Outline of physical

“Physical Science” redirects here. It is not to be confused • – study of celestial objects (such as , with . galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and neb- ulae), the physics, , and evolution of such Physical science is a branch of natural science that stud- objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explo- ies non-living , in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a “physical sions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. science”, together called the “physical ”. How- ever, the term “physical” creates an unintended, some- • Branches of astronomy what arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physi- cal science also study biological phenomena and branches • Chemistry – studies the composition, structure, of chemistry such as . properties and change of matter.[8][9] In this realm, chemistry deals with such topics as the properties of individual , the manner in which atoms form 1 What is physical science? chemical bonds in the formation of compounds, the interactions of substances through intermolecular to give matter its general properties, and the Physical science can be described as all of the following: interactions between substances through chemical reactions to form different substances. • A branch of science (a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of • Branches of chemistry testable explanations and predictions about the • ).[1][2][3] Earth science – all-embracing term referring to the fields of science dealing with planet Earth. Earth • A branch of natural science – natural science science is the study of how the natural environ- is a major branch of science that tries to ex- ment (ecosphere or Earth ) works and how it plain and predict nature’s phenomena, based evolved to its current state. It includes the study of on empirical evidence. In natural science, the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and bio- hypotheses must be verified scientifically to sphere. be regarded as scientific theory. Validity, ac- • curacy, and social mechanisms ensuring qual- Branches of Earth science ity control, such as peer review and repeata- bility of findings, are amongst the criteria and methods used for this purpose. Natural sci- 3 History of physical science ence can be broken into two main branches: life science, for example and physical History of physical science – history of the branch of nat- science. Each of these branches, and all of ural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to their sub-branches, are referred to as natural the biological sciences. It in turn has many branches, each sciences. referred to as a “physical science”, together called the “physical sciences”. However, the term “physical” cre- ates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since 2 Branches of physical science many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena (organic chemistry, for example). • Physics – natural and physical science that involves the study of matter[4] and its through – history of the physical science and , along with related concepts such as that studies matter and its motion through space- and .[5] More broadly, it is the general analysis time, and related concepts such as energy and force of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.[lower-alpha 1][6][7] • History of – history of the study of mechanical in , liquids, and (such as vibration and sound)


• History of – history of the study • History of atomic, molecular, and optical of physics applied to agroecosystems physics – history of the study of how matter and light interact • History of physics – history of the study of soil physical properties and pro- • History of – history of the study of cesses. physical processes relating to biology • • History of – history of the study History of – history of of the physical aspects of celestial objects the application of physics concepts, the- ories and methods to medicine. • History of astronomy – history of the studies • History of – history of the the universe beyond Earth, including its for- branch of biophysics dealing with the ner- mation and development, and the evolution, vous system. physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion • History of – history of the of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, branch of physics that studies chemical pro- etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the cesses from the point of view of physics. atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic back- ground radiation). • History of – history of the study and implementation of numerical • History of astrodynamics – history of the to solve problems in physics for application of and celestial me- which a quantitative theory already exists. chanics to the practical problems con- • cerning the motion of rockets and other History of – history spacecraft. of the study of the physical properties of con- densed phases of matter. • History of astrometry – history of the branch of astronomy that involves precise • History of cryogenics – history of the cryo- measurements of the positions and move- genics is the study of the production of very ments of stars and other celestial bodies. low (below −150 °C, −238 °F or 123K) and the behavior of materials at those • History of – history of the dis- . cipline that deals with the nature of the Universe as a whole. • – history of the study of the causes • History of extragalactic astronomy – his- of motion and changes in motion tory of the branch of astronomy con- • History of – history of the inter- cerned with objects outside our own disciplinary research field, applying theories Milky Way Galaxy and methods originally developed by physi- • History of galactic astronomy – history of cists in order to solve problems in economics the study of our own Milky Way galaxy • History of – history of the and all its contents. branch of science concerned with the forces • History of physical cosmology – history that occur between electrically charged parti- of the study of the largest-scale structures cles. and dynamics of the universe and is con- • History of – history of the physics cerned with fundamental questions about of the Earth and its in space; also its formation and evolution. the study of the Earth using quantitative phys- • History of planetary science – history of ical methods the scientific study of planets (including • History of – history of the Earth), moons, and planetary systems, in use of physics to describe materials in many particular those of the Solar System and different ways such as force, , light and the processes that form them. . • History of stellar astronomy – history of • History of – history of the natural science that deals with the the application of to problems in study of celestial objects (such as stars, physics and the development of mathematical planets, comets, nebulae, clusters and methods for such applications and for the for- galaxies) and phenomena that originate mulation of physical theories. outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as • History of mechanics – history of the branch cosmic background radiation) of physics concerned with the behavior of • History of – history of the physical bodies when subjected to forces or study of the application of physics to the atmo- displacements, and the subsequent effects of sphere the bodies on their environment. 3

