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Outline of natural

The following outline is provided as an overview of and study biological phenomena (organic , for topical guide to : example). Natural science – a major branch of science that tries to explain, and predict, ’s phenomena based on 2.1.1 . In natural science, must be verified scientifically to be regarded as scientific the- • • Physics – physical science that studies ory. , accuracy, and social mechanisms ensur- and its through space-time, and related ing control, such as and repeatabil- concepts such as energy and ity of findings, are amongst the criteria and methods used • – study of mechanical waves in for this purpose. Natural science can be broken into 2 solids, liquids, and (such as vibra- main branches: life science, and physical science. Each tion and sound) of these branches, and all of their sub-branches, are re- • ferred to as natural . Agrophysics – study of physics applied to agroecosystems • physics – study of soil physical 1 What type of thing is natural sci- and processes. • – study of the physical as- ence? pects of celestial objects • – studies the beyond Natural science can be described as all of the following: , including its formation and de- velopment, and the , physics, • Branch of science – systematic enterprise that builds chemistry, , and motion of and organizes knowledge in the form of testable ex- celestial objects (such as galaxies, plan- planations and predictions about the universe.[1][2][3] ets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the (such as • Major category of academic disciplines – an aca- the cosmic background radiation). demic discipline is focused study in one academic • Astrodynamics – application of bal- field or . A discipline incorporates ex- listics and celestial to the pertise, people, projects, communities, challenges, practical problems concerning the studies, inquiry, and areas that are strongly motion of rockets and other space- associated with academic areas of study or areas of craft. professional practice. For example, the branches of • Astrometry – branch of astronomy science are commonly referred to as the scientific that involves precise disciplines. For instance, Gravitation is strongly as- of the positions and movements of sociated with the discipline of physics, and is con- and other celestial bodies. sidered to be part of that disciplinary knowledge. • Cosmology – discipline that deals with the nature of the Universe as a whole. 2 Branches of natural science • Extragalactic astronomy – branch of astronomy concerned with objects 2.1 Physical science outside our own Milky Way Galaxy • Galactic astronomy – study of our • Physical science – branch of natural science that own Milky Way galaxy and all its studies non-living , in contrast to the biolog- contents. ical sciences. It in turn has many branches, each re- • – study of the ferred to as a “physical science”, together called the largest-scale structures and dynamics “physical sciences”. However, the term “physical” of the universe and is concerned with creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinc- fundamental questions about its for- tion, since many branches of physical science also mation and evolution.

1 2 2 BRANCHES OF NATURAL SCIENCE

• Planetary science – scientific study • – application of of planets (including Earth), , to problems in physics and and planetary systems, in particular the development of mathematical meth- those of the Solar and the ods for such applications and for the for- processes that form them. mulation of physical . • Stellar astronomy – natural science • Mechanics – branch of physics concerned that deals with the study of celes- with the behavior of physical bodies when tial objects (such as stars, planets, subjected to or displacements, and comets, nebulae, clusters and the subsequent effects of the bodies on galaxies) and phenomena that origi- their environment. nate outside the atmosphere of Earth • Biomechanics – study of the struc- (such as cosmic background radia- ture and function of biological tion) systems such as , , • – study of the appli- , organs, and cells by means of cation of physics to the atmosphere the methods of mechanics. • • Atomic, molecular, and optical physics – – one of the two study of how matter and light interact major sub-fields of mechanics, which is concerned with the set of physical • – study of physical processes laws describing the motion of bod- relating to ies under the action of a system of • – application of forces. physics concepts, theories and meth- • – branch of ods to . mechanics that deals with the analy- • Neurophysics – branch of biophysics sis of the kinematics and the mechan- dealing with the nervous system. ical behavior of materials modeled as • – branch of physics that a continuous mass rather than as dis- studies chemical processes from the point crete particles. of view of physics. • Fluid mechanics – study of fluids and • – study and im- the forces on them. plementation of numerical algorithms to • – branch of solve problems in physics for which a physics dealing with physical phe- quantitative already exists. nomena where the action is on the or- • – study of the der of the Planck constant. physical properties of condensed phases • – branch of physi- of matter. cal science concerned with heat and its relation to other forms of energy • Cryogenics – cryogenics is the study of and work. the production of very low • (below −150 °C, −238 °F or 123K) and – field of physics that the behavior of materials at those temper- studies the building blocks and interac- atures. tions of atomic nuclei. • – branch of physics which involves • Dynamics – study of the causes of motion the behavior and properties of light, in- and changes in motion cluding its interactions with matter and • Econophysics – interdisciplinary research the construction of instruments that use field, applying theories and methods orig- or detect it. inally developed by physicists in order to • – branch of physics that solve problems in studies the existence and interactions of • – branch of science particles that are the constituents of what concerned with the forces that occur be- is usually referred to as matter or radia- tween electrically charged particles. tion. • – the physics of the Earth and • Psychophysics – quantitatively investi- its environment in space; also the study gates the relationship between physical of the Earth using quantitative physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions methods they affect. • Materials physics – use of physics to de- • physics – similar scribe materials in many different ways to in which a certain portion of the such as force, heat, light and mechanics. particles are ionized. 2.1 Physical science 3

