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Brooks and Warren

Brooks and Warren


Brooks and Warren by On the announcement by the National Endowment for the Humanities that Cleanth Brooks had been selected as the Jefferson Lecturer, the editor of this journal kindly invited me to write a little essay about him. Naturally, my heart was in the project, but I finally accepted with a degree of uncertainty and doubt. For some days I could not find a way for me into the subject. There are, without question, others more capable of assessing his contribution to the criticism of this period. And what would it mean, I asked myself, if I gave the impressive list of his distinctions and tried to recount the influence he has exerted on scholars and critics—or the mutual blood­ letting? Then I stumbled on the notion that I am about to pursue. Thinking of Cleanth led me to think in general about a peculiar good fortune that has been with me most of my life. Time and again, at some crucial moment, I have come upon a person who could open my eyes to some idea, some truth, some self- knowledge, some value that was to make all the dif­ ference to me—something which sometimes I had been half-consciously fumbling for in the dark. The revelation might come in an instant or might grow over a long friendship. No clearer case of such a pro­ longed process has ever come to me than that of the long friendship with the Jefferson Lecturer of this year. Here, at last, was something that I could speak on with some authority. Cleanth Brooks and I have been friends since the academic year of 1924-25, when I was a senior and he, somewhat younger than I, was a freshman, at . But already his head was buzzing with speculation and he was entering into the active literary life that prevailed among many undergraduates in that institution. So our friend­ ship began, and now, looking back on the years of argument, exploration, speculation, and collabora­ tion, I realize how often my eyes have been opened. It was not, however, until our paths crossed at Oxford that our friendship took on its particular by Bill Ferris quality. He was then doing the English B.A. and and from whose criticism, always offered with a be honest enough to admit that my reading had about to do a B.Litt. (with Nichol Smith his super­ graceful tentativeness, I was led more and more in­ been of a hand-to-mouth variety. Not so with visor and later a friend and collaborator in editing to the sense of the relation between theory and prac­ Cleanth, and now I remember with perfect clarity the Thomas Percy Letters, of which the ninth tice. One thing I learned was that probing the the moment when he said that he thought he had volume is about to appear). But it was not Cleanth's possibilities of theory, always with an eye on par­ found the bridge between Eliot and Richards—what interest in eighteenth-century scholarship that was ticular cases, could be a way of freeing the imagina­ common ground permitted the meeting of minds central to our association. Our characteristic topic tion. I had already heard a lot of subtle and learned between the churchman and the positivist. My point of conversation was the opening world of talk from old friends like and here is twofold. Cleanth could never be satisfied un­ and poetic criticism and theory. We shared what among the back in Nashville, til logically at ease, and now paradoxically he had might honestly be called a passion for poetry. I was but then I had been so hot at the immediate task found his ease in a sort of paradox—the churchman already spending night after night trying to write of trying to write poems that I had missed a certain and the positivist could shake hands over the poetic poems, but his appetite was leading him into a enrichment for that practical task. instance. devoted study of criticism and theory. It was Now, both Cleanth and I had been reading the What made Cleanth's conclusion so important to Cleanth to whom I showed my midnight efforts, criticism of T.S. Eliot and I.A. Richards, but I should me was that I, too, was deeply immersed in

I A Editor's Notes This issue of Humanities celebrates a the life and work of Cleanth Brooks, who will deliver the four­ a teenth in the Humanities on May 8 in Washing­ ton, and on May 14 in New Or­ 3 leans. Mr. Brooks's subject is "Lit­ s erature in a Technological Age.” This subject is at the core of many of the ensuing articles as they examine some of the reasons why the flowering of southern literature took place so much later than, say, 's. Lewis Simpson has written that "the southern connection with the world literary order [could] not be fully restored until the twentieth cen­ tury." An emerging school of historians of the South suggested to southern poets and storytellers the "subtle inward drama of southern history as a quest for Elizabethan and metaphysical to our first collaboration on fers in being shaped more scru­ meaning, especially the meaning of poetry, along with the modern . Looking back pulously—by meter for one thing the self in modern history." radicalism. What most obviously on that time, I more and more feel (which also contributes to ease of Until recently, the "Technological distinguished such poetry from the that it was crucial for me. The memory). But metrical language is Age" was not part of the southern neoclassic, the Romantic, and the work, begun at the suggestion of not mechanical; it rises from a rubric. The photographs that illus­ Victorian variety seemed clearly to the head of the department, had special formal use of language that trate the following pages (many of lie in the power to absorb non- started modestly enough, only is played both with and against the by such superb photogra­ poetic material—such as the famous some mimeographed sheets and dramatic flow of language. Meter phers as Walker Evans) show a instance of Eliot's evening sky samples of analyses, to supplement and rhythm, in their complex rela­ South as late as the 1940s that is stretched like a patient etherized general notes on theory—all this tionship, call for a vivid, if often distinctly untechnological, rural, upon a table. Both Eliot and simply prepared as the basis for unconscious, play of imagination. and achingly poor. Richards denied the necessity of discussion with the number of But, in any case, our whole effort In fewer than forty years, this im­ what might be called "poetic" teachers of sophomore English. was to show how the non-bookish age of the South has been erased. material as such. In their different Poetry was here the general topic poetry could lead straight to the The South has become, as Fred ways they held to the doctrine of because it was the subject that met bookish: that is, to a Hobson writes, "the nation's sec­ "inclusion," not "exclusion," for with the most massive resistance. poem, say, by Frost. ond chance, a relatively unspoiled poetry. Or as Coleridge had But our serious work began when So much had become involved land whose cities are new and phrased it, the imagination is to be the publishers Henry Holt and long after our talk about ballads. sparkling and whose people re­ defined as the "faculty" that Company wanted a book. Small poems led to large poems tain the mythical innocence of an achieves the "balance or reconcile­ What led to my greatest benefit and to theorizing sometimes earlier America." ment of opposite or discordant was that everything was quite lit­ ignorant enough. At this time, e —Judith Chayes Neiman qualities." And, of course, this erally to be collaborative. We sat though certainly not in ignorance, general notion was to lead to down and argued out general no­ Cleanth was working at The Waste Cleanth's later studies of irony as a tions and general plans for the Land, and when finally the essay structural principle. book—only to find as work devel­ was done he sent a draft to Eliot. I What I must remember, and em­ oped that we were constantly being The poet replied, saying that it was Humanities phasize, is that in those days I was thrown back to revise original "on the whole excellent," and that A bimonthly review published by the more involved in sniffing in the ideas. But very early Cleanth had this kind of "analysis is perfectly National Endowment for the Humanities tracks of the poets than in theory, made a fundamental suggestion. justified as long as it does not pro­ Acting Chairman: John Agresto Director of Public Affairs: Susan H. Metts even in sniffing, often with satisfac­ After an introductory section of fess to be a reconstruction of the Assistant Director for Publications: tion, in the tracks of poets who lay general discussion, we would get author's method of writing . . . be­ Caroline Taylor outside any theory of taste I might down to individual poems and start cause the conscious problems with Editor: Judith Chayes Neiman have been developing—for instance with narrative, including folk which one is concerned in the ac­ Managing Editor: Linda Blanken Keats (whose work I was mad ballads. Folk poetry has one great tual writing are more those of a Editorial Board: John Andrews, Marjorie Berlincourt, James Blessing, about but had not grasped), even pedagogical advantage. It springs quasi-musical nature, in the ar­ Harold Cannon, Richard Ekman, Coleridge (by whose work I was from a nonliterary world and some rangement of metric and pattern Donald Gibson, Guinevere Griest later fascinated), selections from event that has had some special ap­ than a conscious exposition of Designed by Maria Josephy Schoolman Tennyson (for the great vividness), peal to the imagination of that ideas" (quoted with permission some early Yeats. Oddly enough, I world. But how is the ballad dif­ from Valerie Eliot). The opinions and conclusions expressed in And such remarks seemed to give Humanities are those of the authors and do not must gratefully report that it was ferent from a folk tale? What are its necessarily reflect Endowment policy. Material Cleanth's theorizing that finally key elements? Obviously the ballad, some sort of psychological bar to appearing in Humanities may he freely converted me to Wordsworth—from sung or not, is more handy to the line along which we had been reproduced although the editor would ap­ whose work I had long been working. preciate notice and copies for the memory, not merely because it is Endowment's reference. The chairman of the alienated by some stupid courses in shorter but because of its very In 1938 our book appeared to a Endowment has determined that the publica­ the subject, as I was later to be for nature, its very appeal to the small stir of praise and blame. As tion of this periodical is necessary in the trans­ the years passed we certainly never action of the public business required by law of a long time totally alienated from imagination. this agency. Use of funds for printing this peri­ Whitman by Professor Cestre of the For one thing the ballad would felt that this was the book we had odical has been approved by the director of the Sorbonne. But to get back to my differ from the folk tale in that it hoped to make. And certainly we Office of Management and Budget through had to be chopped up, to leap, that had never intended to lay down a September 1988. Send address changes and re­ subject: Cleanth early led me to see quests for subscriptions to the Superintendent that criticism can be a fundamental­ is, from peak to peak, but chopped predictive or prescriptive design for of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Of­ ly creative act. It can be a way to in such a way that the hearer's im­ poetry. Along the years two more fice, Washington, D C. 20402. (USPS 521-090) agination must make the leap. In editions appeared, but with the Other communications should be addressed to the inwardness of poetry. Editor, Humanities, National Endowment for After Oxford it was not until the other words, he must get involved fourth and last (1976) our old con­ the Humanities, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, fall of 1934 that I rejoined Cleanth, in the ballad itself. By the sug­ versations had begun again, and N.W., Washington, D.C. 20506. Telephone the old struggle for clarity. We had 202/786-0435. ISSN 0018-7526 now at the Louisiana State Univer­ gested leaps he is helping to create sity, where our old discussions led it. And of course the ballad dif­ once struggled for the "right 2 phrase” for an idea, but now it world of degenerates for a long on the subject, really a little book: was clear to us that you didn't stay, and in the end prepared the Audubon: A Vision. In any case, all The Jefferson Lecture have the right idea until you had pivotal Portable . the years I had been doing poems, the "right phrase.” No doubt I had The news of the Portable came as and Cleanth had somehow found Cleanth Brooks is the fourteenth learned something from the stack no surprise to me. For one thing I time for his old scrupulosity in Jefferson Lecturer in the Human­ of poems (many now accumulated had known Cowley for some time, criticism and suggestion. ities, the highest honor the gov­ on yellowing sheets, some never and his Faulkner reviews that had Much earlier, back in Louisiana ernment confers for outstanding finished, or finished but never marked the turn from the early he had had a special influence, achievement in the humanities. shown) and had learned something assessment in the New Republic; and even as we talked about the meta­ Previous Jefferson Lecturers have from a more severe notion of I had long had the benefit of physical poets, in turning me back been Sidney Hook, Jaroslav criticism, often from the books Cleanth's obsession—an obsession to certain elements of my boyhood Pelikan, Emily T. Vermeule, Cleanth had been doing, such as which was to eventuate in William world, its people, ballads, and Gerald Holton, Barbara Tuch- Modern Poetry and the Tradition Faulkner: The Yoknapatawpha Country tales. But the metaphysicals pre­ man, Edward Shils, C. Vann (1939), The Well-Wrought Urn (1947), (1963), a crucial masterpiece of vailed for a time, and one of my Woodward, , John and A Shaping Joy (1971). In any criticism. What a stroke it was for early volumes is clearly derived Hope Franklin, Paul A. Freund, case, I came to the new revision the author to begin with Faulkner's from that period. But Cleanth had Robert Penn Warren, Erik H. with something of the old excit- view of nature, and of man in always considered poetry as poetry Erikson, and Lionel Trilling. ment, and freshness. nature, and then to analyze the rather than an illustration of a - Here I must interrupt myself to social structure behind the fiction, theory or doctrine. Even back in newal of the meaning of nature to remark again on my luck. Over the always in scrupulous detail. Who the he had held the view that man, and of man's complexity to years after 1935, when the Southern else could have placed Faulkner in every new poem we read may himself, especially to the floating Review was established, a third the matrix of his genius? And the change, however minutely, our unmoored fragments of experience voice had appeared in our discus­ book itself shows how, bit by bit, conception of poetry. This is not to that so often seem to defy defini­ sions, particularly when the subject the county becomes as real as any say, I should think, that "anything tion. The kind of poem that he was selections to be made for the in , and the inhabitants goes." It would seem rather to say asked for now seemed to be a magazine. Albert Erskine, then a as complex and human, in vices that the reader should be careful to challenge to explore life, to redeem graduate student but the business and virtue, as any of our fellow know where anything goes. There is the unmoored fragments as an ex­ manager of the magazine, shared citizens. Even after Cleanth and I a sort of a paradox here, but it is ploration of life, and one to crowd offices with Cleanth and me, whose had met again, now at Yale, and he the paradox, we might hazard, as far as possible the limits of life. concern lay mainly in the literary had been in a long collaboration in all intelligence confronting For a poem to be good it must side of the magazine. Handling with William Wimsatt on the experience. crowd the boundaries of life (if I manuscript and making selections history of criticism, he was still In any case, years later, as I may be allowed the risk of inter­ was constantly entangled with no­ finding more and more new aspects stumbled through the snow drifts pretation) in an effort to define life tions of "w hy” or "w hy n ot"—in of Faulkner's work (for example, in on the campus of the University of and the self in life. other words with practical criticism. William Faulkner: Toward Yoknapa­ Minnesota, some ballad-like lines At least it seems to me that And when it came down to actual tawpha And Beyond). had popped into my head. And a something like that was what he selection, Albert had as much of an But there was a long interruption few months later I could type out had been trying to tell, but I had editorial hand as anybody—except here, and another three-cornered "The Ballad of Billie Potts"—in been too dense to understand. when, in boredom, he chose to conversation began at Yale, with which elements of a tale told me by leave such matters to his damfool R.W.B. Lewis as number three. For an old lady, my great-aunt, become I have been writing of my long friends. He was, in fact, not much some years we set about reading entangled with a poetry of inter­ years of luck, luck at least in cer­ concerned with general theorizing, , with the notion pretation and symbolic commentary tain aspects. Naturally I am deeply but he had an infallible eye for of doing an anthology and critical and modern reference and style. grateful for those years. But now— stupidity, sentimentality, and history, this again a true collabora­ Not that I was thinking of a poetry not as a footnote, God knows—I'll pretension, a subtle taste in poetry, tion. I may add that my luck held of "inclusion"; I was simply trying add a word about the luck which and an arrogant honesty. Since here and even led me, for better or to write a poem that seemed to made all other kinds of luck pos­ then, I have come to know better worse, to write some poems about coalesce in me. But all my poetry sible: the many years of ever- than ever those traits; for more Dreiser (sparked by our conversa­ had owed something to the shadow generous friendship. than thirty-five years he has been tion), a little book on Dreiser's of the old and continuing conver­ my editor and publisher. But back work, and an edition of Melville's sation, sometimes quite specifically Mr. Warren, , poet and educator, then he tended to ride logical herd selected poems. And in doing my as in "O ld Nigger On One-Mule is professor emeritus of English at Yale on the speculations of his friends. homework on Audubon and listen­ Cart." University. The 1974 Jefferson Lec­ Thus far I have spoken chiefly of ing to the continuing discussions, I But I had long since begun to feel turer, he is a three-time Cleanth and poetry. Indeed, for revived an old impulse to write a that I had, in a certain way, read winner, twice for poetry, once for fic­ some years it was our immediate poem on the subject (actually Cleanth's theorizing too narrowly, tion. Mr. Warren was awarded the job. But another topic intruded begun and cast aside years back). in his doctrine of "inclusion" and Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1980 itself more and more: William With only one line left over from of "irony." Certainly Cleanth had, and was a 1981 MacArthur Foundation Faulkner. At Oxford I had read his the old failure, I wrote a new poem first of all, been talking of a re- fellow. early Soldier's Pay, and a little later reviewed his first collection of short stories. But by the time when, at Louisiana, I rejoined Cleanth, he must have read and studied all the Faulkner there then was, and everything about it. So now practically all conversation which was not about poetry was about his fiction. We read and puzzled over it—puzzled rapturous­ ly, I may add. It is hard to believe the idiotic truth of those times—a time when the review of in The New Republic appeared under the title "Signify­ ing Nothing," and when in various (above) Cleanth Brooks at Louisiana other journals Faulkner's characters State University, where with Robert were often referred to in some such Penn Warren (right) he edited The phrase as vicious and degenerate Southern Review■ clowns. We may remember, how­ ever, that paid hard money for a ticket to the CLEANTH BROOKS The Fourteenth Jefferson Lecturer in the Humanities