• History of – history of the nomena where the is on the order of the study of the structure and function of bio- . logical systems such as humans, animals, • Relativity – , organs, and cells by means of the • methods of mechanics. History of – history of the branch of mechanics concerned with the analysis of • History of – history loads (force, /moment) on physical sys- of the one of the two major sub-fields of tems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state mechanics, which is concerned with the where the relative positions of subsystems do set of physical laws describing the motion not vary over time, or where components and of bodies under the action of a system of structures are at a constant . forces. • History of state physics – history of the • History of – his- study of rigid matter, or solids, through meth- tory of the branch of mechanics that ods such as mechanics, crystallogra- deals with the analysis of the phy, electromagnetism, and . and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous rather than • History of vehicle dynamics – history of the as discrete particles. dynamics of vehicles, here assumed to be • History of fluid mechanics – history of the ground vehicles. study of fluids and the forces on them. • • History of – history – history of the physical sci- of the branch of physics dealing with ence of atomic matter (matter that is composed physical phenomena where the action is of chemical elements), especially its chemical re- on the order of the Planck constant. actions, but also including its properties, structure, composition, behavior, and changes as they relate • History of – history of the chemical reactions the branch of physical science concerned with heat and its relation to other forms • History of – history of of energy and . the study of the separation, identification, and • History of – history of the field quantification of the chemical components of of physics that studies the building blocks and natural and artificial materials. interactions of atomic nuclei. • History of – history of the • History of – history of the branch of study of the abundance and reactions of chem- physics which involves the behavior and prop- ical elements and in the universe, erties of light, including its interactions with and their interaction with radiation. matter and the construction of instruments that • History of – history of use or detect it. the study of the chemical composition of matter in the universe and the processes • History of – history of the that led to those compositions branch of physics that studies the existence and interactions of particles that are the con- • History of – history of stituents of what is usually referred to as matter the branch of atmospheric science in which or radiation. the chemistry of the Earth’s atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. It is a mul- • History of psychophysics – history of the tidisciplinary field of research and draws on quantitatively investigates the relationship be- , physics, meteorol- tween physical stimuli and the sensations and ogy, computer modeling, oceanography, geol- perceptions they affect. ogy and volcanology and other disciplines • History of physics – history of the state • History of – history of the study of matter similar to in which a certain por- of chemical processes in living organisms, in- tion of the particles are ionized. cluding, but not limited to, living matter. Bio- • History of – history of the chemistry governs all living organisms and liv- field of physics that studies polymers, their ing processes. fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well • History of agrochemistry – history of the as the kinetics of reactions involving degra- study of both chemistry and biochemistry dation and polymerisation of polymers and which are important in agricultural pro- monomers respectively. duction, the processing of raw products • History of quantum physics – history of the into foods and beverages, and in environ- branch of physics dealing with physical phe- mental monitoring and remediation. 4 3 HISTORY OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE

• History of – his- • History of Flow chemistry – history of the tory of the examines the role of metals in is run in a continuously flow- biology. ing stream rather than in batch production. • History of – his- • History of – history of the study tory of the rapidly growing scientific dis- of the mechanisms behind major geological cipline that combines organic chemistry systems using chemistry and biochemistry. • • History of – his- History of aqueous geochemistry – tory of the new branch of chemistry that history of the study of the role of covers a broad spectrum of research ac- various elements in watersheds, in- tivities involving biological systems. cluding copper, sulfur, mercury, and how elemental fluxes are exchanged • History of environmental chemistry – his- through atmospheric-terrestrial-aquatic tory of the scientific study of the chemical interactions and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. • History of isotope geochemistry – history • History of immunochemistry – history of of the study of the relative and absolute the branch of chemistry that involves the of the elements and their study of the reactions and components on isotopes using chemistry and geology the immune system. • History of – history of • History of – his- the studies the chemistry of marine envi- tory of the discipline at the intersection ronments including the influences of dif- of chemistry, especially synthetic organic ferent variables. chemistry, and and var- • History of organic geochemistry – history ious other biological specialties, where of the study of the impacts and processes they are involved with design, chemical that organisms have had on Earth synthesis and development for market of • History of regional, environmental and pharmaceutical agents (drugs). exploration geochemistry – history of the • History of pharmacology – history of study of the spatial variation in the chem- the branch of medicine and biology con- ical composition of materials at the sur- cerned with the study of drug action. face of the Earth • History of natural product chemistry – • History of – history of the history of the or sub- branch of chemistry concerned with the prop- stance produced by a living organism – erties and behavior of inorganic compounds. history of the found in nature that usually has a pharmacological or biological activ- • History of – history of the ity for use in pharmaceutical drug discov- subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactiv- ery and drug design. ity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. • History of – history • History of – history of the of the specific study of neurochemi- chemistry of radioactive materials, where cals, which include neurotransmitters and radioactive isotopes of elements are used other molecules such as neuro-active to study the properties and chemical re- drugs that influence neuron function. actions of non-radioactive isotopes (often • History of – history within radiochemistry the absence of ra- of the branch of chemistry that uses principles dioactivity leads to a substance being de- of to assist in solving chem- scribed as being inactive as the isotopes ical problems. are stable). • History of chemo-informatics – history • History of organic chemistry – history of the of the use of computer and informational study of the structure, properties, composi- techniques, applied to a range of prob- tion, reactions, and preparation (by synthe- lems in the field of chemistry. sis or by other means) of carbon-based com- • History of molecular mechanics – his- pounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives. tory of the uses Newtonian mechanics to • History of – history of the model molecular systems. branch of chemistry that studies the trans- • History of Flavor chemistry – history of the formation of crude oil (petroleum) and someone who uses chemistry to engineer arti- natural gas into useful products or raw ficial and natural flavors. materials. 5

• History of – history mechanics in physical models and exper- of the study of chemical compounds contain- iments of chemical systems. ing bonds between carbon and a metal. • History of – history of the • History of – history of the study of the effect of sonic waves and study of chemical reactions that proceed with properties on chemical systems. the absorption of light by atoms or molecules.. • History of – history of • History of – history of the the study of the relative spatial arrange- study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and ment of atoms within molecules. particulate phenomena in chemical systems in • History of – terms of physical laws and concepts. history of the area of chemistry beyond • History of – history of the molecules and focuses on the chemi- the study of rates of chemical processes. cal systems made up of a discrete number • History of – of assembled molecular subunits or com- history of the study of the interrelation of ponents. heat and work with chemical reactions or • History of – history of with physical changes of state within the the study of the energy and heat associ- confines of the . ated with chemical reactions and/or phys- • History of – history ical transformations. of the branch of chemistry that studies • History of – history of the chemical reactions which take place in strict sense of the word the study of phyto- a solution at the interface of an chemicals. conductor (a metal or a semiconductor) • and an ionic conductor (the electrolyte), History of – history of the and which involve electron transfer be- multidisciplinary science that deals with the tween the electrode and the electrolyte or and chemical properties of species in solution. polymers or macromolecules. • History of – history of • History of solid-state chemistry – history of the Femtochemistry is the science that the study of the synthesis, structure, and studies chemical reactions on extremely properties of solid phase materials, particu- short timescales, approximately 10−15 larly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non- seconds (one femtosecond, hence the molecular solids name). • Multidisciplinary fields involving chemistry • History of mathematical chemistry – his- • tory of the area of research engaged History of – history of in novel applications of mathematics to the scientific discipline spanning the fields chemistry; it concerns itself principally of chemistry and biology that involves the with the mathematical modeling of chem- application of chemical techniques and ical phenomena. tools, often compounds produced through • History of – history synthetic chemistry, to the study and ma- of the coupling of the mechanical and nipulation of biological systems. the chemical phenomena on a molecu- • History of chemical engineering – his- lar scale and includes mechanical break- tory of the branch of engineering that age, chemical behaviour of mechani- deals with physical science (e.g., chem- cally stressed solids (e.g., stress-corrosion istry and physics), and life sciences (e.g., cracking), tribology, polymer degrada- biology, microbiology and biochemistry) tion under shear, cavitation-related phe- with mathematics and economics, to the nomena (e.g., sonochemistry and sonolu- process of converting raw materials or minescence), shock wave chemistry and chemicals into more useful or valuable physics, and even the burgeoning field of forms. molecular machines. • History of chemical oceanography – his- • History of physical organic chemistry – tory of the study of the behavior of history of the study of the interrelation- the chemical elements within the Earth’s ships between structure and reactivity in oceans. organic molecules. • History of chemical physics – history of • History of – history the branch of physics that studies chem- of the branch of chemistry whose pri- ical processes from the point of view of mary focus is the application of quantum physics. 6 3 HISTORY OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE

• History of – history • History of ecology – history of the sci- of the interdisciplinary field applying the entific study of the distribution and abun- properties of matter to various areas of dance of living organisms and how the science and engineering. distribution and abundance are affected • History of nanotechnology – history of by interactions between the organisms the study of manipulating matter on an and their environment. atomic and molecular scale • History of Freshwater biology – his- • History of oenology – history of the sci- tory of the scientific biological study ence and study of all aspects of wine of freshwater ecosystems and is a and winemaking except vine-growing and branch of limnology grape-harvesting, which is a subfield • History of marine biology – history called viticulture. of the scientific study of organisms in • History of – history of the the ocean or other marine or brackish study of the interaction between matter bodies of and radiated energy • History of parasitology – history of • History of – history of the Parasitology is the study of para- the Surface science is the study of phys- sites, their hosts, and the relationship ical and chemical phenomena that oc- between them. cur at the interface of two phases, in- • History of population dynamics – cluding solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas history of the Population dynamics is interfaces, solid– interfaces, and the branch of life sciences that stud- liquid–gas interfaces. ies short-term and long-term changes in the size and age composition of • History of earth science – history of the all- populations, and the biological and embracing term for the sciences related to the planet environmental processes influencing Earth. Earth science, and all of its branches, are those changes. branches of physical science. • History of environmental chemistry – his- • History of atmospheric sciences – history of tory of the Environmental chemistry is the umbrella term for the study of the atmo- the scientific study of the chemical and sphere, its processes, the effects other systems biochemical phenomena that occur in nat- have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the ural places. atmosphere on these other systems. • History of environmental – history of the Environmental soil science • History of climatology is the study of the interaction of humans • History of meteorology with the pedosphere as well as critical as- • History of atmospheric chemistry pects of the biosphere, the lithosphere, • History of biogeography – history of the study the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere. of the distribution of species (biology), organ- • History of environmental geology – his- isms, and ecosystems in geographic space and tory of the Environmental geology, like through geological time. hydrogeology, is an applied science con- • History of cartography – history of the study cerned with the practical application of and practice of making maps or globes. the principles of geology in the solving of environmental problems. • History of climatology – history of the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather con- • History of toxicology – history of ditions averaged over a period of time the branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the • History of coastal geography – history of the adverse effects of chemicals on living study of the dynamic interface between the organisms. ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphol- • History of geodesy – history of the scientific ogy, geology and oceanography) and the hu- discipline that deals with the measurement and man geography (sociology and history) of the representation of the Earth, including its grav- coast. itational field, in a three-dimensional time- varying space • History of environmental science – history of an integrated, quantitative, and interdisci- • History of geography – history of the science plinary approach to the study of environmental that studies the lands, features, inhabitants, systems. and phenomena of Earth 7

