4R4ev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 48 (2017) 44-57 S. R. Vasant and M. J. Joshi
Sonal R. Vasant1 and M. J. Joshi2
1Government Engineering College, Rajkot, Gujarat, India 2Department of Physics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India Received: July 29, 2016
Abstract. Over the past few decades, a little word with big potential has been rapidly insinuating into the world’s consciousness, nano. The nano-scale structures permit the control of funda- mental properties of the materials without changing their chemical structure. Living organisms can create amazing ways to produce high performance materials that involve not only creation of implants, replacing bone tissues and organs, but also synthesis of biologically active materials promoting the fullest restoration of tissues and maintenance of necessary functions of an organ- ism. In the biomaterial research field, nowadays, a great attention is given to bone substitute materials, particularly, calcium phosphate based bio-materials play important roles in clinical applications as it possesses high bio-compatibility and excellent ability to undergo varying de- grees of resorbability. These materials show a positive interaction with living tissue that includes differentiation of immature cells towards bone cells and also have chemical bonding to the bone along the interface, thought to be triggered by the adsorption of bone growth-mediating proteins at the bio-materials surface. In the present review paper an attempt is made to cover properties and applications of various phosphate nano bio-materials like calcium phosphate, calcium polyphosphate, calcium pyrophosphate etc over a time span right from 1920 to 2016. This sug- gests plenty of opportunities for interdisciplinary research.
1. INTRODUCTION Valley, South Dekot, USA. This short poem de- scribes the nano-technology from Richard 1959 Feynman’s vision to modern era with caution of risks Richard Feynman imagined a design: woven with it. Create a bot Over the past few decades, a little word with big The size of a dot. potential has been rapidly insinuating itself into the The hope would be world’s consciousness, that is word “nano”, a popu- Inject it into your body lar prefix also. The term nano originates etymologi- Fixing your innards, cally from the Greek and means “dwarf”, which was Like a micro wizard. first coined by Richard Feynman in 1959 . Nano- An exuberant vision structures must have at least one dimension of less Or a risky decision? than 100 nano-meters and may have two or three The poem “Got the Bot?” is written by Alana Moe, dimensions. The nano-scale structures permit the 7th Grade Student of Memorial Middle School, Sioux control of fundamental properties of the materials
Corresponding author: Sonal R. Vasant, e-mail: [email protected]
© 2017 Advanced Study Center Co. Ltd. A review on calcium pyrophosphate and other related phosphate nano bio-materials and their... 45 without changing their chemical structure. The nano- and growth of unique mineral phases. Teeth, bones, particles are of great scientific interest as they are kidney stones, skeletons of algae, mussels, and effectively a bridge between the bulk materials and magnetotactic bacteria are all examples of bio-min- the atomic or molecular structures. eralization. Calcium phosphate (CaP) materials Two main factors may be responsible for the show a positive interaction with living tissue that changes of properties observed in nano-particles: includes also differentiation of immature cells to- (i) A much greater relative surface area per unit of wards bone cells [18,19]. These materials also have mass; chemical bonding to the bone along the interface, (ii) Predominance of quantal effects. thought to be triggered by the adsorption of bone The first factor is responsible for the changes in growth-mediating proteins at the bio-materials sur- reactivity, which can increase considerably as par- face . ticles decrease in size. The second factor, observed in particles of a few dozen nm, explains the changes 1.2. Bio-materials in terms of optical, electrical, mechanical, and mag- A number of definitions have been developed for the netic properties. term “bio-materials”. The consensus developed by Nano-particles that are small enough to enter experts in this field is the following: Bio-materials human cells have the opportunity to interact (in a (or biomedical materials) are defined as synthetic positive or negative sense) with the