When Cleanth Brooks, Gray Pro­ that have changed the way "They experienced the mortality of This notion of the vitality of fessor Emeritus of Rhetoric at Yale, literature is taught in this country. Western Civilization .... They had literature appears to have been a was a freshman at Vanderbilt Since the publication of the first of a vision of what it means to lose a considerable force in the career of University in 1925, freshman them, An Approach to Literature in world order, a civilizational com­ Cleanth Brooks. Having witnessed English was a course in the reading 1936, students have been intro­ munity (in contrast, we might say, the making of poems and stories of literature, taught by a graduate duced to literature by textbooks to the more narrowly focused, not only at Vanderbilt, but later at student. One day the graduate stu­ that "touched the heart of" it. though highly poignant, vision of a Louisiana State University as dent read the class a commentary Vanderbilt in the twenties was Hemingway, with its emphasis on coeditor (again with Warren) of the on a by Rudyard Kip­ the setting for those rare and the existential individual who must original Southern Review, Brooks ling. The commentary was written welcome occasions when history behave well in the general chaos by saw that literature had a life on the by the poet , who contrives with chance to bring disciplining himself not to think page, separate from its life in the was at that time on the Vanderbilt great, creative minds together. In about it)." They were fugitives creator's mind; separate, too, from faculty. Young Brooks was startled the same way, and at just about from a homeland that wasn't set­ its life in the mind of the reader or by what he heard. the same time, the Algonquin Hotel ting much store by the world of critic. This awareness of the in­ "It opened my eyes," Brooks was the gathering place for a ideas, and from a world whose dependence of literature led to a says now, his quiet southern voice coterie of and thinkers in ideas had formed an industrial, conviction of its primacy in critical filled with the recollection of New York, as was the Bloomsbury technological society that had lost endeavors. In Brooks's criticism, discovery. "I don't know why. I district in London. Four years the sense of community. They the subject is neither think Don has written much finer before Brooks arrived at Vanderbilt, wrote to recall that community or nor literary history but the liter­ criticism since. But when I heard was being taught to search for a new one. ature that "we encounter on the his little account, something in me by a professor named John Crowe Brooks arrived at Vanderbilt the page" and the determination responded, 'Yes! This is the way Ransom to classes that included year before the last issue of The of "what it m eans." you do it. You don't just tell the Merrill Moore, Andrew Lytle, Allen Fugitive was published. There he Even when he is not engaged in story. You don't just talk about the Tate, and Robert Penn Warren. met Warren, Lytle, Davidson, his celebrated "" of author . . . or even the characters. Three of these students were to Ransom and others of what Allen particular works, Brooks proceeds You tell what the action means, become members of the Fugitives, a Tate called "the group of poets from point to point by concrete il­ what its significance is. group that gave its name to a and arguers." lustration. The method itself can be "There was nothing wrong with literary magazine published at "Of course the thing that I got seen as an illustration of the way the kind of that we Vanderbilt between 1922 and 1925 most out of Vanderbilt," Brooks that, according to Brooks, literature were getting from our books at Van­ and that took something of its said to Warren many years later, communicates its special knowl­ derbilt, but it left the poem or story character from the history of the "was to discover suddenly that edge. "[Great works of literature] untouched. Davidson's account American South. "They lived in a literature was not a dead thing to are not generalizations about life, touched the heart of the story and culture that carried within it the liv­ be looked at through the glass of a but dramatizations of concrete made it come alive for m e." ing memory of a world put to the museum case, but was very much problems," he writes in A Shaping The reading was an incentive mo­ sword," wrote Lewis Simpson, a alive. Walking around on the cam­ Joy (, Brace, Jovanovich, ment in a career that has produced later editor of the reborn Southern pus were people who were actually 1971), "not remedies designed to fifteen major books about literature, Review (The Possibilities of Order: writing poems, who were talking solve these problems but rather among them four textbooks written Cleanth Brooks and His Works, Loui­ about the making of poems, who diagnoses in which the problems with Robert Penn Warren, books siana State University Press, 1976). were getting them published." are defined and realized for what 4 they are .... Literature is thus in- Press in 1963. William Faulkner, The ner's work. It is the circumambient three courses each semester, and :urably concrete—not abstract. . . . Yoknapatawpha Country, the first of atmosphere, the essential ether of founded with Warren and Charles [It is a mistake to assume] that the three books that Brooks would Faulkner's fiction. But for many a Pipkin, . Brooks themes of literature are generaliza­ write on Faulkner, is dedicated to reader, the community is indeed in­ says that he did not expect the in­ visible and quite imperceptible: It tions to be affirmed rather than Robert Penn Warren. vitation he received in 1946 to join exerts no pressure on him at all— Brooks found that readers enter­ the faculty at Yale because " I never situations to be explored.” and lacking any awareness of this looked that high." Therefore, Brooks moves induc- ing for the first time the now force, he may miss the meaning of ively. Whether his purpose is to famous mythical county can be dis­ the work. Such readers find Light An Approach to Literature and demonstrate that the poetry of tracted by its seeming reality and in August quite baffling simply Understanding Poetry (1938) were feats, Auden, and Eliot continues so begins the book by dispelling because they are unaware of the not, according to Brooks, exercises the tradition of wit and metaphor the perception that Faulkner is force of community that pervades it in literary theory, but attempts to last found in the metaphysical merely a provincial writer. Linking and thus miss the clue to its central solve "a practical problem.” poets or to propose universal Faulkner's South with Thomas structure. "As young men at LSU, Warren criteria by which poems in every Hardy's Wessex, 's and I were very interested in literary period can be judged, he New England, and William Butler Brooks met Faulkner only once. literary theory, very much excited Brooks was teaching at Yale and at explores each poem as a distinct Yeats's Ireland, Brooks shows in about it. But each of us had a work on The Yoknapatawpha Country situation, and politely asks the chapter 1 that the stories set in course that would be called today and was delighted when a friend, reader's indulgence for his pre­ are bright an "introduction” to literature, in an editor at , told dilection: "Let m e,” Brooks says, with more than local color. He which we were to teach some him, "He's in New York, Cleanth. "speak in concrete terms." knew from his classes, however, poetry and some fiction and some Along with C. Vann Woodward that ignorance of many of the Come down if you'd like to meet plays to people, who were not and Donald Davidson, he has iden­ local customs and attitudes of the him. He's in the office every day." stupid, but who had no earthly tified this predilection as a distinc­ South resulted in misreadings of "I did go," says Brooks, "and I idea what to make of a poem. had a very interesting talk with tively southern turn of mind and the fiction. "The textbooks that we were one of the mainstays of the " I used to poll my class, 'How him, but I was very careful in that dealt out to use were no help at all. southern writer: many of you in the class ever fired talk. I knew if he heard I was an They were full of notes which ex­ a gun at a rabbit or squirrel or bird English professor from Yale, he plained difficult words and literary What are some of the elements in or anything?' Well, very few had, would just go right back in his allusions and a little information the life of the South which have an and I made it plain that I wasn't shell. He was afraid of academic about the author, which was all to important bearing on its literature people—dreaded them, didn't and which clearly reflect themselves defending hunting—particularly the good, but suppose that the boy understand them, thought they in that literature? (1) the con­ wasn't going to pass out A's on the or girl, however bright, has never were all trying to pick his brains. creteness of human relationships basis of who were pretty good heard anybody talk about how a including the concreteness of moral squirrel shots. But when you've got "I knew better than to just poem is constructed or what kind problems .... The concreteness of a writer like Faulkner, who is so plunge in—'Mr. Faulkner, what did of truth it conveys or how you go southern experience rests primarily much a part of a cultural scene, you mean by such and such?' So I about reading a short story as com­ remember I started talking to him upon the fact that life in the South you've got to know the language, pared to how you would read the is still a life on farms or in small you've got to know the references, about coon dogs. I don't know county newspaper or an ad in the towns. Even in the larger cities, much about them, but I knew he'd you've got to know the culture, Sears, Roebuck catalogue. the southerner has been able, because you'll have a lot of trouble be interested. And then we got on up to this point, to escape the "So , to be very brief about it, we [with "The Bear"] if you think that the Dixiecrats—what their chances had to try to devise our own text­ anonymous life of the great me­ were in north Mississippi, and one tropolis. ("Southern Literature: Sam Fathers is the kind of mixed- books to answer that problem. The thing or another. Before long, we The Wellsprings of its Vitality," blood sadist that just loves to kill first one was called An Approach to were talking about his , A Shaping Joy.) bears, and you won't understand Literature. After all, that was exactly thank goodness, and I got some why he says and does what he what the graduate schools had The southern experience that has very interesting insights into the does about the wilderness. If you trained our instructors to do." received the fullest explanation by way the man wrote and the way he think that the code of honor is "W e were accused of an anti- Brooks is that dramatized in the regarded his work." such a completely outmoded and historical bias because we didn't in­ works of William Faulkner. Readers The writer of Brooks's life story meaningless and finally, bar­ clude information about the writer of in the spring will have a difficult time when he barous, thing, then you just won't and his times. But we had taken of 1953 were notified in "Notes on comes to the LSU years, deciding understand many of Faulk­ for granted that the instructors Contributors" that Cleanth Brooks, which facet of Brooks's work to ner's characters." who used the books would pro­ a professor of English at Yale who Graver misunderstandings derive discuss first, which is more signifi­ vide that." had written for that issue "A Note cant to his career, which had more from the lack of familiarity with the Some of what Brooks knows an the Limits of 'History' and the southern sense of community pres­ impact on the world of letters, and about the southern writer came to Limits of 'Criticism' " was current­ so on. During his ten years in ent in all of Faulkner's fiction. him in Baton Rouge when he and ly engaged in writing a book about Brooks makes a special point of this Baton Rouge, he completed Modern Warren were editing The Southern Faulkner. This was Professor in regard to : Poetry and the Tradition and The Review. The Review was the first Brooks's first notice of that fact. Well-Wrought Urn (as well as a publication to buy a story from Brooks enjoys the element of acci­ monograph on the southern The community . . . is the powerful . The editors returned dent in the story, which he tells dialect), published two of the though invisible force that quietly Welty's first submission, a collec­ with gratitude to Monroe Spears, exerts itself in so much of Faulk­ "Brooks and Warren" texts, taught tion of poetry, but encouraged her the editor of the journal at the to send them other material. The time. Seeing the idea in print con­ first short story they published, "A vinced him that it was a good one. Piece of News," in the summer of "I had been teaching Faulkner to 1937, was the third that she had graduate students [at Yale] who sent to them. were so bright, so well prepared "If Cleanth Brooks isn't the and well trained, but who were sweetest man in the world, then having so much difficulty with Red Warren is," Welty told Faulkner that I came to feel that I Thomas Cutrer in an interview for knew what typical bright, educated his history of LSU, Parnassus on the students would need to understand Mississippi (Louisiana State Univer­ Faulkner's work. And when sity Press, 1984). Welty, who was Monroe Spears stated that I would not at all sure of her fiction when bring out a book on Faulkner, I she was starting out, still regards decided to go ahead and do it." her former editors as the folks who The book, a classic of American gave her her start, although Brooks literary criticism, which prompted ;scoffs at the idea of the "discov- Louis Rubin to call Brooks "our :ery" of a talent like Eudora Welty's best critic of our best " was by any publication. published by The "W e looked at ninety fiction Cleanth Brooks and Eudora Welty manuscripts for every one we Brooks laughs with feigned hurt feelings with it, and we pretty we would toddle on hom e." published/' Brooks recalls, chagrin, "Well, I'd been walking well stayed away from living poets. In his first book of criticism, "and we published three or four around in his shoes, at least We made a lot of people angry, Brooks established the case for an issue, four times a year.” spiritually, for a number of years." however, over what we said about meticulous attention to language In addition to the fiction of such This is one of a series of incidents Joyce Kilmer's '.' People with a precise explication of the writers as Welty, Katherine Anne that earned Brooks a certain reputa­ thought we were very mean- "": Porter, Andrew Lytle, and Peter tion among his friends at LSU. spirited about it and that we'd Thou silent form! dost tease us Taylor, and poetry by Randall Jar­ Caught red-handed in Robert said a lot of derogatory things out of thought rell, Allen Tate, and John Ber­ Heilman's gloves, he was teased by about this beautiful poem, and, As doth eternity; . . . ryman, the Review published long a professor of logic, "Cleanth, you well, we had.” essays of literary criticism and watch your enthymemes. Your im­ If Brooks was hard on the simple What do the lines say? . . . The social and political commentary. plied major is 'All clothes which do poetry of Kilmer, he has done a poet uses the word "tease" to im­ ply an attitude of mischievous "We wanted a magazine with a not fit me are mine' " (Robert great deal to rescue the poetry of mockery on the part of the urn, personality,” Brooks says now, "a Heilman in The Possibilities of Robert Frost from the misinterpreta­ though he immediately qualifies the tion of simplicity. His analysis of southern tincture. But we were not Order). He still carries two wallets quality of this mockery by sug­ at all restricted to southern writers. and a supply of anecdotes that il­ "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy gesting that it is of a kind which We didn't want to be a house lustrate why that's a good idea, Evening" in A Shaping Joy lifts it may be shared by eternity itself; organ for the South.” and Mrs. Brooks affirms that she from the homey, folksy voice of a and he qualifies it further by re­ Maintaining editorial integrity for "budgets an hour a day for cracker-barrel Vermont philosopher minding us that it is the kind of the seven years of its existence was looking." to an artistic consideration of what mockery which is conveyed not by not entirely easy at a state universi­ When Brooks introduced Faulkner kind of creature man is. words but by silence. Keats here, ty for which boasted of to the Yale curriculum with a Brooks didn't know Frost until like all other poets, is really being "Chief Thief," although graduate seminar on twentieth- the last years of his life when the building a more precise sort of Brooks says that absolutely no century literature, only two of poet was an honorary fellow of language than the dictionaries con­ tain, by playing off the connota­ pressure was ever exerted by Long Faulkner's books were in print, so Pierson College and came to Yale tions and denotations of words once or twice a year to give a himself. The Review stipulated from the new professor from the South against each other. . . . (Modern its birth an independence from the started hunting them up in New public lecture or reading. Poetry and the Tradition) LSU administration. Nor was the York bookstores. He got two or "As he got old," smiles Brooks, quarterly an automatic outlet for three, he says, from Thornton "h e hated to go to bed, hated to go His most recent book, to be the work of friends. Even those Wilder, an elder statesman in the to sleep. And more than once, published this year by the Universi­ who might be presumed to be Yale community at the time, who while we were living close by, ty of Press, also discusses favored ran a tough editorial also thought that Faulkner should there'd be the sleepy voice of the language, although in an altogether gauntlet. John Crowe Ransom different aspect. This book, The wrote to Allen Tate in 1937 that Language of the American South, in "th e boys at Baton Rouge" had which Brooks proposes that "the dealt pedantically with his con­ strength of even the most formal troversial essay, "Shakespeare at southern writers stems from their Sonnets," although the questioned knowlege of, and rapport with, the piece appeared the next year. language spoken by the unlet­ Brooks came to LSU fresh from a tered," takes up an abandoned Rhodes scholarship at Oxford, interest in dialect, which was the where, he says, he never had as subject of the first book Brooks ever much time to read books and talk wrote, in 1935. The Relation of the about them in his life. Among the Alabama-Georgia Dialect to the Provin­ books he read were the critical cial Dialects of Great Britain. works of Allen Tate, John Crowe In its demonstration of how Ransom, T.S. Eliot, and I.A. idiom and dialect work to con­ Richards. Among his conversations stitute a vigorous, expressive were debates with colleagues from language, the new book is a other disciplines who were metaphor for the body of criticism, bewildered, even dismayed, by in which Brooks demonstrates how modern poetry. To them he would language works to constitute mean­ explain the complexities of paradox ingful literature: The underlying and irony, pointing out at times assumption of the book is the where the theories of the older richness and power of language; its critics converged. The revolutionary method is the close examination of Modem Poetry and the Tradition, he various uses and conventions; and says, was written as though it were its assertions move beyond specific a continuation of these discussions, case studies into the broader and and he drew on them again years Cleanth and Edith Brooks critical questions of language and later when conversations with his culture. How critical these ques­ friend at Yale, the late William K. be studied. "In my day, an old-line Master or the Mistress of Pierson tions are is clear when the asser­ Wimsatt, grew into their collabora­ university like Yale was very chary College on the phone saying, 'Mr. tions are presented, as Brooks tive volume on the history of of taking in the moderns at all," Frost wonders whether the would present them, concretely: criticism. Brooks remembers. "But if people Brookses would like to come over Genuine literature is not a luxury Brooks calls The Principles of are reading good modern writers, and have a little chat.' This was, commodity, but neither is it an Criticism by I.A. Richards "a great they can scarcely read those good of course, a command perform­ assembly-line product. It cannot be event in my interest in poetry." moderns without being beckoned ance," Brooks laughs. "So the mass produced. It has to be hand Richards visited the Brookses for a back to read the good early writers. Brookses would put on their made, fashioned by a genuine time at Baton Rouge, and Mrs. You can't read Joyce without clothes and walk over a couple craftsman out of honest human Brooks remembers getting a call reference to the classics; you can't blocks. emotions and experiences, in the making of which the indispensable from him after he had left saying read without con­ "We know from his biography material is our common language, that he could be a crusty old that he had left his shoes behind. stant reference back." in all its variety, complexity, and "Well, we both looked every­ Determining what is good among fellow, but he always gave us the richness. Otherwise the literary where," Tinkham Brooks says. the moderns is a different matter, better side of his being. I learned a craftsman has no way of expressing "And when we could think of no he concedes. "In Understanding lot from those talks. He had whatever penetrating insights into more places to look, we both sat Poetry, Warren and I decided very wonderful tales to tell. You just the human predicament he may down on the sofa to try to think quickly that we couldn't teach what nudged him a little along, asked possess—no way of setting forth for some more, and I just happened to good poetry was without giving him this question or that, and it others his passionate feeling, his look down. 'Cleanth!' I said. 'What some examples of what we thought poured out. About 2:00 or 2:30, he wit, or his wisdom. —Linda Blanken do you have on your feet!' " bad poetry was. We tried not to would finally toddle off to bed and 6 What is not old about the New Critics To write about the New Critics, as one way to honor Cleanth Brooks, is to risk losing the man in the twenty-five years after I last taught category. I confess that at one time from it, I do not find mainly the I could speak easily about Cleanth dogmas of a school; rather I find Brooks as just one of those New page after page of sensitive, in­ small part of it even remotely Critics—that took care of him! Now dividual, informed readings that resembling current notions of the that I have been asked to write declare themselves neither as . here about "the influence of the "n ew " or "o ld "—readings, in II New Criticism"—an abstraction that short, of a kind that any school of My rediscovered admiration for never fit any one New Critic criticism could be proud of. the man who escapes the school My own practice of such dog­ comfortably—I must begin with a It was only fairly late in my does not, of course, mean that the matism came to a disillusioning note about how Brooks escapes all graduate work at The University of label New Criticism has no mean­ climax in trying to teach from the comments on the "school." Chicago that I was taught to be ing. Drifting free from its found­ anthology Reading Poems: An In­ My first encounter with Brooks's suspicious of a whole school of ers—the list usually includes I. A. troduction to Critical Study, edited by work came during World War II. clever but misguided men who Richards, , Ran­ Wright Thomas and Stuart Gerry As an infantryman visiting the Red were confusing the world about som, Warren, Allen Tate, William Brown. The editor took the anti- Cross Library, I stumbled upon a how poems are put together. My K. Wimsatt, R. P. Blackmur, and historical point so seriously as to copy of Understanding Poetry, an an­ teachers, who were later them­ sometimes, misleadingly, Yvor print each poem without the thology by two people otherwise selves branded with two other Winters and —freed author's name (although one could unknown to me, Cleanth Brooks misleading labels, "Chicago from the vital variety of these men, find it by violating principles and and Robert Penn Warren. Except Critics" and "neo-Aristotelians," something called "the New going laboriously through the index for a hasty encounter in college were developing their own ways of Criticism" became an aggressive to the endnotes). The student was with I. A. Richards's Practical pursuing the "structure" or "uni­ movement that embraced rules thus "freed" from such irrelevant Criticism, I had had no experience ty" of a literary work, and their simpler and more dogmatic than knowledge as that the poem was either with critical theory or with own "pluralistic" theory of how anything the founders intended. In­ written in a given period by a the close reading of poetry. such pursuit should relate to all the creasing numbers of graduate stu­ given author! Thus a movement Understanding Poetry was a revela­ other good things one might do to dents jumped on what looked like initiated by men steeped in history tion. Enjoying the totally irrespon­ or with a poem. For them, "those the only bandwagon in town. Like had turned into a polemic against sible leisure that only an army people at Yale" had it all wrong. most converts, they (we) simplified history, with results that often replacement depot can provide, I When accused and froze the complex messages of astonished and troubled the read and re-read the poems and Brooks of "critical monism" (Critics the originating prophets. The result founders themselves (Rene Wellek. analyses, and I learned to love and Criticism, Ancient and Modern. was an ill-defined but vigorous The Attack on Literature, and Other them both—learned to love the University of Chicago Press, 1952), movement that produced, in our Essays. The University of North poems in part because of the loving he seemed to me to have settled colleges, effects entirely unforeseen. Carolina Press, 1982). attention given them by Brooks and the hash of Brooks and all his Before turning to the positive Second, the movement simplified Warren. associates. They were wrong about legacy of that movement, I must and froze the founders' theories This must have been in about what poems are made of: They are run through a short list of what about poetic quality. Seeking stan­ 1944, three years after the publica­ not "linguistic objects" made of a seem to me to have been its harm­ dards of excellence that would not tion of John Crowe Ransom's The special kind of nonscientific ful effects on too many academics be time-bound, searching (like all New Criticism, but I did not identify language but rather "imitations" of who came to maturity in the two sensitive students in their time) for my new mentors as New Critics human beings thinking, feeling, or decades following the war. an escape from the fear that the until much later, as a graduate acting. They were wrong about First, the disciplines turned the center could not hold, the founders student of something called how to judge poetic quality: One founders' justified suspicion of discovered in works of poetry a ra­ "English." Like thousands of should not apply general principles historicist pedantry into a celebra­ diant power to harmonize complex­ others in the late forties and early in a search for ironic or metaphoric tion of ignorance about the past. ities that in life itself seemed fifties, I came to believe in a school complexity; rather one should work Taught to attend to the "poem as destructive. Working from Cole­ of prophets of the true faith; they inductively to discover divergent poem," students felt that they ridge's claim that poets imitate had discovered the one thing need­ species that in effect "ask" to be should attend to nothing else—just God's act in creating "multeity in ful for literary salvation, and if I judged by diverse standards. And "the words on the page," unity," they derived a standard for could only crack their code, I they were wrong about how their something permanently, ahistorical- judging all poems: Every good would be home. And when I began critical activity related to other hu­ ly there. Northrop Frye tells poem will achieve its unity not by teaching, the book we called manist endeavors: They were somewhere of encountering a stu­ ignoring but by honoring the voices "Brooks and Warren" was always monists, and we should be dent who asked for help in reading that seem to counter its thesis. at or near the center. pluralists. Yeats's poetry. Frye told him that Though good poems do not in fact I have since revised or rejected In my second-hand and uncritical he had always found Yeats's preach a thesis, they all can be many of the readings that I then pursuit of such objections to the autobiographical and philosophical viewed as exhibits of an ironic har­ thought gospel. Some of them now methods of a school, I forgot—for a works helpful. The student mony achievable in no other kind appear to spring more from the while—just how good was the prac­ reportedly drew himself up to his of statement. assumptions of the school than tice of the man. Cleanth Brooks has full height and said, "N o, I have There was nothing wrong with from fresh encounters with the gone on doing interesting criticism sworn to consider only the poetry that as a statement of one kind of poems. But when I look at the an­ through decades of change in itself until I have my dissertation valuable thing poems can do. But thology again, still on my shelves methodological fashions—only a completed." irony and paradox soon came to be treated, especially by disciples, as they could hardly avoid it. But they detail. Instead, as Wellek has salvific powers of poetry. Poetry the only standard for judging did not, when they turned to recently shown, they trod five was to cure not just individual poems. Demonstrate that a poem theorizing, offer us any systematic other paths, none of which re­ readers but the whole world, heal­ was ironic and you demonstrated way to discuss why two poems that quired the clever scout to read the ing various "dissociations of sen­ that it was good; show that it exhibit equal craft—harmonizing signposts more than once: "aes­ sibility" that had been produced by lacked irony, and you need have disparate elements equally well— thetic impressionistic criticism," as those modernist villains science, nothing more to do with it. might be of quite different artistic practiced by James G. Huneker; technology, and positivism. But Third, the movement exaggerated worth. In some quarters, it was for­ "humanist" exhortation, of the their sense of wonder before the the "objectivism" that the founders bidden even to mention whether kind that made Irving Babbit and powers of the achieved poem is still often seemed to pursue. If we were one liked a poem or not (to do so Paul Elmer More famous; popular our best defense against despair to find a humanistic knowledge would be to commit the "affective criticism of the "genteel" tradition about literary education. For them, that could rival or supplant the fallacy"), let alone whether one (Van Wyck Brooks and H. L. Men­ this "organic" object was some­ reductions of science and tech­ agreed with its "content." "Form" cken); Marxist criticism; or, finally, thing rare, essentially mysterious, nology, it must not be "subjec­ was all. a "purely philological and historical and good for the soul—an offering tive." At the time, almost everyone Although none of the founders scholarship [that] dominated all in­ from one human being to another had been miseducated to believe was narrow enough to believe struction, publication, and promo­ of a window on transcendence. that claims about value cannot be either that close reading could in tion" in the academy (Wellek, op. Such talk may be embarrassing in derived from descriptions of fact itself be entirely "value free," or cit., pp. 88, 90). our egalitarian and relativistic (Wayne Booth, Modern Dogma and that to report on a poem's form The New Critics' insistence that culture, but most of us who con­ the Rhetoric of Assent, Appendix 1, was to do the whole job of criti­ critics should show signs of having tinue to "profess" literature believe The University of Chicago Press, cism, for many in the "second and honestly dug in led initially to their what we were taught by these pas­ 1974). And by mid-century, only a third generations," explication and being ostracized or driven to the sionate mentors: that in teaching few "shrill moralists" like F. R. criticism came to seem synony­ fringes of academic power. But our students how to read the good Leavis and Yvor Winters resisted mous. The narrowing of the critical their gradual triumph established stuff, we offer them a company of the notion that what a poem "talks world that resulted helped to pro­ habits of close and loving submer­ friends and guides superior to about" is irrelevant to its value. In­ duce, in reaction, the many recent sion in texts, habits that in previous those they will meet on TV. creasingly the New Criticism was attacks on canons, "good generations had been practiced by Finally, in spite of such "eli­ identified with a rigorous neutral­ literature," and the notion of the only very small minorities indeed tism," none of these critics made ism; a critic should properly attend "masterpiece." (e.g., a school of "rationalist" the mistake of claiming that poetry, only to how literature works, not to Ill classicists, led by Vernall; see James or the language that makes poetry the value of what it says or does. With all this said, what about the Ford, Rationalist Criticism of Greek possible, is the most important Poetry makes nothing happen. A positive legacy? Now that almost Tragedy: A Critical History, Universi­ thing there is; they all exhibited a poem should not mean but be. If everybody considers the movement ty of Chicago Ph.D. dissertation, faith—for most it was an explicit poems have any connection with defunct—even Renfe Wellek, defend­ 1981.) Their attention to detail in­ religious faith—in a "world" more truth—and for many critics they ing it, refers to its "dem ise" (op. fluenced even their enemies, so important than poems or their were the last best hope of truth— cit., p. 101)—what is still living? that even today most serious critics makers and critics: a world of that truth is something radically I wish—especially on an occasion feel the need to earn their claims ordered values that are in some different from and "higher" than like this—that the answer were about a given work; they must sense revealed by poems but not any beliefs or propositions we find unambiguously cheerful. Would sooner or later take their readers exhausted by them. on their surfaces. that the best practices of the best of into its workings, with some atten­ The New Critics are often now This objectivist position soon led the New Critics had by now been tion to detail and some reference accused of having divorced the advanced critics to ban all evalua­ established as standard, while the to how details fit—or violate—a work of art from its human setting, tion of poetry based on ethical, more questionable excesses of their general design. but they were always in fact pursu­ political, or religious norms. (The disciples had dropped away. Not This legacy seems, however, to ing larger human values through religious commitments of the so. But I do find three important be rapidly eroding. The otherwise the poems they discussed. And founders were easily sloughed off.) practices that the New Critics ad­ overdue explosion of interest in their commitment to making Disciples turned all this into a prac­ vocated and helped to reinforce. literary theory now seems to be literary study a power for good in tice that in fact simply ruled out The first may have the best producing some young scholars the world—including the creation of serious discussion of what makes chance for survival regardless of who do little reading except of more good literature—is sure to one poem better than another—so fashions—the habit of close atten­ theory. Their books and articles too survive whatever the fashions. long as the poem revealed the tion to the texts we talk about. We often ride roughshod over the In a summary of their achieve­ proper amount of controlled irony learned from them to look before we works they generalize about; even ment that Brooks himself has called in its structure. In practice, of talk. Before the New Critical revolu­ the previous critical work that the best he knows ("The New course, readers went on passing tion, critics rarely risked a public sometimes becomes the sole subject Criticism” Sewanee Review, Fall, other kinds of value judgment; accounting of how they read, in of inquiry is often forced to illus­ 1979, p. 607), Wellek put it this trate theoretical preconceptions. way: Thus, though the practice of the The humanities would abdicate founders of recent schools is their function . . . if they sur­ generally respectful of "what's on rendered to a neutral scientism and the page," we see another move­ indifferent relativism or if they suc­ ment freezing principles and turning cumbed to the position of alien practices into routine. norms required by political indoc­ A second threatened but surviv­ trination. Particularly on these two ing habit springs from the New fronts the New Critics have waged Critics' kind of passionate insis­ a valiant fight which, I am afraid, tence on the ethical importance of must be fought over again in the literature: "good literature" for future (Wellek, p. 103). them was indispensable to the Wherever we conduct that education of imaginations worth fight—against either "neutralism" having. The founders all revealed, or ideological dogmatism—our best though of course in different ways weapons will always be literary and to different degrees, a deep works themselves, restored to commitment to the notion that power by the kind of loving atten­ literature has a power to heal or tion that this by no means cure. One did not do close reading "defunct" school taught us to pay. for the sake of doing it but for the —Wayne C. Booth sake of the incalculable value of the Mr. Booth is the George M. Pullman imaginative transformations Distinguished Service Professor of wrought by the best poems. English at the University of Chicago It is true that some New Critics, and former president of the Modern early and late, exaggerated the Language Association. The Southern Republic of Letters