• History of geoinformatics – history of the sci- • History of seismology – history of the scien- ence and the technology which develops and tific study of earthquakes and the propagation uses information science infrastructure to ad- of elastic waves through the Earth or through dress the problems of geography, geosciences other planet-like bodies and related branches of engineering. • History of soil science – history of the study • History of geology – history of the study of the of soil as a natural resource on the surface of Earth, with the general exclusion of present- the earth including soil formation, classifica- day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmo- tion and mapping; physical, chemical, biolog- sphere. ical, and fertility properties of ; and these • History of planetary geology – history properties in relation to the use and manage- of the planetary science discipline con- ment of soils. cerned with the geology of the celes- • History of topography – history of the study tial bodies such as the planets and their of surface shape and features of the Earth and moons, asteroids, comets, and meteorites. other observable astronomical objects includ- • History of geomorphology – history of the sci- ing planets, moons, and asteroids. entific study of landforms and the processes • History of volcanology – history of the study that shape them of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geo- • History of geostatistics – history of the branch logical, geophysical and geochemical phenom- of focusing on spatial or spatiotem- ena. poral datasets • History of geophysics – history of the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also 4 General principles of the physical the study of the Earth using quantitative phys- sciences ical methods. • History of glaciology – history of the study of • Principle – law or rule that has to be, or usually is to glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phe- be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an in- nomena that involve ice. evitable consequence of something, such as the laws • History of hydrology – history of the study of observed in nature or the way that a system is con- the movement, distribution, and of wa- structed. The principles of such a system are under- ter on Earth and other planets, including the stood by its users as the essential characteristics of hydrologic cycle, water resources and environ- the system, or reflecting system’s designed purpose, mental watershed sustainability. and the effective operation or use of which would be impossible if any one of the principles was to be • History of hydrogeology – history of the area ignored. of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth’s crust (commonly in aquifers). 4.1 Basic principles of physics • History of mineralogy – history of the study of [4] chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (in- Physics – branch of science that studies matter and cluding optical) properties of minerals. its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force.[5] Physics is one of • History of meteorology – history of the inter- the "fundamental sciences" because the other natural sci- disciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere ences (like biology, geology etc.) deal with systems that which explains and forecasts weather events. seem to obey the laws of physics. According to physics, • History of oceanography – history of the the physical laws of matter, energy and the fundamental branch of Earth science that studies the ocean forces of nature govern the interactions between particles • History of paleoclimatology – history of the and physical entities (such as planets, molecules, atoms study of changes in climate taken on the scale or the subatomic particles). Some of the basic pursuits of the entire history of Earth of physics, which include some of the most prominent developments in modern science in the last millennium, • History of paleontology – history of the study include: of prehistoric life • History of petrology – history of the branch • Describing the nature, measuring and quantifying of of geology that studies the origin, composition, bodies and their motion, dynamics etc. distribution and structure of rocks. • • History of limnology – history of the study of Newton’s laws of motion inland • Mass, force and weight 8 4 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES

and (Note: Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, • , theories of gravity which assumes that people’s destiny and human affairs in general correlate to the apparent positions of astronom- • Energy, work, and their relationship ical objects in the sky - although the two fields share a • Motion, position, and energy common origin, they are quite different; astronomers em- • Different forms of Energy, their interconver- brace the scientific method, while astrologers do not.) sion and the inevitable loss of energy in the form of heat (Thermodynamics) 4.3 Basic principles of chemistry • Energy conservation, conversion, and transfer. • Energy source the transfer of energy from one Chemistry – branch of science that studies the compo- [8][9] source to work in another. sition, structure, properties and change of matter. Chemistry is chiefly concerned with atoms and molecules • Kinetic molecular theory and their interactions and transformations, for example, the properties of the chemical bonds formed between • Phases of matter and phase transitions atoms to create chemical compounds. As such, chemistry • Temperature and thermometers studies the involvement of and various forms of • Energy and heat energy in photochemical reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, changes in phases of matter, and separation • Heat flow: conduction, convection, and of . Preparation and properties of complex sub- radiation stances, such as alloys, polymers, biological molecules, • The three laws of thermodynamics and pharmaceutical agents are considered in specialized fields of chemistry. • The principles of waves and sound • Ratiocination The principles of , , and (and logic) electromagnetism

