Figure 1. The fractures in and other “hard rocks” at the core of mountain ranges are excellent or reservoirs for snowmelt. Because they are irregular, the trick is to hit a fracture that yields enough water to supply a residence when drilling a well.

How geology affects your well water quality By Tony Hoch questions are: “How long has the dissolve and are often fractured. nyone considering purchasing water been in the ground?” and When the is exposed at the Aland to build on should deter- “With what kinds of rocks and min- land surface, the snowmelt and mine the property’s water availability. erals has it been interacting?” rainwater infiltrate into fractures If you ask a geologist, he or she All rocks dissolve in water, and remain very dilute and of very can probably make an educated adding salts, hardness, and alkalin- high quality for drinking water. The guess whether a water well that will ity. Of the common rock-forming problem is these rocks are hard to provide good quantity and/or quality , and feldspar (the drill into, and hitting a good water- can be drilled at a given location. major minerals making up gran- yielding fracture system is hit and This is based on the fact sev- ites in Wyoming’s major mountain miss. If the driller does hit a water- eral generalizations can be made ranges) are the most resistant to bearing fracture, water production with respect to ground water (slowest to dissolve), may support individual homes but and rock types, juxtaposition to whereas salts like and is often too marginal to support a mountain range, location in a halite (rock salt) are the easiest to municipal and community wells mountain valley, or proximity to a dissolve and add total dissolved (Figure 1). perennial stream. The geologic ma- solids (TDS) to the water , Layered on top of terials into which a well is drilled and, hence, reduce water quality. granites are younger sedimen- can vary in and perme- The pre--aged “base- tary rocks such as , ability, governing the amount of ment,” composed of granites and , and . These water yielded; they can also vary in other hard rocks that formed from are often exposed at the edges of chemical composition or , magmas deep in the ’s crust Wyoming’s great valleys or ba- which may affect the chemistry of before about 600 million years sins such as the Bighorn, Wind the well water. ago, forms the core of most of , Powder River, Green River, The ultimate source of ground Wyoming’s major mountain rang- and Laramie basins (Figure 2). water is pure precipitation; the big es. These rocks are very slow to These are the off-, tannish,

fall 2008 19 of fresh water. When exposed next to a mountain range, and aquifers capture large quantities of snowmelt and make for some of the best quality and quantity water supplies around, as they are continually recharged. Due to their vast size – hundreds of square miles in lateral area and hundreds of feet thick – these are resistant to intermit- tent drought. Fine-grained sedimen- tary rocks known as claystones or shales are often “interbedded” within layers of sandstone or limestone (Figure 4). These are notoriously poor sources of good drinking water due to low permeability and the fact the minerals in these rocks tend to “stew” in ground water and attain very high levels of TDS. Similarly, Figure 2. Extensive, thick limestone and sandstone layers exposed near the edges of Wyoming’s great basins are often the best producing sourc- formations of sandstone or - es of high quality drinking water. stone that yield good drinking water near the recharge zone at the land surface may yield very poor water quality when buried 5,000 or 10,000 or reddish colored, layered rocks you feet in a basin where the water does might see when beginning to ascend not circulate and get fresh recharge. a mountain pass. Filling many of the basins in The term “basin” implies these Wyoming, on top of older limestones sedimentary rocks are folded like and sandstones, are thick layers of a bowl with the rim exposed at the clayey rock and , sometimes edge of the mountains (Figure 3). In known as “gumbo,” which make terri- the middle of the basins, the same ble aquifers in terms of water quality rock unit with surface exposure at due to the high salt content and low the basin’s edge may be 10,000 to permeability. Figure 3. This is the cross section of 20,000 feet below the land surface. Finally, there is a class of aqui- a typical Wyoming basin and moun- Some of the best well water fers extremely important in Wyoming tain range. The permeable sources in the state are in the ex- known as alluvial aquifers (Figure 5). rock layer is exposed on the flank of posed sedimentary rocks at or near Alluvium is the gravelly de- the mountains and provides an area the basin’s edge. Sandstones are for rain and snowmelt to recharge posited by the most recent geological comprised of cemented grains ground water. Wells A. and B. are activity of glaciers and . Alluvium (usually quartz and feldspar) that near fresh recharge water and provide can be highly permeable and, when don’t dissolve very rapidly, and the good drinking water. Well C., drilled associated with surface waters like thousands of feet deep into the same rock has good porosity and perme- streams, irrigation canals, and res- formation, yields water high in dis- ability for wells. Limestones contain ervoirs, acts as a shallow aquifer for solved solids because water has been minerals that dissolve relatively easily drinking and irrigation water. Wells in contact with the rock for thousands (), making large fractures or drilled in alluvium are typically shallow, of years. systems called , which can on the order of tens of feet, and water contain and transmit large quantities quality may closely resemble that of

20 BARNYARDS & BACKYARDS a nearby river or irrigation ditch. These are good wells in “normal” precipita- tion years but may be susceptible to drought if the river or ditch dries up for several years in a row. Good advice on well drilling, water quality, and water yield may be obtained from a local geologist or hydrologist who can interpret geo- logic maps and find records on other wells drilled nearby. Another great source of information is from the local well drillers themselves, particularly the companies that have worked the area for a while. General information on laws and permits can be obtained from the Wyoming State Engineer’s Office (contact information is at http:// seo.state.wy.us or [307] 777-6150). Databases on well locations, depth, Figure 4. This unfractured and relatively impermeable shale layer acts as and water quality are maintained by an aquitard, protecting the aquifer below from contaminants released on the Wyoming Water Resources Data the land surface. System (www.wrds.uwyo.edu/) at the University of Wyoming.

Geologist’s Terminology

Mineral – chemically uniform, crystalline, solid-like quartz, feldspar, calcite, or . Rock – of minerals. Porosity – pore space or voids in rock that can contain fluids. Permeability – ability of water to flow through rock. Aquifer – large volume of rock that can contain water in its pores or fractures and through which water may flow (good porosity and Figure 5. This solar-powered permeability). stock water well is drilled only a Aquitard – layer or volume of rock not permeable to water. Aquifers are few feet deep in the middle of often bounded by one or more aquitards. an arid basin. It is situated only Recharge zone – area on land surface where fresh water in the form of a few hundred feet away from rain or snowmelt may fill an aquifer. a perennial stream and taps into in the stream’s flood plain, TDS (total dissolved solids) – amount of dissolved salts and other which is saturated with river inorganic and organic substances in drinking water. Snowmelt can water. The cottonwoods in the have less than 50 part per million (ppm) TDS, whereas seawater or background are a sure indicator water in shale formations can be greater than 50,000 ppm. of shallow ground water.

Tony Hoch is manager of the Laramie Rivers Conservation District and can be reached at (307) 721-0072 or [email protected].

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