Although literary historians have celebrated a mid-twentieth-century "Southern Literary Renascence" as a leading aspect of American literary history, southern writers who were a part of this cultural flowering—or who belong to what is sometimes seen as its continua­ tion until the present moment— have never readily assumed a con­ nection with it. This is hardly sur­ prising. Writers associated with the South have not easily accepted the existence of a "southern literature"; they have even been by Marion Post Wolcott, U.S. skeptical of the reality of that The antebellum South found its southern experience in the light of timates that the poet, while de­ broader entity, a "southern mind." representative figure not in the the quest for order in Western prived of his traditional role as They have, as a matter of fact, artist Edgar Allan Poe but in the civilization that has motivated bard, will in the stark individuation never been able to believe that the prolific novelist and active advocate twentieth-century Irish, British, and demanded by the new age find South itself is quite definable, of slavery, William Gilmore Simms; continental writers—from Yeats, another role and a new kind of either as an empirical or a clearly the post-Civil War South, which Joyce, Eliot, and Proust to Sartre, poetic power as both recorder of structured emotional entity. had no Chapmans, found its Camus, and other Existentialists, and participant in the tensions and In this respect southern writers literary representative in the southern writers from Faulkner and anxieties of the drama of the transi­ have lived in a relation to the apologist for the Lost Cause, Wright to Styron and Gaines have tion from the society of myth and South that differs markedly from Thomas Nelson Page. In neither worked close to the inspiriting tradition to the modern society of that of New England writers to case was the affiliation between the core of the cosmopolitan literary science and history. Such a concept New England. John Jay Chapman, man of letters and the world movement usually referred to of poetic power is invoked by Allen for instance, lived in the aftermath republic of letters an important as . Tate in a classic formulation of the of the renascence of New England mark of his identity. Although in Among the first generation of literary myth of modern history in letters—the epoch of Emerson, the age of American Revolution, twentieth-century southern writers, his essay "The Profession of Letters Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and of there was no more prominent the relation to modernism essen­ in the South." Published in 1935, Longfellow, Holmes, and Lowell. citizen of the cosmopolitan com­ tially took the form of an effort to this essay purports to account for Yet in 1897, Chapman could pro­ munity of letters than the Virginian recover the authority of the the striking rise of serious literary claim with utmost confidence, the Thomas Jefferson, in the thirty classical-Christian ethos. This effort activity in the South during the continuing identity of the literary years preceding the Civil War, appealed in particular to what may and 1930s, as evidenced by and spiritual life of New England. southern men of letters effectively be called the literary myth of the distinguished fiction of contem­ It may be "one-sided, sad, and in­ abrogated the South's relation to modern history. Implied at the in­ porary southern writers. We are expressive in many w ays," he said, this community in favor of a close ception of the modern age in the witnessing in the South, Tate says, "but it has coherence." Chapman alliance with the politics of slavery. nuances of Shakespearean charac­ "the curious burst of intelligence did not refer simply to the long- The southern connection with the ters like Hamlet and Richard III and we get at a crossing of the ways, lasting effects of the original bond­ world literary order would not be explicitly embodied in Donne's not unlike, on a infinitesimal scale, ing of the people of New England fully restored until the twentieth "The Anatomy of the World" the outburst of poetic genius at the as the chosen people of God (a century, when a highly self- (1611), this myth is about the end of the sixteenth century when bonding so strong that one cannot conscious, increasingly complex heightened, transformative poetic commercial England had already fail to feel a connection between, impulse to discover the basic coher­ power that erupts at the moment of begun to crush feudal England. The say, Edward Taylor and the late ence of its history began to mani­ transition from feudalism to mod­ Histories and Tragedies of ). He appealed to a fest itself in the South. This motive ernism—from a familial, hierarchial Shakespeare record the death of broader, deeper allegiance of the first appeared strongly in the re­ order of king and priest to a self­ the old regime; Dr. Faustus gives New England literary spirit, its markable work of an emerging consciously historical society up feudal order for world power." "traceable connection" with "that school of historians of the South, ordered by the authority of secular Tate's equating of the literary moving treasury of human thought among them John Spencer Bassett, intellect. Under the impact of the situation in the twentieth-century and experience which flows down and Charles W. Ramsdell. While Copernican cosmography, Donne South with the archetypal situation out of antiquity and involves us, the school of southern historians by saw the sacramental vision of of modern literature, as implied in surrounds and supports us." Chap­ and large had little interest in universal order crumbling into Shakespeare and clearly rendered man recognized that the contem­ literary history in the sense of "atomies," and the society of by Donne, had the force of a hid­ porary New England literary sen­ poetry and fiction, it established myth, icon, and tradition yielding den truth suddenly disclosed. The sibility was continuous not only the political, economic, and social to, as Bacon put it, the "advance­ author of "The Ode to the Con­ with the intensely literary intellec- importance of the history of the ment of science." federate Dead" revealed that he tualism of the Puritan clerisy but South; these historians also sug­ and his southern peers, together with the cosmopolitan realm of gested its compelling human Prince, subject, father, son are with writers like Joyce, Pound, and things forgot, humanistic letters and learning—a drama—both the outward drama of Eliot, were working with the For every man alone thinks he realm that, coming into existence as men and events and, more signifi­ literary myth of modern history. hath got Applying this myth to the history the medieval world was trans­ cantly to poets and storytellers, the To be a phoenix and that then formed into the modern world, subtle inward drama of southern can be of the South, in which they were was, at least in the ideal sense, history as a quest for meaning, None of that kind, of which he deeply involved yet could see with assigned the status of an especially the meaning of the self in is, but he. a detachment impossible for their autonomous, transnational polity modern history. literary forebears, they were en­ called the "republic of letters." Seeking the meaning of the Yet in his very despair Donne in­ gaged in a confrontation with the 9 tensions and anxieties generated by were moving toward the creation of depicts this relationship as a con­ of its meaning. In the realm of the vanquishment of the society of a unique modern society, but the test of wills, in which the master's scholarly interpretation this vision myth and tradition by the scientific Civil War interrupted before they freedom inevitably becomes depen­ reached its culmination in the late and historical interpretation of man had time to develop a philosophi­ dent not only on the slave's will­ Richard Beale Davis's three-volume and society, nature and God. cal, sociological, and literary base ingness to obey but on the very Intellectual Life in the Colonial South, Southern writers resisted the un­ for their society, although they quality of his willingness to do so; 1585-1763. His book is a monumen­ avoidable implication that the end were struggling to do so in the so the master's freedom is not tal effort to respond to the question of the society of myth and tradition work of such proslavery theorists freedom at all but, ironically, of whether or not there are was in the American beginning, as William Harper, George Fitz- perpetual bondage. "evidences that the intellectual that the earliest settlement along hugh, and Simms. Looked at in the light of the flowering of the South in the twen­ the Atlantic seaboard represented Always a little appalled by the dramatic ironies it offered the tieth century is obviously from the conclusive resolution of the widespread acceptance of his con­ literary imagination, the colonial seeds or roots planted by the col­ crossing of the ways. Looking at cept of the crossing of the ways as and antebellum South afforded the onists, white or black, who the society of the colonial South the key to the Southern Renas­ richest literary matter in America populated the region." Instead of and that of the antebellum South cence, Tate in his poetry and fiction and should surely have produced looking at the contemporary writer through the focus of a nostalgic reflected perceptions of the South writers as noteworthy as Long­ as being in a line of descent from historicism, they saw the Old too ironic and subtle for accom­ fellow, Emerson, or Hawthorne. colonial times, or regarding Robert South as a replication of the tradi­ modation to his own formu­ But like the mind of the slave Lowell in the light of John Win- tional landed order of the Old laic theory. Like Faulkner he master, the imagination of the throp's History of New England, the World. Because the desire to im­ understood, even while he might southern writer was in bondage to interpreter of southern writing itate the old European order in the yearn to understand otherwise, that slavery. (Often, as in the case of tends to see the present in the South was strong enough to reach the South from Jamestown to the Jefferson or Simms, slave master past—to look at John Smith's an appreciable degree of fulfillment, Oxford, Mississippi, of his own and writer were one.) Generali Historie of Virginia, let us the crossing of the ways in the time was part and parcel of modern Perhaps only Poe can be said to say, in the light of 's South might well seem to have history. Tate's imagination did not have memorably realized the Sophie's Choice. Faulkner did not been no mere historical redundancy range broadly enough to command southern scene, if we can say that believe that the past was over; the in the mind of the writer but an ac­ the large, resonant ironies of the the bizarre world he created is a past " is ," he said. This kind of tive historical force. Devising a pro­ Sound and the Fury or Absalom, Ab­ symbol of the psychic isolation of dynamic historicism, the driving gram for a "southern movement" salom'. But his lone novel, The the individual in a world divested spirit of the movement toward in 1929, Tate said in a letter to Fathers, by general agreement a of the traditional modes of com­ cultural recovery that marks Donald Davidson (as he had said work of singular distinction, is told munity and that this twentieth-century literature from earlier in a letter to Robert Penn through the mind of a survivor of refers to the South. If this is so, we Yeats to , may by now Warren), "We must be the last the Civil War whose sense of the can say that Poe anticipated the have altogether disappeared. Tate's Europeans—there being no Euro­ fall of the South is informed by his identity of southern literature. It is vision of the South and the cross­ peans left in Europe at present." remembrance of his father, an a part of the exploration and at­ ing of the ways was itself a vision After the publication of the aristocratic Virginia Stoic who tempted recovery of meaning that from beyond the crossing, but it Agrarian manifesto I'll Take My perceived civilization to be simply a together with despairing denial of was of sufficient intensity and Stand in 1930, John Peale Bishop, a kind of gentlemen's agreement "to meaning has characterized the scope to give southern literature a southerner living in France, wrote let the abyss alone." The world of literature of the Western world in distinct historical identity to Tate: "The Russians may well the fathers that fell to pieces in the the twentieth century. Unlike the —Lewis P. Simpson survive, for they are the beginning 1860s was, Tate understood, literature of New England, which Mr. Simpson is Boyd Professor of of something non-European; we than a solidly rooted order. In one unfolded coherently out of the English at Louisiana State University [the American southerners] are the respect it was flagrantly anti- identity conferred on it in the and editor of the Southern Review. end of all that is European. With us traditional. In its commitment to seventeenth-century transplantation His most recent book is The Brazen Western civilization ends." Thus the large-scale enslavement of of the Puritan ethos, the literature Face of History: Studies in the Tate and Bishop conceived the Africans, the South not only sup­ of the South bears an identity con­ Literary Consciousness in America South to be the final stage of a ported a population of racial aliens structed out of a backward vision (1980). transaction between past and pres­ but made itself dependent upon a ent that had continued for five cen­ labor force composed of rentable turies. Tate made this conception and saleable bondsmen, disposable the basis of his theory about the properties. Unlike the peasants of source of the Southern flowering. the Old World who were per­ But the opposition between past manently attached to a specific and present in the South did not piece of soil, the African slaves replicate in the concrete sense the separated rather than joined the Old World's conflict between the lord and his land. Having orig­ traditionalist society and the in­ inated as an economic expediency, novative order of any­ chattel slavery, as Edmund Morgan more than did the opposition be­ has shown, came to be considered tween past and present in New a social necessity by those with a England. Both the situation in the decisive stake in the colonial society colonial South and that in colonial because, in contrast to an inden­ New England bore strong aspects tured servant class drawn from the of historical novelty. Engaged in poor of the Old World and des­ the process of purifying the tradi­ tined to be free after a term of ser­ tional order, the New Englanders, vitude, the slaves were more con­ although the revolution they trollable. Proclaiming a government wrought was based on a recovery dedicated to life, liberty, and the of what they thought to be the pursuit of happiness, the southern original Christian order, created an revolutionaries envisioned a free antisacramental order that was society as a slave society that basically novel and ultimately in paradoxically would be a free harmony with the transference of society because it would be free the universe, God, and man from the poverty-stricken, clamor­ himself into the mind of man (in ing masses of the poor that the Old harmony with the processes of World had always known. Yet, as modern science and modern Jefferson saw, slaves and masters historicism). The southerners were united in the immutable bon­ becoming committed to a "peculiar dage of human consciousness. In institution," their own version of the eighteenth chapter of his Notes the institution of chattel slavery, on the State of Virginia, Jefferson 10 I J