• The principles, sources, and properties of light Mathematics

4.2 Basic principles of astronomy Physics

Astronomy – science of celestial bodies and their inter- actions in space. Its studies includes the following: Chemistry

• The life and characteristics of stars and galaxies Xeno-sciences (cosmology, astronomy, Biology Nano-science • Origins of the universe. Physical science uses the and planetary science) Big Bang theory as the commonly accepted scientific theory of the origin of the universe. Earth sciences Computer (geology, oceanography, Brain science and meteorology) technology • A heliocentric Solar System. Ancient cultures saw the Earth as the centre of the Solar System or uni- Eco- Medical verse (geocentrism). In the 16th century, Nicolaus environmental Agro-science Engineering science Copernicus advanced the ideas of heliocentrism, science recognizing the as the centre of the Solar Sys-

tem. Socio- economic • The structure of solar systems, planets, comets, sciences asteroids, and meteors • Law The shape and structure of Earth (roughly spherical, (and ethics) see also Spherical Earth)

• Earth in the Solar System Chemistry, , partial ordering of the sciences proposed by Balaban and Klein. • Time measurement

• The composition and features of the Moon • Physical chemistry • Interactions of the Earth and Moon • Chemical thermodynamics 4.4 Basic principles of earth science 9

• Reaction kinetics 4.4 Basic principles of earth science • Molecular structure Earth science – the science of the planet Earth, as of 2014 • Quantum chemistry the only identified life-bearing planet. Its studies include the following: • Spectroscopy • • The water cycle and the process of transpiration • Freshwater • Electron configuration • Oceanography • • Weathering and erosion • Molecular dynamics • Rocks • • Agrophysics • Computational chemistry • Soil science • Mathematical chemistry • Pedogenesis • • Soil fertility • Earth’s tectonic structure • Nuclear chemistry • Geomorphology and geophysics • The nature of the atomic nucleus • Physical geography • Characterization of radioactive decay • Seismology: stress, strain, and earthquakes • Nuclear reactions • Characteristics of mountains and volcanoes

• Organic chemistry • Characteristics and formation of fossils • Atmospheric sciences – the that • Organic compounds study the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other • systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. • Functional groups • • Organic synthesis Atmosphere of Earth • Atmospheric and winds • Inorganic chemistry • Evaporation, condensation, and humidity • Fog and clouds • Inorganic compounds • • Crystal structure Meteorology, weather, climatology, and climate • Coordination chemistry • Hydrology, clouds and precipitation • Air and weather fronts • Solid-state chemistry • Major storms: thunderstorms, tornadoes, and • Biochemistry hurricanes • Major climate groups • Analytical chemistry • Speleology • Instrumental analysis • Cave • Electroanalytical method • 5 Notable physical • Electrochemistry • List of • Redox reaction • List of astronomers • Materials chemistry • List of 10 9 EXTERNAL LINKS

5.1 Earth scientists they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon be- ing squeezed into one another ...” (Feynman, Leighton & • List of Russian earth scientists Sands 1963, p. I-2)

[5] “Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the 6 See also regular succession of events.” (Maxwell 1878, p. 9)

[6] Young & Freedman 2014, p. 9 • Outline of science • [7] “Physics is the study of your world and the world and uni- Outline of natural science verse around you.” (Holzner 2006, p. 7) • Outline of physical science • [8] “What is Chemistry?". Chemweb.ucc.ie. Retrieved 2011- Outline of earth science 06-12. • Outline of formal science [9] Chemistry. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster’s Medical Dictio- • Outline of social science nary. Retrieved August 19, 2007. • Outline of applied science 9 External links 7 Notes • Physical science topics and articles for school cur- [1] The term 'universe' is defined as everything that physi- ricula (grades K-12) cally exists: the entirety of space and time, all forms of matter, energy and momentum, and the physical laws and constants that govern them. However, the term 'universe' may also be used in slightly different contextual senses, denoting concepts such as the cosmos or the philosophical world.