biochemical func- or natural materials to be used to replace parts of a tions of the cells. In addition, nano-particles can living system or to function in intimate contact with absorb ultraviolet light and trigger chemical reac- living tissues . However, a more complicated tions. definition has been published, “A bio-material is a The era of nano materials and nano technolo- substance that has been engineered to take a form gies promises to be one of the major scientific de- which, alone or as part of a complex system, is velopments and breakthroughs that in the not too used to direct, by control of interactions with com- distant future will permanently affect our everyday ponents of living systems, the course of any thera- lives. Several of these products are already being peutic or diagnostic procedure, in human or veteri- used and many organizations foresee annual world nary medicine” . In general, bio-materials are markets, beginning in 2015, of the order of US $ intended to interface with biological systems to evalu- 1,000 billion . ate, treat, augment or replace any tissue, organ or Researchers want to engineer various properties function of the body and are now used in a number of nano-particles to produce new drugs, drug delivery of different applications throughout the body. The system, clean up pollution, develop warfare arma- major difference of bio-materials from other classes ment, and improve consumer products, like dental of materials is their ability to remain in a biological products, sunscreen, and so on. There are several environment without damaging the surroundings and articles written by different authors [3-5] as well as without being damaged in that process. Thus, bio- several well written books are published [6-16] on materials are solely associated with the health care nano-science, nano-technology, and nano-materials. domain and must have an interface with tissues or tissue component. A synthetic material used to 1.1. Bio-mineralization make devices to replace part of a living system or In nature, amorphous phases exist extensively with to function in intimate contact with living tissue . readily moldable isotropic properties and of struc- The use of bio-materials did not become practi- ture materials. For example, amorphous structures cal until the advent of an aseptic surgical technique represent ~ 20% of approximately 60 different inor- developed by Dr. J. Lister in the 1860s. Earlier sur- ganic compounds and minerals formed by living or- gical procedures, whether, they involved bio-materi- ganisms. These biologically formed minerals are als or not, were generally unsuccessful as a result often called bio-minerals, while the process of their of infection. Nowadays, bio-materials in the form of formation is called bio-mineralization . It is the implants (sutures, bone plates, joint replacements, process by which the living organisms can produce ligaments, vascular grafts, heart valves, intraocular minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues. lenses, dental implants, etc.) and medical devices It is a frequently used term in biology, medicine, (pacemakers, biosensors, artificial hearts, blood nano-technology, astrobiology, and sometimes in tubes etc) are widely used to replace and/or restore geology. In this process living organism provides a the function of degenerated tissues or organs, to chemical environment that controls the nucleation assist in healing, improve function, correct abnor- 46 S. R. Vasant and M. J. Joshi malities and improve the quality of life of the pa- tanium alloy implants to combine the bioactivity (abil- tients. The various materials used in biomedical ity to develop strong interfacial bonding) of the CaP applications may be grouped into metals, ceram- and the strength of the metal . Each application ics, polymers and composites. The success of bio- has a need for the nano-particles to be of a particu- materials in the body depends on factors such as lar size range. the material properties, design, and bio-compatibil- CaPs have been used in the form of artificial ity of the material used. bone. This material has been synthesized and used for manufacturing various forms of implants, as well 1.3. Bio-materials market as for solid or porous coatings on other implants. Extensive research on CaPs, has shown that these Currently, many materials can be found easily in materials are suitable as bone substitutes due to the market. The global market for bio-materials was