Ernest Gaines

Mark Twain

Katherine Anne Porter

William Faulkner A History of Southern Literature

In a chapter of the forthcoming game. A leading expert in each cover a vast number of contem­ times downright defensiveness— History of Southern Literature, James field—J.A. Leo Lemay on the begin­ porary and recent writers in whom about the South as a region that is H. Justus compares the use of nings of literature in the South, for there is still interest." so striking in some previous his­ memory by the generation of poets example—has synthesized existing At least half of the headings in tories. "The way was clear," Rubin writing since the 1950s with its use scholarship to explain the signifi­ the HSL are devoted to writers like writes, "for the development of a by the Vanderbilt Fugitives: cance of particular writers, move­ Eudora Welty or Flannery O'Con­ body of scholarship . . . that could ments, or historical periods. Giants nor who postdate the Southern be historically informed, critically These younger poets insist upon a circumstantial present, a gritty reali­ like Twain and Poe appear along­ Renascence of the 1920s. At the sophisticated, and . . . no longer ty that is fully available, in part as side obscure antebellum poets; the same time, Rubin points out that constrained to explain away or gloss compensation for that earlier scene, Fugitive poets and critics stand next since 1954 a considerable body of over any and all shortcomings, when vague intimations of the per­ to and other scholarship has been published on either in the literature itself or in son and event from the past often popular . earlier periods, much of it in fact the society out of which it grew." dissipate rather than concentrate Southern literature is taught as a stimulated by Hubbell's work. In an effort to be both compre­ meaning. This contemporary land­ separate course at some 200 col­ The aim, as Rubin's introduction hensive and critically sophisticated, scape is a richly tangible world leges and universities across the puts it, was a book that "will be the HSL was conceived as a collec­ dense with cow-trails, fencerows, country. To aid in these studies, useful to anyone wishing to learn tive enterprise from the beginning. weathered farm houses, outdoor the Society for the Study of South­ the more important facts about a In 1981 NEH supported a con­ toilets perched on stilts over ern Literature, a group of 400 particular southern writer or group ference, convened by the Society creekbeds, pastures, kudzu vines scholars organized in 1968, has pro­ smothering abandoned cars, wells, of writers, the literature of a par­ for the Study of Southern springs, cisterns, cultivators, duced a series of reference works ticular time or locale in southern Literature in Baton Rouge, to feedstores, truckstops, revival on southern scholarship. They history, or the relationships be­ discuss ideas for a new history. meetings, outdoor baptisms, and found recently that at nearly every tween the writings of one time and With the geometric progression of hardscrabble fields choked with conference several of their group place to those of another." specialized scholarship on the briars and scrub pine. But even the began discussing the need for a In light of current scholarship, South and its writers in recent compulsive evoking of these items good, up-to-date history, a one- the editors of the HSL quite con­ years, it was clear that the single often assumes the same elegiac col­ volume variety something like the sciously took a fresh approach in supremely diligent scholar, both oration common to the fierce sum­ landmark Literary History of the several areas. It is the first general sagacious and foolhardy enough to moning up of images from an first published nearly history, for instance, to consider attempt literary history in the grand earlier South. four decades ago. black writers in some detail. There manner of Hubbell and his This example of the critic's mind "The closest thing was the late are chapters by younger scholars predecessors, had gone the way of at work, pointing out a store of im­ Jay B. Hubbell's The South in on "Southern Standard Bearers in the Mississippi riverboat pilot. agery that unifies a group of American Literature, which came out the New Negro Renaissance," and "There are several hundred writers, explaining its function in in 1954," says general editor Louis "Black Writers in a Changed Land­ writers discussed in the book," the body of their work, and placing J. Rubin, Jr., professor of English at scape, 1950-1978," as well as sec­ Rubin explains. "I doubt that one that work in its largest historical the University of North Carolina, tions on the novelists person could handle that amount context is typical of the approach Chapel Hill. "Hubbell's book is and Ernest Gaines. In addition, of material with any degree of taken in A History of Southern relatively complete through 1865, Blyden Jackson, also of UNC- authority. This way we could get Literature, or HSL as graduate but in his last several chapters—up Chapel Hill, served as coeditor for the very best people, the most students are likely to call the through 1900—he just touches the each of the history's four periods knowledgeable scholars, to write volume for several generations to main points. And he didn't deal with particular responsibility for the chapter covering each area." come. Scheduled for publication with probably the most important black authors. Jackson himself Although Rubin and managing this fall by Louisiana State Univer­ work by southern writers—what's wrote the chapter on Richard editor Robert L. Phillips, an English sity Press, the book is a massive been published since 1925. There Wright and added paragraphs or professor at Mississippi State joint undertaking—fifty-one have been two generations of major pages to other chapters in an effort University, say there were surpris­ scholars, orchestrated by a team of writers at work since then. History to weave black contributions into ingly few differences of opinion seven editors, contributed in­ hasn't yet sorted out a canon for the continuing narrative. Women among the editors and contributing dividual chapters or sections of this enormous body of work, hasn't scholars also contributed to thirteen scholars, the logistics of such large- chapters. Reading through the said these are the important writers of the book's chapters. scale collaboration required a fairly results in manuscript is somewhat and these are not. That's why we The tone of the HSL as a whole elaborate plan of organization. The like attending an all-star baseball felt it necessary to be inclusive and displays little of the polemicism—at editorial tasks were divided accord­ 11 ing to four historical eras with a editing was confined to matters of senior editor responsible for each: stylistic consistency and to elim­ Lewis P. Simpson, of Louisiana inating repetition. "We didn't set State University, edited the colonial out to document a grand thesis," and antebellum period, 1607-1860; Phillips remembers, "or to prove, Rayburn S. Moore, of the Universi­ say, that southern literature is ty of Georgia, the Civil War and worthy of study. We expected very after, 1861-1920; Thomas Daniel much a synthesis of existing critical Young, of Vanderbilt University, opinion, and that's generally what the Southern Renascence, 1920- we got, although some chapters— 1950; and Rubin, the postmodern Lewis Simpson on Jefferson comes South, 1951-1982. Managing editor to mind—go beyond synthesizing; Phillips functioned as grants they really provide a revision of manager, liaison with the pub­ what was previously thought." lisher, communications center, and "We were aware from the outset traffic cop for manuscripts. that, as a practical matter, we This editorial committee forged didn't have the facilities for a the book's outline and selected monumental rewriting," Rubin scholars to write each chapter. adds. "W hat we found as we Chapter lengths varied depending worked on the book, however, was on the overall importance of the that there is considerable unanimity subject. A few of the major survey on the writers and movements Tales of the chapters were set at 4,000 to 5,000 thought to be important. Despite words, the same scope Cleanth the many contributors, we didn't "What's worth remembering is DuBose Heyward, the second Brooks was allotted to deal with have to force a unity. Various con­ worth making into movies," says author whose work appears in William Faulkner. Contributors of tributors seemed to work along the writer in his introduc­ Tales, also won praise from contem­ the shortest sections—-on contem­ same lines. That to me is an in­ tion to Tales of the Unknown South, a porary black writers. Poet Countee porary novelists like Walker Percy dication that there is still an en­ recent television adaptation of three Cullen called Heyward's Porgy, on and Reynolds Price—were asked to tity we can call the South, one short stories produced by the South which the opera Porgy and Bess was write 1,000 to 2,000 words. that's based on a great deal of Carolina ETV Network. based, the "best novel by a white The editors also gave the con­ shared experience." A Carolina trilogy, the two-hour about Negroes." But the Heyward tributors some guidelines on how What, precisely, is southern Tales program presents little-known work in the television program is a to approach their material. "W hat about work by writers from the fiction by nearly forgotten authors short story, "The Half Pint Flask," we have in mind," they suggested, South? The question is answered in who inhabited a corner of the a supernatural tale that examines "is a critical history. The reader a variety of ways throughout the United States generally ignored in the psychic fevers unleashed when should be able to turn to this book, HSL, but perhaps most explicitly literature as well as film. However, a Yankee linguist and collector of which will chronicle the careers of by James Justus: the three tales are "worth remem­ rare flasks arrives, in 1927, at an several hundred authors, and get a bering" for more than their uncom­ island off the South Carolina coast. Because the achievements of James well-written summary of that mon Carolina settings. Each focuses The intruder hopes to prove that Dickey, A. R. Ammons, and Ran­ author's career, its relation to the on relations between races and dall Jarrell coincided with the the Gullah spoken by the island's time and place, its relation to the perceived winding down of the represents an era, the years of inhabitants, is merely "seven­ body of southern and American Southern Renascence, a newer critical social change that stretched, teenth-century English mispro­ literature as a whole, and some­ question, more frequently asked in the South, from the end of nounced by primitive illiterates." thing of an estimate of the author's since the 1960s—is there such a to the civil rights pro­ "Neighbors," the last of the literary achievement . . . thing as a distinctly southern tests of the 1960s. And as Tales host Tales, is set in 1963 in Charlotte, "We urge you to write chapters, poetry?—reflects a regional sensibili­ Dickey, wearing a work shirt and North Carolina, birthplace of author not biographical-critical articles. If ty that has been educated into self- filmed in a Carolina farm field, Diane Oliver. One of the first black you are handling a group of consciousness through efforts of says, all three stories made into graduates of the University of authors, try to present the principal not only southern writers but also movies recall "th e real South, not North Carolina at Greensboro, southern critics, classroom teachers, themes, characteristics, directions the hoop skirts and magnolias or Oliver died in 1966 when she was a anthologists, and editors. Even in that they share, rather than merely the good old boys running moon­ twenty-two-year-old student at the the verse of the best southern poets taking each one up in turn, giving whose recognition came in the shine, just ordinary people, nearly Writer's Workshop at the Univer­ the vital facts and brief descriptions 1960s and , when commitment half of them black, most of them sity of Iowa. of their books . . . ." to the art of poetry far outstripped poor, trying to figure out how to Her account of a black family on The editors decided to be in­ any commitment to the region of live together without giving up the eve of their youngest child's clusive in their working definition their birth, certain distinguishing what made them what they were." first day at an all-white school, of who is a southern writer and characteristics emerged: a recur­ "Ashes," the first of the tales, is "Neighbors" was published shortly who is not. "The question of where rence of rural subjects; a residual about an old black woman, Maum before Oliver's death, and was in­ to draw the line gets you into con­ fondness for conservative forms Hannah, who bests the poor-white cluded in Prize Stories 1967: The O. troversy very quickly," Phillips and techniques; an easy habit of in­ "scalaw ag," as Dickey calls him, Henry Awards. In the story, where corporating regional diction and says. "Who in Missouri besides trying to evict her from her home hate mail is kept in a kitchen syntax into poetic discourse that is Twain should go in, and what on an abandoned South Carolina drawer and police cars patrol the otherwise standard received; a pen­ about other border states like Ken­ chant for order and control even in plantation. Set in the early 1920s, street outside, a husband and wife tucky or Maryland? You could experimental efforts; a preference when the ruling class had gone weigh how far their neighbors, argue either way. We finally de­ for the visually concrete and aurally broke and moved on, "Ashes" was black and white, may go to help or cided that actual geography was sensuous image over abstract written by , South harm their child in a troubled city. less important than how writers meditation; the importance of Carolina's only winner of the Oliver's story had much to do themselves responded to the con­ memory in altering, deepening, and Pulitzer Prize for fiction. A white with the final form of Tales of the cept of place, the notion that the extending compulsive scenic recall; woman who spoke Gullah (the Unknown South. The creators of the region we think of as the South and, unlike more aggressive language of sea-island blacks) program, which is to air this fall on somehow matters in their work." postmodernists of their generation, before she learned English, Peterkin public television, began by con­ Partially because many of the a lingering reliance on pattern, was also one of the first southern sidering tales of the supernatural, design, and wholeness despite a re­ editors had worked together before writers to reject standard formulas and accordingly chose "The Half signed recognition that both life on other books and partially and art are resolutely fragmented, of plantation fiction and write in­ Pint Flask" as one of their subjects. because they selected contributors disjunctive, and discontinuous. stead about the region's blacks as The program's focus soon shifted with care, the HSL proceeded with —George Clack they were. "Sh e is a southern to a concern with race, "th e real few snags. When the manuscripts white woman," said black activist center of this region's experience," arrived, some chapters needed to "A History of Southern Literature''/ W.E.B. DuBois, upon reading according to Benjamin Dunlap, a be moved around within the book's Robert L. Phillips/Mississippi State Peterkin's first collection of stories, South Carolina native who wrote original scheme and a few required University, Mississippi State/$59,000/ "but she has the eye and the ear to screenplays for the three short more than pencil editing, but most 1983-85/Basic Research see beauty and know truth." stories. "One of the turning points 12 Three stories of the Carolinas are “Neighbors” (left), about a black family whose child attends a white school for the first time; "The Half Pint Flask" (center), a tale of the super­ natural set on an island; and "Ashes" (far right) which pits Maum Hannah, an aged black woman, against a white "scalawag" trying to evict her.

