Magazine No 5 2019 / 2020 ZKM I Karlsruhe,

* Fritz Kuhr, 1928; student at the from 1923–27, member of staff in the wallpainting workshop 1928–29, teacher of drawing 1929–30 at the Bauhaus

THE WHOLE WORLD A BAUHAUS* László Moholy-Nagy In the 1921 Bauhaus programme experiments with photography without announced the creation of Painter, photographer, typographer, a camera (photograms). The book stage designer, art theorist and teacher a total work of art: “The Bauhaus strives for Painting Photography Film (1925) set 20 July 1895 in Bácsborsód / Austria- out his theory of “new seeing.” From a unity of all artistic creation, the reunification Hungary – 24 November 1946 in 1928 he was back in , designing of all the art disciplines – , painting, / USA intermedial decorations for the Kroll Opera and the Piscator Stage. the crafts and trades – to form a new art In painting, he experimented with of building in which they are all indispensable Born in southern Hungary as the son materials like aluminum and Bakelite of the Jewish farmer Lipot Weisz, components. The final, if distant goal of the and used Plexiglas placed in front of Moholy-Nagy – the later pioneer of canvases to create transparent three- Bauhaus is the unified work of art – the grand – was raised by his uncle dimensional effects. His experiments building – in which there are no borders in Mohol in today’s Serbia. After led to the construction of a mobile his father left the family, his mother installation made of glass and metal, between monumental and decorative art.” (…) was helped by her lawyer, named the Room Modulator. In 1934 he “The Bauhaus wishes to train architects, Nagy, to bring up her six children. divorced his wife – the Bauhaus photo- painters and sculptors of all standards according This led to László choosing his own grapher and writer Lucia Moholy, new name and going his own way. who, along with Herwarth Walden, to their abilities to become either hard-working He began to study law but this was had strongly promoted his career artisans or free artists, and to found a working suddenly interrupted by the First World from 1921. In 1937 he emigrated to War, where he fought and was badly community of leading and young working the USA with his second wife Sybille wounded on the Russian front. After Pietzsch, via Amsterdam and London. artists, a community that knows how to design his recovery he focused entirely on On the recommendation of Gropius, he buildings in their totality – shell construction, painting. After the Hungarian Republic became director of the New Bauhaus of Councils fell in 1919 he went to fitting out, and ornament and decoration – Chicago, which was forced to close the , and then in 1920 to Berlin and following year due to lack of funds. In in 1923 to the Bauhaus, first in Weimar T in a like-minded spirit and unified design.” 1939 Moholy-Nagy opened the School and then in . Moholy-Nagy of Design and in 1944 the Institute of This “grand building,” based on ideals of taught in the foundation course and Design, the last school he was to teach Medieval cathedral construction, remained became the form master in the metals in. His last book, Vision in Motion (1947), workshop. Together with Gropius, he represents a synthesis of his work as a H utopian, but in several projects the Bauhaus became editor of the 14 Bauhaus teacher, artist, and theorist. did come close to the total work of art. In 1921, Books from 1924. His photographs led to a “photo boom” among students. Text: Astrid Volpert students took part in building Walter Gropius‘s “Writing with light” led him to abstract and Adolf Meyer’s “Haus Sommerfeld” in E Berlin. In 1923 numerous masters and students – from the , carpentry, metal, and ceramics workshops – worked on the “Experimental House at Horn,” designed by painter and Bauhaus master . The Bauhaus building in Dessau, designed by T I The Whole World a Bauhaus presents eight chap- Walter Gropius and opened in 1926, and the ters with varied, exciting and surprising insights master’s houses there were also “total” works, into work and life at one of the most important art in which masters and students worked together O N academies of the twentieth century – the Bauhaus, and used products from the Bauhaus workshops. founded in Weimar in 1919. In 1926 the Bauhaus This led to the making of metal and wooden moved to Dessau, and in 1932, when the Nazis furniture, lamps, and also to the colour plans T made it impossible to continue there, it moved to for the interior. 1926 / 27, 1927 T Berlin, only to finally close forever in 1933. The wish to create a total work of art is also Aerial view, Bauhaus building Dessau, This exhibition presents photographs, works seen in the work of the theatre workshop, A R on paper, models, documents, films, and objects, in the expressionist plays of Lothar Schreyer inviting you to explore the wide range and diversity at the Weimar Bauhaus, in which language, of Bauhaus theory and practice in contemporary gestures, colours, and sculpture were all L O modernist design in architecture, everyday ob- radically interlinked. Plans for theatre by László jects, painting and theatre, and including theories Moholy-Nagy, such as the “Sketch of a Score and models of teaching. The Bauhaus always for a Mechanical Eccentricity: Synthesis of D endeavoured to create suitable and improved Form, Movement, Sound, Light (Colour) and environments, and to promote new ways of life. Smell,” also had the character of a total work of art, or a “total work,” as Moholy-Nagy put it. W In each thematic chapter in this exhibition you will U also find selected biographies of Bauhaus people, based on one work and illustrating differences and common ground in their careers. O C Throughout the fourteen years of its existence the Bauhaus underwent a constant process of redefi- R nition and reinvention. Strategy was enthusiastically T discussed and defined – and often disputed – by the three Bauhaus directors, the architects K Walter Gropius, and Ludwig Mies I van der Rohe, and the Bauhaus masters and students. For this exhibition, audio recordings of There was always lively debate and controversy some of these different positions at the Bauhaus concerning the purpose and significance of the O and also of contemporary critical voices from Bauhaus at the Bauhaus itself, and also outside, outside have been made, and you can listen to and this continues to this day. This is illustrated O these on headphones. by posters with quotations from various sources, N mostly from newspapers from 1945 to today. They show the reception history and the changing F interpretations of the Bauhaus. Boris Friedewald Curator of the ifa touring exhibition A R T

Walter Gropius (author), (illustration), Manifesto and program of the State Bauhaus Weimar with “Cathedral” cover, April 1920 , Ashtray,


“Architects, sculptors, painters, we all T must return to the crafts!” Walter Gropius A Staatliche Bildstelle Berlin, House at Horn, children’s bedroom, view of the dining room and kitchen demanded in the Bauhaus Manifesto of Alma Buscher, Erich Brendel (furniture), 1919. Therefore, the first goal was to H have every student learn a craft in one of R Staatliche Bildstelle Berlin, Haus at Horn, living room, Marcel Breuer (furniture), Gyula Pap (lamp), Martha Erps (carpet), László Moholy-Nagy (wall light), the workshops. Artistic creation was only 1923 possible on the basis of a handicraft, E Staatliche Bildstelle Berlin (Carl Rogge), House Sommerfeld1920–21 in Berlin-Dahlem, view of the and the artist was a more intensive kind T courtyard, Walter Gropius und Adolf Meyer (architecture), of artisan.

1923 In early 1922, there was a debate about individual or mass production. Walter Gropius noted: “Master Itten recently demanded that we must decide whether T to create individual and unique works in C complete contrast to economic realities, or whether we need to get closer to O industry.” In this debate, Itten himself R came down in favour of the individually made unique work, quite in line with the T original Bauhaus idea. A Gropius announced a decisive new A direction in 1923, with the new slogan “Art and Technology – a New Unity.” This was F to be highly significant for the future development of the Bauhaus, and it led L to leaving the Bauhaus. T In the catalogue of the large Bauhaus Exhibition of 1923 in Weimar Gropius stated that the Bauhaus was not a school S for handicrafts, and that its goal was W contacts with industry. The workshops would now focus on standardised proce- Otto Lindig, Dornburg ceramics Kitty (Catharine Louise) van der weaving studio De Wibstrik in workshop, Coffee pot L16, dures, making prototypes and models that 1923 Mijll Dekker (Kitty Fischer) Nunspeet in 1933. She became were suited to industrial serial production. designer 22 February a member of the Association for 1908 in Jogyakarta / Java Trades and Crafts, which made

O 1920 The first results of this new approach T – 6 December 2004 in her eligible to participate in an were functional products consisting of just Nijkerk / Netherlands exhibition in the Stedelijk Museum a few parts and often very basic shapes, Amsterdam. She was also R such as the combination teapot by awarded a silver medal at the She was born on Java, where Triennale di Milano for two E Theodor Bogler, the “Slatted Chair” by her father was an administrator cellophane textiles. In 1934 Marcel Breuer, the legendary “Bauhaus on a tobacco plantation. At the Greten and Hermann separated, age of eight, she moved to The and Kitty and Hermann K Lamp” by Carl Jakob Jucker and Wilhelm Netherlands and attended a continued to run the business as C Wagenfeld and the Bauhaus chess set by citizen’s school in The Hague the hand weaving and design Josef Hartwig. In 1925, Bauhaus Book until 1925. At age seventeen, studio K.v.d. Mijll-Dekker. In she went on educational tours of 1935 Kitty was awarded a gold No. 7 was published, entitled “New Works , the USA, and medal for her contribution to the H from the Bauhaus Workshops.” It England. At Hornsey School of World’s Fair in Brussels and in Art in London, she studied water- 1937 she received a Diplome amounted to a catalogue for orders for color, drawing and art history. D’Honneur at the Paris World’s O Bauhaus products, as Gropius said: She then took private lessons Fair. This recognition of her work “The Bauhaus workshops are primarily with the interior designer Jan Buys led to commissions from the N and the industrial designer Cor Dutch royal family from 1938. laboratories in which models are Alons. These two gave her She also made wall hangings F developed and continually improved for references for her application to and curtains for public buildings, typical products of our time to be produced The Bauhaus was able to derive income the Dessau Bauhaus in 1929. designs for the Dutch textiles O from the sale of goods and to thereby After finishing the foundation industry, including for flooring in series.” The same year the Bauhaus course, she studied there in the and wall panels. Using geo- Dessau published the “Catalogue gain some independence from the need weaving workshop. She metrical forms, modern weaving Lothar Schreyer, „Heiland, Heiland,“ from the publication crossplay, of Patterns,” in which Bauhaus products for public subsidies. Students also experimented with form and techniques, and color tones L benefited, as they participated in the materials, including cellophane reminiscent of the Bauhaus, she were advertised and could be ordered. and synthetic . In November revolutionized the classic kitchen Gropius had suggested that the main profits from their designs and the sale 1931 she passed her dishcloth. Kitty and Hermann A of licences, thereby covering part of their apprenticeship examinations in a both survived the period of O principle in the design of these products textiles factory in Rummelsburg / German occupation during the was “research into their essence.” He living costs. When the Bauhaus moved Pomerania that belonged to the Second World War. In 1950 she said: “A thing is determined by its essence. to the new building in Dessau in 1926, father of fellow-student Margot married her German partner, R the workshops were equipped with Meschke. In April 1932, she who had graduated from the To be able to design it to work properly received Bauhaus diploma no. G Bauhaus building and interior – be it a container, a chair, or a house – it new machines that made it possible to 66 as a weaver and then design workshop. From 1934 to returned to Holland. Together 1923 is necessary to first research its essence; produce prototypes for industry as well 1970 she taught at the Institute as Bauhaus own products in larger with fellow students Hermann for Crafts Teaching in Amsterdam. T it should serve its purpose perfectly, Fischer and his wife Greten Y Text: Astrid Volpert being practical and functional, long-lasting, numbers. This transformed the workshops Kähler, she established the hand inexpensive and ‘beautiful.’” into real production facilities, where teaching nonetheless continued. It was under the charge of Hannes Meyer, who advocated “the needs of the people before the needs of luxury,” that the most successful standard Bauhaus product was made. These were the Bauhaus wallpapers, whose designs were chosen in a student competition.