• Polymer physics – field of physics that not limited to, living matter. Biochem- studies polymers, their fluctuations, me- istry governs all living and liv- chanical properties, as well as the ki- ing processes. netics of reactions involving degrada- • Agrochemistry – study of both chem- tion and polymerisation of polymers and istry and which are im- monomers respectively. portant in agricultural production, • Quantum physics – branch of physics the processing of raw products into dealing with physical phenomena where foods and beverages, and in environ- the action is on the order of the Planck mental monitoring and remediation. constant. • Bioinorganic chemistry – examines • Relativity – the role of in biology. • – branch of mechanics con- • Bioorganic chemistry – rapidly grow- cerned with the analysis of loads (force, ing scientific discipline that com- torque/moment) on physical systems in bines and bio- static equilibrium, that is, in a state where chemistry. the relative positions of subsystems do not • Biophysical chemistry – new branch vary over time, or where components and of chemistry that covers a broad structures are at a constant velocity. spectrum of research activities in- • Solid state physics – study of rigid matter, volving biological systems. or solids, through methods such as quan- • Environmental chemistry – scientific tum mechanics, crystallography, electro- study of the chemical and biochemi- , and . cal phenomena that occur in natural • Vehicle dynamics – dynamics of vehicles, places. here assumed to be ground vehicles. • Immunochemistry – branch of chem- istry that involves the study of the re- actions and components on the im- 2.1.2 Chemistry mune system. • Medicinal chemistry – discipline at • • Chemistry – physical science of atomic mat- the intersection of chemistry, espe- ter (matter that is composed of chemical el- cially synthetic organic chemistry, ements), especially its chemical reactions, but and pharmacology and various other also including its properties, structure, compo- biological specialties, where they are sition, behavior, and changes as they relate the involved with , chemical syn- chemical reactions thesis and development for market of • Analytical chemistry – study of the sep- pharmaceutical agents (drugs). aration, identification, and quantification • Pharmacology – branch of medicine of the chemical components of natural and biology concerned with the study and artificial materials. of drug action. • – study of the abundance • Natural product chemistry – chemi- and reactions of chemical elements and cal compound or substance produced in the universe, and their inter- by a living – found in nature action with radiation. that usually has a pharmacological or • Cosmochemistry – study of the biological activity for use in pharma- chemical composition of matter in ceutical drug discovery and drug de- the universe and the processes that sign. led to those compositions • Neurochemistry – specific study of • Atmospheric chemistry – branch of atmo- neurochemicals, which include neu- spheric science in which the chemistry of rotransmitters and other molecules the Earth’s atmosphere and that of other such as neuro-active drugs that influ- planets is studied. It is a multidisciplinary ence neuron function. field of research and draws on environ- • Computational chemistry – branch of mental chemistry, physics, meteorology, chemistry that uses principles of com- computer modeling, , geol- puter science to assist in solving chemical ogy and volcanology and other disciplines problems. • Biochemistry – study of chemical pro- • Chemo-informatics – use of com- cesses in living organisms, including, but puter and informational techniques, 4 2 BRANCHES OF NATURAL SCIENCE

applied to a range of problems in the • Petrochemistry – branch of chem- field of chemistry. istry that studies the transformation • Molecular mechanics – uses Newto- of crude oil () and natural nian mechanics to model molecular gas into useful products or raw mate- systems. rials. • Flavor chemistry – someone who uses • Organometallic chemistry – study of chemistry to engineer artificial and natu- chemical compounds containing bonds ral flavors. between carbon and a . • Flow chemistry – is run • Photochemistry – study of chemical reac- in a continuously flowing stream rather tions that proceed with the absorption of than in batch production. light by or molecules.. • – study of the mechanisms • Physical chemistry – study of macro- behind major geological systems using scopic, atomic, subatomic, and particu- chemistry late phenomena in chemical systems in • Aqueous geochemistry – study of terms of physical laws and concepts. the role of various elements in wa- • Chemical – the study of rates tersheds, including copper, sulfur, of chemical processes. mercury, and how elemental fluxes • Chemical thermodynamics – study of are exchanged through atmospheric- the interrelation of heat and work terrestrial-aquatic interactions with chemical reactions or with phys- • Isotope geochemistry – study of the ical changes of state within the con- relative and absolute fines of the laws of thermodynamics. of the elements and their isotopes us- • Electrochemistry – branch of chem- ing chemistry and istry that studies chemical reactions • Ocean chemistry – studies the chem- which take place in a solution at istry of marine environments includ- the interface of an conduc- ing the influences of different vari- tor (a metal or a semiconductor) and ables. an ionic conductor (the electrolyte), • Organic geochemistry – study of the and which involve electron transfer impacts and processes that organisms between the electrode and the elec- have had on Earth trolyte or in solution. • Regional, environmental and explo- • Femtochemistry – Femtochemistry ration geochemistry – study of the is the science that studies chem- spatial variation in the chemical com- ical reactions on extremely short position of materials at the surface of timescales, approximately 10−15 sec- the Earth onds (one femtosecond, hence the • Inorganic chemistry – branch of chem- name). istry concerned with the properties and • Mathematical chemistry – area of re- behavior of inorganic compounds. search engaged in novel applications • Nuclear chemistry – subfield of chemistry of mathematics to chemistry; it con- dealing with radioactivity, nuclear pro- cerns itself principally with the math- cesses and nuclear properties. ematical modeling of chemical phe- • Radiochemistry – chemistry of ra- nomena. dioactive materials, where radioac- • Mechanochemistry – coupling of tive isotopes of elements are used the mechanical and the chemical to study the properties and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale reactions of non-radioactive isotopes and includes mechanical breakage, (often within radiochemistry the ab- chemical behaviour of mechanically sence of radioactivity leads to a sub- stressed solids (e.g., stress-corrosion stance being described as being inac- cracking), tribology, polymer degra- tive as the isotopes are stable). dation under shear, cavitation-related • Organic chemistry – study of the struc- phenomena (e.g., sonochemistry and ture, properties, composition, reactions, sonoluminescence), shock wave and preparation (by synthesis or by other chemistry and physics, and even means) of carbon-based compounds, hy- the burgeoning field of molecular drocarbons, and their derivatives. machines. 2.1 Physical science 5

• Physical organic chemistry – study the behavior of the chemical ele- of the interrelationships between ments within the Earth’s oceans. structure and reactivity in organic • Chemical physics – branch of physics molecules. that studies chemical processes from • Quantum chemistry – branch of the point of view of physics. chemistry whose primary focus is the • – interdisciplinary application of quantum mechanics in field applying the properties of mat- physical models and of ter to various areas of science and en- chemical systems. gineering. • Sonochemistry – study of the effect • – study of manip- of sonic waves and wave properties ulating matter on an atomic and on chemical systems. molecular scale • Stereochemistry – study of the rel- • Oenology – science and study of ative spatial arrangement of atoms all aspects of wine and winemak- within molecules. ing except vine-growing and grape- • Supramolecular chemistry – area of harvesting, which is a subfield called chemistry beyond the molecules and viticulture. focuses on the chemical systems • – study of the interac- made up of a discrete number of as- tion between matter and radiated en- sembled molecular subunits or com- ergy ponents. • Surface science – Surface science is • Thermochemistry – study of the en- the study of physical and chemical ergy and heat associated with chem- phenomena that occur at the inter- ical reactions and/or physical trans- face of two phases, including solid– formations. liquid interfaces, solid–gas inter- • Phytochemistry – strict sense of the word faces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and the study of phytochemicals. liquid–gas interfaces. • Polymer chemistry – multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical syn- 2.1.3 thesis and chemical properties of poly- mers or macromolecules. • • Earth science – all-embracing term for the sci- • Solid-state chemistry – study of the syn- ences related to the planet Earth. Earth sci- thesis, structure, and properties of solid ence, and all of its branches, are branches of phase materials, particularly, but not physical science. necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular • Atmospheric sciences – umbrella term for solids the study of the atmosphere, its processes, • Multidisciplinary fields involving chem- the effects other systems have on the at- istry mosphere, and the effects of the atmo- • – scientific disci- sphere on these other systems. pline spanning the fields of chem- • Biogeography – study of the distribu- istry and biology that involves the ap- tion of species (biology), organisms, plication of chemical techniques and and ecosystems in geographic space and tools, often compounds produced through geological time. through synthetic chemistry, to the • – study and practice of mak- study and manipulation of biological ing maps or globes. systems. • – study of , scientif- • Chemical – branch of ically defined as weather conditions aver- engineering that deals with physical aged over a period of time science (e.g., chemistry and physics), • Coastal – study of the dynamic and life sciences (e.g., biology, mi- interface between the ocean and the land, crobiology and biochemistry) with incorporating both the physical geogra- mathematics and economics, to the phy (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology process of converting raw materi- and oceanography) and the geog- als or chemicals into more useful or raphy ( and history) of the coast. valuable forms. • – an integrated, • Chemical oceanography – study of quantitative, and interdisciplinary ap- 6 2 BRANCHES OF NATURAL SCIENCE