8 References

[1] Wilson, Edward O. (1998). Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (1st ed.). New York, NY: Vintage Books. pp. 49–71. ISBN 0-679-45077-7.

[2] "... modern science is a discovery as well as an inven- tion. It was a discovery that nature generally acts regularly enough to be described by laws and even by mathematics; and required invention to devise the techniques, abstrac- tions, apparatus, and organization for exhibiting the regu- larities and securing their law-like descriptions.” —p.vii, J. L. Heilbron, (2003, editor-in-chief). The Oxford Com- panion to the History of Modern Science. New York: Ox- ford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511229-6.

[3] “science”. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam- Webster, Inc. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 3 a: knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method b: such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena

[4] At the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: “If, in some cataclysm, all [] scientific knowledge were to be destroyed [save] one sen- tence [...] what statement would contain the most infor- mation in the fewest words? I believe it is [...] that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when 11

10 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

10.1 Text

• Outline of physical science Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_physical_science?oldid=752385390 Contributors: Zun- dark, Jzcool, Ghakko, DavidLevinson, Michael Hardy, Ixfd64, Kosebamse, Ronz, Stefan-S, Poor Yorick, Big iron, IceKarma, Fvincent, Phoebe, Zandperl, Lowellian, Merovingian, Academic Challenger, Pengo, Chowbok, Andycjp, Antandrus, Beland, DragonflySixtyseven, Icairns, Talrias, D6, DanielCD, Random contributor, Discospinster, Vsmith, Bishonen, Paul August, RoyBoy, Bobo192, Circeus, Any- File, Maurreen, 9SGjOSfyHJaQVsEmy9NS, Mdd, Jumbuck, Joolz, Andrewpmk, Paleorthid, Ynhockey, Velella, SteinbDJ, Gene Nygaard, Alai, Oleg Alexandrov, Woohookitty, Linas, Hard Raspy Sci, Joke137, Liface, Skylion, Phlebas, Graham87, BD2412, Jclemens, Melesse, Josh Parris, Vegaswikian, Yellowmellow45, Gurch, Jrtayloriv, X42bn6, Chaos, Wimt, NawlinWiki, Harro, Stevenwmccrary58, Dead- EyeArrow, IceCreamAntisocial, Leptictidium, Www.wikinerds.org, 21655, Pb30, Katieh5584, FrobozzElectric, Pentasyllabic, DVD R W, Yvwv, SmackBot, David Kernow, Jagged 85, Gabi bart, WookieInHeat, CMD Beaker, Binarypower, Onebravemonkey, Edgar181, Powo, Stephan202~enwiki, Gilliam, ERcheck, MalafayaBot, Papa November, SchfiftyThree, Go for it!, Hallenrm, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, TheGerm, Zalmoxe, Savidan, TechPurism, Richard001, RandomP, Just plain Bill, Serein (renamed because of SUL), Eve- nios, Needlenose, Cyberstrike2000x, Special-T, RichardF, Caiaffa, TheFarix, Levineps, Iridescent, Courcelles, Generalcp702, Postmodern Beatnik, CmdrObot, Dojikami, Yaris678, Cydebot, Christian75, Alaibot, Savitr, Epbr123, Mbell, CharlotteWebb, I already forgot, Cy- clonenim, AntiVandalBot, Pariomasial, Volcanoguy, Leuko, The Transhumanist, True Genius, Staib, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, Professor marginalia, SineWave, Rich257, Kjhskj75, Loonymonkey, RisingStick, Gwern, MartinBot, Sm8900, Mrdoc, El0i, J.delanoy, Maurice Carbonaro, Jalaldn, NerdyNSK, Cpiral, Katalaveno, DarkFalls, McSly, Mrceleb2007, The Transhumanist (AWB), NewEnglandYankee, SJP, Redrocket, Feer, Funandtrvl, Sam Blacketer, ABF, Indubitably, AlnoktaBOT, Oshwah, Technopat, Hqb, Lradrama, DoktorDec, Cremepuff222, Maxim, Mouse is