Unknown South was my discovery of Diane Oliver's visited the island and stole a flask a proper flask, or the correct "The crucial point here," con­ 'Neighbors.' " from a Gullah cemetery. Because costumes for Ediwander's black tinues the guide, "is that reading Although the three writers repre­ the flashback robs the story of workers. "But I would always try requires an active engagement of sented in Tales were each honored, suspense, the filmmakers deleted to cross-check with another kind of the reader's imagination. It is not a with an O. Henry, a Pulitzer, and a Courtney's recollections and expert," says Dunlap. In "Ashes." passive experience, like taking a successful play between them, little postponed discovery of the flask. he says, the main character, Maum shower . . . or, some would say, of their work is readily available. The story's two major characters Hannah, is shown eating a meal. watching television." "We meant a lot of things by 'un­ were also reshaped. Barksdale, a "But what is she eating?" he asks. "That is sort of a loaded state­ known,' " Dunlap says of the pro­ student of religion in Heyward's " I would find a black woman who ment," says Dunlap. "In general, gram's title, "but one thing was text, was transformed, according to grew up in the country in the 1920s television does lull us. I do think the literature itself." Yet Tales is in­ the viewer guide, to "a linguistic and ask what she'd eaten. And that adaptation, partly by answer­ tended as more than a platter of anthropologist, who adopts a posi­ she'd say, 'Corn bread, collard ing so many questions, does lull us regional literary fare. tion some scholars have actually greens, and bacon fat.' And I'd into a more passive relationship." Dunlap, who has taught literature taken—denying that the Gullah say, 'Great, that's what I need.' " Show the hunt club living room in at the University of South Carolina dialect contains any significant Dunlap says he hoped that pre­ a story like "The Half Pint Flask," in Columbia since 1969, says the African contribution." Courtney, a senting the three stories as a trilogy or smooth out the author's wrin­ program is also a lesson in the writer in Heyward's story, was would "create certain ironies and kles in plotting or characterization, ways that film adaptation can serve recast as a creator of woodcuts, tensions" that would not be evi­ and the viewer, for whom all as a practical form of literary partly to make his artistic activity dent in the tales if they stood things are made clear, may gain criticism. He says that in his own easier to capture on camera. alone. The Tales guide urges less than the reader. teaching, when trying to get across According to Dunlap, the film­ viewers to think not just about how But provide the original text plus concepts such as point of view, he makers also took to show the the authors' stories changed when a faithful but inspired television often asks students to imagine that nature of life in South Carolina's adapted to film, but how they adaptation, says Dunlap, and that they might make a movie from a low country. "We wanted to con­ gained meaning in the context of new creature, the reader-viewer, story under study. "I say, 'Okay, vey the texture of the sea islands, the two other stories. may find more to ponder in both we're going to adapt the story, and to build up the atmosphere." They Filming a trilogy also proved an fiction and film, as well as about you're going to have to do a lot of partially restored a Gullah village unexpectedly monumental under­ the ways one storytelling medium visualizing.' " Students are "very discovered near Georgetown, South taking. "The sheer logistical com­ digs deeply into another. shrewd," he says, when asked to Carolina, and boarded up since the plexity of three different crews, "We get into a new interpretative think about literature in terms of time of Heyward's story. The Tales three different casts, three different game with adaptation," says the today's foremost storytelling producers were guided in their every things, was immense," says Tales guide, "one in which we im­ medium. "Sometimes quite un­ restoration by old photographs of Dunlap. Support for Tales came in agine alternative movies, other sophisticated critics astonish me." the village, found in the archives of the form of a grant from the Na­ ways of seeing the same char­ The viewer guide written for the Belle W. Baruch Institute for tional Endowment for the Human­ acters—and even other ways of see­ Tales, to help teachers and stu­ Marine Biology and Coastal ities, and in-kind contributions ing the same scenes." What did dents, explains what can be learned Research. "That was a lucky from South Carolina ETV. you imagine in your mind that you about fiction by thinking like a film­ strike," says Dunlap. "We produced a two-hour did not see on the screen, the maker. "Every good reader makes In fleshing out the Heyward dramatic program on a budget of guide asks the reader-viewer, and a sort of movie in his m ind," says story, and others dramatized in $600,000 to $800,000, depending on why did the filmmakers eliminate the guide, which then goes on to Tales, further decisions had to be how you assess the in-kind," details from the author's text while show some of the ways, small and made, unaided by vintage photo­ Dunlap says with pride. "One of adding new scenes or dialogue or large, that the three stories in Tales graphs. "Even when you've set out the aspects of the unknown South characters? were closely read and then careful­ to do the most faithful adaptation, we wanted to demonstrate was that Ultimately, says Benjamin Dun­ ly altered when adapted for you've introduced [via the camera we could produce a film written by lap, Tales of the Unknown South is television. lens] new information you have to locals, produced by locals. I think not about lost fiction, or race rela­ "Neighbors" required little account for," says Dunlap. Hey­ this is the first feature-length film tions, or life in the Carolinas, tinkering by the filmmakers because ward, for example, devotes only a to come out of this area." although all these have their place Oliver's story reads much like a sentence or two of his story to de­ Tales will bring forgotten fiction in the television program. one-act play. But DuBose Hey­ scribing the hunt club on to a wide audience. But shifting "The very heart of our project," ward's "The Half Pint Flask" re­ Ediwander. "We had to address stories from the page to the screen says Dunlap, "is to illustrate the in­ quired greater alteration in order to the interior of the living room/' may also pose a problem. The Tales terplay between the printed stories bring it to television. As originally says Dunlap. "We had to decide guide suggests as much when it and the film." published, the story opens with a what the hunt club looked like. stresses how good readers see —Michael Lipske flashback in which Courtney, What does the furniture look like? what they read. "The more pre­ manager of the hunt club on fic­ Do they have whiskey in decanters cisely we visualize as we read," "Tales of the Unknown South"/Benja­ tional Ediwander Island, recalls or bottles?" says the guide, "the more com­ min Dunlap/EVT Endowment of South events that happened when Scholars were able to advise on plex and subtle the experience of Carolina, Columbia/$360,000/1982-84/ Barksdale, the northern linguist, other details, such as the choice of reading becomes." Humanities Projects in Media 13 there's such a clearly defined 'other' group present, it helps a creative mind see there are differ­ ent value systems—often antitheti­ cal to one's own. And this in turn helps the artist produce his art.'' Davis examines Faulkner's art “ by looking very carefully at the text" in the manner of literary critic Cleanth Brooks, who explored the role of blacks in Faulkner's first novel, Soldier's Pay, the story of a man returning home to Georgia after the first World War: "[Faulk­ ner] consistently presents the Negro as calmer, wiser, still strong in religious faith, and thus less shaken by the War than are the disaffected whites who have been tossed by the winds of change," Brooks wrote. Davis also examines the roles of blacks in Soldier’s Pay, observing that Faulkner—borrowing an idea directly from —uses the rhythms of black song and as a means of dramatizing internal feelings and as a counterpoint to the lives of Faulkner's Negro: Art whites. "From the beginning of his career as a novelist," notes Davis, "Faulkner evidences an artistic and the Southern Context dependency upon the Negro in Ed note: In the preface to her book, . There he met Southern Context (Louisiana State order to enrich his fiction, to add a Ms. Davis uses both the terms "black" novelist Sherwood Anderson, who University Press, 1982), which measure of complexity and am­ and "Negro" to refer to people of taught him a lesson he never for­ closely examines the role that biguity, to suggest the dimensions African descent: "black" in a general got: Stop trying to imitate others, blacks—referred to as "N egroes" in (depths or shallowness) of his descriptive sense, and "Negro" specifi­ and write what you know. Faulkner's era—play in the Nobel white characters' humanity, and to cally in regard to Faulkner's characters. For Faulkner, born of a family of Prize winner's fiction. give structure to his conclusion." She explains that she uses the outmod­ slaveholding plantation owners Davis says current historians and But Davis says Faulkner did not ed term "Negro"—which carries many who had slipped into genteel other social scientists often make a make full use of the Negro as a traditional and often pejorative conno­ penury after the Civil War, it meant similar distinction in nomenclature. symbol until The Sound and the tations—to reflect Faulkner in his writing about the shabby remnants But she says literary critics often Fury, a tale about the degeneration proper historical context. of the antebellum aristocracy and fail to do so. "They'll often just of the once-wealthy Compson fami­ their clash with upstart scalawags. write about Faulkner's 'Negro' ly, set in the mythical Yoknapataw­ By 1925, twenty-eight-year-old In the background loomed patient, characters," she says, "maybe be­ pha County. Here Faulkner uses a William Faulkner was well on his wronged blacks, often acting with cause so few black critics have family of black servants "as a foil way to becoming a literary flop. greater dignity than their white looked at works by white authors, to emptiness, the loss of value and After dropping out of the Universi­ counterparts. " 'Negro' is a central while most white critics are not meaning, in white southern life." ty of Mississippi in his freshman imaginative force in Faulkner's fic­ sensitive to the nuances of lan­ Faulkner also uses black characters year, he had gone to New York to tion," says Thadious Davis, a pro­ guage in this situation." as a metaphor for the "unresolved make a name for himself by writing fessor of English literature at the "It's a project that needed to be tensions of southern life, and the lush, romantic poetry—bad imita­ University of North Carolina at done," says Davis. Few black possibility of wholeness." tions of Keats and Verlaine. Chapel Hill. "The Negro functions critics have studied the role of The Sound and the Fury concludes Upon being hooted out of New both as concept and as character blacks in white literature. "There with a giant gulf between the black York's literary circles, he returned and becomes an integral component just seemed to be much more to be and white worlds, and this chasm to Oxford, Mississippi, where he of the structural and thematic pat­ said about the way Faulkner used becomes a major premise of Faulk­ continued unsuccessfully trying to terns in much of Faulkner's art." blacks in his fiction." ner's subsequent novel, Light in mimic European versifiers. Finally, Davis has written a book, Davis, who teaches a course in August. The central figure, Joe he drifted off to the Faulkner's "Negro," Art and the southern fiction, believes the pres­ Christmas, is a moody mulatto who ence of blacks made a significant kills his white girlfriend and is difference in the writings of subsequently castrated by the local Faulkner and other prominent townspeople. In the process, says southern authors—and helps ex­ Davis, this story becomes "the first plain why modern southern writers of Faulkner's novels to treat the are often considered America's Negro as an abstraction rather than best. Faulkner himself once noted merely a physical presence in the that "only southerners have taken southern world." Race becomes a horsewhips and pistols to editors vehicle for exploring the modern about the treatment or maltreat­ problem of identity. Joe Christmas, ment of their manuscript." Davis she says, "is an allegory of the says this passionate attitude may South in a particular sense; he por­ have evolved in part because art trays the South's fragmentation, had not been "intrinsic to southern but also the pathetic nature of its life" during Faulkner's youth- attempts at wholeness and unity. prompting him to try to "infuse life In Absalom, Absalom! the Negro is into southern art." a stronger yet subtler force. De­ But Davis suggests that there are scribing the rise and fall of the other reasons why southern writers doom-driven Sutpen family from seem a little different. "I'd like to the 1830s to the early twentieth think it's because of the presence of century through the voices of four so many blacks," she says. "When white narrators, Faulkner initially 14 appears to suppress the significance justifies his action through a com­ a romantic agrarian vision, offset by of black characters. But Davis says parative analysis of southern and the use of Gothicism and grotes- that "a black presence dominates Black 1914 Oklahoma cultures. The con­ querie to reflect a state of isolation. this work as it does perhaps no clusion is that they are essentially (6) A delineation of white southern other Faulkner novel. Nowhere else Novelists alike. The works of the novelists mythology and/or black southern is it so apparent that the Negro is argue that the South's traditional mythology. an abstract force confounding definition of "N egro" (as anyone Many of what Payne identifies as southern life both past and present and the with the genetic one drop of common elements in black and even while, paradoxically, stimulat­ African blood) is America's defini­ white southern novels fall under ing much of that life and art.” tion of black American. Further­ what Houston A. Baker calls "the Davis notes, for instance, that one Southern more, this definition is the source anthropology of art" in The Journey of the story's central characters, of both the identity problems and Back: Issues in Black Literature and , was driven by a Literary the social inequities that the pro­ Criticism. It is "the notion that art blinding desire for wealth only after tagonists experience and which must be studied with an attention a youthful encounter with a black form the central problems of black to the methods and findings of house slave. “ Faulkner's implicit Tradition southern literature. disciplines which enable one to ad­ admission in this novel,” says The devices on which Payne dress such concerns as the status of Davis, "is that his white world n Black Literature and Literary focuses to support his concept of the artistic object, the relationship must have its 'Negro,' because it Theory, Henry Louis Gates, Jr. kinship between black and white of art to the other cultural systems, cannot face itself without uses a quotation from The American traditions in the South and the nature and function of ar­ this scapegoat, this buffer, which, Tomb of Stuart Merrill to cele­ provide convincing evidence that tistic creation and perception in a even in its most symbolic shape, brateI a current hope "that the southern blood and culture have given society." Payne suggests a can absorb the shock of republic of literature is experienc­ been intermingled to create an in­ method of examining the works of self-confrontation." ing alterations which can, at determinate identity. Is southern black writers that makes the Davis says that while Absalom, last, enable it to accommodate cuisine black American cuisine? analysis more dependent on the Absalom! may be considered "the even those citizens historically What exactly is Eurocentric about cultural setting and literary history artistic culmination of Faulkner's disenfranchised. ..." former President 's that the authors inherited at birth. most creative period,” Go Down, As we discover a broader defini­ southern accent? Why is it, as If such a notion sounds sim­ Moses may be viewed as "the ideo­ tion of American literature, the ex­ Payne says, that, "To Chesnutt, as plistic, the alternative that uses logical culmination of that period." tended boundaries include black to almost all black writers northern classical structural criteria to A series of seven short stories American literature, which, for all or southern, achieving personal analyze the form and the content of woven together by several domi­ of its eccentricities, uses the same identity is inextricably interwoven those works often written in protest nant themes, Go Down, Moses, range of diversity in method and with racial caste." Undoubtedly, of how mainstream literature traces the lives of the black and quality that characterizes white the answers to these questions are depicted black Americans is more white descendants of Lucius American literature. Ladell Payne, related to the definitive elements of complex. Although it may be possi­ McCaslin, a plantation owner in in Black Novelists and the Southern southern culture. ble to argue with Payne's selection Yoknapatawpha County. Here, Literary Tradition, places the Payne uses an analysis of John of authors, selection of specific Faulkner presents a world divided literature of black Americans in a Walden in The House Behind the works, or his refutation of the ex-_ not only between black and white, historical perspective that shows Cedars, the nameless protagonist in istence of a separate black Ameri­ but between past and present. that the experience and art emerg­ The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored can literature, it is not as easy to "The Negro forms a bridge be­ ing from traditional black American Man, the nameless/named pro­ deny the cohesiveness of the tween the two," Davis says, "so culture should be seen in the larger tagonist in Cane, the nameless pro­ cultural elements in the southern that whether as an individual or as context of the southern culture that tagonist in , Richard in tradition. If black and white women part of a family or community, the gave it birth. Black Boy, Bigger Thomas in Native and men write about that tradition Negro offers not so much an alter­ Payne's intent is twofold. He ex­ Son and a variety of works by from increasingly similar points of native way of living, as another amines "the recognizably southern Faulkner, O'Connor, Styron, emphasis, it could be an indication means of understanding the qualities which inform much of Twain, Wolfe, and McCullers to of the South's inability to pay the malaise affecting the whites and the what is now called black litera­ support his assertion of kinship high cost of in the late land in which they live." She adds ture," and he refutes the idea that between black and white novelists twentieth century. that in this work Faulkner not only there is (as Houston A. Baker, Jr. in the South. The contextual and —Chezia Thompson-Cager has "grasped the artistic signifi­ states it) "a fundamental qualitative structural similarities that Payne Ms. Thompson-Cager teaches black cance of his heritage as a white difference between black and white identifies in both sets of writers in­ literature at the University of Mississippian and of the Negro in American culture." His basic asser­ clude the following devices: (1) The Maryland, Baltimore County. his culture, but he also has compre­ tion is that tradition is not deter­ creation of the three kinds of black hended what becomes for him a mined by race alone and that the characters. "Those who cherish a "Black Novelists and the Southern way of making peace with his works of Charles Waddel Chestnut sullen hatred for all whites and lash Literary Tradition"/Ladell Payne/Clare­ heritage and with the Negro." (born June 20, 1858, in Cleveland, out in violence at the least excuse; mont Men's College, CA/$7,500/ Davis says she also believes that Ohio, but reared in North those who work as servants and 1971-72/Fellowships for Independent some critics—who try to discover Carolina), James Weldon Johnson lead gentle, kindhearted, whole­ and Research Faulkner's "real" feelings about (born 1871 in Jacksonville, Florida), some religious lives; and those who blacks through their use in his (born 1894 in violate the accepted stereotypes by novels—are misreading the text. Washington, D.C.), Richard Wright virtue of their independence, their He was less interested in providing (born in 1908 in Natchez, Missis­ money, their education, or their "sociological treatises on race and sippi), and Ralph Ellison (born 1914 cultural attainments." (2) The color," she notes, than in creating in Oklahoma City) are part of the depiction of the dilemma of the works of art. "southern tradition in American black-white and the As Faulkner himself once put it: literature. A more eclectic group of brother-sister passion, as well as "The writer's only responsibility is "southern" novelists would be dif­ the use of family tragedies to sym­ to his art. He will be completely ficult "to conjure up.” Never­ bolize the essential meaninglessness ruthless if he is a good one. . . . If theless, Payne argues adeptly with of human life. (3) A depiction of a writer has to rob his mother, he John M. Bradbury's definition, that how "northern whites love the will not hesitate; the 'Ode on a a southern writer is "one who was Negro as an abstraction but have Grecian Urn' is worth any number born and lived his formative years no liking for individual Negroes of old ladies." in the region which includes Ken­ while southern whites despise the —Francis J. O'Donnell tucky, Maryland, east Arkansas, Negro race, but have a strong affec­ east Texas, the Shenandoah Valley tion for its individual members." "Faulkner's 'Negro': Art and the of West Virginia and the rest of the (4) Images of the church in the Southern Context, by Thadious Confederate states except for that rural South that support the notion Davis' '/Beverly Jarrett/Louisiana State portion of Florida currently con­ that it is the single most important University Press, Baton Rouge/$3,805/ trolled by Yankees." He adds source of community identity for all 1982-83/Publications Oklahoma in 1914 to the list and southerners. (5) The presentation of Ed. note: This excerpt from the pened in the South during the cen­ prologue of NEH Fellow Fred Hob­ tury just past. He told this story in son's book explores the seeming love and in anger, in pride and in compulsion of southern writers to shame; he told it not so much by discuss their region. Whether choice as by compulsion, the very apologists or critics, these writers telling rendering him oblivious to share a fascination for the South the presence of the bespectacled, that place it at the center of their analytical Shreve. Quentin hoped, concerns. Because this issue of one suspects, to escape his past by Humanities is devoted in part, to pouring it out, by confessing it to southern letters, this prologue pro­ this rational and objective friend vides, we believe, insight into separated from him by geography many of the articles. and history—but in the telling he was only drawn in more deeply. Tell about the South. What's it like He had come to New England only there. What do they do there. Why do to return to Mississippi in his they live there. Why do they live at mind, and the burden of the all.— Shreve McCannon to Quentin southern past, of southern values, Compsons in Faulkner's Absalom, of southern myths, of himself and Absalom! as southerners, was too defeat as his badge of honor. He The radical need of the south­ great to bear. Five months after he would not have it any other way. erner to explain and interpret the told his story in Cambridge—five He also carries his legacy of failure The Southern 1 South is an old and prevalent con­ months after he had answered with an attitude akin to arrogance, dition, characteristic of southern Shreve McCannon's question, an intolerance of less sensitive writers since the 1840s and 1850s "Why do you hate the South?," by beings who do not understand and when the region first became acute­ protesting, "I dont hate it . . . I feel the complexities of life. "You ly self-conscious. The rage to ex­ dont, I dont!"—he was dead by would have to be born there," plain is understandable, even in­ suicide, a southerner consumed in Quentin protests impatiently and evitable, given the South's tradi­ large measure by his southern­ with a certain superiority to his tional place in the nation—the poor, ness. . . . But the southern rage to Canadian friend at Harvard (a defeated, guilt-ridden member, as explain, the compulsion to tell superiority if not on Quentin's part C. Vann Woodward has written, of about the South, must be adjudged at least on the part of his creator), a prosperous, victorious, and suc­ something other than a personality and other southern interpreters cessful family. disorder. Various southerners of echo this claim. In fact you do not The southerner, more than other the nineteenth and twentieth cen­ have to be born there, as evidenced Americans, has felt he had some­ turies have been seized by the by several non-southerners who thing to explain, to justify, to de­ same compulsion, to the extent that have told about the south with as fend, or to affirm.',If apologist for explaining the South is almost a much comprehension, if not com­ the southern way, he has felt regional characteristic. . . . mitment, as have most native inter­ driven to answer the accusations The South's "uniqueness" and preters. But still resounds the and misstatements of outsiders and thus the roots of its rage to explain southern boast: We at least have to combat the image of a benighted lie primarily, of course, in its our history, our defeat, therefore and savage South. If native critic, history, in what it has done and we are deeper, we possess the he has often been preoccupied with what has been done to it. The tragic sense. And the southerner southern racial sin and guilt, with American South was forced on the who so claims has also a deep con­ the burden of the southern past— defensive in the 1820s and 1830s viction that the rest of the nation and frustrated by the closed nature because of its peculiar institution, really wants and needs to know of southern society itself, by that Negro slavery, and it has been on about his history and his defeat. quality which suppressed dissent the defensive ever since, at least That in part is why he writes, to and adverse comment. . . . until very recently. It is the only convince the outsider of the impor­ If this southerner with a rage to American region to have been a tance and transcendent meaning of explain himself and his region has separate nation, the only region to the south and himself as south­ a prototype in the fiction of the have suffered military defeat on its erner, although most of all, like American South, it surely is Quen­ own soil and to have withstood oc­ Quentin, he tells his story for tin Compson of Mississippi—the cupation and reconstruction by the himself, to work out certain ques­ Quentin of Absalom, Absalom! who enemy. The South has been and re­ tions and doubts that weigh heavily on a January night in 1910 sat in mains the most homogeneous of on his mind. . . . the tomblike chill of his room in regions, the most provincial, the . . . The South is different and Cambridge, Massachusetts, and most insular—and, until recently, significantly so from the rest of the tried to explain the South to his the most insecure. . . . United States. I am skeptical, Canadian roommate, Shreve Still another intriguing quality in however, of excessive claims for McCannon. He told the story of the self-conscious southerner arose southern virtue, and at least mildly Thomas Sutpen, a Virginian, who in the years after Appomattox and skeptical of certain assumptions had come to Mississippi in the is seen to this day, still another about the southern temper and early nineteenth century, but in fact paradox to add to the scores character. The definition of the it was 's own already detected in the southern "representative" southerner has story that he told as much as it was character: The southerner, apologist generally run something like this: Thomas Sutpen's, and it was told or critic, began to perceive a certain he is conservative, religious, and for Quentin himself as much as for value in his defeat, his poverty, suspicious of science and progress; Shreve. Haunted by the southern even (if he acknowledged it) his he loves the land, and a sense of past as much as he was drawn to guilt and his shame. If one at first tradition and a sense of place, and it, Quentin told his story not with believes that the southern rage to he prefers the concrete to the intellectual detachment but with a explain stems from a regional in­ abstract. Granted, these qualities visceral commitment to the impor­ feriority complex, a recognition of describe the southerner, and they tance of what he was telling. Both failure, he soon realizes that there continue to describe him, as John blessed and cursed with an excess exists as well a perverse and de­ Shelton Reed has shown, even of consciousness, possessed of a fiant pride in the southerner, a after he moves to the city. I cannot rage to order as well as to explain, sense of distinction, of superiority, help but think, however, they also he agonized over the larger mean­ stemming from this inferior status. describe any number of inhabitants ing of Thomas Sutpen's story, over The southerner, that is to say, or former inhabitants of farms and the significance of what had hap- wears his heritage of failure and small towns in upper New England 16 and even sections of the Middle first time in the twentieth century, position, a position of inferior West. That is to say, many of these and perhaps since 1830. If the status within the nation. A further qualities are not so much southern prevailing national image of the assumption—and this has been as traditional American rural (and I South in the 1850s was that of a especially important in the case of omit those qualities such as poverty semibarbarous land, and if the im­ the anguished native critic—is that and a legacy of defeat, which stem age in the 1920s and 1930s was, as the southerner spoke to and within largely from the Civil War and are George B. Tindall has written, a a society that would not tolerate largely southern). Further, I ques­ benighted South, the image today critical examination. Now, neither tion to some extent the assumption is of what one might call a superior of these conditions necessarily stated by Robert Penn Warren and south—a region cleaner, less exists any longer, and as a result numerous others that the crowded, more open and honest, the despairing southern confession southerner possesses a far greater more genuinely religious and of a guilt and shame, as well the rage against abstraction than do friendly, and suddenly more racial­ impassioned defense, as they have other Americans. . . . The Civil ly tolerant than any other American existed over the last century and a War was begun at least in part region (although, a sociologicial half may be no more. The south­ because of a quarrel over abstrac­ survey assures us, still much more erner had a true rage to explain on­ tions—states' rights and the exten­ likely than other American regions ly when he had an enemy across sion of slavery into territories to to believe in the devil). The South . the line issuing an indictment that which it was unsuited anyway— is now more acceptable not only to had to be answered, or when he and never has a nation stressed its traditional defenders but also to had an enemy within southern Rage to Explain those abstractions, honor and duty, its traditional native critics. Even society forcing him to repress his more than the Confederacy did. . . the liberals seem to assume that feelings until the internal pressure . . . It is now intellectually the good is within the South and became so great he had to spew respectable, even outside Agrarian the threat is from without. The them out. Now there is need circles, to be southern in sentiment; “Americanization of Dixie," en­ neither to defend nor to attack the it had already begun to be so couraged by Walter Hines Page in South with passion and intensity, before the election of a southern the 1890s and Howard W. Odum in and as a result the region is no president; this is the case for the the 1920s, is now perceived by longer likely to produce rigid ab­ many of their liberal descendants as solutists . . . The newest of New the worst fate that could befall the Souths is not a likely partner in a southern states. love-hate relationship. The South thus assumes a The southern confessional litera­ curious new role in American life— ture will no doubt continue, partly the nation's second chance, a because the South, whatever its relatively unspoiled land whose changes, is still distinctive and pic­ cities are new and sparkling and turesque. But one questions, again, whose people retain the mythical whether the new confessional innocence and simplicity of an literature will be written from the earlier America. It matters little that same mixture of love and anger, the South's current virtues derive shame and pride, whether an all- in part from circumstances and in consuming passion to explain will part from its past shortcomings—its constitute the basis for future relatively new and clean cities from southern writing. . . . its inability to industrialize and to And the literature that explores grow as early as the Northeast and and explains the American South (Counterclockwise from top) Atlanta's the Middle West; its antimaterial­ will continue for another reason, skyline is a symbol of Ku the new South. ism from its poverty; its protest one that did not exist until the last Klux Klan rally, Jackson, Mississippi, against progress from its realization decade—that is, the southern ex­ 1923. A Confederate soldier of Ewell's that progress would bring painful perience is now more than ever not Corps killed in the attack of May 19, racial change; its sense of tragedy only the South's but the nation's. 1861. Tenant house in Coffee County, from its failure to win the Civil Not only has the South long pro­ Alabama, April, 1939. Sharecropper's War; its sense of history and even vided a mirror image for America's wife, Hale County, Alabama, 1936. to some extent its twentieth-century flaws and blemishes, but in post- literary renascence from that same Vietnam America those qualities we legacy of defeat and looking have identified as southern— backward; and even its deep frustration, failure, defeat, guilt— religious belief, in part, from its can be shared by the rest of the na­ rural isolation and lack of exposure tion. Dixie has to some extent through education and commerce become Americanized, but America to other ways of viewing life. One had absorbed much of Dixie too. can easily be suspicious, that is, of Country music, fried chicken, stock the South's current claims to moral car racing, evangelical religion, and superiority. The reasons for its vir- opposition to busing schoolchil­ tues become obscured to its cham­ dren—all these have replaced cotton pions, just as the reasons for the as Dixie's leading export, not to sins of a benighted South were mention a general distrust of often ignored by its critics. But in analysis, bureaucracy, big govern­ the eyes of its champions the South ment, and impersonality in human now presumably has the chance affairs. George Fitzhugh of Virginia saw To tell about the South, then, for it more than a century ago—the becomes increasingly to tell about opportunity to be a model for the America. . . . rest of the United States. —Fred Hobson How the new image of a superior Mr. Hobson teaches English at the South will affect the traditional University of Alabama. southern rage to explain will be curious to behold. For the compul­ "Tell About the South: The Southern sion to tell about the South as it Rage to Explain"/Fred C. Hobson, has existed since the 1830s has Jr./University of Alabama, University/ rested on the assumption that the $15,250/1976-77/Fellowships for In­ southerner spoke from a defensive dependent Study and Research 17 Santayana wrote in the mid-fifties effective." that one of the greatest challenges The institute first grappled with of a teacher is to help students the question of what constitutes a "get experience from ideas," a classic in American literature: What reversal of the student's usual proc­ are its unifying characteristics, and ess of learning from a succession of by what criteria should a work of experiences. English teachers con­ literature enter the "canon"? To front the additional challenge of pursue this question, the teachers structuring an amorphous and learned about the new picture eclectic discipline in a way that will emerging of the American past that teach children not only about the emphasizes the lives of ordinary facts of their cultural history and people in history, thus creating a civilization, but about perennial new body of literature to read— human values drawn from letters, journals, memoirs, diaries— materials often quite remote from and new, more immediate empathy students' everyday lives. These between present lives and cultural teachers also face an almost con­ values and the lives and values of stant need for retooling to keep up the past. with developments in their rapidly Reading of "prenational" works changing field—from the rigorous, included Mary Rowlandson's vivid, text-centered approach of New crisply English, and idiomatic ac­ Criticism to the expansive, contex­ count of her capture by Indians in tual approach inspired by the 1676, which provides a clear picture teachings of women's and ethnic of the perils and pathos of colonial history—and of incorporating new life, and of the contemptuous at­ materials and approaches into the titude of colonials toward Indians; finite bounds of a set curriculum. Samuel Sewall's witty and highly At Bradley University in Peoria, personal diaries, which indicate the Illinois, last summer, college faculty rise of eighteenth-century secu­ worked with thirty high school larism and humanitarianism; and teachers to reexamine the ap­ poems of Ann Bradstreet, which proaches to some standard and show modern readers a depth of new classics. A carefully chosen feeling not usually associated with team of faculty members drawn the colonial spirit and whose con­ from the department of English and cerns for human equality have foreign languages, history, and the resonance today. Teachers also College of Education, with con­ learned the reasons why contem­ sultants in women's studies and porary intellectual historians believe ethnic literature, and a master that the Puritan point of view, with teacher from the Peoria public its scrupulous introspection, and school system, organized a one- the Puritan philosophy of life and month education institute on code of values put its stamp on the American literature for high school American mind and psyche. English teachers in the central Teachers and institute faculty also Illinois region. CLASSES reexamined the "frontier thesis" of Why American literature? Pro­ Frederick Jackson Turner, that fessor Peter Dusenbery, director of American culture was shaped by the institute, canvassed superinten­ the frontier's unlimited possibilities dents and principals from local IN AMERICAN of expansion, which, Turner districts and heard "over and over postulated, instilled American again that American literature is democratic ideals and an ex­ universally required and taught at CLASSICS perimental approach to life. Lec­ all levels . . . to students of varying tures and discussions focused on abilities and interest levels—ranging literature classes have done proj­ develop an instructional unit, a cur­ the effect a knowledge of these from basic classes in which the em­ ects, presented plays, done oral riculum proposal, or an article for a new approaches would have on phasis is on oral and written ex­ reports, and written critical journal. how teachers would define and in­ pression to gifted programs where analyses. . . . The material and ap­ Dusenbery explained that "the terpret American literature. "All in critical thinking and reading skills proaches described above are an underlying premise of the institute all," Professor Dusenbery ex­ are emphasized." Further discus­ outgrowth of a very involved, con­ was that we, as a group of educa­ plained, "seven or eight standard sions with regional teachers' organ­ cerned teacher's approach to her tors, would reexamine our own as­ approaches were examined—by izations and the urgency expressed junior American literature courses. sumptions underlying our reading region, period, and authorship— in letters of application to the in­ They also seem to scream out the of classic texts, and from that figure and then applied to works of stitute confirmed a common con­ reason for my wanting to partici­ out new ways of teaching. We have literature. cern to strengthen the teaching of pate in this institute . . . How to have a fresh and complete in­ "We selected one acknowl­ American literature through ap­ typical, typical, typical are my tellectual experience with our sub­ edged classic, Huckleberry Finn, and proaches that will "motivate lessons and methods! I am happy ject first to engage students in the a newer classic, Maya Angelou's I students to read more and better and successful in my teaching institute, and we expect that the Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, and books." The letters poignantly ex­ career . . . but I am concerned teachers will give the spark of in­ compared these two works to pressed a trenchant dedication to about my own educational and pro­ tellectual interest and excitement Thoreau and Henry Adams and the field and to better teaching, "I fessional growth, and most impor­ back to their students. . . . many others. . . . The comparison feel that to teach literature is truly tantly, about giving the best to my "Maybe social problems such as between Angelou's book and to educate, not in a vocational students." class sizes that are too big and Huckleberry Finn turned out to be sense, but in the sense of leading a The institute offered the thirty teachers getting paid too little in­ very helpful as a test case for the mature and sensitive individual to a high school teachers the opportuni­ terfere with the educational enter­ way in which a book becomes an better understanding of his own ty to reread some of the classics of prise, but progress can still be American classic. The books are dif­ culture;" sometimes coupled with American literature and examine made by focusing on intellectual ferent and yet so much alike. Both frustration, "During my eleven these works in their historical, in­ concerns, and giving teachers a concern a youth's coming of age, years of teaching . . . I have incor­ tellectual, and cultural contexts, to firmer grasp of their own subject, both take place in the middle South porated many teaching techniques discuss reinterpretations of familiar making them more curious and in a non-urban setting, and both and tricks into the lesson plans. texts and the applications of these more strongly grounded in topics are stories of people on the lower . . . Students in my American new approaches to teaching, and to and thus more satisfied and rungs of the economic ladder. 18 "We thought about whether copies of all other participant proj­ these two books raised unifying ects, and one anticipated benefit of characteristics of American the institute is the establishment of literature," Dusenbery continued, a network of teachers of American "and then asked whether there literature in the Illinois public should be such standards govern­ schools who can share with and Literature ing the acceptance of a new work support each other in the introduc­ into the canon. There was a hot tion of new materials and fresh debate over the question of stand­ critical approaches into the ard criteria for a classic. What is classroom. now considered worth reading has But what about finding a defini­ tive canon of American literature in Louisiana changed more rapidly in the last ten years than textbooks can ac­ and what are the unifying commodate. Teachers are forced to characteristics of the American ex­ set new priorities. The addition of perience and aesthetic expression? native American literature and con­ Questions about national identity scious efforts to increase dramatical­ exercised the Puritans and persist ly the inclusion of women and through the many voices of minority writers into curricula units pluralistic culture. This pluralism, have necessitated hard choices: Dusenbery believes, may be the Something must be cut from the unifying characteristic of our After formal education has ended, editor of The Southern Review, Joe curriculum to work in new writers, literature and culture. Dusenbery where do adults who yearn to Gray Taylor, author of the bicen­ and this can have a devastating ef­ concluded that the summer in­ discuss ideas find a group of kin­ tennial history of Louisiana, and fect on what students read. For ex­ stitute was "one of the two most dred souls and a scholarly agenda? Ernest Gaines, author of The ample, today's scholars seem to be intellectually stimulating things I've If they live in Louisiana, they need Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman more excited about Margaret Fuller been involved in, both as a teacher look no farther than the local and A Gathering of Old Men. and than Emerson and a learner." Dusenbery plans a library. The Louisiana Committee The structure of the program and Thoreau, and this has affected half-year sabbatical this fall to work for the Humanities (LCH) supports fortifies its intellectual content. the composition of our children's on his own project on the evolving a program through which groups of Codirector Michael Sartisky points textbooks." redefinition of the "canon" of about thirty-five adults meet in out that each of the courses focuses In a series of lectures, workshops American literature and he hopes their local libraries to discuss on a major theme that is estab­ and panels, organized by consul­ to bring teachers from all three in­ "Readings in American Themes" lished by the reading for the first tant Stephen Tchudi from Michigan stitutes together during the under the guidance of university session. Throughout the remaining State University's English depart­ 1985-1986 school year "to share professors, imported from the weeks these themes are reiterated ment, teachers reviewed significant what they've been doing in the nearest institution of higher to assure continuity. "The way to new trends in curriculum design. classroom." learning. maintain intellectual rigor is to They examined lessons that had —Anne Woodard Since its 1983 debut as a six-week build discussions on preceding been organized by theme rather pilot program in five parishes, understandings. By the sixth week, than by chronology, that drew on "Reinterpretations of American Readings in American Themes has the discussion is not just about the the methods of several disciplines, Literature' '/Peter Dusenbery/Bradley added two other reading courses, book of that day, but on a weaving and that integrated reading with University, Peoria, IL/$45,908/ The Southern Eye and Women's together of material from the writing and thinking. 1983-84/$145,949/1984-86/Humanities Voices/Women's Worlds, and has preceding weeks. The structure The teacher who had earlier Instruction in Elementary and Second­ spread, through librarians' requests must be course-like," Sartisky says. found her lessons and methods ary Schools and over a trail of overbooked Sartisky illustrates his point with "typical" devised for her final proj­ discussion sections, to forty of the three short stories to be read ect a thematic unit on courage for Louisiana's sixty-four parishes. for the opening meeting of thirteen- to sixteen-year-old boys. The programs represent an effort Women's Voices/Women's Worlds. She tapped into their interests, of the LCH to give an extra boost Tilly Olsen's " I Stand Here Iron­ which she described as "farming, to libraries, which between 1980 ing," 's "Everyday bullying and acting out," and used and 1983 had received only four­ Use," and Kate Chopin's "Story of courage as a theme through which teen of the 177 grants given an Hour" focus on three different her students developed an under­ statewide. Some of these libraries aspects of a woman's experience: standing of all periods of American are in towns that the LCH has not unconscious domestic oppression, literature, from the Puritans to life reached before, and one, Bogalusa, the struggle to find identity, and on the frontier, the underground is more than eighty miles away the realization of identity. The railroad, and popular culture, such from the nearest university. stories represent three periods of a as Return of the Jedi. What she lost A reading program with so woman's life, Sartisky explains. in a chronological, historical ap­ rigorous a scholarly orientation is In Readings in American Themes, proach she gained in providing her especially noteworthy in Louisiana, the assignment for the first meeting students with a structured learning which is ranked forty-second by the consists of several short passages— situation that motivated them to National Education Association in no more than a page long—from "develop concepts from their percentage of population having seminal works in the American reading, integrate the ideas, enlarge completed high school and in past. The excerpts chosen are not them, redefine them, and to apply percentage of population having necessarily the fullest expressions the concepts in other reading and completed four years of college. But of the authors, but rather those that living situations." All in all, by all accounts, the program's explain the issues, Sartisky says. teachers' projects included twenty- almost instant success has been Passages from William Bradford's one other instructional units, three credited to a selection of readings Of Plymouth Colony, for example, curriculum proposals and five jour­ that are serious and intellectually range over the Mayflower Compact, nal articles, including an article on stimulating. the relation of the individual to the "A Study of Emily Dickinson's This intellectual rigor derives in community and of the community Religious Faith," "To Open Doors: great part from the program's to God. One passage relates the A Hierarchical Approach to scholarly auspices. Up to sixty first moment when the Puritans Literature for Freshmen," and "A scholars of American literature and looked over the ship's rail at New Look at the American history have been involved as "cur­ Plymouth Rock, "a desolute and Literature Curriculum." Two riculum" designers who plan the howling wilderness," in Bradford's teachers have also started a suc­ The Edward Windsor Kemble illustra­ courses and select the texts, as ad­ words. cessful reading and discussion club tions of Huckleberry Finn will appear visers with particular expertise, and Excerpts from another work, John for seventh and eighth graders, the in the Library edition as teachers leading discussions. Winthrop's A Modell of Christian first of its kind in their school. Each published by the University of Califor­ Assistance has come from such Charity, articulate the ideas that teacher benefited from receiving nia press, with support from NEH. luminaries as Lewis Simpson, emigrated with the Puritans. 19 "These thoughts were the roots of viding support for others. And Arkansas. Back in the 1930s he grams in Monroe and Columbia. many of the central metaphors that blacks did not hesitate to talk about went to a librarian in New Orleans The Columbia class always ran over permeate American letters," says slavery and also more recent condi­ and told her that he was over­ the two allotted hours, and on the Barbara Cicardo who has led two tions. A black teacher in her seven­ whelmed by all the books on the way out participants would stop to American Themes courses and is ties told what it was like to sit in shelves. She asked what his in­ check the card catalogue for addi­ now leading a course in Women's the back of the bus." terests were and accordingly tional books mentioned during the Voices/Women's Worlds. An asso­ One of those who eagerly signed prepared a list of twenty-four books session, he says. (In another town, ciate professor of English at the up for the Lafayette course was on American history, ancient con­ the librarian reported that the day University of Southwestern Loui­ Jean Wattigny, a forty-year-old querors, the countries of western after a group had discussed a work siana and coordinator of the univer­ former teacher, now at home caring Europe and religion. Steudlein calls by William Faulkner, the library's sity's humanities department, for three young children. "In high the program "Well worthwhile. Faulkner shelf was bare.) Cicardo helped select readings for school a teacher told me, 'What The teachers were excellent. They "Participants showed a wealth of the program. She cites Winthrop's you read is never yours until you brought out the best in the writing interest," Holmes continues. "They concept of America as the City on share it with other people. Either we studied and led us in discus­ had had no chance to talk about the Hill. "From this came a vision you write about it or talk about sions of our own ideas." things of this nature with their of innocence and unbounded op­ it.' " Wattigny says." Spirited discussions, as well as friends. Perhaps the liveliest discus­ timism. Strangely enough, although Eighty-year-old Frank C. the participants' eagerness to read, sion was of Kate Chopin's The Puritan and directed toward God, Steudlein, a former real estate impressed the scholars who led the Awakening (a novel which questions that metaphor was translated into developer and mortgage banker, discussion sections. English pro­ traditional feminine roles). I don't the Protestant ethic and 'how the has only a high school education, fessor Jerry Donald Holmes of expect anything quite so lively with West was won.' " but he is a devoted reader who Northeast Louisiana University, my sophomores next week." Other readings which form the once served on a library board in shared group leaderships in pro­ —Anita Mintz bedrock of the program are from Benjamin Franklin's Way To Wealth, Ralph Waldo Emerson's Self- Reliance, Henry Thoreau's Walden, Walt Whitman's Democratic Vistas, and Horatio Alger's Ragged Dick. "Each one of these expresses a major American ideal of self- reliance, independence, the roman­ tic retreat to nature and the wilderness, the ethic of hard work and the myth of 'rags to riches.' And all these are found in the Puritan concept of the City on the H ill," Cicardo says. After the first, theme-setting week, scholars choose five topics from seven to discuss in the six- week program they are leading. For American Themes, topics in­ clude the Pioneer Experience, The City and Industry, Community in Conflict, The Ethnic Experience, and Women in Social Roles. The reading list each week usually con­ sists of several short stories or a novel. The educational level of par­ ticipants varies from town to town. In Lafayette, where there is a university and the population is close to 100,000, classes consisted mostly of college graduates ranging in age from twenty-two to seventy. In Bogalusa, located in a parish with the state's highest unemploy­ ment, less than a third of twenty- eight participants had higher degrees. Project Director Ann Ebrecht reports that at one meeting in DeRidder, three members of the audience had Ph.D.'s in English. Ebrecht also visited a group meeting in Leesville on a night when a black scholar spoke. The audience was about evenly divided among blacks and whites. "This would not have happened when I was in high school" (less than twenty years ago), Ebrecht says. Discussions are frequently very lively, according to Lafayette librarian Susan Hester-Edmonds. "The course is designed so that the very basic issues of life are brought out by the literature," Edmonds says. "People opened up. Women talked about the need for self- assertion while nurturing and pro­ by Bill Ferris, University of Mississippi Archives 20 Significant research exists about all major regions of the United States, but by almost any standard the American South has received the most extensive scholarly atten­ tion. Since the 1930s, virtually all aspects of southern life have come under increasingly rigorous and systematic intellectual scrutiny. A rich scholarly outpouring in fields such as southern literature, history, folklore, and sociology has brought an increased sophistication to the study of the region. Research has often led to a greater appreciation of the South's infernal diversity and a consequent desire to examine smaller geographical units or specialized themes. Recognizing the intellectual richness of this scholar­ ship about the American South and the potential of regional study to unify previously fragmented academic endeavors, the Center for the Study of Southern Culture is developing a multidisciplinary En­ cyclopedia of Southern Culture. This reference work will offer a com­ posite view of the people, places, ideas, institutions, and experiences that encompass and sustain the American South. The volume is intended to pro­ vide readers with a convenient reference tool that gives basic fac­ tual and bibliographic information about southern culture and its im­ portance. The book will also serve as a component of the curriculum for a variety of courses on the American South, and may be a model for similar research tools in other regions. Within the southern context, the volume attempts to explore T.S. Eliot's definition of culture—"all the characteristic activities and in­ terests of a people." The Encyclo­ pedia's goal is to chart the cultural landscape of the South, addressing those aspects of southern life and thought that have informed either the reality or the illusion of regional distinctiveness. Specific cultural traits, cultural patterns that bind THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF the region together, and the impor­ tance of social structure and sym­ bolism will be examined in detail. SOUTHERN CULTURE Above all, the encyclopedia will ex­ Regional differences make this a Chadds Ford, from Bernstein's we explore the diaspora of Missis­ emplify Eliot's belief "that culture nation of great cultural diversity, New York West Side to Ansel sippi Delta blacks who have moved is not merely the sum of several ac­ and such diversity means a Adams's Yosemite, American artists to Chicago's South Side, of Ap­ tivities, but a way of life." richness in life we should not celebrate place and are in turn palachian whites who have moved Eliot's definition of culture, then, readily sacrifice in the face of en­ shaped by it. to Cincinnati, Chicago, and other can be seen as a working definition croaching mechanization and During the last decade, the northern cities, and of expatriate ar­ for the all-important matter of topic facelessness. The question is not phenomenon of regional scholar­ tists like Richard Wright and Ten­ selection. The South's agrarian one of region against nation, but ship has brought regional culture nessee Williams, who wrote about heritage; the long, intimate of regions enriching nationality. into the nation's institutions of their southern roots from Paris and presence of white and black —Robert Penn Warren higher learning through such New York. Finally, we view the peoples in her history; and the im­ centers as the Great Plains Center region as a mythic reality that pact of military defeat and eco­ The quest to explore and under­ at the University of Nebraska, the touches every land on our globe nomic dependence have all helped stand American culture is a familiar Appalachian Center at the Universi­ through southern worlds evoked by isolate and define the region. The theme among writers and his­ ty of , and the Center for cultural phenomena as varied as southerner's dialect, love for grits, torians, and the search has taken the Study of Southern Culture at Gone with the Wind, Roots, Elvis fried chicken, and iced tea are but a many through regional territory. A the University of Mississippi. Presley, the blues, William few external traits associated with significant influence on our national How do we define regional, and Faulkner, and Ralph Ellison. The the region. identity is place, which Eudora then southern culture? At our literal geographic region, the world The editor's assumption is that Welty describes as "one of the center in Mississippi, we begin of southerners moved beyond that the distinctiveness of southern lesser angels that watch over the with the South as a geographic region, and the myths of the region culture is not to be found in any hand of fiction." From Twain's unit, a region which spreads from all shape and define what we one trait but rather in the South's Mississippi River to Wyeth's Baltimore to West Texas. Second, regard as "southern culture." peculiar combination of regional 21 © © by Burton Berinsky re igahcl n tpcl en­ topical and biographical brief overview an include will area ject the of portrait composite pedia's encyclo­ the from emerge will thus culture southern of singularity The characteristics. cultural providing critical summaries of of summaries and critical issue, providing at points key the clear basic on scholarship modern synthesize that essays inter­ pretative be will overviews The tries. and articles, thematic shorter essay, South. body of scholarship in categories categories in scholarship of body century this in Early traditions. folk for folklore, southern on The overview conclusions. accepted generally making culture, southern of aspects of development. There is a vast vast a is There development. of rich a as now folklore we southern result, view a As South. the crafts on and folktales, music, of African influence strong the lished whites. from borrowed largely was folklore black that argued scholars region's the of origins the over sy controver­ the explore will example, vide the initial treatment of these these of treatment initial the vide field the define actually will newer fields these in essays overview The fields Other politics. and folklife, stages different in are areas subject culture. white and black of mixture estab­ has study Contemporary ris usd te ein Some region. the outside traits cultural southern of survival and the stereotyping, sectional myth, symbolism, consciousness, regional of questions exploring when contributors although federacy, pro­ will entries topical, biographical and thematic, these In cases, many needs. unfilled toward point and study. southern of areas as separate emerged recently have and medicine science, art, law, as such religion, music, literature, as such sometimes transcend geography geography transcend sometimes Con­ old the of states eleven research. future for the set agenda to help will and subjects nylpda nre i ec sub­ each in entries Encyclopedia The geographical focus is on the the on is focus geographical The As one might expect, the major major the expect, might one As that are peculiar to the South. For For South. the to peculiar are topics that those of aspects to only explore therefore, requested, been have Contributors themselves. in south­ ern uniquely be not may topics mrcn tnc Groups Ethnic American perceived. From is it how and region the the in based not while in­ dustry, television and film the example, view on German ethnicity, as well well as ethnicity, German on view of fragmentation the counteract pic­ overall the to contribute they Hillbillies, works as the the as works reference distinguished such by orga­ This South. the in influence architectural German on historian architectural an by and patterns, a by language, German of varieties Wind the on impact major a had has South, migrant experience. The entry entry The experience. white migrant poor the on historian a by into migration black a on by article historian an South, the within a by article an example, include for will igration," "M the topic alphabetized, are entries the When specialization. disciplinary to tried have editors the entry heading, one under areas or subject disciplines different from ticles region. about deal the great a suggest patterns of resistance and adaptations The quintessentially be Savannah not of may Jews the and Texas, Germans of the Louisiana, of The Cajuns uniqueness. southern of ture if examined be also will diversity . for topic favorite a entoa Eccoei o h Social the of Encyclopedia ternational nizational technique has been used used been has technique nizational settlement German on geographer the on linguist a by articles as geographer on migration patterns patterns migration on geographer cultural southern to peoples these life. southern of flavor distinctive Gema" il nld a over­ an include will an" erm "G article an and South, the of out and the to add they yet "southern," y eieaey lcn svrl ar­ several placing deliberately By Subjects that suggest the South's South's the suggest that Subjects it o Nation a of Birth to to southern culture has been been has culture southern Roots avr Eccoei of Encyclopedia Harvard and the the and to to and the the and oe with Gone Beverly In­