their bio-compatible, bio-active, bio-degradable and of US $44.0 billion in 2012 and is poised to grow at osteo-conductive (ability to help in new bone forma- a CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of 15% tion) characteristics [27,38-41] and when implanted from 2012 to reach US $88.4 billion by 2017 . in vivo, they are non-toxic and do not induce any The global market for implantable bio-materials was antigenic response . The bioactivity, bio-com- US $25,277.8 million in 2012 and the market is es- patibility, stability and mechanical properties of CaP timated to be valued at US $33,600 million by 2019 materials are usually determined by its composi- , due to the need of better solution for injuries, tion, structure, morphology and crystallite size . diseases, and ageing population all over the world. However, the properties of controllable degradability, There are two main classes of ceramic bio-ma- osteo-inductive and osteo-conductive abilities greatly terials currently in use. One is derived from natural differ among various CaP materials, which results sources including coral and coral derivatives or dem- in a large controversy on exploring qualified bone ineralized human or bovine bone. The second is repair materials with adaptability for excellent bio synthetic ceramics such as bio-active glasses, glass properties in vivo. One common issue related to most ceramics and calcium phosphates. bone repair materials is the uncontrollable degrada- tion rate in vitro and in vivo. The exploration on ad- 1.4. Bio-compatibility justing degradation rate in vitro is an important part Bio-compatibility is defined as acceptance of an of the research on controllable degradability for bone artificial implant by the surrounding tissues and body repair materials. The degradation process of bone as a whole. It is the ability of a material to perform substitute in vivo significantly affects the bio-miner- with an appropriate host response in a specific ap- alization process on implants, because the released plication. “Appropriate host response” includes lack ions provide abundant ionic resources for surface of blood clotting, resistance to bacterial coloniza- nucleation. Thus, a controllable degradation rate of tion and normal healing. bone repair material in vitro study is meaningful be- Calcium phosphate (CaP) materials show a posi- cause it can be adjusted to match with the mineral- tive interaction with living tissue that includes also ization rate and consequently affect osteo-induc- differentiation of immature cells towards bone cells tion and osteo-conduction process in vivo . Re- [18,19]. These materials also have chemical bond- cent trends in technology, however, focus on the ing to the bone along the interface, thought to be incorporation of materials that extends the perfor- triggered by the adsorption of bone growth-mediat- mance of CaPs to have the osteo-inductive proper- ing proteins at the bio-materials surface . ties or the ability to actually stimulate the new bone formation . It is important to recognize that the 1.5. CaP compounds ability to stimulate osteogenesis (bone growth) has also to couple with angiogenesis (blood vessel for- CaP bio-materials have been widely used in medi- mation). The two processes are intricately linkedand cal field in the form of powders, granules, dense the osteogenesis would not be possible without porous blocks, and various composites . This angiogenesis [46,47]. includes repair of periodontal defects, augmenta- Being the main inorganic constituent of hard tis- tion of alveolar bone, sinus lifts, tooth replacement, sue, CaPs have long been attractive in hard tissue repair of large bone defects caused by tumors [27- repair . CaPs are preferred materials for bone- 32], as scaffolds in tissue engineering for bone or graft applications because of their similarity in com- dentin regeneration [32-34], in the form of injectable position with the bone mineral; excellent bioactiv- cements [35,36] or as coatings on titanium and ti- ity; ability to promote cellular functions; and osteo- A review on calcium pyrophosphate and other related phosphate nano bio-materials and their... 