Herbert Bayer, Emergency currency of the State of Thuringia,

Otto Lindig, Dornburg ceramics workshop, Plate, 1922 / 23 Today the Bauhaus is seen as one of the most innovative and influential art schools of the twentieth century. Walter Gropius, its founder, was certain that “art cannot be controlled, but the technical means can be.” This was why the Bauhaus established workshops for wall painting, metals, weaving, and carpentry as the centrepiece in the training of apprentices and journeymen, marking a clear innovation when compared Pius Pahl, at class in the Dessau Bauhaus with students, Annemarie Wilke (front), Heinrich Neuy, to the classical art academies. The first 1930/31 workshops were the gold, silver, and copper Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (middle), A workshop (later the metal workshop), the graphic printing workshop, the bookbinding workshop, and the weaving workshop. R In 1920 there followed the workshops for Unknown Designer, Walter Gropius, houses, from the publication “State Bauhaus Weimar 1919–23”, ceramics, glass painting, wall painting, 1923 and wood and stone sculpture. In 1921 the T carpentry and theatre workshops were founded. R Marcel Breuer There were difficulties at first in finding the Unknown Designer, Structured cloth pattern “Semmering” no. 187 Architect and designer 1928–31 teachers who were able to both teach the 21 May 1902 in Pécs / Austria- from a pattern book with Bauhaus textiles, Hungary – 1 July 1981 in New appropriate skills and crafts while also A York City / USA addressing artistic issues. “First a new C generation which was able to combine both Architect Hannes Meyer became At the age of eighteen, Breuer qualities had to be educated,” Gropius later Bauhaus director in 1928, and he D – a Hungarian from a Jewish reorganised the curriculum, merged family – signed up as a student said. This was the reason that the workshops R at the Vienna Academy of Fine were jointly led by a “work master,” respon- several workshops, increased the Art, but he soon left there for the sible for the practical skills, and a “form period of study, brought numerous Bauhaus with some of his painter guest teachers in, and also organ- I compatriots. From 1920 to 1924, master,” responsible for formal and design A he was a student and young questions. This principle was maintained until ised lectures by scientists. Meyer master in Weimar, and his final the Bauhaus moved to Dessau, when it was consolidated the training of apprenticeship piece was the architects, which had only been C Ladies’ Dressing Table for the dropped. F Am Horn model dwelling. He de- introduced to the Bauhaus in 1927. signed avant-garde wooden He also introduced the teaching of furniture like the Romantic Easy If students wished to train in one of the work- sports and photography. He A Chair (African Chair) (with Gunta shops, they first had to pass the Foundation T Stölzl). In Dessau, he headed the wanted to focus more than previ- furniture workshop from 1925 to Course, which was taught by Johannes Itten ously on “studies in practice,” in 1928 and developed a system of and later by László Moholy-Nagy and Josef particular through participation in L chairs made of steel and extra Albers. The Foundation Course was intended S strong (such as the Wassily joint construction projects, for Armchair). He had these objects to develop students’ creative abilities, and to which very precise analysis of the made in his company Standard free their minds from conventional approaches Möbel Lengyel & Co, and from future uses of the buildings would 1929 by Thonet. From 1928 and the principles of existing and past styles provide a “scientifically founded to 1931 Breuer ran an architect’s and movements. Gropius said: “First the design.” studio in Berlin, where he whole person, and then – as late as possible designed the apartment of P theatre director Piscator. In 1932 – specialisation.” When Ludwig Mies van der Rohe T he completed his first building, was appointed Bauhaus director in Firma Rasch, Bauhaus wallpaper patterns, designed by Bauhaus students, 1932 Haus Harnischmacher in 1930, students with the right prior , which was destroyed E in the Second World War. His experience and training were able E attempts to become established to enrol without having to do the in the New Building movement hitherto obligatory Foundation failed, with the one exception of D the Doldertal Apartments (with Course. A lot of theory was now C Alfred and Emil Roth, 1936). taught, and the length of the studies From 1935 Breuer worked as an was significantly cut. In 1930, on architect for Francis Reginald A Stevens Yorke in London. In the occasion of his appointment, H 1937 he was appointed to teach Mies said: “I don’t want jam, I don’t at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University, want workshops and school, where he and Gropius established 1924 I want school.” G the architecture program. N In Cambridge / MA the two men Josef Hartwig (game design), Joost Schmidt (packaging typography), The Bauhaus, set, model XVI, operated a shared studio and business until 1941, and Breuer O designed the Gropius House in O Lincoln / MA (1938). From 1926 to 1934 he was married to Bauhaus student G Martha Erps, and in 1940 he L married his secretary Constance Crocker Leighton. From 1946 he focused his work completely on Y architecture, moving his office to O New York and building seventy private dwellings in New England, in which he combined white modernism with regional G materials and trends. In 1952, Breuer, Pier Luigi Nervi, and Bernard Zehrfuss designed the UNESCO Building in Paris, and from 1953 to 1957 he worked Y with Abraham Elzas on the De Bijenkorf department store in Rotterdam. In the 1960s Breuer designed the French winter sports resort Flaine and the Whitney Museum in New York. In 1966 he became a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He had been already represented in 1938 in the MoMA Bauhaus exhibition, Unknown Designer, Scheme of teaching, from the publication and in 1948 he had a solo show “State Bauhaus Weimar 1919–23”, 1923 at MoMA. Text: Astrid Volpert

1928 / 29 Unknown Photographer, Wall painting class in the Bauhaus building, in Dessau, Irena Blühová closed in summer 1932, she did In 1948 she became a mother, Photographer, journalist, not continue her studies. There and concentrated in her photo- university lecturer seemed to be no place for socially graphy on the themes of children critically and experimental works and women. In her works, she 2 March 1904 in Považská- in Blühová’s home country, and utilized the techniques and Bystrica / Austria-Hungary her political left-wing convictions rational formal principles of the – 30 November 1991 in led her to join the Communist Bauhaus, which meant that they Bratislava / Czechoslovakia Party. From 1933 she ran the were not reduced to simple Communist Party publishing agitation and propaganda. From Blühová taught herself photo- house and bookshop in Bratislava, the 1970s there were solo exhi- graph and at the beginning had under the BLÜH logo. She was bitions of her work in West to earn a living working in a particularly interested in socio- Germany and Hungary, and in bank. It was not until 1930 that logical research on the provinces. 1974 in the Bauhaus Archive in she was able to register as a Between 1939 and 1945 the West Berlin. student at the Dessau Bauhaus. Slovak state collaborated with Text: Astrid Volpert During the period when Mies van the Nazi regime. Blühova had to

der Rohe was Bauhaus director, quit her studies in the film Dessau, in canteen Bauhaus the of terrace the on Yamawaki Michiko and Iwao Kranz, Kurt she finished the foundation department at the arts and crafts course and worked in the work- school and go underground. shops for photography and After the war she struggled to advertising and typography. find a place in the male- When the Dessau Bauhaus dominated world of photography.

Lotte Gerson-Collein, The largest and the smallest Bauhaus members, Peter Bücking and Takehiko Mizutani in the vestibule of the Bauhaus building in Dessau, from bauhaus. Journal for design, 2 / 3, 1928

R Erich Consemüller, Marcel Breuer and his “harem,” A from the left: Marta Erps-Breuer, Katt Both, Ruth Hollos-Consemüller 1927 D

I 1927 C C O A Marianne Ahlfeld-Heymann (attributed), exercise from the class “pictorial form theory” by , 1923–24 M L Theodore Lux (Lukas) Feininger Berlin photography agency Dephot (German Photography M Photographer, painter, university lecturer Service), thanks to Umbo, who 11 June 1910 in Berlin – 7 July recommended him. During his 2011 in Cambridge / MA, USA time at the Dessau Bauhaus, he took many photographs, in U particular of everyday Bauhaus P Theodore Lux Feininger was life and the Bauhaus stage the son of the painter Lyonel workshop. In 1936 he moved Feininger and his wife Julia to New York and first worked N and was born in Berlin. As a there as a freelance painter. Up E high school student in Weimar, to 1947, he exhibited his work he began to experiment with in Europe and the USA under photography, first using a the name of Theodore Lux and camera that belonged to his I thereafter used his full name. grandmother and then with his From 1950 to 1975 he taught at D own 9 × 12 cm plate camera. In various American universities, 1926 he began his studies at the beginning at the Sarah Lawrence Dessau Bauhaus. After finishing College in New York from 1950 T the obligatory foundation to 1952, where he taught design. As well as this community of labour, Gropius A course, he was a member of From 1953 to 1962 he taught was just as interested in the living community ’s Bauhaus drawing and painting at the Fogg stage from 1927 to 1929, and a Museum at Harvard University of masters and students, which he also Y member of the Bauhaus choir in Cambridge /MA, and he noted expressly in the Bauhaus programme. G from 1928 to 1932. From 1929 to was the professor for drawing This was a community with shared leisure 1932 he sporadically attended and painting at the Boston Arts some Bauhaus courses. In Museum School from 1962 activities, particularly evident in the Bauhaus this period his main interest to 1975. evening events and the legendary Bauhaus was painting, and he began to O Text: Boris Friedewald parties. In 1932, Bauhaus director Ludwig Ludwig Hirschfeld-Mack, paint himself. Between 1929 “The three primary colors yellow, and 1931 he worked for the Mies van der Rohe also noted the importance red, blue, distributed on the of this working and living community, just as G corresponding primary shapes Edmund Collein, Bauhaus members on a bathing trip at the river Elbe 1928 the closure of the Dessau Bauhaus was with identical surface areas, triangle, square, circle …,” color imminent: “There is no educational institution panel from the colors seminar with Marianne Ahlfeld-Heymann (attributed), exercise from the class to match the Bauhaus in Germany and Ludwig Hirschfeld-Mack, from “pictorial form theory” by Paul Klee, Y the publication “State Bauhaus the whole world. Particularly in the past two Weimar 1919–23”, 1923 years, relations between teachers and students in Dessau have gained a far greater quality of cooperation than can be achieved in any other German university.” And van der Rohe’s predecessor, Hannes Meyer, also made the cooperative and collective work of everyone at the Bauhaus his guiding principle. The goal of a cohesive community at the 1923–24 From the very early days, the idea of a Bauhaus was, however, repeatedly challenged Bauhaus “community” was common currency, by the formation of specific interest groups, and its meaning shifted in many ways over such as the separatist Mazdaznan community the years. In the very first school programme led by Johannes Itten at the early Bauhaus, of April 1919 Walter Gropius emphasised and also by communist groups during the that the aim was “to train architects, painters eras of Hannes Meyer and Mies van der and sculptors of all standards according to Rohe. And the “equality of the sexes” that

their abilities to become either hard-working Gropius had proclaimed at the beginning was artisans or free artists, and to found a not always easy – it had to be renegotiated working community of leading and young in the Bauhaus community many times over working artists.” the years. Marcel Breuer, “Bambos 3,” design for a settlement in Dessau for young masters, from bauhaus. journal for design, 1, 1928

Juan O’Gorman, House with studio for Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, Mexico City, , Advertising brochure / order card for the journal “bauhaus, © ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie 1927 all the circles of the cultural world”, folder,

1931 C Unknown Photographer, Bauhaus living estate area, Walter Gropius, O (design), Farkas Mólnar (drawing), 1922 M 1930 Unknown Photographer, Montage with photos of the student demonstration to M protest against the dismissal of Bauhaus director Hannes Meyer, Faik Tagirov, Book cover, VChUTEIN, Higher State Artistic-Technical Institute in , Moscow, 1929 © Yale University Library U Hannes Meyer (editor), Ernst Kállai (copy editor), bauhaus. journal for design, 2 / 3, N I T Y The Whole World a Bauhaus? In only fourteen years, between the spirit of renewal in the and the rise of National Friedl Dicker (Dicker-Brandeis) floor plans for a low-level Socialism, the Bauhaus came to stand for modern Painter, textiles designer, interior building (1922–23). Today these design and avant-garde ways of life. The exhibition designer, art teacher are seen as the earliest Bauhaus The Whole World a Bauhaus, which explores 30 July 1898 in Vienna / Austria- architecture designs done with Hungary – 6 October 1944 in the participation of a woman. the theme in two parts, takes its name from a 1928 Auschwitz-Birkenau (Oświęcim) From 1926, the Singer-Dicker 1928 quote by Fritz Kuhr, who was a Bauhaus student concentration camp / Poland studio in Vienna was designing for clients all over Europe. Her and then teacher. The title is programmatic, alluding interior design for the Kinder- to the blurring of the borders between art, the crafts, The life and work of the garten Goethehof in Vienna and technology, as proclaimed by Bauhaus founder Holocaust victim Friedl Dicker (1930) won several awards. In were long forgotten, although 1931 Dicker and Singer separated. Walter Gropius. Everything is design, and the she was one of the most creative She ran a studio and began to creation of a modern environment also leads to the Weimar Bauhaus students. teach art. As a member of the creation of a modern mankind After doing an apprenticeship Austrian Communist Party in photography at the Vienna she made acerbic collages and For the exhibition at the ZKM I Center for Art and Experimental Academy of posters with anti-Fascist Graphics (1912–14) she attended messages. She was arrested in Media Karlsruhe, this exhibition title gains a further the textiles class at the school of 1934 and had to flee to Prague. dimension. While the first part of the exhibition arts and crafts and the Vienna In the resistance, she worked with private school of the Swiss artist the Black Rose bookshop circles. presents the ideas and products of the Bauhaus and teacher Johannes Itten, She gained Czechoslovakian itself in eight thematic chapters, the second part where she took on his teaching citizenship through her marriage focuses on a view from the margins. The perspective concept based on the individual to Pavel Brandeis in 1936 and needs of each student. When ran an interior design business. shifts from Germany during the Weimar Republic to Itten was appointed in Weimar in In 1938 the couple fled to the globally operating avant-gardes that found their 1919, she followed him there. She northern Bohemia. In December own answers to processes of social transformation did not pursue a typical woman’s 1942 they were both deported to Bauhaus career by working in the Theresienstadt ghetto, in the 1920s. Artists encountered the Bauhaus and weaving, printing, or book- where she gave painting lessons its protagonists for their own different reasons, and binding, but was very active in to children, based on the they explored Bauhaus ideas and then presented other fields, including the design Bauhaus foundation course 1935 of the Bauhaus almanac Utopia. principles developed by Johannes them in very new ways in a transcultural process, Exhibition poster, Works of HoracioSur magazine, Copolla andBuenos Grete Aires, Stern Documents of Reality. She also Itten. In October 1944 Dicker in the editorial offices of the for example within the context of nationalist politics designed and produced stage and Brandeis were taken to © Galeria Jorge Mara-La Ruche, Scala Archives, Florence sets and costumes, puppets and the German extermination camp in Santiago de Chile, as an answer to rapid games, and furniture and jewelery. in Auschwitz. Only Brandeis industrialisation in Mexico City, or within postcolonial With her partner Franz Singer, survived. movements in Casablanca. she designed four apartment Text: Astrid Volpert Berlin 1932–1933 1925