proach to the study of environmental sys- problems of geography, geosciences and tems. related branches of engineering. • – scientific study of the dis- • Geology – study of the Earth, with the tribution and abundance of living or- general exclusion of present-day life, flow ganisms and how the distribution and within the ocean, and the atmosphere. abundance are affected by interac- • Planetary geology – planetary sci- tions between the organisms and their ence discipline concerned with the environment. geology of the celestial bodies such • Freshwater biology – scientific bio- as the planets and their moons, aster- logical study of freshwater ecosys- oids, comets, and meteorites. tems and is a branch of Limnology • Geomorphology – scientific study of • – scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape organisms in the ocean or other ma- them rine or brackish bodies of • Geostatistics – branch of focus- • – Parasitology is the ing on spatial or spatiotemporal datasets study of parasites, their hosts, and • Geophysics – physics of the Earth and the relationship between them. its environment in space; also the study • Population dynamics – Population of the Earth using quantitative physical dynamics is the branch of life sci- methods. ences that studies short-term and • – study of glaciers, or more long-term changes in the size and generally ice and natural phenomena that age composition of populations, involve ice. and the biological and environ- • – study of the movement, dis- mental processes influencing those tribution, and quality of water on Earth changes. and other planets, including the hydro- • Environmental chemistry – Environ- logic cycle, water resources and environ- mental chemistry is the scientific mental watershed . study of the chemical and biochem- • Hydrogeology – area of geology that deals ical phenomena that occur in natural with the distribution and movement of places. groundwater in the soil and rocks of the • Environmental – Envi- Earth’s crust (commonly in aquifers). ronmental soil science is the study of • – study of chemistry, the interaction of humans with the structure, and physical (including optical) pedosphere as well as critical aspects properties of minerals. of the biosphere, the lithosphere, the • Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific hydrosphere, and the atmosphere. study of the atmosphere which explains • Environmental geology – Environ- and forecasts weather events. mental geology, like hydrogeology, • Oceanography – branch of Earth science is an concerned with that studies the ocean the practical application of the prin- • ciples of geology in the solving of en- Paleoclimatology – study of changes in vironmental problems. climate taken on the scale of the entire • Toxicology – branch of biology, • chemistry, and medicine concerned – study of prehistoric life with the study of the adverse effects • Petrology – branch of geology that studies of chemicals on living organisms.*** the origin, composition, distribution and Geodesy – scientific discipline that structure of rocks. deals with the and rep- • Limnology – study of inland resentation of the Earth, including • Seismology – scientific study of earth- its gravitational field, in a three- quakes and the propagation of elastic dimensional time-varying space waves through the Earth or through other • Geography – science that studies the planet-like bodies lands, features, inhabitants, and phenom- • Soil science – study of soil as a natural ena of Earth resource on the surface of the earth in- • Geoinformatics – science and the tech- cluding soil formation, classification and nology which develops and uses informa- mapping; physical, chemical, biological, tion science infrastructure to address the and fertility properties of ; and these 2.2 Life Science 7

properties in relation to the use and man- • – new and sometimes contro- agement of soils. versial branch of biology that studies the ma- • Topography – study of surface shape and nipulation of living matter, including genetic features of the Earth and other observ- modification and synthetic biology able astronomical objects including plan- • Building biology – study of the indoor living ets, moons, and asteroids. environment • Volcanology – study of volcanoes, lava, • – study of plants magma, and related geological, geophys- • ical and geochemical phenomena. biology – study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interac- tions that occur within a living cell 2.2 Life Science • Conservation Biology – study of the preserva- tion, protection, or restoration of the natural 2.2.1 Biology environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife • Biology – study of living organisms. • Chronobiology – field of biology that examines • Aerobiology – study of airborne organic parti- periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organ- cles isms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar- • – study of producing crops from related rhythms. the land, with an emphasis on practical appli- • Cryobiology – study of the effects of lower cations than normally preferred on liv- • – study of form and function, in ing beings. plants, animals, and other organisms, or • Developmental biology – study of the pro- specifically in humans cesses through which an organism forms, from • Human anatomy – scientific study of the zygote to full structure morphology of the adult human. • Embryology – study of the development • – study of evolution, distribu- of embryo (from fecundation to birth). tion, and future of life in the universe—also See also topobiology. known as exobiology, exopaleontology, and • Gerontology – study of aging processes. bioastronomy • Ecology – study of the interactions of living • Biochemistry – study of the chemical reactions organisms with one another and with the non- required for life to exist and function, usually living elements of their environment a focus on the cellular level • Environmental Biology – study of the natural • Bioengineering – study of biology through the world, as a whole or in a particular area, espe- means of engineering with an emphasis on cially as affected by human activity applied knowledge and especially related to • biotechnology Epidemiology – major component of public health research, studying factors affecting the • Biogeography – study of the distribution of health of populations species spatially and temporally • Evolution – any change across successive gen- • Bioinformatics – use of information technol- erations in the heritable characteristics of bio- ogy for the study, collection, and storage of logical populations. genomic and other biological data • Evolutionary Biology – study of the origin • Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology – and descent of species over time quantitative or mathematical study of biologi- • cal processes, with an emphasis on modeling Evolutionary developmental biology – field of biology that compares the • Biomechanics – often considered a branch of developmental processes of different medicine, the study of the mechanics of liv- organisms to determine the ances- ing beings, with an emphasis on applied use tral relationship between them, and through prosthetics or orthotics to discover how developmental pro- • Biomedical research – study of the human cesses evolved. body in health and disease • Paleobiology – discipline which com- • Biophysics – study of biological processes bines the methods and findings of the nat- through physics, by applying the theories and ural science biology with the methods and methods traditionally used in the physical sci- findings of the earth science paleontol- ences ogy. 8 2 BRANCHES OF NATURAL SCIENCE