47 conductivity . These bio-materials have been Ca/P ratio which lies between 1 and 2 . This is widely used in medical field in the form of powders, summarized in Table 1. granules, dense porous blocks and various com- Recently, the transfection capability of amino posites . There are number of articles which re- acid functionalized CaP nano-particles have been port the application of CaP in dentistry and orthope- studied and reported that they are having the excel- dics since the year 1920 [28,29,50-53]. lent bio-compatibility, biodegradability, and low im- Additionally, CaPs are the one of the widely used munogenicity . Further, CaP facilitates DNA non-viral vectors for in vitro transfection (it is the pro- entry into cells without the need for toxic cationic cess of deliberately introducing nucleic acids into mediators, while magnetic iron oxide allows for par- cells) of a variety of mammalian cells due to its low ticle localization at a target site . The CaP ce- toxicity, bio-degradability, ease of use, and adsorp- ments with magnetic nano-particles for bone regen- tive capacity for p-DNA [54-57]. The transfection eration are well reported . The CaP nano-par- effciency of the classical CaP method strongly de- ticles can be used as multi-functional tools for NIRF pends on preparation parameters, such as pH, con- (near infrared fluorescence) optical imaging, PDT centrations of calcium chloride, and DNA, tempera- (photodynamic therapy) and tumor targeting as they ture, the time between precipitation and transfec- exhibit a high therapeutic efficacy, being capable of tion, cell types, as well as the skills of the researcher inducing apoptosis and destroying tumor vascular- [57-59]. Due to the similar dimensions to the inor- ization [69,70]. Wu et al.  have reported the ganic components of calcified tissues, CaPs mate- development of novel self healing and anti bacterial rials in nano-size are expected to have better bio- dental composite containing CaP nano-particles. activity compared with conventional materials . Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the micro/nano The advantages of synthetic CaPs materials in structured biogenic silver doped CaP has been stud- nano-size again include higher bio-compatibility, ied by Supraja et al. . There are several patents good bio-degradability in situ, and excellent osteo- reported on CaP in 2015 which includes application conductive and osteo-inductive capabilities [61,62]. as body tissue repair , biomemitic peptide-con- There are a large variety of CaPs in existence, taining compositions for deposition on magnesium which are distinguished by the type of the phos- alloy , bone cement formation containing mag- 3- 3- phate anion: ortho- (PO4) , meta- (PO ) or pyro- netic calcium phosphate , method for produc- 4- nn- (P2O7 ) and poly- ((PO3) ). Several phases of crys- ing CaPs . tallized CaPs are formed depending on tempera- Calcium polyphosphate has been investigated ture, partial pressure of water and impurities . in the last sixty years for many applications, which The quantum chemical calculations for CaP is re- include fertilizer , detergent [78,79] and more ported by abinitio model and vibrational spectra are recently, it is being considered for various biomedi- interpreted . A series of CaP compounds is avail- cal applications, including a vehicle for controlled able: dicalcium phosphate [CaHPO4], tri-calcium drug release [80,81], as bone substitute , and phosphate [Ca3(PO4)2], tetra-calcium phosphate as described earlier, as osteochondral substrates
[Ca4(PO4)2O], and hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2], for tissue engineering. The proton conducting prop- which differ by their chemical stoichiometry and crys- erties of CaP is explored for fuel cell application. tallographic structure . The defining factor is The low methanol permeable and high proton con-
Table 1. Classification of CaP material with Ca/P ratio.
Phase Formula Crystal Structure Ca/P
Tetra calcium phosphate Ca4O(PO4)2 Monoclinic 2.0
Hydroxyapatite (Hap) Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 Hexagonal 1.67
Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP) Ca3(PO4)2 Rhombohedral 1.50
Octa calcium phosphate (OCP) 2Ca4(PO4)3.5H2O Monoclinic 1.33
Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate (DCPD) CaHPO4 2H2O Triclinic 1.00