Newspaper cutting, Gallery owner Galka Scheyer as the Prophet of the Blue Four in the USA, © Norton Simon Museum, The Blue Four Galka Scheyer , Pasadena CA, USA

In this second part of the exhibition, the title represents a call to scholars to research the Bauhaus in its global contexts, addressing the different uses of its concepts, ideas, and procedures around the world. The Whole

World a Bauhaus? thus presents case studies from Buenos Aires, Casablanca, Mexico City, Moscow, Many Bauhaus teachers found 18. Student Ernst Louis Beck in front of the entrance to the Santiago de Chile, the USA, Stuttgart, and also from reconstructed telephone factory, 1932 / 1933 work at institutes and universi- ties throughout the world and Karlsruhe, whose ZKM I Center for Art and Media carried the idea and the teaching stands for the “digital Bauhaus.” This makes it clear of the Bauhaus into the future that the Bauhaus was not an elitist and exclusive In 1933, was 17. “The Blow against the Bauhaus”, project, as there were avant-gardes in many parts of photo montage by Iwao Yamawaki prior to appointed professor at the Black the Nazi seizure of power, 1932 Mountain College in North the world that saw themselves as the engines of social, The carnivals on 18 and Carolina (USA). His wife Anni cultural, and political change and thereby understood At the local council in Dessau, 25 February 1933 with about Albers and Xanti Schawinsky the Nazi Party proposed to 1,100 visitors were the last were also lecturers there the Bauhaus and integrated it into their own discourses close the Bauhaus and to pull Bauhaus parties

Marcial Lema, Work in black and white, published in the magazine of the New Art School, Santiago de Chile, September 1928 © David Maulen Archive, Creative Commons in their own specific ways. down the school building During a house search on Representatives of the Nazi 11 April 1933, the Secret State 20. Logo of the “New Bauhaus” in Chicago, 1937 Valérie Hammerbacher Party visited the Bauhaus Police (Gestapo) found evidence ifa (Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen) of “cultural Bolshevism”. The council of Dessau decided 32 people were arrested and In 1937, László Moholy-Nagy to close the Bauhaus as of the Bauhaus in Berlin was became the director of a newly 1 October 1932 sealed off founded design school in Chicago (USA), which he called The cities of Leipzig and When the wallpaper company New Bauhaus Magdeburg, which were Rasch canceled their contract, governed by Social Democrats, the school was deprived of In 1937, Walter Gropius was After 1945, attempts to restore showed interest in taking over an important financial basis appointed director of the the Bauhaus in Germany the Bauhaus department of architecture at in Dessau and Weimar failed In order to continue the the Harvard Graduate School The municipal authorities of the Bauhaus, the Gestapo demand- of Design in Cambridge / In 1953, the Ulm School of town of Dessau transferred all ed a new “state-conformist” Massachusetts (USA) Design was founded. The rights to continue the Bauhaus curriculum and the dismissal 19. Josef Albers with students in drawing class, c. 1928 teaching concept directly took as a private institute to Mies of and In 1938, Ludwig Mies van der up Bauhaus principles. van der Rohe Ludwig Hilberseimer From 1933, the Bauhaus Rohe took over the department The former Bauhaus student building in Dessau was used as of architecture at the Armour became the director The Bauhaus was reopened On the strength of this, the a school building by the Nazis. Institute in Chicago (USA). and Josef Albers, Walter in a former telephone factory teachers decided the dissolution Demolition of the building was Walter Peterhans and Ludwig Peterhans and Johannes Itten in the Berlin district of Steglitz of the Bauhaus on 20 July no longer considered an option Hilberseimer followed him also taught there

The Bauhaus has 25 female The Bauhaus has 5 female and 90 male students and 14 male students 1932 1933 After the closure of the Bauhaus

The exhibition “Modern Archi- In Germany, tecture: International Exhibition” became Chancellor of the Reich at the Museum of New York reduced the different During the fourth meeting of styles of “Neues Bauen” to the CIAM under the motto of , Rabat, 2019 a merely aesthetic dimension. “The Functional City,” members 1 after Mohamed Melehi Social questions, function, and approved the “Charter of the different debates were Athens.” It was later to play thus left aside. Philipp Johnson a key role in the reconstruction and Henry-Russell Hitchcock of the cities after 1945 Nassim Azarzar, Digital studies, patterns and colours, Study No. were responsible for this exhi- © Nassim Azarzar bition. They had also visited the 15. “Decadent Art” exhibition in the gallery building at Bauhaus in Dessau during the Hofgarten in 1937, with paintings by Wassily their research in 1930 and 1931 Kandinsky, , Conrad Felixmüller, Heinrich Campendonk and others, and by Marg Moll, Otto Baum, Eugen Hoffmann, Rudolf Belling and others

From September 1933, the In 1937, 16,000 works of entire German production of art modern art were seized by the and was controlled by Nazis and mostly destroyed the In the same year, the Nazi Many artists and intellectuals propaganda exhibition went into exile, others were “” showed 650 persecuted or banned from of these works, among them their profession. Others came some Bauhaus artists. Ironically, to terms with the repressive the exhibition was the most measures of the Nazi regime frequently visited exhibition of modern art 16. Catalogue of the exhibition “Cubism and ” On 1 September 1939, the at the , New York, 2.3. – 19.4.1936, 14. Exhibition view “: International Exhibition”, with a picture by Alfred H. Barr Museum of Modern Art, New York, 10.2. – 23.3.1932 Second World War started. It ended on 8 May 1945

In 1936, the Museum of Modern Art in New York presented the whole spectrum of the European avant-garde in the exhibition “Cubism and Abstract Art.” Alfred H. Barr was the curator, and he also purchased the presented works for the MoMA. Since 1958, the collection has been part of the permanent exhibition

Emmy Wollner, Colour plates for lectures by Professor Adolf Hölzel, Stuttgart, no date © Adolf Hölzel Stiftung, Stuttgart Weimar 1919–1925

Walter Gropius was appointed director of the Grand Ducal School of Fine Arts in Weimar

He merged the University of Fine Arts and the School 2. Grand Ducal Saxon School of Applied Arts Weimar, c. 1906, from 1919 State Bauhaus Weimar of Applied Arts to create a new school of arts

State Bauhaus Weimar Date of foundation 1 April 1919

Georg Muche (painter) was appointed lecturer at the 7. The new logo of the State Bauhaus Bauhaus Weimar by Oskar Schlemmer, 1922 A master of form (artist) and a master of craft each took charge 4. Logo of the State 8. Poster by Joost Schmidt for the Bauhaus exhibition in Weimar, 1923 of each one of the workshops Bauhaus Weimar, 1919–1921 Wassily Kandinsky (painter) was appointed lecturer at the Training at the workshops Bauhaus The great “Bauhaus exhibition followed the model of a crafts- and Bauhaus week” opened man’s apprenticeship. The final In Calcutta (India), paintings in summer with talks, film The new conservative govern- The first officialcurriculum by the Bauhaus teachers ment in Thuringia cut the state exam was conducted by the came into effect at the Bauhaus screenings, music, and theatre Chamber of Crafts and students, were exhibited grant for the Bauhaus to a third Paul Klee (painter), Oskar together with works by contem- “Haus am Horn,” designed The “Haus Sommerfeld” in porary Indian artists by Georg Muche The government of Thuringia Schlemmer (painter & stage terminated the masters’ employ- 3. Lyonel Feininger’s woodcut “Cathedral” Berlin was designed by Gropius’s designer) and Lothar Schreyer for the manifesto of the State Bauhaus office, with the assistance of In Weimar, Theo van Doesburg In his opening speech, ment contracts on 31 March Weimar, 1919 (dramaturge & painter) the Bauhaus workshops taught private De Stijl courses, Walter Gropius proclaimed the were appointed teachers at attended by some of the programmatic reorganization The “Circle of Friends of the the Bauhaus Bauhaus” was founded with After Henry van de Velde had Johannes Itten (painter, art Bauhaus members of the Bauhaus: international supporters including to endure hostilities for being teacher), The professors of the former “Art and technology – , , a foreigner, he resigned from his (sculptor) and Lyonel Feininger University of Fine Arts left a new unity” Peter Behrens, and H. P. Berlage position as the director (graphic designer) were the Bauhaus and established of the School of Applied Arts In 1915, the Grand Ducal appointed lecturers at the a rivaling school of arts Johannes Itten, who opposed Bauhaus Ltd. was founded 1. Henry van de Velde in his studio at the Weimar Arts and Crafts Seminar, c. 1906 in Weimar and, amongst others, School of Fine Arts in Weimar Bauhaus (it remained in the same building a technical focus and favored in order to market the products he recommended the architect started negotiations with Walter until 1925) individual craftsmanship, left made in the Bauhaus workshops The Belgian architect Henry Walter Gropius as his successor Gropius Johannes Itten developed the Bauhaus van de Velde was appointed In spring 1908, Henry van de the preliminary course at the The painters of the Bauhaus In late December, the Bauhaus 5. “Haus Sommerfeld”, Berlin, 1920 / 1921 artistic consultant for industry Velde was assigned head of The School of Applied Arts At the beginning of the year Bauhaus, which included staged an exhibition at Herwarth The Hungarian László Moholy- masters declared the dissolution 6. Postcard from Theo van Doesburg to and applied arts in the grand the newly founded Grand Ducal in Weimar was closed on 1916, he sent his “proposal to elements of the teaching Walden’s gallery “Der Sturm” Antony Kok, 12.9.1921 Nagy (painter, photographer & of the Bauhaus by 1 April 1925 duchy of Saxe-Weimar- Saxon School of Applied Arts 1 October 1915 set up an artistic advice center concept he had tested in Vienna, First “Bauhaus Night” with the in Berlin constructivist) was appointed Eisenach in 1902 in Weimar for industry, crafts and the After his return from the war as well as the concept of his poet Else Lasker Schüler to teach at the Bauhaus Several cities expressed their The school building was used manual trades” to Weimar at the beginning of 1919, Walter teacher Adolf Hölzel in Stuttgart Johannes Itten and Georg In the council of masters, the interest in taking over the In autumn, he took charge of The practical work in the work- as a hospital during the First Gropius once again contacted Johannes Itten introduced a Muche made the teachings of masters discussed whether they After his play “Mondspiel” Bauhaus, including the newly established arts and shops was the most important World War – individual work- Due to the First World War, the the administrator of the Weimar First meeting of the council vegetarian diet to the canteen Mazdaznan the “secret religion” should call themselves profes- flopped, Lothar Schreyer left am Main, , Mannheim, crafts seminar in Weimar aspect of vocational training shops were run privately negotiations were suspended Cultural Institutes of masters at the Bauhaus at the Bauhaus sors and they decided against the Bauhaus and Dessau

The Bauhaus has 101 female The Bauhaus has 62 female The Bauhaus has 44 female The Bauhaus has 48 female The Bauhaus has 35 female The Bauhaus has 45 female and 106 male students and 81 male students and 64 male students and 71 male students and 106 male students and 82 male students before 1914 1914–1918 First World War 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924