• Paleontology – study of and • Parasitology – study of parasites and para- sometimes geographic evidence of sitism prehistoric life • Pharmacology – study and practical applica- • – study of genes and heredity tion of preparation, use, and effects of drugs • – discipline in genetics con- and synthetic cerned with the study of the genomes of • – study of the functioning of living organisms. organisms and the organs and parts of living • Proteomics – large-scale study of pro- organisms teins, particularly their structures and • Immunology – following outline is pro- functions vided as an overview of and topical guide • Population genetics – study of changes in to immunology: gene frequencies in • Kinesiology – Kinesiology, also known as • Histology – study of cells and tissues, a micro- human kinetics, is the scientific study of scopic branch of anatomy human movement • Neurobiology – study of the nervous sys- • Integrative biology – study of whole organisms tem, including anatomy, physiology and • Limnology – study of inland waters pathology • Marine Biology – study of ocean ecosystems, • Neuroscience – interdisciplinary sci- plants, animals, and other living beings ence that studies the nervous system • – study of microscopic organ- • Histology – isms (microorganisms) and their interactions • Phytopathology – study of diseases (also with other living things called Plant Pathology) • Bacteriology – study of bacteria. • Psychobiology – study of the biological bases • Virology – study of viruses and some of psychology other virus-like agents • Sociobiology – study of the biological bases of • – study of biology and bi- sociology ological functions at the molecular level, some • Systematics – study of the diversification of cross over with biochemistry living forms, both past and present, and the re- • Structural biology – branch of molecular lationships among living things through time biology, biochemistry, and biophysics • Cladistics – method of classifying species concerned with the molecular structure of of organisms into groups called clades, biological macromolecules which consist of an ancestor organism and • Morphology – In biology, morphology is a all its descendants (and nothing else) branch of bioscience dealing with the study of • Phylogeny – study of evolutionary re- the form and structure of organisms and their lation among groups of organisms (e.g. specific structural features. species, populations), which is discovered through molecular sequencing data and • Mycology – study of fungi morphological data matrices • Oceanography – study of the ocean, including • – science of identifying and ocean life, environment, geography, weather, naming species, and arranging them into and other aspects influencing the ocean a classification. • Oncology – study of cancer processes, • – study of animals, including classifi- including virus or mutation oncogenesis, cation, physiology, development, and behavior angiogenesis and tissues remoldings • – scientific study of spi- • Population biology – study of groups of con- ders and related animals such as scorpi- specific organisms, including ons, pseudoscorpions, harvestmen, col- • Population ecology – study of how popu- lectively called arachnids. lation dynamics and extinction • – study of the taxon of • Population genetics – study of changes in arachnids that contains mites and gene frequencies in populations of organ- ticks isms • – study of insects • Pathobiology or pathology – study of diseases, • – scientific study of and the causes, processes, nature, and devel- ants, a branch of entomology opment of disease • – study of beetles 3.1 History of the branches of natural science 9

– study of a large • History of agrophysics – history order of insects that includes moths of the study of physics applied to and butterflies (called lepidopterans) agroecosystems • – study of behavior • History of – history of • – study of worms, espe- the study of soil physical properties cially parasitic worms and processes. • – study of reptiles and am- • History of astrophysics – history of the phibians study of the physical aspects of celestial • – study of fish objects • – branch of invertebrate zo- • – history of the ology which deals with the study of studies the universe beyond Earth, includ- the Mollusca (mollusks or molluscs), ing its formation and development, and the second-largest phylum of animals the evolution, physics, chemistry, mete- in terms of described species after the orology, and motion of celestial objects arthropods. (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phe- • – study of nomena that originate outside the atmo- • Cetology – branch of marine mam- sphere of Earth (such as the cosmic back- mal science that studies the approxi- ground radiation). mately eighty species of , dol- • History of astrodynamics – history of phins, and in the scientific the application of ballistics and celes- order . tial mechanics to the practical prob- • Physical – studies the lems concerning the motion of rock- physical development of the human ets and other spacecraft. species. • History of astrometry – history of • – scientific discipline con- the branch of astronomy that involves cerned with the study of nematodes, or precise measurements of the posi- roundworms tions and movements of stars and • – study of birds other celestial bodies. • History of cosmology – history of the discipline that deals with the nature 3 History of natural science of the Universe as a whole. • History of extragalactic astronomy – History of natural science history of the branch of astronomy concerned with objects outside our • Natural own Milky Way Galaxy • History of galactic astronomy – his- tory of the study of our own Milky 3.1 History of the branches of natural sci- Way galaxy and all its contents. ence • History of physical cosmology – his- tory of the study of the largest-scale • History of physical science – history of the branch structures and dynamics of the uni- of natural science that studies non-living systems, verse and is concerned with funda- in contrast to the biological sciences. It in turn mental questions about its formation has many branches, each referred to as a “phys- and evolution. ical science”, together called the “physical sci- • ences”. However, the term “physical” creates an History of planetary science – his- unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since tory of the scientific study of planets many branches of physical science also study biolog- (including Earth), moons, and plan- ical phenomena (organic chemistry, for example). etary systems, in particular those of the and the processes • – history of the physical sci- that form them. ence that studies matter and its motion through • History of stellar astronomy – his- space-time, and related concepts such as en- tory of the natural science that deals ergy and force with the study of celestial objects • History of acoustics – history of the study (such as stars, planets, comets, neb- of mechanical waves in solids, liquids, ulae, star clusters and galaxies) and and gases (such as vibration and sound) phenomena that originate outside the 10 3 HISTORY OF NATURAL SCIENCE