Calcium Pyrophosphate Ca2P2O7 Hexagonal, triclinic, 1.00 monoclinic 48 S. R. Vasant and M. J. Joshi ducting Nafion/CaP composite membrane is used for fuel cell . Kasuga et al.  have reported the fast proton conductors from CaP hydro-gels. Moreover, the performance of fuel cell using CaP hydro-gel membrane prepared from waste materi- als is reported by Fukui et al. . The Application Fig. 1. Molecular structure of pyrophosphate. of CaP nano-particles is suggested for hard tissue engineering scaffolds by Wang et al. . There have been some reports on the possible use of calcium polyphosphate in the literature [53,87,88]. Because of its excellent bio-compatibil- ers have synthesized either single crystal or pow- ity and absorption properties it has attracted more der of various PPi. and more attention in bone tissue engineering re- The PPi are generally found in literature contain- sulting from its similar chemical structure compared ing different formula groups; among these are with natural bone . According to many reports, IV II M P2O7 (M is tetravalent), M P2O7 (M is Divalent), the size of biological apatite in biological hard tis- IV II and M M P2O7 (mixed valance) . Synthesis of sues always possesses a range of a few to hun- pyrophosphate containing cations of various d-met- dreds of nano-meters . Currently these materi- als is of interest from the viewpoint of their possible als are used as a bone substitute , for bone catalytic or biological activity [104,105]. Crystalline screws , for bone crowns , and as a drug and amorphous metal (II) pyrophosphates have long delivery matrix [93,94]. It has shown calcium been used in many fields such as catalysts, waste polyphosphate implants can induce bone formation water purification systems, ferro-electrics, lithium . It also has non-biomedical applications, as an batteries, the steel and glass industries [106-110]. alternative to asbestos fibres , and in humidity The scientific study of pyrophosphate salts and sensors . in particular calcium pyrophosphates (CPPs) can be divided into three periods. The first period, start- 1.6. Calcium Pyrophosphate (CPP) ing in the 1840’s, sought to understand the funda- mental chemistry of ion coordination in solutions, In chemistry, the anion, the salts and the esters of and multiple phases of hydrated single and double pyrophosphoric acid are called pyrophosphates. salts . The second period, flourished in the Pyrophosphates have their historical mode of for- 1950’s and 1960’s, was directed towards identify- mation embedded in their name. Pyrophosphates ing the chemical properties of condensed phos- were originally prepared by heating of phosphates: phates which could have superior characteristics to the prefix pyro-is derived from Greek, means “fire” orthophosphate in industrial products such as fertil- in this context. These condensed phosphates are izer [112-114]. The third period, characterized by commonly synthesized by the application of heat the study of pyrophosphates in biology, began with to orthophosphates [98, 99]. Amongst the condensed the identification by Fleisch and Neuman that pyro- phosphates, pyrophosphate (P O ), can be consid- 2 7 phosphate, a substance found in urine inhibited ered to be the smallest structure and shortest lin- mineralization [115-117]. ear polyphosphate. Fig. 1 shows the molecular struc- Calcium Pyrophosphate (CPP): Ca P O – a ture of pyrophosphate. They are essential for nor- 2 2 7 shortest linear polyphosphate can be used as a bone mal cellular functioning in virtually all living organ- graft material  and also as a mild abrasive agent isms. Pyrophosphatase (PPi) are very important for in dentifrices [119,120] alike other phosphates. Abra- living body and find important place in biochemis- sives are the cleaning and polishing agents in the try. Apart from this, they are good complexing agents toothpaste and generally account for about a third and have many uses in industrial chemistry and also of its weight. Dicalcium phosphate and calcium find important place in biochemistry. Mineralized tis- pyrophosphate are popular materials for abrasives sues such as bone [100,101], dentin and enamel . The CPP can be hydrolyzed slowly to the  contain substantial quantities of PPi. PPi may ortho monomolecular form and the rate increases control the rates at which calcium and phosphate with acidic pH and temperature. It is biodegradable ions enter and leave the mineral phase, and may to the ortho monomolecular form in body fluids, as- keep part of the mineral in a noncrystalline state. sisted by P-O-P splitting body enzymes, so that Due to their potential application, many research- calcium and phosphate are supplied to the body A review on calcium pyrophosphate and other related phosphate nano bio-materials and their... 