In Munich, and The In the years after 1905, the At the end of July 1914, the In 1917, after the October The end of the war and hopes In Moscow, the VChUTEMAS The first installment of the At the beginning of the year, The Dawes Plan reduced the founded (German Association of Crafts- avant-garde art forms of futurism First World War broke out. More , a workers’ party for the new republic inspired (Higher Art and Technical reparations exacerbated infla- a representative of Russian reparations, and with loans from a private school in 1902, men) was founded in Munich in in Italy, cubism in France and than 60 million young soldiers came into power for the first a utopia of rebuilding society. Studios) were founded. Their tion and fueled domestic unrest constructivism, abroad, the German economy where design principles were 1907 and it brought together the in Germany were fighting worldwide time in Russia Reform efforts which had been structure and curriculum re- in the young Weimar Republic. came to Berlin and established leveled off. The short heyday deduced from nature and then crafts, art, and indus try in a new came into being. Expressionism interrupted by the war now sembled those of the Bauhaus About 354,000 people were contacts with the avant-garde, of the roaring twenties started put into practice in workshops. art of form. With its exhibitions made an impact on the first In the Netherlands in 1917, The monarchy in the German gained new strength unemployed such as the Dadaists, Theo Henry van de Velde and Walter and public ations, the associa- Bauhaus years Theo van Doesburg and Piet Empire ended and the In Berlin, the Dadaists organized van Doesburg, and László The Swiss avant-garde group Gropius enquired about this tion was a crucial motor for Mondrian founded the artists Republic was proclaimed on the “First International Adolf Hitler was elected head Moholy-Nagy ABC with Hannes Meyer, group “De Stijl”. Their principles 8 November 1918 Fair”. Their new aesthetics of the National Socialist German 10. Emergency money during the hyperin- the Dutch and new teaching method the distribution of a new design 7. Opening sitting of the constitution-drafting flation of 1923, designed by Herbert Bayer and aesthetics of products of geometrical-abstract design German National Assembly at the German of montage of photography Workers’ Party (NSDAP) In September, Theo van El Lissitzky declared the had a major influence on the The First World War ended National Theatre in Weimar on 6 February and typography later influenced Doesburg organized the “Inter- function to be the basis of all In the Berlin office of Peter largely expressionist Bauhaus two days later 1919, Friedrich Ebert speaking the Bauhaus, especially its Theo van Doesburg propaga- national Congress of Construct- Inflation reached its peak in design. Meyer introduced Behrens, one of the co-founders in 1921 / 1922 advertising ted the abstract geometrical ivists and Dadaists” in Weimar. autumn and led to the this approach to the teaching On 6 February, the first elected principles of design of the of the German economy and of the Werkbund, three major German parliament met Some of the participants were at the Bauhaus from 1927 representatives of the modernist In Vienna, Johannes Itten 6. Flyer by Hermann for the The Hungarian avant-garde artists’ association “De Stijl” Bauhaus members the banking system. The 4. Herwarth Walden in front of his bust opened his first art school in Working Council of Art Berlin, 1919 artist László Moholy-Nagy in his lectures in Weimar, , number of unemployed people During the building boom, many architecture met in 1908: portrait of William Wauer, c. 1918 In the constitution of the Weimar Walter Gropius, Ludwig Mies 1917. Through Alma Mahler, Republic, the right to housing came to Berlin and met the and Berlin rose to 978,000 ideas of “Neues Bauen” were he met her then-husband Walter Workers Council for Art, which Dadaists there realized, particularly in cities van der Rohe, and the young Herwarth Walden’s magazine had been founded in 1918, was established for the first In Russia, Tatlin’s tower ignited An attempted coup by Adolf Gropius, who later invited Itten time. Tackling the housing run by Social Democrats, such “Der Sturm” which was founded to join the Bauhaus. Some demanded a fundamental reform In Petrograd, Wladimir Tatlin’s a debate about the principles Hitler was foiled. The Nazi Party as Berlin, Frankfurt am Main 1. Metal workshop at the Debschitz School, in Berlin in 1910, became the of art, culture, and education. shortage was one of the biggest design for the “Monument for of design: compo sition versus was forbidden and Adolf Hitler Munich, c. 1905 In 1914, the accomplishments of of his students from Vienna challenges for the young republic and Dessau In the middle of the 19th the Werkbund in product design voice of German expressionism followed him All the arts declared a collective the Third International” was construction. The principles was arrested century, the Arts and Crafts and a center of the European 5. One-legged war veteran begging in “Bau” (“building”) to be their unveiled. The tower made of constructi vism – scientific From 1906, the painter and art and archi tecture were presented uniform and with medals, Berlin, 1923 The Treaty of Versailles stipu- In his programmatic essay Movement was formed in theoretician Adolf Hölzel taught to an international audience avant-garde In response to the war and common goal. Bruno Taut, lated that Germany, having lost of glass and steel is considered methods and the “truth to England. Its founder William to criticise the bourgeois way Lyonel Feininger, Walter Gropius, to be the birth of constructivism material” – emerged from this “Vers une architecture,” his modern theory of colors in Cologne In 1912, the gallery “Sturm” Unemployment, hunger and the war, had to pay reparations Le Corbusier advocated Morris opposed industrial and forms. His preliminary of life, the provocative anti-art social misery determined the and Gerhard Marcks were to the victorious countries 9. Group photograph taken at machine production and cham- opened its doors with an exhi- of Dadaism was formed among the 50 members In Paris, Le Corbusier and the International Congress of a concept for a new kind of course served as a model for bition by the expressionist daily life of the German popula- Amedée Ozenfant founded the Constructivists and Dadaists architecture based on five pioned the idea of a revival his student Johannes Itten who in Switzerland tion. The destruction caused by in Weimar, 1922 of the crafts. Skilfully made artist association “Der Blaue Artists joined forces in the magazine “L’Esprit Nouveau” major principles later planned the preliminary Reiter” which had been founded the war exacer bated the housing “November Group” to “dedicate and disseminated their vision everyday objects were intended course at the Bauhaus. Oskar shortage, and the country was to carry art into daily life the year before by Wassily (their) best abilities in order to and rationale of a new machine Schlemmer was also one Kandinsky and in dire need of about 1 million rebuild young free Germany”. aesthetics and art in general The success of the crafts move- of Hölzel’s students in Munich additional dwellings The group existed until 1933. ment led to criticism of the El Lissitzky, Wassily Kandinsky, academic education of artists László Moholy-Nagy, and with its imitation of historical Ludwig Mies van der Rohe styles. There were calls for were among its 170 members reforms and for more practical relevance 3. Poster by Fritz Helmuth Ehmcke on the occasion of the exhibition “Deutsche Werkbund 2. Adolf Hölzel and his Stuttgart pupils, from Ausstellung” 1914 in Cologne the left: Alfred Wickenburg, Ida Kerkovius, unknown, Edmund Kinzinger, Hermann Stenner, Adolf Hölzel, Lily Hildebrandt, 8. Wladimir Tatlin’s model of a monument for Willi Baumeister, Oskar Schlemmer, 1914 the Third International, 1920 Dessau 1925–1931

The construction department at the Bauhaus realized the ADGB Trade Union School in Bernau near Berlin. All the Bauhaus workshops participated in this project

12. Bauhaus building in Dessau, 1926 / 1927

The Bauhaus increasingly coop- 15. View of the living quarters wing of the ADGB Trade Union School in Bernau by Hannes Meyer and Hans Wittwer, 1931 erated with industry. Some of 10. Logo “The Bauhaus in Dessau” as a stamp, 1931 the most successful products A communist student group, were the Bauhaus wallpaper which had become radicalized, The first architecture course and the Bauhaus lamps began to politicize the Bauhaus The masters’ houses and parts was set up at the Bauhaus Walter Gropius Hannes Meyer Ludwig Mies van der Rohe of the Törten estate in Dessau “Metallic Party” at the Bauhaus Due to his Marxist politics, 1 Free painting classes 1 were completed Hannes Meyer reorganized the Hannes Meyer was dismissed 920 9 2 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 9 3 were offered by Paul Klee 932 933 1919 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 curriculum and the workshops without notice by the town 1 1 The Bauhaus was officially and Wassily Kandinsky to of Dessau at the beginning

recognized as a university of complement the more practical Summer Walter Gropius resigned as The first photography course of August Semester arts and design and was permit- and manual training in the the director of the Bauhaus was set up at the Bauhaus ted to issue its own certificates workshops Only a few days later, Ludwig 9. Prospectus of the city of Dessau, 1931 on 4 February 1928 to dedicate himself to his work as a free- The Bauhaus touring exhibition Mies van der Rohe became The masters of form were The pioneer of expressive started in with current the new director of the Bauhaus fourth statute enters into force first statute enters into force second statute enters into force third statute enters into force new timetable and teaching

lance architect plan enters into force called professors and the dance, Gret Palucca, performed works from the Bauhaus and reorganized the curriculum The Bauhaus moved to the training course ended with onstage at the Bauhaus Hannes Meyer became the workshops Preliminary Foundation industrial town of Dessau near a Bauhaus diploma A new statute prohibited all Berlin new director of the Bauhaus class 1st semester 2nd semester Course 2nd semester 1st semester Work theory no longer compulsory on 1 April 1928 and announced Works from the Bauhaus kinds of political involvement Trial semester Johannes Itten Johannes Itten & Georg Muche László Moholy-Nagy & Josef Albers László Moholy-Nagy & Josef Albers Josef Albers Josef Albers Direct advancement to higher semester possible Gerhard Marcks left the Bauhaus his motto: workshops were sent to the at the Bauhaus World Fair in Barcelona Pottery Building Building Tuition started at various “The needs Gerhard Marcks theory department Max Krehan Hannes Meyer Hannes Meyer & Hannes Meyer, Hans Wittwer temporary locations of the people instead of Paul Klee left the Bauhaus. He Hans Wittwer & Ludwig Hilberseimer the need for luxury” continued to live in his master’s Glass painting A new statute and an updated house in Dessau until 1933 Johannes Itten Oskar Schlemmer Paul Klee Glass and curriculum came into effect Marcel Breuer, László Moholy- Carl Schlemmer J. Albers wall painting Nagy, and Herbert Bayer left the Gunta Stölzl left the Bauhaus Several former students Wall painting Josef Albers (acting) Wall painting Department for building 11. The masters on the Bauhaus roof, from Bauhaus with Gropius became junior masters and took The last issue of the magazine Johannes Itten O. Schlemmer Wassily Kandinsky Fitting-out and fitting-out the left: Josef Albers, Hinnerk Scheper, Franz Heidelmann Carl Schlemmer Heinrich Beberniss Mies van der Rohe & Ludwig Hilberseimer over some of the workshops Georg Muche, László Moholy-Nagy, An increasing number of “bauhaus” was published department Herbert Bayer, Joost Schmidt, Walter Alfred Arndt Hinnerk Scheper Gropius, Marcel Breuer, Wassily Kandinsky, 13. Collage by Marianne Brandt for external lecturers were invited Carpentry shop Furniture workshop The first series of Bauhaus Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger, Gunta Stölzl “Palucca Dances”, 1929 The first Bauhaus exhibition Johannes Itten Walter Gropius Marcel Breuer & Heinrich Bökenheide Josef Albers Alfred Arndt & Heinrich Bökenheide Lilly Reich to lecture at the Bauhaus Josef Zachmann Erich Reinhold Weidensee and Oskar Schlemmer, photographed 14. Manda von Kreibig in Oskar Schlemmer’s Alfred Arndt Lilly Reich books was published by in the USA was shown in Brendel by Lucia Moholy, 1926 “Stäbetanz II”, Bauhaus stage, 1927 Walter Gropius and László Georg Muche left the Bauhaus Physical education was New York Metals department at the School of Arts and Crafts Metals Moholy-Nagy introduced at the Bauhaus Johannes Itten Paul Klee Oskar Schlemmer László Moholy-Nagy Marianne Brandt The Bauhaus building in Dessau Students of the Moscow In Moscow, Hannes Meyer orga- to 1915 Naum Slutzky Christian Dell (acting) The use of all-lowercase was opened on 4 December VChUTEMAS visited the Members of the Bauhaus visited The Bauhaus Stage gave guest 16. Caricature of Hannes Meyer, 1930 nized the exhibition “bauhaus Graphic design department at the Academy of Arts Graphic printing shop Department for advertising was introduced 1926 with over 1,000 German Bauhaus in summer the VChUTEMAS in Moscow performances in Berlin, Breslau, dessau 1928–1930” as a private Walter Klemm Lyonel Feininger Joost Schmidt post not and international guests Frankfurt am Main, Stuttgart, initiative Walter Klemm (from 1913) Carl Zaubitzer filled The “Catalogue of Models” Alfred H. Barr, who was later Wassily Kandinsky staged and Basel Hannes Meyer went to Moscow. Printing and Advertising presented different prototypes The Bauhaus published the to become the founding director Mussorgsky’s “Pictures at an A group of Bauhaus members The American composer Henry Printing workshop advertising department Bookbinding workshop at the School of Arts and Crafts Bookbinding Paul Klee L. Schreyer Herbert Bayer & Willi Hauswald Joost Schmidt & Willi Hauswald Department for photography from the Bauhaus workshops first issue of the magazine of the Museum of Modern Art Exhibition” at the Friedrich Oskar Schlemmer left the followed him in spring the Cowell gave several concerts Otto Dorfner Contract with the Bauhaus terminated Walter Peterhans Walter Peterhans to be marketed by Bauhaus Ltd. “bauhaus” in New York, visited the Bauhaus theatre in Dessau Bauhaus following year at the Bauhaus Otto Dorfner (from 1910 / as a private business from 1915) Photo class Sculpture class at the Academy of Arts Wood sculpture Richard Engelmann Georg Muche J. Itten Oskar Schlemmer Richard Engelmann (from 1906) Hans Kämpfe Josef Hartwig Sculpture workshop Fine arts The Bauhaus has 28 female The Bauhaus has 28 female The Bauhaus has 41 female and The Bauhaus has 45 female The Bauhaus has 58 female The Bauhaus has 44 female The Bauhaus has 53 female Joost Schmidt Sculpture class at the Academy of Arts Stone sculpture Joost Schmidt and 73 male students and 73 male students 125 male students and 121 male students and 143 male students and 122 male students and 141 male students Richard Engelmann Johannes Itten Oskar Schlemmer Richard Engelmann (from 1906) Max Kull Josef Hartwig Free painting classes Wassily Kandinsky & Wassily Lyonel Feininger Kandinsky Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky & Lyonel Feininger