atmosphere of Earth (such as cosmic problems in physics and the development background radiation) of mathematical methods for such appli- • History of atmospheric physics – history cations and for the formulation of physi- of the study of the application of physics cal theories. to the atmosphere • History of mechanics – history of the • History of atomic, molecular, and optical branch of physics concerned with the be- physics – history of the study of how mat- havior of physical bodies when subjected ter and light interact to forces or displacements, and the subse- • History of biophysics – history of the quent effects of the bodies on their envi- study of physical processes relating to bi- ronment. ology • History of biomechanics – history of • History of medical physics – his- the study of the structure and func- tory of the application of physics tion of biological systems such as hu- concepts, theories and methods to mans, animals, plants, organs, and medicine. cells by means of the methods of me- • History of neurophysics – history of chanics. the branch of biophysics dealing with • History of classical mechanics – his- the nervous system. tory of the one of the two major sub- • History of chemical physics – history of fields of mechanics, which is con- the branch of physics that studies chem- cerned with the set of physical laws ical processes from the point of view of describing the motion of bodies un- physics. der the action of a system of forces. • • History of computational physics – his- History of continuum mechanics – tory of the study and implementation of history of the branch of mechanics numerical algorithms to solve problems in that deals with the analysis of the physics for which a quantitative theory al- kinematics and the mechanical be- ready exists. havior of materials modeled as a con- tinuous mass rather than as discrete • History of condensed matter physics – particles. history of the study of the physical prop- erties of condensed phases of matter. • History of fluid mechanics – history • History of cryogenics – history of the of the study of fluids and the forces cryogenics is the study of the production on them. of very low temperature (below −150 °C, • History of quantum mechanics – his- −238 °F or 123K) and the behavior of tory of the branch of physics dealing materials at those temperatures. with physical phenomena where the • Dynamics – history of the study of the action is on the order of the Planck causes of motion and changes in motion constant. • History of econophysics – history of the • History of thermodynamics – his- interdisciplinary research field, applying tory of the branch of physical science theories and methods originally devel- concerned with heat and its relation oped by physicists in order to solve prob- to other forms of energy and work. lems in economics • History of nuclear physics – history of the • History of electromagnetism – history of field of physics that studies the building the branch of science concerned with blocks and interactions of atomic nuclei. the forces that occur between electrically • History of optics – history of the branch charged particles. of physics which involves the behavior • – history of the and properties of light, including its inter- physics of the Earth and its environment actions with matter and the construction in space; also the study of the Earth using of instruments that use or detect it. quantitative physical methods • History of particle physics – history of • History of materials physics – history of the branch of physics that studies the ex- the use of physics to describe materials in istence and interactions of particles that many different ways such as force, heat, are the constituents of what is usually re- light and mechanics. ferred to as matter or radiation. • History of mathematical physics – his- • History of psychophysics – history of tory of the application of mathematics to the quantitatively investigates the rela- 3.1 History of the branches of natural science 11

tionship between physical stimuli and the ence in which the chemistry of the Earth’s sensations and perceptions they affect. atmosphere and that of other planets is • History of plasma physics – history of the studied. It is a multidisciplinary field state of matter similar to gas in which a of research and draws on environmen- certain portion of the particles are - tal chemistry, physics, meteorology, com- ized. puter modeling, oceanography, geology • History of polymer physics – history of and volcanology and other disciplines the field of physics that studies polymers, • History of biochemistry – history of the their fluctuations, mechanical properties, study of chemical processes in living or- as well as the kinetics of reactions in- ganisms, including, but not limited to, liv- volving degradation and polymerisation ing matter. Biochemistry governs all liv- of polymers and monomers respectively. ing organisms and living processes. • History of quantum physics – history of • History of agrochemistry – history the branch of physics dealing with physi- of the study of both chemistry and cal phenomena where the action is on the biochemistry which are important order of the Planck constant. in agricultural production, the pro- • Relativity – cessing of raw products into foods • History of statics – history of the branch and beverages, and in environmental of mechanics concerned with the analysis monitoring and remediation. of loads (force, torque/moment) on phys- • History of bioinorganic chemistry – ical systems in static equilibrium, that history of the examines the role of is, in a state where the relative positions metals in biology. of subsystems do not vary over time, or • History of bioorganic chemistry – where components and structures are at a history of the rapidly growing scien- constant velocity. tific discipline that combines organic • History of solid state physics – his- chemistry and biochemistry. tory of the study of rigid matter, or • History of biophysical chemistry – solids, through methods such as quantum history of the new branch of chem- mechanics, crystallography, electromag- istry that covers a broad spectrum of netism, and metallurgy. research activities involving biologi- • History of vehicle dynamics – history of cal systems. the dynamics of vehicles, here assumed to • History of environmental chemistry be ground vehicles. – history of the scientific study of the • – history of the physi- chemical and biochemical phenom- cal science of atomic matter (matter that is ena that occur in natural places. composed of chemical elements), especially • History of immunochemistry – his- its chemical reactions, but also including its tory of the branch of chemistry that properties, structure, composition, behavior, involves the study of the reactions and changes as they relate the chemical reac- and components on the immune sys- tions tem. • History of analytical chemistry – history • History of medicinal chemistry – his- of the study of the separation, identifica- tory of the discipline at the inter- tion, and quantification of the chemical section of chemistry, especially syn- components of natural and artificial ma- thetic organic chemistry, and phar- terials. macology and various other biolog- • History of astrochemistry – history of the ical specialties, where they are in- study of the abundance and reactions of volved with design, chemical synthe- chemical elements and molecules in the sis and development for market of universe, and their interaction with radi- pharmaceutical agents (drugs). ation. • History of pharmacology – history of • History of cosmochemistry – history the branch of medicine and biology of the study of the chemical compo- concerned with the study of drug ac- sition of matter in the universe and tion. the processes that led to those com- • History of natural product chemistry positions – history of the • History of atmospheric chemistry – his- or substance produced by a living or- tory of the branch of atmospheric sci- ganism – history of the found in na- 12 3 HISTORY OF NATURAL SCIENCE