Sciences. culture cle includes historical material, and and material, historical includes cle War Civil the on deal great a but there was a self-conscious self-conscious a was there less is there development, cultural southern of basis historical the origin, the to relevant are as they insofar only chosen are topics volume. "Social Class" explores explores Class" "Social volume. in­ also are others) and Frontier Heritage," "The Cultural Heritage," ("Colonial entries historical major a of development the traces chronologically essay overview each arti­ Every periods. postbellum and material on the colonial era (before (before era colonial the on material Given culture. southern of an aspect of decline or development, oten Culture Southern e, n RcadWih. Music" "M Wright. Richard and War­ ren, Penn Robert Welty, Eudora the explores Law" "Southern Park. community, gay the Jews, French, and "Ethnic TVA. the and lards, Center. Humanities National the southerners. for such topics of importance explore continuing to the is essays these of goal as Lee E. "Robert on in article and another Culture," Southern and "Confederacy the on article wide- a ranging in but battles, of ac­ counts detailed by not explored, example, is for War, Civil the im­ of pact The volume. the to ap­ propriate is focus their when cluded additional selected but area; subject Cleanth Brooks, William Faulkner, Faulkner, William Brooks, Cleanth Triangle Research and Sunbelt, Cola, the Coca with deals and Industry Commerce" "Southern the and Creoles. Indians, Seminole the features Minorities" Cultural and libraries, ex­ desegregation, amines "Education" aristocracy. class, and middle the labor, southern the of scope the suggests areas underlying The ero." H Southern Sam Ervin. "Literature" discusses discusses "Literature" Ervin. and Sam Black, Hugo Trial, Scottsboro col- kudzu, treats "Environment" Because the the Because A listing of some of the subject subject the of some of listing A rather than than rather nylpda of Encyclopedia is focused on on focused is history, historical historical South),