Stage Experimental department for stage performances Lothar Schreyer Oskar Schlemmer 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 Coordination: Joost Schmidt & Emil Galandi

Weaving Weaving Textiles Weaving workshop workshop department workshop In Frankfurt am Main, 15,000 Johannes Itten founded a In Switzerland, 24 international Walter Gropius took responsi- The withdrawal of American Weaving workshop at the School of Arts and Crafts Johannes Itten Georg Muche Georg Muche & Gunta Stölzl Gunta Stölzl & Kurt Wanke A. Albers Lilly Reich Helene Börner (acting) new flats were built in an private art school in Berlin, representatives of “Neues bility for the “Séction allemande” loans triggered another banking Helene Börner (from 1907 / as a private business from 1915) industrial construction style where Georg Muche and Lucia Bauen” joined together to on behalf of the German crisis in Germany. The number Dyeing workshop Lis Beyer & Kurt Wanke Margarete Leischner and according to new minimal Moholy later worked as lecturers become the “Congrès Interna- Werkbund at the arts and crafts of unemployed people exceeded Legend standards in very few years. tionaux d’Architecture Moderne” fair in the Grand Palais Paris 5 million Several Bauhaus members were In Weimar, the “State Technical (CIAM). The joint program Development phase for a workshop / course University of Architecture and At the third CIAM meeting When the “German Building 1 also involved in the housing was mainly prepared by Continuing workshop (as far as known) 1 920 9 2 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 9 3 program “Neues Frankfurt” Civil Engineering” was founded. Le Corbusier – Hannes Meyer in Brussels, the participants Exhibition” and the “Proletarian 932 933 Summer Semester 1919 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Workshop form master 1 1 Closure Bauhaus members, such as and Mart Stam added a social discussed “efficient building” Building Exhibition” were both In Mannheim, an exhibition Ernst Neufert, Otto Lindig, component to it. This “Sarraz in housing development taking place in Berlin, two oppo- Workshop work master (as far as known) presented the art of “New Ludwig Hirschfeld-Mack, and site positions faced each other: Declaration” by the CIAM was Not part of the regular teaching syllabus Weimar Berlin Objectivity.” Photography others taught there In the elections for the Reichstag, rationalizing building versus Dessau also published in the magazine the Nazis came second after at the Bauhaus was influenced “bauhaus” solving the housing shortage by this new objective view of Leading representatives of the Social Democrats (SPD) social reality “Neues Bauen” joined together In opposition to “Neues Bauen,” 13. Advertisement for the Werkbund exhibi- as “Der Ring”. Among them tion “Film and Foto” in 1929 in Stuttgart 12. Poster by Willi Baumeister for the national- conservative architects were Walter Gropius, Ludwig Werkbund exhibition “Die Wohnung” in founded the asso ciation “Der 1927 in Stuttgart Mies van der Rohe, and Ludwig Block.” One of its spokesmen Hilberseimer The international Werkbund was Paul Schultze-Naumburg, exhibition “Film und Foto” in The Bauhaus workshops 16 international items classified who was later substantially Stuttgart presented the works as “Neues Bauen und Wohnen” involved in the closure of the of 200 international artists, This diagram visualises the development of the were built as part of the Bauhaus in Dessau among them several Bauhaus Bauhaus workshops under the three directors Werkbund exhibition at the members, Karl Blossfeldt Weissenhof in Stuttgart. The and Man Ray Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer and Ludwig project was directed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Among the The New York stock market Mies van der Rohe at the three Bauhaus architects were Le Corbusier, crash on 24 October 1929 locations in Weimar, Dessau and Berlin. The Mart Stam, Walter Gropius, led to the Great Depression work of the specialist form and work masters Peter Behrens, and Bruno Taut During the second CIAM is presented chronologically, showing frequent meeting in Frankfurt am Main, the focus was on the solution of changes and renaming of the workshops and the housing problem. 120 archi- the different focus of Bauhaus teaching under tects and scientists from 14 countries discussed strat- the three directors. egies for “the dwelling for the subsistence level” Nicole Opel

In New York, the Museum of Modern Art opened as one of the first museums for modern art in America 11. Title image for the magazine “Das neue Frankfurt”, no 2, 1926 / 1927, theme: mechanisation of apartment building / From brick walls to the Frankfurt montage procedure Mies van der Rohe designed the German Pavillion for the World Fair in Barcelona 1923

Paul Klee, Tightrope Walker, The themes of suspension and floating featured at the Bauhaus in various guises – as motifs in architecture and fine art, and Designing and Coding as a metaphor for a modern way of life. In 1926 Marcel Breuer demonstrated the In the twentieth century, the categories of art design of his chairs in his collage “A and aesthetics were replaced by the category of Bauhaus Film,” beginning with the “African design. Prior to 1900, art universities were called Chair,” made at the Bauhaus in 1921. The Academies of Fine Arts, but thereafter just series of designs culminated in a vision Academies of Arts, as the “no longer only fine of a seated person floating on an “elastic arts” (Hans Robert Jauß, 1968) came to the column of air” – Breuer left the actual fore in the twentieth century. Far-reaching date when this might become reality open. Piet Mondrian, New Design change after the First World War led to a whole Furniture made of steel tubing, like Breuer’s , (Bauhaus books 5), Munich, 1925 Title page design Moholy-Nagy generation radically searching for a new order. and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s On the one hand, the elements of painting cantilever chairs, are also signs of this were subjected to scrutiny. Painting’s means of desire to overcome material restrictions. depiction – the point, the line, the plane – were After the Bauhaus reopened in Dessau in formerly used to create representations of real 1926, students and masters began to take objects, but now they themselves became photographs that either showed floating the subject of painting. Self-representation of the people or objects or presented them as if means of representation led to abstract painting, they were about to take off. In his lithograph which had a strong following at the Bauhaus “The Tightrope Walker,” Paul Klee had with Johannes Itten, Wassily Kandinsky, and already addressed this theme back in 1923. Paul Klee. The world of objects was also seen The figure of the tightrope walker stands to represent itself in the pieces and ready-mades for a future and more modern type of man, by Marcel Duchamp. A third direction that was whose longing to escape gravity takes him Umbo (Otto Umbehr), Slippers, 1926 specifically developed in, at, and around the into heady heights, and who yet still needs Bauhaus, attempted to overcome the gulf between a rope under his feet and a pole for balance. the figurative and the abstract by postulating universal principles of design for both the making of the world of the objects and the autonomous F world of artistic representation. In both theory and practice, the introduction of the Mies van der Rohe’s design for a “Skyscraper in Glass and Reinforced concept of design at the Bauhaus was a way of Concrete” also negated all sense of weight, and the transparency of the L gaining distance from the idea of aesthetics. The construction gave the impression that it was about to dissolve. The same Bauhaus school stood for a historical break with effect is true of the Dessau Bauhaus building designed by Walter Gropius, art’s aspirations to represent reality. “Universal particularly when it is lit up at night. In 1923 Gropius noted: “The increasing O principles of design” were introduced, which could stability and greater mass of modern building materials (iron, concrete, be implemented functionally in all the genres, glass) and the increasing boldness of new suspended constructions mean whether painting and sculpture or the crafts and that the sense of gravity that pertained to older ways of building is now A architecture. The principles for the design of a being transformed.” In the Dessau Bauhaus building, there were always a plane were the same as those for the design of number of “suspended sculptures“ on show, made by students in Moholy- a room. Paintings, objects for everyday use, and Nagy’s Foundation Course, which the teacher saw as valuable preliminaries T buildings all followed the same visual patterns of towards “a highly spiritual form,“ and specifically “kinetic sculptures.” lines and colours. Artists hoped that the principle of design would contribute to a better world, and I the tone was set in the De Stijl manifesto of 1921, Towards a Newly Shaped World, followed by Gerrit Rietveld, Red and Blue Chair, ca. 1918, made by Gerard van de Groenekan after 1918, painted a number of Bauhaus publications: New Design beechwood, plywood, 87.5 × 60 × 76 cm, Gemeentemuseum Den Haag N © Photograph: Gemeentemuseum Den Haag, Gerrit Rietveld © VG Bild-Kunst (Piet Mondrian, Bauhaus Book, vol. 5, 1925) and Basic Concepts of New Design Art (Theo van Doesburg, Bauhaus Book, vol. 6, 1925). From now on new art schools in Germany began to call G themselves Universities of Design (Hochschulen für Gestaltung), and in the English-speaking world they were Institutes of Design. A hundred years later, the situation has changed for art and art schools. The concepts of material 1923, reconstruction

and machine were key to the Bauhaus and its Leo Baron, Gertrud Herold on the roof of the Bauhaus building in Dessau, Edmund Collein, Construction draft made of glass, Preliminary design principles. Today, the art world is focusing Course with Josef Albers 1927 / 28 on the concepts of media and data. The decisive design instruments for links between art and technology are now data and codes. At the ZKM T. Lux Feininger, Eurythmics, 1927 this transformation is accompanied by exhibitions and our own productions. This is why the ZKM has also been called the “digital Bauhaus.” Peter Weibel Artistic-scientific chairman, CEO


Theo van Doesburg, Cornelius van Eesteren, Model for the Maison d’artiste, 1983, Plexiglas, polystyrene, sticky foil, wood, 60 × 60 × 60 cm, Gemeentemuseum Den Haag, © Photograph: Gemeentemuseum Den Haag

Karin Sander, XML-SVG CODE / source code of the exhibition space, 2010/2017, Oracal 638, plotter foil matte, 3-colours, view of the ZKM exhibition Open Codes © ZKM | Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe, Karin Sander © VG Bild-Kunst Photo: Jonas Zillus Iwao Yamawaki, Article on the photocollages of Kurt Kranz, Koga Journal, vol. 2, 1933 12,


Kurt Schmidt, Construction for fireworks, from the Stage Workshop, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Armchair MR 534,