49 sera. In turn, the body sera supply calcium and deposition disease in primary metabolic disorders phosphate back to the implant in the formation of and its relationship to PPi (pyrophosphatase-PPi- normal body bone tissue as a replacement for the a potent, physiologic inhibitor of the nucleation and absorbed CPP . The mineral CPP is one of the propagation of BCP crystals) metabolism and chon- intermediate product in bio-mineralization process. drocyte differentiation is reported in detail by In bone, CPP can regulate the onset of calcification Terkeltaub . and can act as a trigger mechanism to promote mineralization. It can also alter the rate of crystal 1.7. Crystal structure of calcium growth and dissolution . However, physical pyrophosphate chemical investigations of growth and dissolution of CPP crystals are scarce . In view of this sug- Fig. 2 shows the crystal structure of triclinic dihy- gested benefits several studies focus on the use of drate of calcium pyrophosphate (t-CPPD). This is a CPP as coating material for dental and orthopedic view down the [1 0 0] direction and illustrates the implants. In addition, the results of an in vitro osteo- probable configuration of atoms at the surface of blasts cell culture and in vivo animal study demon- the most prominent crystal face. Hydrogen bonding strated that pyrophosphate is bio compatible with is indicated by dotted lines and “triads” of terminal bone cells and has a great potential as an in vivo pyrophos phate oxygens at the surface. The most biodegradable bone substitute . Sintered prominent feature of the surface of the triclinic form dicalcium pyrophosphate (SDCP), a synthetic com- of CPPD is the series of “triads” of negatively pound, has been proven to be more bio-compatible charged pyrophosphate oxygens. The centers of the to bone tissue than hydroxyapatite . Altogether, calcium atoms lie farther below the surface than the deposition of CPPD (calcium pyrophosphate the centers of the oxygen atoms. Since the oxygen dihydrate) crystals is responsible for the diseases atoms have a much larger van der Waals radius like pseudo-gout, an acute arthritic attack with pain than the calcium atoms, the result is that the cal- and inammation of joints [125-129] and Coffin Lowry cium atoms lie in pockets and the partially covered Syndrome (CLS), a heritable disorder characterized by the oxygen atoms . by pronounced mental retardation and vertebrae abnormalities [130,131]. The CPP constitute a wide family, which, to our knowledge, has been little ex- plored, although their bio-compatibility is well es- tablished. CPP in crystalline form using gel growth technique have been studied by Parekh [132,133]. Calcium pyrophosphate hydrate (CPP, . Ca2P2O7 nH2O) and calcium orthophosphate com- pounds (including apatite, octacalcium phosphate, etc.) are among the most prevalent pathological calcifications in joints. Even though only two dihy- drate crystalline forms of CPP (CPPD) have been detected in vivo (monoclinic and triclinic CPPD), the investigations of other hydrated forms such as tetra- hydrated or amorphous CPP are relevant to a fur- ther understanding of the physico-chemistry of those phases of biological interest. It is worth noting that CPP crystals are particularly involved in several kinds of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disorder affecting 80% of the population over 75 . The two different CPPD crystalline phases viz. monoclinic and triclinic calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), referred to as m-CPPD and t- CPPD, respectively , are associated with a high inammatory potential, according to in vivo studies, Fig. 2. Crystal structure of t-CPPD,reprinted with which is probably due to their interaction with cell permission from: N. L. Davis (PhD Thesis, Califor- membranes . The pathogenic features of CPPD nia Institute of Technology, USA, 1977), © 2015 California Institute of Technology. 50 S. R. Vasant and M. J. Joshi
The pyrophosphate molecules are reported to and z =0.20 only. The complete coordination shells have a very high flexibility with two characteristic around the four independent calcium ions are shown configurations, staggered or eclipsed . Similar only once; these shells contain some oxygen at- to pyrosilicates, pyroarsenates or pyrogermanates, oms which are either above or below the general the crystals of pyrophosphate compounds of the level . Fig. 3b depicts the structure of -CPP composition X2P2O7, with an ionic radius of X less projected onto the xy plane, where the large circles than 0.97 Å (X = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), are represent oxygen atoms, the