ture that usually has a pharmacolog- • History of inorganic chemistry – history ical or biological activity for use in of the branch of chemistry concerned pharmaceutical drug discovery and with the properties and behavior of inor- drug design. ganic compounds. • History of neurochemistry – history • History of nuclear chemistry – history of of the specific study of neurochemi- the subfield of chemistry dealing with ra- cals, which include neurotransmitters dioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear and other molecules such as neuro- properties. active drugs that influence neuron • History of radiochemistry – history function. of the chemistry of radioactive ma- • History of computational chemistry – his- terials, where radioactive isotopes of tory of the branch of chemistry that uses elements are used to study the prop- principles of to assist in erties and chemical reactions of non- solving chemical problems. radioactive isotopes (often within ra- • History of cheminformatics – history diochemistry the absence of radioac- of the use of computer and informa- tivity leads to a substance being de- tional techniques, applied to a range scribed as being inactive as the iso- of problems in the field of chemistry. topes are stable). • • History of molecular mechanics – History of organic chemistry – history history of the uses Newtonian me- of the study of the structure, proper- chanics to model molecular systems. ties, composition, reactions, and prepara- tion (by synthesis or by other means) of • History of Flavor chemistry – history of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, the someone who uses chemistry to engi- and their derivatives. neer artificial and natural flavors. • History of petrochemistry – history • History of Flow chemistry – history of the of the branch of chemistry that stud- chemical reaction is run in a continuously ies the transformation of crude oil flowing stream rather than in batch pro- (petroleum) and natural gas into use- duction. ful products or raw materials. • History of geochemistry – history of the • History of organometallic chemistry – study of the mechanisms behind major history of the study of chemical com- geological systems using chemistry pounds containing bonds between carbon • History of aqueous geochemistry – and a metal. history of the study of the role of • History of photochemistry – history of various elements in watersheds, in- the study of chemical reactions that pro- cluding copper, sulfur, mercury, and ceed with the absorption of light by atoms how elemental fluxes are exchanged or molecules.. through atmospheric-terrestrial- • History of physical chemistry – history of aquatic interactions the study of macroscopic, atomic, sub- • History of isotope geochemistry – atomic, and particulate phenomena in history of the study of the relative and chemical systems in terms of physical absolute concentrations of the ele- laws and concepts. ments and their isotopes using chem- • History of chemical kinetics – his- istry and geology tory of the study of rates of chemical • History of ocean chemistry – history processes. of the studies the chemistry of ma- • History of chemical thermodynamics rine environments including the in- – history of the study of the interrela- fluences of different variables. tion of heat and work with chemical • History of organic geochemistry – reactions or with physical changes of history of the study of the impacts state within the confines of the laws and processes that organisms have of thermodynamics. had on Earth • History of electrochemistry – his- • History of regional, environmental tory of the branch of chemistry and exploration geochemistry – his- that studies chemical reactions which tory of the study of the spatial vari- take place in a solution at the in- ation in the chemical composition of terface of an electron conductor (a materials at the surface of the Earth metal or a semiconductor) and an 3.1 History of the branches of natural science 13

ionic conductor (the electrolyte), and associated with chemical reactions which involve electron transfer be- and/or physical transformations. tween the electrode and the elec- • History of phytochemistry – history of trolyte or species in solution. the strict sense of the word the study of • History of Femtochemistry – history phytochemicals. of the Femtochemistry is the science • History of polymer chemistry – history that studies chemical reactions on of the multidisciplinary science that deals extremely short timescales, approxi- with the chemical synthesis and chem- mately 10−15 seconds (one femtosec- ical properties of polymers or macro- ond, hence the name). molecules. • History of mathematical chemistry – • History of solid-state chemistry – his- history of the area of research en- tory of the study of the synthesis, struc- gaged in novel applications of math- ture, and properties of solid phase mate- ematics to chemistry; it concerns it- rials, particularly, but not necessarily ex- self principally with the mathemat- clusively of, non-molecular solids ical modeling of chemical phenom- • Multidisciplinary fields involving chem- ena. istry • History of mechanochemistry – • History of chemical biology – history history of the coupling of the of the scientific discipline spanning mechanical and the chemical phe- the fields of chemistry and biology nomena on a molecular scale and that involves the application of chem- includes mechanical breakage, ical techniques and tools, often com- chemical behaviour of mechanically pounds produced through synthetic stressed solids (e.g., stress-corrosion chemistry, to the study and manipu- cracking), tribology, polymer degra- lation of biological systems. dation under shear, cavitation-related • History of chemical engineering – phenomena (e.g., sonochemistry and history of the branch of engineer- sonoluminescence), shock wave ing that deals with physical science chemistry and physics, and even (e.g., chemistry and physics), and life the burgeoning field of molecular sciences (e.g., biology, microbiology machines. and biochemistry) with mathematics • History of physical organic chem- and economics, to the process of con- istry – history of the study of the verting raw materials or chemicals interrelationships between structure into more useful or valuable forms. and reactivity in organic molecules. • History of chemical oceanography – • History of quantum chemistry – his- history of the study of the behavior tory of the branch of chemistry of the chemical elements within the whose primary focus is the applica- Earth’s oceans. tion of quantum mechanics in physi- • History of chemical physics – history cal models and experiments of chem- of the branch of physics that studies ical systems. chemical processes from the point of • History of sonochemistry – history of view of physics. the study of the effect of sonic waves • History of materials science – history and wave properties on chemical sys- of the interdisciplinary field applying tems. the properties of matter to various ar- • History of stereochemistry – his- eas of science and engineering. tory of the study of the relative • History of nanotechnology – history spatial arrangement of atoms within of the study of manipulating matter molecules. on an atomic and molecular scale • History of supramolecular chemistry • History of oenology – history of the – history of the area of chemistry science and study of all aspects of beyond the molecules and focuses wine and winemaking except vine- on the chemical systems made up growing and grape-harvesting, which of a discrete number of assembled is a subfield called viticulture. molecular subunits or components. • History of spectroscopy – history of • History of thermochemistry – history the study of the interaction between of the study of the energy and heat matter and radiated energy 14 3 HISTORY OF NATURAL SCIENCE