Hin(rich) Bredendieck Berlin in Moholy-Nagy’s studio

1923 From the very beginning the Bauhaus wanted its work Industrial designer and teacher and in the Dorland advertising 9 June 1904 in Aurich / German agency under Herbert Bayer. to be seen outside Germany, not least in order to attract Empire – 1 September 1995 in In 1934 he designed furniture in students from all over the world. With this in mind, Roswell / USA Oldenburg with Hermann Gautel. After marrying the American in 1920 Walter Gropius wrote letters to Japan, Mexico, Bauhaus student Virginia Turkey, Brazil, Peru and Chile, praising the fact that Iwao Yamawaki, Article on the photocollages of Kurt Kranz, Koga Journal, Bredendieck was born into a vol. 2, 1933 12, Weisshaus (1904–88) he emi- the Bauhaus was known “beyond Germany’s borders” family of merchants with many grated to the USA in 1937. E children. He did an apprenticeship Gropius appointed him to the and that its “many artists from many countries (…) had as a carpenter and after gradu- Chicago New Bauhaus, where international renown.” Gropius’s endeavours were ating in 1922 he worked in a he headed the foundation furniture factory. He only briefly course and the wood and metals continued by his successor, Swiss architect Hannes attended the arts and crafts N F workshop. After the school was Meyer, who invited prospective students to come to academies in Stuttgart and closed, he worked as a designer the Bauhaus in several languages in the Bauhaus’s own . In April 1927 he regis- of furniture, wooden toys, machines, tered as a Bauhaus student, and special tools. In 1945 he magazine. In 1929 there were 140 German students L where he first studied under began to teach at the Chicago and 30 foreigners, from Poland, Russia, Lithuania, The C Albers, Kandinsky, Klee, and Institute of Design, at the same Moholy-Nagy. In 1928 he began time also designing DIY furniture Netherlands, the USA, Palestine, Turkey, Persia and to work in the metals workshop. together with Nathan Lerner. Japan. Weaver Gunta Stölzl later wrote: “The international O He managed the cooperation From 1952 to 1971 Bredendieck student body promoted cooperative learning among O with the Leipzig lamp company was the professor of industrial Körting & Mathiesen AG design at the Georgia Institute comrades.” Some of these students were to take the (Kandem), which massproduced of Technology in Atlanta. His Bauhaus idea around the world, participating in Bauhaus models. Bredendieck writing on the theory of design international architecture tenders and founding their own U A designed reading lamps for are documents of his focus on desks and bedsides, and also function and the appropriate use institutes. Examples are the Hungarian Sándor Bortnyk, for ceiling and household lamps of materials. who established the “Mühely” – the “little Bauhaus” – in (with Marianne Brandt). After Text: Astrid Volpert 1928 in Budapest, and Renshichirō Kawakita, cofounder T graduating in 1930 he worked in N 1932 of the Japanese “Institute for Life Design.” Walter Gropius, László Moholy-Nagy (editors) “International Architecture,” Bauhaus books, I 1, 1925 T N E

Bauhaus products also found their way around the G world right from the start. In 1922 there were sales R outlets in Vienna, Amsterdam, Leicester, and the USA, offering items from the Bauhaus workshops. The Bauhaus also showed its work in exhibitions all over S the world, including a presentation in 1922 with pictures by masters and students in Calcutta, together with contemporary Indian painters. In 1929 there was a touring exhibition of Bauhaus work, shown in Basel, , Breslau and other cities. In the same year works from the Bauhaus workshops were shown at the World’s Fair in Barcelona, and in 1930 there was a touring exhibition in the USA (Harvard, Cambridge and New York). In 1931 Hannes Meyer presented the first Bauhaus exhibition in Moscow, which focused on the years 1928–30, when he had been director. 1927


Many international artists and intellectuals also visited the Bauhaus, among them Solomon Guggenheim and Marcel Duchamp. Some of these guests came to hold lectures or teach, like the composers Béla Bartók and Henry Cowell, Sufi master Murschid Inayat Khan, or Naum Gabo and El Lissitzky. As these visits show, the Bauhaus was open to the world, with a crosscultural In the “Bauhaus books” published between 1925 and awareness that always shaped teaching and work, 1930, the Bauhaus was not only able to gain international and which was not restricted to a “cult of India” and artists and architects as authors. These books also “Americanism,” as Oskar Schlemmer noted in 1921. showcased the Bauhaus as a focal point for the vanguard of the avant-garde, as clearly seen in the 1923 portfolio “New European Prints, 4th Portfolio – Italian and Russian Walter Gropius, László Moholy-Nagy (editors), “Kasimir Malevich. The Objectless World,” Bauhaus books, Artists” and in the “Exhibition of International Architects” that was part of the Bauhaus Exhibition in the same year. When he became Bauhaus director in Dessau, Mies van der Rohe wrote a letter to America trying to acquire Joost Schmidt, Folder for the City of Dessau, “international” partner institutes with which the Bauhaus 1931 could cooperate across borders. Fritz Kuhr, Self-portrait, 1927

O. Z. Hanish, David Ammann, Masdasnan – Breathing Lessons,


Richard Oelze, Self-portrait with Girlfriend, 1922 / 23 T

E Unknown Photographer, Bauhaus members visiting Vchutein in Moscow with Peter Bücking, Gunta Stölzl, Arkadij Mordwinow, behind , 3rd from the right, 12.5.1928 Iwao Yamawaki Nakada (1888–70). In 1928 against the Dessau Bauhaus H (born as Iwao Fujita) he married Michiko Yamawaki was at its height, Iwao made his N It was the aura of a radical new start, Japanese photographer, (1910–2000), the heir of a rich collage The Attack on architect and university lecturer businessman. He agreed to the Bauhaus. Yamawaki taught particularly after the First World War, that Hannes Meyer, (editor), “study at the bauhaus!” bauhaus, journal for design, 2 / 3, 29 April 1898 in Nagasaki / Japan take on her family name, and in at the Tokyo Shinkenchiku kōgei people at the Bauhaus embraced from the E 1928 – 8 March 1987 in Tokyo / Japan return was able to fulfil his dream institute, known as the Japanese C of studying at the Bauhaus. In Bauhaus. He built his own outset, and that particularly attracted the autumn 1930 the Yamawakis house, drawing on Gropius’s young. They not only wanted to give a new Yamawaki studied at the Tokyo came to Dessau and took the master’s houses designs, filled School of Fine Arts (1921–26) foundation course with Josef it with furniture from Germany, shape to the world tomorrow, but also to their O and then gained professional Albers. In April 1931 Michiko such as Breuer’s Wassily own lives. Bauhaus members quickly got experience as an architect with joined the weaving workshop Armchair. In 1939 he designed a reputation for unconventionality, which the Yokogawa Construction and Iwao moved to study under interiors for the Japanese Company. At the same time, he included their bob hairstyles and the relaxed Oskar Schlemmer, Schematic overview of teaching in the subject “Man,” from bauhaus. journal for design 2 / 3, N Walter Peterhans. Yamawaki‘s Pavilion at the New York World’s The goal of work at the Bauhaus was to make contemporary U was working as a photographer photographs of the Bauhaus Fair. In 1954 and again in 1971 relations between men and women, and for Society for Architecture complex and also of buildings in Iwao and Michiko brought also the fact that some Bauhaus families products for a new and future generation. For art critic Adolf Research. He was also Berlin, Amsterdam and Moscow Bauhaus exhibitions to Japan. Behne, this was evident in the architecture of Walter Gropius’s interested in theatre. Together are in the style of the New In 1995 Michiko published her were living together without being married. E with Senda Koreya (1904–94) Seeing movement founded by book The Bauhaus and the Tea Bauhaus building: “Here in the new Dessau Bauhaus building N he founded the Ningyō-za and Moholy-Nagy. Yamawaki was a Ceremony. As early as May 1919, when the Bauhaus we see a striking and pure expression (…) of the fact that was a member of Tan ́i Sanka, close friend of Kurt Kranz, who Text: Astrid Volpert had only been open for just a few weeks, a new type of man and a new relationship to the world is both a group of avant-garde artists. introduced him to the techniques W There he met the Weimar of photomontage. In 1932, painter and Bauhaus master Lyonel Feininger the starting point and the aim of this new movement in T Bauhaus student Sadanosuke when radical right-wing intrigue wrote to his wife Julia: “What I have seen architecture. New materials, new forms of construction, and from the students thus far looks very self- new technologies are important and must be discussed, tried assured. Nearly all of them were soldiers out, and observed. But they are only a means to an end, and E during the war. This is a completely new kind the highest end is man himself.” of person. I think they all want to create something new in art and are no longer so M R timid and harmless.” And Oskar Schlemmer declared in 1921 “that the Bauhaus is ‘building’ in a very different sense than expected A S – building people. Gropius seems to be very aware of this, and he notes the weaknesses of the academies here, where educating N people to be people is neglected.” But what this new man might actually look like, and which values and capabilities he would have, was the subject of controversy throughout the entire Bauhaus period. Johannes Itten, for example, thought that breathing and physical exercises and a vegetarian diet must 1921 promote individual self-awareness, while Oskar Schlemmer focused on theatre, in which the relationship of every character to space was to be explored beyond the level of a “typical body.” There was also painting 1928 and photography, where abstraction, distortion and collage were leading to new images of humanity, and the “communist faction” of students in favour of a “world revolution” under director Hannes Meyer, who saw himself as a “scientific Marxist.” Unknown Photographer, Barbara Josephine Guggenheim, Wassily Kandinsky, Hilla von Rebay, Solomon R. Guggenheim in the garden of the Dessau masters’ houses settlement, 1929

Alfred Bischoff, Pi-o-Murshid Hazrat Inayat Khan in Jena, Johannes Itten, “Greeting and health to the hearts that are illuminated by the light of love and cannot be led astray by the hopes of a heaven or the fear of a hell. O.Z. Hanish,” original from the first Bauhaus portfolio, “Masters of the State Bauhauses in Weimar,” 1921 Lisbeth Oestreicher, Pattern for curtain material,