back, Falcon8765, Twooars, Palaeovia, Matthe20, Twopenguins, WereSpielChequers, Malcolmxl5, WTucker, Caltas, Yintan, Bentogoa, Quest for Truth, Tiptoety, Cbone9056, Ssting, Oxymoron83, Faradayplank, Avnjay, KoshVorlon, Spartan-James, Yhkhoo, JL-Bot, Roraem, Martarius, ClueBot, Avenged Eightfold, DFRussia, Tanglewood4, Mild Bill Hiccup, DanielD- eibler, Xenon54, Alpha Ralpha Boulevard, NuclearWarfare, Promethean, Jo Weber, ChrisHodgesUK, La Pianista, Calor, Thingg, Qwfp, SoxBot III, Saeed.Veradi, Viccarothers, Mifter, Toomanylies, ZooFari, Ncaaballa12, Destinylee, King Pickle, GoldenMedian, Elron Wolf- Bane, Jojhutton, Captain-tucker, Crazysane, Karmin90, Fgnievinski, GD 6041, MrOllie, Glane23, Sseedaf, Issyl0, Tide rolls, Verbal, Light- bot, Fryed-peach, Swarm, Legobot, Yobot, The Grumpy Hacker, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, Tempodivalse, AnomieBOT, Jim1138, Piano non troppo, Materialscientist, Xqbot, Cureden, Capricorn42, MZK77QRH9, Ataleh, ChristopherKingChemist, Cktt13, Doulos Christos, Shadowjams, A.amitkumar, Thehelpfulbot, Sky Attacker, Anterior1, Jumanji95, Finalius, Jamesooders, Jayachopra, Winterst, Sweet xx, Jonkerz, January, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Whisky drinker, The ,کاشف عقیل ,Pinethicket, Jonesey95, RedBot, Gamewizard71 Utahraptor, Hajatvrc, Josephcunningham, RA0808, Wikipelli, Dcirovic, Hhhippo, Captain Screebo, Wayne Slam, RockMagnetist, Pe- ter Karlsen, Kleopatra, Petrb, Xanchester, ClueBot NG, Peter James, Incompetence, CaroleHenson, Throw3345, Titodutta, Calabe1992, Wbm1058, BG19bot, Hallows AG, Ployer1, Mark Arsten, Johnisnaked, Cpgdaarfob, Smartweirdo, Polarbearsstare, TBrandley, Shaun, Cimorcus, LHcheM, CarrieVS, Enterprisey, Mogism, Saehry, Isarra (HG), Frosty, OakRunner, Nikolas Tales, Gyan-nehru, Jporter52515, CsDix, EzA+lSeb Nnakari, DavidLeighEllis, Pokedora, A-Z Raju, Vinny Lam, Susan.grayeff, Suelru, Sharkeisha233232323, Trollman700, ԱշոտՏՆՂ, Amortias, Loraof, NekoKatsun, DiscantX, Dietic, CaptainPiggles, AlexanderThe3rd, CV9933, Squiver, Timothyjosephwood, S.grayeff, Webslinger3423, Katzrockso, Articlecreate1234, Bear-rings, Sassysquirrell and Anonymous: 426

10.2 Images

• File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Origi- nal artist: ? • File:Partial_ordering_of_the_sciences_Balaban_Klein_Scientometrics2006_615-637.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/ wikipedia/commons/0/04/Partial_ordering_of_the_sciences_Balaban_Klein_Scientometrics2006_615-637.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Wikibooks-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Wikibooks-logo.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Bastique, User:Ramac et al. • File:Wikinews-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Wikinews-logo.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: This is a cropped version of Image:Wikinews-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Simon 01:05, 2 August 2006 (UTC) Updated by Time3000 17 April 2007 to use official Wikinews colours and appear correctly on dark backgrounds. Originally uploaded by Simon. • File:Wikiquote-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Rei-artur • File:Wikisource-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Rei-artur Original artist: Nicholas Moreau • File:Wikiversity-logo-Snorky.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Snorky • File:Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg License: CC BY- SA 4.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Dan Polansky based on work currently attributed to Wikimedia Foundation but originally created by Smurrayinchester

10.3 Content license

• Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0