• History of surface science – history • History of parasitology – history of of the Surface science is the study the Parasitology is the study of par- of physical and chemical phenom- asites, their hosts, and the relation- ena that occur at the interface of ship between them. two phases, including solid–liquid in- • History of population dynamics – terfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid– history of the Population dynam- vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas in- ics is the branch of life sciences terfaces. that studies short-term and long- • History of earth science – history of the all- term changes in the size and age embracing term for the sciences related to the composition of populations, and the planet Earth. Earth science, and all of its biological and environmental pro- branches, are branches of physical science. cesses influencing those changes. • History of environmental chemistry • History of atmospheric sciences – his- – history of the Environmental tory of the umbrella term for the study of chemistry is the scientific study the atmosphere, its processes, the effects of the chemical and biochemical other systems have on the atmosphere, phenomena that occur in natural and the effects of the atmosphere on these places. other systems. • History of environmental soil science • History of biogeography – history of the – history of the Environmental soil study of the distribution of species (biol- science is the study of the interac- ogy), organisms, and ecosystems in ge- tion of humans with the pedosphere ographic space and through geological as well as critical aspects of the bio- time. sphere, the lithosphere, the hydro- • History of cartography – history of the sphere, and the atmosphere. study and practice of making maps or • History of environmental geology – globes. history of the Environmental geol- • History of climatology – history of the ogy, like hydrogeology, is an applied study of climate, scientifically defined as science concerned with the practical weather conditions averaged over a pe- application of the principles of geol- riod of time ogy in the solving of environmental • History of coastal geography – history problems. of the study of the dynamic interface • History of toxicology – history of between the ocean and the land, in- the branch of biology, chemistry, and corporating both the medicine concerned with the study of (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology and the adverse effects of chemicals on oceanography) and the human geography living organisms. (sociology and history) of the coast. • History of geodesy – history of the sci- • History of environmental science – his- entific discipline that deals with the mea- tory of an integrated, quantitative, and in- surement and representation of the Earth, terdisciplinary approach to the study of including its gravitational field, in a three- environmental systems. dimensional time-varying space • – history of the • – history of the sci- scientific study of the distribution ence that studies the lands, features, in- and abundance of living organisms habitants, and phenomena of Earth and how the distribution and abun- • History of geoinformatics – history of the dance are affected by interactions be- science and the technology which devel- tween the organisms and their envi- ops and uses information science infras- ronment. tructure to address the problems of geog- • History of freshwater biology – raphy, geosciences and related branches history of the scientific biological of engineering. study of freshwater ecosystems and • – history of the study is a branch of Limnology of the Earth, with the general exclusion • History of marine biology – his- of present-day life, flow within the ocean, tory of the scientific study of organ- and the atmosphere. isms in the ocean or other marine or • History of planetary geology – his- brackish bodies of water tory of the planetary science dis- 3.1 History of the branches of natural science 15

cipline concerned with the geology surface of the earth including soil forma- of the celestial bodies such as the tion, classification and mapping; physical, planets and their moons, asteroids, chemical, biological, and fertility proper- comets, and meteorites. ties of soils; and these properties in rela- • History of geomorphology – history of tion to the use and management of soils. the scientific study of landforms and the • History of topography – history of the processes that shape them study of surface shape and features of the • History of geostatistics – history of the Earth and other observable astronomical branch of statistics focusing on spatial or objects including planets, moons, and as- spatiotemporal datasets teroids. • • History of geophysics – history of the History of volcanology – history of the physics of the Earth and its environment study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and in space; also the study of the Earth using related geological, geophysical and geo- quantitative physical methods. chemical phenomena. • History of glaciology – history of the • – history of the study of living study of glaciers, or more generally ice organisms. and natural phenomena that involve ice. • History of aerobiology – history of the study • History of hydrology – history of the of airborne organic particles study of the movement, distribution, and • quality of water on Earth and other plan- History of agriculture – history of the study of ets, including the hydrologic cycle, wa- producing crops from the land, with an empha- ter resources and environmental water- sis on practical applications shed sustainability. • – history of the study of • History of hydrogeology – history of the form and function, in plants, animals, and area of geology that deals with the dis- other organisms, or specifically in humans tribution and movement of groundwater • History of human anatomy – history of in the soil and rocks of the Earth’s crust the scientific study of the morphology of (commonly in aquifers). the adult human. • History of mineralogy – history of the • History of astrobiology – history of the study study of chemistry, crystal structure, and of evolution, distribution, and future of life physical (including optical) properties of in the universe—also known as exobiology, minerals. exopaleontology, and bioastronomy • History of meteorology – history of the • History of biochemistry – history of the study interdisciplinary scientific study of the at- of the chemical reactions required for life to mosphere which explains and forecasts exist and function, usually a focus on the cel- weather events. lular level • History of oceanography – history of the • History of bioengineering – history of the branch of Earth science that studies the study of biology through the means of engi- ocean neering with an emphasis on applied knowl- • History of paleoclimatology – history of edge and especially related to biotechnology the study of changes in climate taken on • History of biogeography – history of the study the scale of the entire history of Earth of the distribution of species spatially and tem- • – history of the porally study of prehistoric life • History of bioinformatics – history of the use • History of petrology – history of the of information technology for the study, col- branch of geology that studies the origin, lection, and storage of genomic and other bio- composition, distribution and structure of logical data rocks. • Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology – • History of limnology – history of the history of the quantitative or mathematical study of inland waters study of biological processes, with an empha- • History of seismology – history of the sci- sis on modeling entific study of earthquakes and the prop- • History of biomechanics – history of the often agation of elastic waves through the Earth considered a branch of medicine, the study of or through other planet-like bodies the mechanics of living beings, with an em- • History of soil science – history of the phasis on applied use through prosthetics or study of soil as a on the orthotics 16 3 HISTORY OF NATURAL SCIENCE

• History of biomedical research – history of the • History of evolutionary biology – history study of the human body in health and disease of the study of the origin and descent of • History of biophysics – history of the study of species over time biological processes through physics, by apply- • History of evolutionary developmen- ing the theories and methods traditionally used tal biology – history of the field of in the physical sciences biology that compares the develop- • History of biotechnology – history of the new mental processes of different organ- and sometimes controversial branch of biology isms to determine the ancestral rela- that studies the manipulation of living matter, tionship between them, and to dis- including genetic modification and synthetic cover how developmental processes biology evolved. • History of paleobiology – history of the • History of building biology – history of the discipline which combines the methods study of the indoor living environment and findings of the natural science biol- • – history of the study of ogy with the methods and findings of the plants earth science paleontology. • History of – history of the study of • History of paleontology – history of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular the study of fossils and sometimes and chemical interactions that occur within a geographic evidence of prehistoric living cell life • History of conservation biology – history of • History of genetics – history of the study of the study of the preservation, protection, or genes and heredity restoration of the natural environment, natural • ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife History of genomics – history of the dis- cipline in genetics concerned with the • History of chronobiology – history of the field study of the genomes of organisms. of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phe- • nomena in living organisms and their adapta- History of proteomics – history of the tion to solar- and lunar-related rhythms. large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions • History of cryobiology – history of the study • History of population genetics – history of the effects of lower than normally preferred of the study of changes in gene frequen- temperatures on living beings. cies in • History of developmental biology – history of • the study of the processes through which an History of histology – history of the study organism forms, from zygote to full structure of cells and tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy • History of embryology – history of the study of the development of embryo • History of integrative biology – history of the (from fecundation to birth). See also study of whole organisms topobiology. • History of limnology – history of the study of • History of gerontology – history of the inland waters study of aging processes. • History of marine biology – history of the • History of ecology – history of the study of the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, interactions of living organisms with one an- and other living beings other and with the non-living elements of their environment • History of microbiology – history of the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) • History of environmental biology – history of and their interactions with other living things the study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially as affected by • History of bacteriology – history of the human activity study of bacteria. • History of epidemiology – history of the major • History of virology – history of the component of public health research, studying study of viruses and some other virus-like factors affecting the health of populations agents • History of evolution – history of the any • History of molecular biology – history of the change across successive generations in the study of biology and biological functions at heritable characteristics of biological popula- the molecular level, some cross over with bio- tions. chemistry 3.1 History of the branches of natural science 17