From the moment it was founded, the R E Bauhaus was criticised for its focus on 1926–31 mere experiment, for both masters and Grete Reichardt (attributed), Weaving sample, students – especially by conservatives I W in government and society. The whole Bauhaus was just one big experiment, Horacio Coppola then traveled to Buenos Aires. they said. While these critics wished to Graphic designer and In 1935 their work was M discredit the Bauhaus, experimentation photographer presented together by Sur, 31 July 1906 in Buenos a literary magazine for was in fact a very deliberate and Aires / Argentina – 18 June 2012 Argentinian intellectuals – the significant principle at the Bauhaus, in Buenos Aires / Argentina “first exhibition of modern E where it went far beyond teaching and photography in Argentina” (Luis M Priamo). Enjoying their success, theory. Bauhaus people were very Coppola was the son of Italian the Coppolas decided in 1936 to sure that the new approaches that they immigrants, and in the 1920s live in Buenos Aires, and they N he studied modern languages, were keenly looking for after the world opened an avantgarde studio A At the large Bauhaus Exhibition in 1923, photography, and film. He specializing in advertising. From war could only be explored in a spirit of the institution presented its experiments traveled through Europe, and in 1940 they lived in Ramos Mejía, Germany, in 1932 and 1933 he a village in Buenos Aires experimentation. This was not meant sat in on a Bauhaus class given T in a very diverse overview, including province. Their Bauhaus-style as scientific experiment, but as a free a built “experimental house” that was by Walter Peterhans, thanks to house became a meeting place N the recommendation of Grete and playful testing of ideas, as all the a technological, ecological and living for Argentinians and emigrant students in the Foundation Course Stern. His most important work opponents of the war. Together experiment all at the same time, and done there consisted of eighteen they documented indigenous were to discover. But because experi- the “Reflectory Light Games” by the architectural studies in a ceramics for the La Plata mentation frequently led to very geometrical and rational style. anthropology museum. In 1943 students Ludwig Hirschfeld-Mack and In Berlin Coppola and Walter they separated. Horacio practical problems in the teaching of Kurt Schwerdtfeger. Auerbach together made the returned to Buenos Aires. In the specific skills in the workshops, in late experimental filmDream (1933). 1960s and 1970s, he discovered 1921 Gropius planned a specific space When the Bauhaus moved to Dessau He met Auerbach’s sister Ellen color photography. In 1984 1923 and her friend Grete Stern the retrospective show My Herbert Bayer, The Model Bauhaus Man, in 1925, the workshops were renamed dedicated to experimenting, “since it (1904–99). Both were Jews and Photography presented more is practically very difficult to unite both “laboratory workshops,” and the use of both briefly attended the Bauhaus, than fifty years of work. It took purely experimental work and the lower case in all letters, brochures and they ran the ringl+pit photo place in a on and the Bauhaus’s own magazine was studio. When Stern fled the Plaza Dorrego, where Coppola implementation of real works in one Nazis to Paris in 1935 and then had once begun to take photos and the same workshop.” introduced – a decision which was heavily moved on to London, Coppola of amateur painters and tango criticised in bourgeois circles. This followed her. His 16 mm films dancers. Asked about the future then gave Gropius good reason to about both capital cities, Les of photography, Coppola Quais de la Seine and A Sunday answered, “There isn’t much again note the principally experimental in Hampstead Heath, focus equipment needed … The mind Grit Kallin-Fischer, she returned to Germany in herself as an emancipated character of the Bauhaus: “the bauhaus on the dynamics of light and and the eye are what matter.” nee Margit Vries 1926, she was divorced. Wishing woman. From 1928 to 1934 is primarily an experimental institute for movement. Auerbach and Text: Astrid Volpert Painter, graphic designer, to gain further education, she she was back in Berlin, taking Coppola married in London and sculptor went to the Dessau Bauhaus photos for the Gebrauchsgrafik the whole country, in all fields of design. and by 1928 she had finished the magazine. In 1931 she took 26 April 1896 in Frankfurt am it is also not only our right but certainly foundation course and studied in part in the Foreign Advertising Main / – the metal and stage workshops. Photography exhibition in New our duty to continue to test things that 17 July 1973 in Newtown / USA Together with the dancer Manda York. In Dessau, she met the have not yet been tested.” von Kreibig (1901–89) and American Bauhaus student Grit’s Bauhaus period was a Oskar Schlemmer she designed Edward L. Fischer (1903–88). In short interlude during which she stage costumes and sets. She 1934 they married and moved In Dessau Marcel Breuer experimented with furniture made of curved steel managed to write history – with had a very striking talent for to New York. From 1937 they piping, while Oskar Schlemmer finally had a dedicated “experimental theatre” in just the few works she created. photography. In the style of New lived in their own house that had the Bauhaus building. Then there was photography – in no other field was there She grew up in Belgian boarding Seeing she took photo portraits been designed by Gropius and Oskar Schlemmer, Seated figure, Figure “S”, 1923 schools, and in 1911 she took of Bauhaus fellow students and Breuer. In 1947 Grit was back so much experimentation outside of class than with the camera and film devel- painting lessons with Karl teachers, using fragmented in Europe, and in Zurich and oping techniques, particularly thanks to the use of the compact camera. Werner Doerbecker in Marburg. From pictorial spaces. She also Milan she refreshed her interest David Feist, who began his studies at the Bauhaus in 1927, looked back: 1915 to 1917 she studied with made self-portraits with their in sculptural forms in art, and . In 1918–19 she own special form and energy, worked on projects with the “Experimenting, testing the limits, breaking rules and regulations, discovering endeavored to gain contact with in which she depicted herself sculptors Hermann Hubacher new fields – this was the overarching spirit at the Bauhaus.” Berlin artist’s circles, and in 1920 as a solitary figure isolated and Mario Marini. she married the Russian Jewish from the outside world. Within Text: Astrid Volpert musician and emigrant Marik a perfect setting consisting of Kallin, and both moved to live clothing, location, and a cool with his family in London. When melancholy, she symbolized Chronology top images 16. Adolf Hofmeister, Karikatur von Hannes 10. Herbert Bayer, Notgeldscheine, 1923, 1. Louis Held, Henry van de Velde in seinem Meyer, 1930. Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Foto: Andreas Körner. Institut für Arbeitsraum der Weimar, Archiv der Moderne Auslandsbeziehungen / © VG Bild-Kunst, um 1906. © Fotoatelier Louis Held, Stefan 17. Iwao Yamawaki, Der Schlag gegen das Bonn 2018 Renno, Weimar. Bauhaus, 1932. © Yamawaki Iwao & Michiko 11. Titelbild der Zeitschrift „Das neue 2. Louis Held, Großherzoglich Sächsische Archives Frankfurt“, 1. Jahrgang, 1926 / 1927, Heft 2, Hochschule für bildende Kunst Weimar, von 18. Leben am Bauhaus Berlin: Der Thema: Mechanisierung des Wohnungsbaus/ 1919–1925 Staatliches Bauhaus Weimar, um Studierende Ernst Louis Beck vor dem Der Weg vom Ziegelmauerwerk zum 1906. Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin Eingang der umgebauten Telefonfabrik, Frankfurter Montageverfahren, Baustelle mit 3. Lyonel Feininger, Titelholzschnitt 1932–1933, Foto: Unbekannt. Bauhaus-Archiv vorgefertigten Elementen, ca. 1927, Foto: „Kathedrale“, Manifest des Staatlichen Berlin Unbekannt. © Institut für Stadtgeschichte Bauhauses in Weimar, 1919. © VG Bild-Kunst, 19. Josef Albers beim Unterrichten am Frankfurt am Main, S7A1998_24299 Bonn 2018 Bauhaus Dessau: Besprechung einer 12. Willi Baumeister, Plakat „Wie wohnen?“ 4. Karl Peter Röhl, Entwurf zum Signet Ausstellung dreidimensionaler Vorkurs- für die Werkbund-Ausstellung „Die Wohnung“, „Staatliches Bauhaus Weimar“, 1919–1921. arbeiten in Papier mit Studierenden, um 1928, Stuttgart, 1927. (CC) BY-NC-SA Willi Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin / © Karl-Peter-Röhl- Foto: Umbo (Otto Umbehr). © The Albers Baumeister Stiftung Stiftung, Weimar Foundation / Art Resource, NY / VG Bild- 13. Werbeblatt für die Werkbund-Ausstellung 5. Walter Gropius, Adolf Meyer und andere Kunst, Bonn 2018 „Film und Foto“, Stuttgart, 1929, unter Bauhaus-Studierende, Haus Sommerfeld, 20. Signet des „new bauhaus, American Verwendung einer Fotografie von László Berlin, 1920 / 1921. © VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2018 School of Design“, Chicago, 1937. Bauhaus- Moholy-Nagy, 1929. © bpk / Kunstbibliothek, 6. Postkarte von Theo van Doesburg an Archiv Berlin SMB / Dietmar Katz 14. Ausstellungsansicht „Modern Architecture: Image Credits Antony Kok, 12. September 1921, Foto: Van-Doesburg-Archiv. © Van-Doesburg- International Exhibition“, Museum of Modern Archiv, Amsterdam, Rijkswijk Chronology bottom images Art, New York, 10. Februar bis 23. März 1932, The Total Work of Art 7. Oskar Schlemmer, Signet „Staatliches 1. Wanda von Debschitz-Kunowski, Metallwerk- Foto: The Museum of Modern Art Archives. © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Bauhaus Weimar“ als Stempelabdruck, 1922. statt der Debschitz-Schule, München, um 1905. © The Museum of Modern Art, New York / © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie, © Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin © Münchner Stadtmuseum, Sammlung Foto- Scala, Florence VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 8. Joost Schmidt, Plakat zur Bauhaus- grafie 15. Ausstellung „Entartete Kunst“ im Galerie- gebäude am Münchener Hofgarten, 1937, © Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Archiv Ausstellung in Weimar, 1923, Foto: Markus 2. Hölzel und seine Stuttgarter Schüler, v.l.n.r.: Foto: Unbekannt. © bpk / Zentralarchiv, SMB der Moderne Hawlik. Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin / © VG Bild- Wickenburg, Kerkovius, unbekannt, Kinzinger, Marcel Breuer, Chair B5, 16. Alfred H. Barr, Katalog der Ausstellung © Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Archiv Kunst, Bonn 2018 Stenner, Hölzel, Hildebrandt, Baumeister, „Cubism and Abstract Art“ am Museum of der Moderne 9. Joost Schmidt, Prospekt der Stadt Dessau, Schlemmer, Eberhard, 1914, Foto: Unbekannt. Modern Art, New York, 2. März bis 19. April © Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Archiv 1931. Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau / © Adolf Hölzel-Stiftung, Stuttgart 1936. © The Museum of Modern Art Library, der Moderne © VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2018 3. Fritz Helmuth Ehmcke, Plakat anlässlich der New York 1926 © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie 10. Oskar Schlemmer, Signet „Das Bauhaus in Ausstellung „Deutsche Werkbund Ausstellung“ © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie, Dessau“ als Stempelabdruck auf dem Vorsatz in Coeln, 1914. © bpk / Kunstbibliothek, SMB VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 des Buches: Heinrich Hauser, Die letzten 4. Herwarth Walden vor seiner Portätbüste Segelschiffe, S.Fischer Verlag, Berlin, um von William Wauer, um 1918, Foto: Art, Crafts, Technology 1931. © Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin Unbekannt. © bpk / Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin 11. Die Meister auf dem Dach des Bauhauses: 5. Bettelnder, einbeiniger Kriegsversehrter © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie, Josef Albers, Hinnerk Scheper, Georg Muche, in Uniform mit Orden, Berlin, 1923, VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 László Moholy-Nagy, Herbert Bayer, Joost Foto: Unbekannt. © Bundesarchiv, Bild 146- © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Schmidt, Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer, 1972-062-01 © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Lyonel 6. Hermann Max Pechstein, Flugblatt Arbeits- © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie, Feininger, Gunta Stölzl und Oskar Schlemmer, rat für Kunst Berlin, 1919. © Max Pechstein VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 1926, Foto: Lucia Moholy. Bauhaus- Urheberrechtsgemeinschaft © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Universität Weimar, Archiv der Moderne / 7. Eröffnungssitzung der verfassungs- © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie © VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2018 gebenden Deutschen Nationalversammlung © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie, 12. Bauhausgebäude in Dessau, 1926 / 1927, im Deutschen National­theater in Weimar E Hubert Hoffmann Third Reich’s motorway building VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 Foto: Junkers-Luftbildaufnahmen. Institut für am 6. Februar 1919, am Rednerpult Friedrich Auslandsbeziehungen Ebert, 1919, Zeichnung: Hans W. Schmidt. Urban planner and architect programme. He was called back Responsible Radical Pedagogy 13. Marianne Brandt, „Palucca tanzt“, 1929. © Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin 23 March 1904 in Berlin / German from military service in northern Dr. Ellen Strittmatter Staatliche Kunstsammlungen / 8. Wladimir Tatlin, Modell des Denkmals Empire – 25 September 1999 in France, and then became a © Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau © VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2018 für die Dritte Internationale, 1920, Foto: X Graz / Austria surveyor and planner in occupied © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Artistic Director Lithuania (1942–44), and then at © Sammlung Bernd Freese 14. Oskar Schlemmer, Manda von Kreibig in Unbekannt. © Moderna Museet, Stockholm Dr. Valerie Hammerbacher the German Academy for Reich Stäbetanz II, Bauhausbühne, 1927, 9. El Lissitzky, Internationaler Kongress der © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie When Hoffmann came down to and Urban Construction in Berlin Foto: Unbekannt. Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin Konstruktivisten und Dadaisten, Weimar, © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Project Management the Dessau Bauhaus from Berlin (1944–45). At the end of the war, 15. Hannes Mayer, Hans Wittwer und 1922. © Foundation Khardzhiev / Stedelijk © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Dr. Clea Laade P for the winter semester 1926–27, Hermann Bunzel, Bundesschule Bernau, Blick Museum Amsterdam he was taken prisoner by US he had already completed forces. Thereafter he became auf den Wohnflügel der ADGB, 1931, Foto: Community Scientific Research apprenticeships in farming and an urban planner in Magdeburg, Arthur Redecker. Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin / Laura Wünsche in bricklaying and attended a until the liberal politician Fritz © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie © Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau Lara Eva Sochor E building school, an arts and , a former promoter of the © Klassik Stiftung Weimar Elena Kaifel crafts school and the Technical Bauhaus who had been re- © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Stefanie Bürgel University of Hanover. To summer appointed as city mayor, brought © Galerie Kicken 1929 and again from 1930 to him back to Dessau. Hoffmann © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie R 1932 as a guest, Hoffmann was asked to organise the © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie studied under all three Bauhaus reestablishment of the Bauhaus, © Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Archiv Exhibition directors. He carried out his but was then caught up in the der Moderne experiments in the carpentry and turmoil of the post-Nazi appraisal © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Curator of the touring exhibition I advertising workshops and in the of the past. He was denounced © Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Archiv The Whole World a Bauhaus: construction department. He as a collaborator, and then der Moderne Boris Friedewald gained his first business practice returned disappointed back to with Fred Forbat in Berlin in West Berlin. From 1953 to 1958 Floating Curators of the contributions from the 1930. At this time, he was in he worked as a freelance © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie, regions at the exhibition at the Center M contact with a group of left-wing architect in Bonn and Berlin, and VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 for Art and Media Karlsruhe: Bauhaus people and designed was co-initiator of Interbau and © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Prof. Dr. Enrique X. de Anda Alanís: the Proletarian Building The Whole World a Bauhaus the exhibition The City of © Harvard Art Museums / Busch-Reisinger Mexico City, Mexico Exhibition in 1931. When the Tomorrow. From 1959 to 1975 Museum, Gift of the Baron-Baum Family, 2007.115 Silvia Fernández: Buenos Aires, E Nazis came to power in 1933, he Hoffmann was the professor of an exhibition by ifa (Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen) Stuttgart, Germany. Argentina © Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau was interred in a penal camp. www.ifa.de urban planning and design at © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie, Prof. Dr. Margret Kentgens-Craig: Thereafter he was unable to find the Technical University of Estate of T. Lux Feininger Bauhaus Reception in the much work until the Reich Graz / Steiermark. His Austrian USA, 1919–39 N Chamber of Culture managed to years were characterised by © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie, Dr. Alexander Klee: Stuttgart, Germany prevent him from being prohibited making connections between art VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 Salma Lahlou: Casablanca, Morocco from working at all. and life, and also his © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie ifa (Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen) promotes worldwide cultural exchange to assist David Maulen: Santiago de Chile, Chile From 1934 to 1936 he was an functionalism with its basis in © Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau, VG Bild-Kunst, peoples, nations and religions in learning from one another and living together peacefully. PD Dr. Christiane Post: Moscow, T assistant at the Berlin Technical anthroposophical thought. Bonn 2019 We promote art and cultural exchange in exhibitions, dialogue and conference programs. Russia As a competence centre for international cultural relations, ifa connects civil societies, University and worked on the Text: Astrid Volpert Curator of the contribution by Encounters cultural practices, art, media and science. We initiate, moderate and document discussions ZKM | Center for Art and Media for the © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie on international cultural relations. exhibition at ZKM | Karlsruhe: © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Prof. Dr. h. c. mult. Peter Weibel © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie, VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019, Scenography / Architecture © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie, Studio Ilke Penzlien with VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 Peter Kortmann © Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Archiv der Moderne The exhibition “The Whole World a Bauhaus” is supported by Ministerium für Kunst, and Robert Müller © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Wissenschaft und Forschung Baden-Württemberg and and by the Federal Foreign Office. © Centre G. Pompidou / Bibliothèque Kandinsky Technical Advice © Nekbakht Foundation, Suresnes Martin Edelmann