small circles repre- isostructural with thortveitite (Sc2Si2O7), with the P- sent phosphorus atoms and the medium-sized O-P bond angle varying from 140 to 180° and O- circles represent the cations. The decimal numbers P·····P-O pseudo-torsion angle of 60° (staggered represent the z coordinates of the atom. The bro- conformation) and the YO4 (Y = P, Si, As, Ge) tetra- ken bonds are to oxygen atoms a unit cell length hedra showing a very low degree of distortion. For away . an ionic radius greater than 0.97 Å (X = Ca, Sr, Ba) Structures of both - and -CPP contain pyro or for hydrates, pyrophosphate molecules usually groups, P2O7, which consist of two corner-shared have the same configuration as the dichromate struc- PO4 tetrahedra with P-O-P angles of 130° for the ture, with a P-OP angle of approximately 120-135°, phase and angles of 131° and 135° for the phase . and OP·····O pseudo-torsion angle of 0-30° (eclipsed In -CPP, the Ca ions coordinates with eight oxy- conformation) and distorted YO4 (Y = P, Si, As, Ge) gen atoms and the chains of edge-shared Ca poly- tetrahedra . The structures of several divalent hedral form sheets parallel and perpendicular to the II metal ion pyrophosphates M P2O7 (M is Divalent) ac plane. The coordination number of Ca in -CPP show either a bent P-O-P group in the anion [141, are seven, eight and nine; each pyrophosphate group 142] and/or considerable disorder at the central is linked by commonly shared Ca atoms forming oxygen atom at the ion . The structures of CaPs infinite pyrophosphate-Ca chelate-like chains which are mainly determined by single crystal X-ray dif- is represented in Fig. 4 . fraction (XRD) [144-146]. The biological response of Recently, the crystal structure of m-CPPM b-CPP for new bone formation is quite similar to (monoclinic calcium pyrophosphate monohydrate) that of the hydroxyapatite . Fig. 3a represents is reported and shown in Fig. 5 . The molecu- the structure of -CPP viewed along c-axis includ- lar structure of m-CPPM, showing the atom-num- ing the cell contents between approximately z = 0 bering scheme and symmetry-equivalent atoms. The
Fig. 3. Crystal structure of (a) -CPP (reprinted with permission from: N. C. Webb // Acta Crystallogr. 21 (1966) 942; © 1966 International Union of Crystallography) and (b) -CPP (reprinted with permission from C. Calvo // Can. J. Chem. 43 (1965) 436 © 1965 Canadian Science Publishing). A review on calcium pyrophosphate and other related phosphate nano bio-materials and their... 51
Fig. 4. Crystal structure of -CPP and -CPP, reprinted with permission from: T. Goto and H. Katsui // Interface Oral Science (New York: Springer,2014); © 2014 Springer.
displacement ellipsoids are drawn at the 50% prob- 2H2O) or dicalcium phosphate (DCP, monetite, ability level, except for H atoms, which are repre- CaHPO4)  and glass crystallization . sented by 20% probability spheres. Many methods have been employed to synthe- size metal doped CaP based materials such as: 2. SYNTHESIS METHODS hydrothermal treatment [156,157], chemical precipi- tation [156,158,159], sol-gel [160-162], solid-state There are various techniques reported in the litera- reaction  and solution-reaction system . ture for the synthesis crystalline CPP, which include precipitation method , wet chemical process 3. CHARACTERIZATION OF CaP  and gel growth technique . In this single diffusion gel growth technique sodium pyrophosphate COMPOUNDS solution was mixed with sodium meta-silicate solu- Apart from basic characterizations like powder XRD, tion of 1.05 specific gravity and this was acidified by FT-IR and TEM, various techniques have been em- 2 N acetic acid in such a manner that pH was within ployed for bulk as well as nano-structured CaP com- 4.5-5. After setting the gel calcium nitrate tetra hy- pounds, for example, thermal stability of bulk CPP drate solution was poured without disturbing the gel. was studied by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) Good quality, transparent, spherical granule type [133,165] and nano-structured CPP [166,167] and crystals were obtained. The CPP crystals show bi- dielectric study of bulk CPP was carried out by Bian refringent properties and can be viewed under polar-  and Parekh  and Vasant and Joshi car- ized microscope. The monoclinic CPPD crystals ried out for nano-CPP . In order to explore bet- were synthesized using physical methods by ter applications of CPP, the doping of different ions Winternitz et al. . is reported by various authors, viz, Zn ion doped by Altogether various techniques are reported in the Masala  and Vasant  and Mn ion doped literature for the synthesis of nano-sized CPP, which by Masala . include wet precipitation method , solid state reaction , thermal decomposition of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, brushite, CaHPO4 52 S. R. Vasant and M. J. Joshi