Presley, and . Price. Leontyne and Elvis Presley, King, B.B. rock, southern country, blues, jazz, includes ranges from Huey P. Long and and Long P. Huey from ranges es Hls ad oad ae, Jr. Baker, Howard and Helms, Jesse "Political Ideology and Culture" Culture" and Ideology "Political al sokcr aig gambling, racing, stock-car ball, snake Jr., King, Luther Martin Young, Andrew Carter, Jimmy Presi­ dent former to Wallace C. George Paul "B ear" Bryant, Gilley's, and and Gilley's, Bryant, ear" "B Paul majority. moral the and handlers, lr te ein ecie y his­ by described region the plore Culture Southern of the cyclopedia Press, Carolina North of Universi­ ty the by 1986 in publication Rangers. Texas the and Klan, Klux ee e b Aaaa oenr George governor Alabama by marchers met after were commemorative years twenty event, the month, Last rights civil reforms. other and bill rights the in point turning A route. en ers and police of brutality the of because hi hsoi ffyml juny from journey fifty-mile historic their homicide, and murder surveys cockfighting, Punishment" and Crime "Violence, Festival. Spoleto the Graham, Billy studies "Religion" ac atatd ainl attention national attracted "sphynx," a as Potter David torian for Scheduled scholars. tional and moonshine grits, flag, rebel attitudes, sexual of survey a with concludes History" and Morals Bankhead, Tallulah Smith, Bessie Ku the Brothers, James the prisons, foot­ explores Leisure" and "Sports . alc a te tt capital. state the at Wallace C. voting the of passage the to led march march­ the clubbed who troopers state after Alabama Jr. King, Montgomery, into Luther march Martin Mrs. and Dr. maiden aunts, domestic workers, workers, domestic aunts, maiden ot' srgl fr ail qaiy the equality, racial for struggle South's em i Mrh 16. h five-day The 1965. March, in Selma interna­ and national 800 than more debutantes. the counterculture, conditioning, air Jordan, Barbara Johnson, Bird Lady issip, nvriy$399 OR; University/$53,949 Mississippi, the To world. elusive enigmatic, an "Manners, Parton. Dolly and treats Life" Family and omen "W editor of the Encyclopedia of Southern of Encyclopedia the of editor for Center the of director is Ferris Mr. culture. varied and perience the about questions our answers encyclopedia the that degree 5,0 F/eeec Works—Tools FM/Reference $50,000 OR; FM/1981-84/$95,040 $30,000 Culture. ila R Fri/nvriy of Ferris/University R. William ex­ regional rich America's understand larger a us helps also it South, h Suy fSuhr Cluead co­ and Culture Southern of Study the Eccoei o oten Culture"/ Southern of "Encyclopedia The articles are being written by by written being are articles The Wlim Ferris —William wl ex­ will