The New Man Graphic Design Hubert Hoffmann, “boltless shelf,” 1930 © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie HIT dismountable book shelf, prototype, detail, © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie, Exhibition Première in Germany VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 Chronology und Diagram © Hermann Famulla (Nachlass Fritz Kuhr) Nicole Opel The Whole World a Bauhaus © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie October 26, 2019 – February 16, 2020 © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie, Texts ZKM | Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 Boris Friedewald © Harvard Art Museums / Busch-Reisinger Museum, VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 Biographies © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Astrid Volpert Boris Friedewald Artistic-scientific chairman, CEO Experiment Prof. Dr. h.c. mult. Peter Weibel Translation © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Dr. Greg Bond, English © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Head of Curatorial Department Pedro Gallegos, Spanish © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Philipp Ziegler © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Photography © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Project Management Andreas Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie © Photo: ifa, A. Körner, bildhübsche Fotografie Hannah-Maria Winters Sound Technician Technical Project Management Levi Harrison Anne Däuper Studio Tongoetze

kindly supported by Voice Acting Ingrid L. Blecha Gesellschaft m.b.H., Filmolux Deutschland GmbH, Dagmar Harrold, Levi Harrison, English KPM Königliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Berlin GmbH, Christopher Farr, Mevaco GmbH, Mario Pitz, German Tecnolumen GmbH & Co. KG, Naef Spiele AG, Dringenberg GmbH Davorin Strauss, German Annette von der Seipen, German

Copyright Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen e. V. (ifa), the artists and authors The Spirit of the Bauhaus (1993–74). ifa (Institut für Auslands- moved from the two-dimensional beziehungen) organised a successful space of the painting and walked tour for this exhibition in 1968. ifa on stage; with experiments with pho- The Bauhaus was only in existence sent this exhibition to various tography and film; with text and font for a few years. But in these years, museums around the world; it was designs that challenged established and then especially the years after shown in 1969 in Chicago, 1970 in reading habits; with applied art that the Bauhaus was closed down, this Buenos Aires, and 1971 in Tokyo. was seen as equal to the fine arts; art school became a symbol of The aim of this ifa exhibition is and with teaching methods that were modernism. Bauhaus influence and clearly stated in its title. 50 Years to become exemplary for schools reception were at their greatest in of the bauhaus defines a period of all around the world. Artists working the 1960s. Archives were established time much longer than the actual at the Bauhaus had very different and modernism was celebrated existence of the school itself, which approaches to design, and also in many large exhibitions. At a time continued to be alive and well different political views. Modernism when designers and artists were decades after its closure. There is was visible here in many forms, and turning away from the avant-garde, a Bauhaus spirit here too, asserting fundamental questions were asked the Bauhaus was reborn in the a certain philosophy (not dependent concerning the connections between systems of remembrance in museums. on specific objects) all over the art and life, social relevance, and world. This exhibition, financed by the design of contemporary life. No other institution has succeeded the state of Baden-Württemberg and in turning the everyday work of The exhibition title also stands for a the German Foreign Office, also had teaching into a way of life in a way research task for experts in various a cultural and political agenda: to comparable to the Bauhaus. Today regions. The Whole World a show the Bauhaus as an exemplary the Bauhaus stands for a state of Bauhaus? shows case studies from free and democratic German mind: avant-garde, free, progressive, Buenos Aires, Casablanca, Mexico community in the times of the Cold and modern in the social, political City, Moscow, Santiago de Chile, War and the conflict between East and artistic senses. The Bauhaus the USA as well as Karlsruhe and and West – even if this community has become a symbol. In spite of Stuttgart. The focus was not on the was historical. The Bauhaus idea all the criticism of its functional emigrants from the Bauhaus after was a model that could be applied approach that began to be voiced it was closed down in 1933, but the all over the world, independent in the 1960s, Bauhaus modernism spread and use of Bauhaus ideas of one institution and timeless.3 is still a significant point of reference. and transcultural contexts in the The 50 Years of the bauhaus exhi- It has been reassessed, and yet 1920s. In 1925 the Chilean artist, bition made it possible to report returned to the fore as a counter to composer and musician Carlos on an artistic avant-garde, and also post-modernism. Art historian and Isamitt (1887–1974) came to Europe to take a closer look at the Weimar director of Documenta 12 Roger in order to study teaching, and he Republic years, seen as shaping M Bürgel found a precise formulation then implemented the methods when the context within which the Bauhaus for this contradictory state of affairs he founded the Escuela de Bellas was possible. This was an age in one of his key questions. One Artes in Santiago de Chile. Even that was open for and of the themes of the Documenta the thistle drawn by students in freedom and a positive point of was: “Is modernity our antiquity?” Johannes Itten’s preliminary course reference for the culture of memory was integrated into teaching there, On the occasion of the hundredth in contemporary . but no longer as a synesthetic study. anniversary of the foundation of The Bauhaus was a place where Instead the aim was to use it as the Bauhaus, in 2019, we ask what earlier advocates of democracy an abstract pattern with indigenous makes the Bauhaus relevant today. worked, and its activities were forms. The spirit of the Bauhaus Argentinian architect Tomás abruptly brought to an end by the provided the impetus, but it was Maldonado (born 1922, Buenos Nazi dictatorship.3 transformed into something else. Aires), teacher and director of the In 1969, one year after the exhibition Ulm School of Design (1955–67), A project of this kind can only be premiered in Stuttgart, Wingler’s answered this question as follows: undertaken by many people working Bauhaus Archive association “The Bauhaus is only accepted in a together. We would like to thank received an offer of finance from the superficial and restorative sense. (…) the artistic director of the exhibition city of Berlin, including the building Essentially, this is just a false flower, Valérie Hammerbacher (ifa), and of new premises and a move from an attempt to canonise the Bauhaus, and the curator of the touring exhi- Darmstadt to Berlin. Walter Gropius or – better – to archaeologise it, bition Boris Friedewald as well designed the new building, which to transform the Bauhaus into a as the curators of the case studies was then built – with considerable relic that is only brought out for Enrique X. de Anda Alanís, Silvia alterations to Gropius’s design – high ceremonies. A cult object that Fernández, Margret Kentgens-Craig, between 1976 and 1979. The Bauhaus sometimes fulfils the functions of Alexander Klee, Salma Lahlou, supporters thus established an insti- a totem and sometimes of a taboo.” David Maulen, Christiane Post and tution that to this day works to keep His text, entitled “Is the Bauhaus Peter Weibel. We also thank Ilke the memory of the Bauhaus alive, relevant today?” was published in Penzlien, Peter Kortmann, Lina in both academic circles and for 1963, at a time when the reception Grumm and Annette Lux for the exhi- a general public. of the Bauhaus had reached a bition design. We thank Peter Weibel, peak. In 1960 the Bauhaus Archive From the 1960s, information on the Philipp Ziegler and Hannah-Maria was founded in Darmstadt by art Bauhaus, and its artists and products Winters for the opportunity to present historian Hans Maria Wingler (1920– was collected, researched, and the exhibition at the Center for Art 84), who directed it until his death then brought into the depots of mu- and Media in Karlsruhe. We all hope in 1984. The aim of the archive was seums, and at the same time a new that exhibition visitors will experience to conduct research on the Bauhaus generation of designers was becoming the spirit of the Bauhaus together and to publish results. Through more critical. With remembering with us in this exhibition – “in pro- texts, catalogues and exhibitions the the Bauhaus at a peak, the Bauhaus ductive disunity,” as painter Josef memory of the Bauhaus was kept approach was subjected to funda- Albers once described the Bauhaus alive, securing it a place in the present. mental critique. Functionalism and community of masters in 1922. On the opening of the archive, the its advocacy of the separation of Stuttgarter Zeitung wrote: “If you will, working and living environments was 1 Richard Biedrzynski: “Bauhaus. you can refer everything back to the in crisis. Classical modernism, which Ulrich Raulff Zur Eröffnung des Darmstädter Bauhaus, and let it shine out into the saw itself as a new and timeless President Archivs auf der Mathildenhöhe,” in Stuttgarter Zeitung, 10.04.1961. future from there.” 1 Under Wingler, movement, was considered blind to ifa (Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen) the archive saw itself as the memory history. Universalism assumed that 2 Walter Gropius: “I back him up of the institution, with the task of the achievements of progressive through thick and thin because he opened his ears to all my advice, reflecting on its significance for architecture could be implemented Ronald Grätz and I hope he will go on doing the present day. Documents were anywhere in the world, but this General Secretary this,” cited from Claudia Heitmann, Die Bauhaus-Rezeption in der collected, ordered and administered, view was now challenged. How ifa (Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen) Bundesrepublik Deutschland. and the network of the Bauhaus international is an international style Etappen und Institutionen, Trier teachers and students who were and to what extent can Bauhaus 2001, p. 49. 4 still living was nurtured. Hans Maria ideas be transferred to other ? 3 Claudia Heitmann (see note 2), Wingler and Walter Gropius, with “Die Ausstellung 50 Jahre This is the context that underlies whom Wingler worked very closely, Bauhaus – Kulminationspunkt our own view of the Bauhaus today. der bundesdeutschen Rezeption,” were instrumental in shaping the The exhibition The Whole World a pp. 224–238. contemporary image and discourse Bauhaus intends to once again draw of the Bauhaus.2 4 Dazu: Rasheed Araeen, “Our attention to the Bauhaus school, Bauhaus others’ Mudhouse,” in and to show both its diversity and Third Text. Critical Perspectives on Wingler also organised the 50 Years Contemporary Art and Culture, 6, of the bauhaus exhibition, together complexity. In just a few years, the vol. 3, London, 1989, pp. 3–14. See with former Bauhaus teacher Bauhaus attracted designers and also the exhibition Magiciens de la Terre, 18 May 1989 – 14 August Herbert Bayer (1900–85), exhibition artists who revolutionised the first 1989, Centre Georges Pompidou, designer Dieter Honisch (born 1932), half of the twentieth century – with Paris, and also the polemic text and art historian Ludwig Grote abstract painting and figurines that by Tom Wolfe, From Bauhaus to Our House, New York, 1981.