the RGDfk peptide for favored tumor targeting, and (iii) the fluorescent dye molecule DY862-NHS for enabling near IR-uorescent optical imaging in vivo . Earlier Ganesan et al.  have reported that the CaP nano-particles colloidally stabilized by sur- face functionalization with 5, 10, 15, 20- tetrakis (4- phosphonoxyphenyl) porphine (P-TPPP) as bio-com- patible fluorescing agents or for the delivery of fluo- rescing molecules. Also, the surface functiona- lization of CaP nano-particles is achieved by Mostaghaci et al.  using N-(2-aminoethyl)-3- aminopropyltrimethoxysilane to achieve disperse CaP nano-particles with positive surface charges capable of transfection. These CaP nano-particles is used for delivering nucleotides into living tissues or cells. Nano tetracalcium phosphate coating on Fig. 5. Molecular structure of m-CPPM, reprinted titanium substrate is recently studied and corrosion with permission from: P. Gras, N. Ratel-Ramond, parameters have been evaluated in simulated body S. Teychene, C. Rey, E. Elkaim, B. Biscans, S. fluids . Further, the length controlled synthe- Sarda and C. Combes // Acta Cryst. C: Struct. sis of calcium phosphate nano-rod and nano-wire Chem. 70 (2014) 862, © 2014 International Union of for intracellular protein delivery is reported by Das Crystallography. and Jana . Calcification is the detrimental process in vas- cular aging and in diseases such as atherosclero- sis and arthritis. In particular, small CaP crystal deposition associated with inamation and athero- 4. SOME RECENT DEVELOPMENTS sclerotic plaque destabilization. Dautova et al.  have reported that CaP particles caused human By carefully reviewing the literature the present au- vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) death. The thor has come across some interesting publications CaP particles functionalized with protein fetuin-A is on CaP bulk and nano-particles. It is a mammoth less toxic than naked CaP particles. task to cover all research publications, but a humble CaP nano-particles find applications in cancer attempt is made to cover some important ones. It treatment. The efficiency of CaP composite nano- has been found that most of the studies are related particles in targeting Ehrlich Ascites carcinoma cells to medical science for treatment or detection of dis- transplanted in mice is reported by Abdel-Gawad et ease or aliment. al. . The mode of action of nano-CaP in vivo is As CPP is found to be responsible for pseudo- studied by histopathological examination, which gout and other arthropathies. The attempt was made shows complete recovery of cancer cells in the thigh to grow CPP crystals in gel medium to study growth muscle after three months. Also, the preparation of inhibition using three different herbal extracts viz optimized lipid-coated CaP nano-particles is inves- Rotula aquatica root, boerhaavia diffusa root, and tigated by Tang et al.  for enhanced in vitro commiphora wightii. The growth inhibition was car- gene delivery to breast cancer cells. ried out by measuring the number of crystals grown Recently some applications of CPP as catalyst and total diffusion length in gel column. All three are reported. Non-stoichiometric CPP is found as extracts had given good results in terms of less highly efficient and selective catalyst for dehydra- number of crystals grown and less diffusion length tion of lactic acid to acrylic acid. The non-stoichio- in the gel the column with comparison to pure cal- metric CPP with Ca/P ratio from 1.02 to 0.76 is cium nitrate solution, altogether, commiphora wightii studied and the ratio 0.76 is found to be the most showed the best results . efficient with 100% lactic acid conversion and 78% The photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumor causes acrylic acid selectivity at 375 °C. Apart from this, skin photo-sensitivity as a result of unspecific ac- the chitosan/CPP hybride micro-owers exhibit high cumulation behavior of the photosensitizers. The efficiency in dye adsorption and enzymatic cataly- PDT of tumors was improved by CaP nano-particles sis . 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