various re­search institutions and laboratories to cooperate tions in the long term. Funding is provided for graduate schools, within the framework of a set topic or project for a defined period of time, clusters of excellence and institutional strategies. each working at his/her respective­ research institution. A Research­ Unit is a The DFG also funds and initiates measures to promote scientific libraries, longer-term collaboration between several researchers who generally work equips computer centres with computing hardware, provides instrumen- together on a research topic at a single location. In Central Research Facilities tation for research purposes and conducts peer reviews on proposals for

there is a particular concentration of personnel and equipment that is required scientific instrumentation. On an international level, the DFG has assumed Illustration: Ausserhofer to provide scientific and technical services. the role of Scientific Representative to international organisations, coordi- Collaborative Research Centres are long-term university research centres nates and funds the German contribution towards large-scale international in which scientists and academics pursue ambitious joint interdisciplinary research programmes, and supports international scientific relations. research undertakings. They are generally established for a period of twelve Another important role of the DFG is to provide policy advice to parlia- The families of outstanding researchers don’t normally take centre years. In addition to the classic Collaborative Research Centres, which are ments and public authorities on scientific issues. A large number of expert stage, but the annual Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize award cer- concentrated at one location and open to all subject areas, the DFG also of- commissions and committees provide the scientific background for the pass­ emony is a celebration for everyone, and many of the winners of fers several programme variations. CRC/Transregios allow various locations to ing of new legislation, primarily in the areas of environmental protection this, Germany’s most prestigious research prize, like to attend with co­operate on one topical focus. Cultural Studies Research Centres are designed­ and health care. to support the transition in the humanities to an integrated cultural studies The legal status of the DFG is that of an association under private law. Its their partners, parents and children – an expression of their grati- paradigm. Transfer Units serve to transfer the findings of basic research pro- member organisations include research universities, major non-university tude for their support and the sacrifices of living with a cutting-edge duced by Collaborative Research Centres into the realm of practical applica- research institutions, such as the Max Planck Society, the Fraunhofer Soci- researcher. This year this included the three children of neuroscientist tion by promoting cooperation between research institutes and users. ety and the Leibniz Association, the Academies of Sciences and Humanities Christian Büchel from Hamburg, who evidently enjoyed the festivities DFG Research Centres are an important strategic funding instrument. and a number of scientific associations. In order to meet its re­sponsibilities, They concentrate scientific research competence in particularly innovative the DFG receives funding from the German federal government and the fed- – and perhaps the “Thirst for Knowledge” drinking bottle contrib- fields and create temporary, internationally visible research priorities at re- eral states, as well as an annual contribution from the Donors’ Association uted in some small way. search universities. for the Promotion of Sciences and Humanities in Germany.

Impressum

german research is published by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation); Publisher: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, P.O. Box 10 11 61, D-69541 Weinheim; Annual subscription price: € 67.00 (Europe), US $ 72.00 (all other countries) including postage and handling charges. Prices are exclusive of VAT and subject to change. Address of editorial staff: DFG, Press and Public Relations Office, Kennedyallee 40, 53175 Bonn; [email protected]; www.dfg.de Editor-in-chief: Marco Finetti (responsible for content) Publishing Executive Editor: Dr. Rembert Unterstell Copy Editors: Stephanie Henseler, Angela Kügler-Seifert Translation: SciTech Communications GmbH, Heidelberg Printed by: Bonner Universitäts-Buchdruckerei (BUB); printed on chlorine-free bleached paper with 50 % recycling fibres.

ISSN 0172-1518