• History of structural biology – history • History of psychobiology – history of the study of the branch of molecular biology, of the biological bases of psychology biochemistry, and biophysics concerned • History of sociobiology – history of the study with the molecular structure of biological of the biological bases of sociology macromolecules • History of systematics – history of the study • Morphology – history of the In biology, mor- of the diversification of living forms, both past phology is a branch of bioscience dealing with and present, and the relationships among living the study of the form and structure of organ- things through time isms and their specific structural features. • History of cladistics – history of the • History of mycology – history of the study of method of classifying species of organ- fungi isms into groups called clades, which con- • History of oceanography – history of the study sist of an ancestor organism and all its de- of the ocean, including ocean life, environ- scendants (and nothing else) ment, geography, weather, and other aspects • History of phylogeny – history of the influencing the ocean study of evolutionary relation among groups of organisms (e.g. species, pop- • History of oncology – history of the study of ulations), which is discovered through cancer processes, including virus or mutation molecular sequencing data and morpho- oncogenesis, angiogenesis and tissues remold- logical data matrices ings • History of taxonomy – history of the sci- • History of population biology – history of the ence of identifying and naming species, study of groups of conspecific organisms, in- and arranging them into a classification. cluding • History of zoology – history of the study of an- • History of population ecology – history of imals, including classification, physiology, de- the study of how population dynamics and velopment, and behavior extinction • History of arachnology – history of the • History of population genetics – history scientific study of spiders and related ani- of the study of changes in gene frequen- mals such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, cies in populations of organisms harvestmen, collectively called arachnids. • Pathobiology or pathology – history of the • History of acarology – history of the study of diseases, and the causes, processes, study of the taxon of arachnids that nature, and development of disease contains mites and ticks • History of parasitology – history of the study • History of entomology – history of the of parasites and parasitism study of insects • • History of pharmacology – history of the study Timeline of entomology and practical application of preparation, use, • History of myrmecology – history of and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines the scientific study of ants, a branch of entomology • History of physiology – history of the study of • the functioning of living organisms and the or- History of coleopterology – history gans and parts of living organisms of the study of beetles • History of lepidopterology – history • History of immunology – of the study of a large order of in- • History of kinesiology – history of the Ki- sects that includes moths and butter- nesiology, also known as human kinetics, flies (called lepidopterans) is the scientific study of human movement • History of ethology – history of the study • History of neurobiology – history of the of animal behavior study of the nervous system, including • History of helminthology – history of anatomy, physiology and pathology the study of worms, especially parasitic • – history worms of the interdisciplinary science that • History of herpetology – history of the studies the nervous system study of reptiles and amphibians • History of histology – • History of ichthyology – history of the • History of phytopathology – history of the study of fish study of plant diseases (also called Plant • History of malacology – history of the Pathology) branch of which 18 7 PERSONS INFLUENTIAL IN NATURAL SCIENCE

deals with the study of the Mollusca (mol- 5 Natural science organizations lusks or molluscs), the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods. 6 Natural science publications • History of mammalogy – history of the • study of mammals Physical science journals • History of – • List of astronomy journals history of the studies the physical • List of chemistry journals development of the human species. Also called physical anthropology. • List of earth and atmospheric sciences journals • History of cetology – history of the • List of physics journals branch of marine science • List of biology journals that studies the approximately eighty species of whales, , and por- • List of botany journals poise in the scientific order Cetacea. • List of zoology journals • History of nematology – history of the scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms 7 Persons influential in natural sci- • History of ornithology – history of the study of birds ence

• List of physicists 4 General natural science concepts • List of biophysicists • List of geophysicists • Discovery science • List of astronomers

• Empirical evidence • List of cosmologists • • List of chemists • List of biochemists • Hypothesis • List of neurochemists • • List of electrochemists • List of earth • Nature • List of Russian earth scientists • Occam’s razor • List of cartographers • Peer review • List of climatologists • List of geographers • Physical law • List of geologists • • Reproducibility List of geophysicists • List of glaciologists • Scientific evidence • List of mineralogists • List of meteorologists • Scientific method • List of paleontologists • Scientific theory • List of biologists

• Testability • List of botanists by author abbreviation • List of carcinologists • Universe • List of coleopterists • Validity • List of ecologists 19

• List of malacologists • Natural Sciences Information on the Natural Sci- • List of mammalogists ences degree programme at the University of Bath which includes the Biological Sciences, Chemistry, • List of mycologists Pharmacology, Physics and Environmental Studies. • List of ornithologists • Reviews of Books About Natural Science This site • List of pathologists contains over 50 previously published reviews of • List of zoologists by author abbreviation books about natural science, plus selected essays on • List of Nobel Prize winners in physiology or timely topics in natural science. medicine • Scientific Grant Awards Database Contains details of over 2,000,000 scientific research projects con- ducted over the past 25 years. 8 See also • Natural Sciences Tripos Provides information on the framework within which most of the natural science • Outline of science is taught at the University of Cambridge. • Outline of natural science • E!Science Up-to-date science news aggregator from • Outline of physical science major sources including universities. • Outline of earth science • Outline of • Outline of • Outline of applied science

9 References

[1] Wilson, Edward O. (1998). Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (1st ed.). New York, NY: Vintage Books. pp. 49–71. ISBN 0-679-45077-7.

[2] "... modern science is a discovery as well as an inven- tion. It was a discovery that nature generally acts regularly enough to be described by laws and even by mathematics; and required invention to devise the techniques, abstrac- tions, apparatus, and organization for exhibiting the regu- larities and securing their law-like descriptions.” —p.vii, J. L. Heilbron, (2003, editor-in-chief). The Oxford Com- panion to the History of Modern Science. New York: Ox- ford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511229-6.

[3] “science”. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam- Webster, Inc. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 3 a: knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method b: such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena

10 External links

• The History of Recent Science and Technology

• Natural Sciences Information on the Natural Sci- ences degree programme at Durham University.

• Natural Sciences Contains updated information on research in the Natural Sciences including biology, geography and the applied life and earth sciences. 20 11 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

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