How to Become a Summer Seminar Director

Since its inception in 1973, the topics in a wide range of dis­ described the college teachers in ticipants are able to grapple with NEH program of Summer ciplines in the humanities, pro­ his seminar as "bright, attentive, the works themselves, analyzing Seminars for College Teachers vide just this opportunity. imaginative, and very demand­ them in their own right. In other has provided many opportunities Because the seminars are of­ ing." He boasted that "the words, the novel, painting, or for the intellectual revitalization fered for the benefit of the col­ seminar was even more exciting treatise is allowed to speak for of teachers. With the inaugura­ lege and secondary school and instructive for me than it itself. In this program it is crucial tion of the Summer Seminars for teachers, prospective directors in might have been for them ." to study a few key primary texts Secondary School Teachers pro­ developing a seminar proposal The criterion of appropriate­ in detail rather than to skim gram in 1983, the National En­ must carefully consider the needs ness should thus inform the quickly over a series of texts. In dowment for the Humanities of their audiences. This means selection of a seminar topic and fact, some of the most effective now sponsors two significant that a successful proposal will be its level of specificity. Directors seminars for secondary school programs for faculty develop­ notable not only for its intellec­ should consider the interests and teachers have been those on a ment in the humanities. tual rigor but also for its appro­ needs of the secondary school single text—War and Peace, or Aimed at experienced teachers priateness to the program. and college teachers, many of Paradise Lost, to name two. in colleges and secondary As in any other NEH competi­ whom teach outside of their Although similarly emphasiz­ schools, the seminars provide a tion, the most important con­ areas of specialization and are ing significant texts in the forum for colleagues to study sideration in evaluating an ap­ particularly interested in meeting humanities, the seminars de­ significant topics of mutual in­ plication for a seminar director is with colleagues with whom they signed for college teachers may terest under the guidance of the intellectual quality of the ap­ share common interests and with also be organized around signifi­ master teachers and scholars. plication. Another way of phras­ whom they can work in a good cant topics, themes, and prob­ Often overwhelmed by heavy ing this is to say that the ap­ library developing their reading lems in the humanities and teaching and administrative plication must demonstrate the and research interests. Seminar generally pay greater attention to demands and sometimes denied significance of its subject matter topics that are interdisciplinary in secondary materials and research sabbatical and other leave to the humanities, and the scope, such as this summer's methodologies. Depending on because of economic restrictions, qualifications of the director as "Petrarch, Machiavelli, and the discipline of the seminar, the many college and secondary an interpretater of that subject Erasmus: The Humanist as level of specialization may vary school teachers have been unable matter. Panelists look at the ap­ Reformer," are often ap­ considerably. For example, it is to pursue their scholarly and plication narrative, which must propriate, especially if they deal more appropriate to offer a professional interests during the present this case in sufficient with topics of interest to relatively specialized seminar in years since they completed detail, arguing for the impor­ undergraduate and secondary areas often taught in colleges graduate school or simply to en­ tance of the topic, the particular school teachers. Directors whose (e.g., Shakespeare) than in an joy the life of the mind unen­ value of the proposed approach, seminars have appealed to area that may be new or less cumbered by mundane con­ and the seminar's expected con­ teachers in a variety of dis­ often taught in colleges (e.g., straints. The programs, by offer­ tribution to the humanities. The ciplines have often commented Chinese literature), not because ing seminars on a variety of application should, of course, be on the way in which the sepa­ one area is necessarily more im­ crisply written and jargon free. rate perspectives of the par­ portant than another but because A seminar proposal differs ticipants "never remained many more teachers in under­ from a fellowship proposal aimed isolated but always merged, com­ graduate colleges are teach­ at preparing a scholarly book, for plemented, overlapped, and ing and conducting research In the example, because a seminar must enriched the sum total of our in the one area. Thus, although not only focus on a topic central perceptions," so that through the program discourages simple GUIDE to the humanities, but it also the seminar an "organic" under­ surveys of a topic, by necessity must be designed to encourage standing of the topic developed. some seminars will be more in­ 23 To Direct a the twelve or fifteen participants Because secondary school troductory in nature, intended Summer to explore the topic in an organ­ teachers are generalists, the for the nonspecialist who wishes Seminar ized, yet open-ended forum. For seminars offered for them should to develop new teaching and this reason, these seminars, concentrate on the close reading scholarly interests; some will be 24 DO's and DONT's should not be driven by a thesis of significant texts in the for teachers who may well be developed by the director and humanities rather than on distinguished scholars them­ 25 1985 NEH imparted to the participants. research on a specialized topic. selves; and some—perhaps the Fellowships Rather, participants should ex­ Texts may include not only many majority—will be a combination, 31 Deadlines plore in a collegial setting real of the classic works of philos­ intended both for those with ad­ questions for which the director ophy, religion, history, literature, vanced scholarly interests in the may not have ready answers. In and political thought, but also area of the seminar and for those fact, many directors have em­ key works in the visual arts, ar­ interested in learning about a phasized how much they learn chitecture, and music. "Close relatively new teaching or from seminar participants. One reading" means that the par­ Continued on page 30 23 PROPOSALS PROGRAMS esu ad nucsfl applica­ unsuccessful and cessful hy r a te oe f l suc­ all of core the at are but they over-simplify, to seem may or tips, of form the in answers above, posed questions the to Further­ process. review whole the depict accurately the guidelines But factual. be to simple let­ reference the of back the again on and guidelines the in listed also are selection for criteria the hand, other the On cess. "D o 's” and "D o n 't's." These These 't's." n o "D and 's” o "D answers some to lead they more, too looks all it Perhaps forms. ter The guidelines. of set application each in described is proc­ ess the review, peer a Basically college and university faculty faculty university and college thoroughly familiar and at home. home. at and familiar is thoroughly mind academic or scholarly which the with one is itself process suc­ guarantee can that any there answers are Nor questions. the rtn workshops. writing usin ms otn se by asked often most questions o a sml o a nal pt as put neatly as or simple as not members during NEH proposal proposal NEH during members awards? These are two of the the of two are These 640 awards? about to down narrowed are year a applications 6,000 some which by process mysterious the nomn flosi? ht is What fellowship? an get Endowment fact, in one, does How 24 Unfortunately, the answers are are answers the Unfortunately, Ml DON'T's Fellow- of the stipend, then filling out out filling then stipend, the of hy ah f a ecito of description a off dash Next they are. there forms whatever paragraphs, checking the amount amount the checking three paragraphs, or two first the at prose, looking opening the through to skim tend applicants many Too all. udlns To biu? o at Not obvious? Too guidelines. applicants. potential to advice following the offer body a would as panelists Review tions. Appli­ DO'S DO cants ship and JAROSLAV . . . issue next the In easac: oua Culture Popular the Renaissance: in Everyman on Molho Anthony Wmn Fml, n Ritual and Family, Women, •Venice Renaissance in Banking and Money • Context in Carravaggio • Individual and State, for Church, Renaissance the of Meaning The on & & for read the application application the read H RNISNE REVISITED RENAISSANCE THE ht eerh s lal lne to linked clearly is research how that But research. proposed their o n n vlaig h applica­ the evaluating in on go the is this that Remember short shrift. proprosal the of description articulated. seldom is program fellowship the of objectives stated the aeul. yorpia and Typographical carefully. on found often most comments criticize. and read to league graceful, and fluid ordinarily style. prose in worst the out as style a interesting and succinct issue; at now not are research probing your from emerged have that works prize-winning Previous tion. to has panel the what of heart r "noue" r "vague." or "unfocused" are The do. to propose you what or make to position a in be also will but appraisal balanced and who field your in knowledgeable someone find but efforts, your col­ respected a to proposal the worth. and in­ interest its for trinsic read be to meant it were though as a journal, for article professional an were it though as description project the of to think help may It prose. lifeless descrip­ the writing with Faced bring to manages process tion applica­ the Somehow possible. proposal. present the io err my o b deadly be not may errors minor funding for recommended not applications of evaluations the accomplished already have you possible. as per­ suasively as and clearly, plainly, write description; the in jargon able panelist. review preliminary a of equivalent be the will This suggestions. helpful objective an give can only not all applaud to fails never who DON'T turgid, with up come to manage writers project, research a of tion DON'T DON'T Before you submit, submit, you Before DO, DO DON'T DON'T DON'T proofread your application application your proofread rt te rpsl n as in proposal the write select a devoted admirer admirer devoted a select ever give this narrative narrative this give ever be vague about what what about vague be fashion­ around throw ht atr hr is here matters what much more . . . in the June issue of of issue June the in . . . more much the plus this all Grant Awards, application deadlines, and and deadlines, application Awards, Grant State Programs NEH at Look Comprehensive A Wht a be accomplished? W^hat been • has do? they do What • involved? is Who • & DO give give

Humanities o eape o t te Guggen­ the to or example, for Societies, Learned of Council Ameri­ can the to support, fellowship for appropriate: are as grams em onain Fr mle re­ smaller For Foundation. heim your project will be improved improved be will project and your experience the from learn pro­ your if Even try. to afraid oe o mind. to come American the awards, search satisfac­ tion, your to honed been has the into go should effort greatest hog te process. the through will you funded not is posal important: most the eetn ad infcn i is. it significant and in­ teresting how them show to is job small grants program of the the of program grants small the and program grants-in-aid Societies Learned of Council that Once description. project about it than other scholars; your your scholars; other than it about more know you proposal ticular American Philosophical Society Society Philosophical American or rsnain et time. next presentation your about deal great a you tell can mrv bt te rjc and project the to both do improve to able be may you and what project, your to reaction award, an receive to enough cooking gourmet your of quality to service outstanding your on to likely are who colleagues or evaluation. Like readers' reports reports readers' Like evaluation. iec i te ult o te pro­ the of quality the in con­ inspire fidence to fail they but sins, rather than the substance of your your of proposal. substance the than rather superb the on or community the commenting letters fulsome write fields. both you example, for art and ture your If proposal. your of the field in experts include to Be sure referees. your of selection for publishers, these comments comments these publishers, for panel the of summary a for ask oe' research. poser's ed etr fo shlr in scholars from letters need litera­ disciplines, spans project h final The DO DO If you are not fortunate fortunate not are you If DO DO remember that your your that remember eebr ht n hs par­ this on that remember stop and consider the the consider and stop Guide, recent NEH NEH recent Guide, pl t a mn pro­ many as to apply Gieee . Griest L. —Guinevere DON'T DON'T DON'T DON'T Humanities is perhaps perhaps is ask friends friends ask DON'T DON'T be DO

Some of the items in this list are offers, not final awards.

American Minstrel Tradition Adaptations Leonard Leff, Oklahoma State University, Sheila S. Blair, , Cam­ Samuel A. Floyd, Columbia College, Stillwater, American Film Censorship Archaeology & bridge, Massachusetts, A Corpus of Islamic In­ Chicago, Illinois, Black Music in the United Lowell E. Lindgren, Massachusetts Institute scriptions from Iran States of Technology, Cambridge, Stage Design in Anthropology Janet E. Buerger, International Museum of Walter H. Hinderer, Princeton University, Italian Operas Produced in Eighteenth-Century Photography, Rochester, New York, The New' Jersey, Concepts and Ideas of German London FELLOWSHIPS FOR INDEPENDENT STUDY European Photo and the Fin-de-siecle Drama Richard G. Mann, , Mem­ AND RESEARCH Avant Garde William P. Malm, University of Michigan, phis, , The Artistic Patronage of Walter M. Frisch, Columbia University, New Ann Arbor, Japanese Theater Music: Theory and Count Eusebio Guell Donald ). Cosentino, University of Califor­ York, The Early Works of Arnold Schoenberg Practice Carol C. Mattusch, George Mason Univer­ nia, Los Angeles, The Search for a Trickster- Rebecca L. Harris-Warrick, Ithaca, New Theodore Reff, Columbia University, New sity, Fairfax, Virginia, Archaic to Classical: The Hero Across Two Cultures York, Ballroom Dancing at the Court of France, York, Images of Paris in Modem Art (Seminar Development of Greek Bronze Statuary Gerald C. Hickey, Honolulu, Hawaii, Shat­ 1682-1723: An Interdisciplinary Study in Music Location: Paris, France) Charles R. Morscheck, Jr., Drexel Univer­ tered World: People of the Vietnamese Central and Dance History Ruth Steiner and Daniel J. Sheerin, The sity, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Documen­ Highlands Jeffrey Kallberg, University of Pennsylvania, Catholic University of America, Washington, tation on the Construction of the Church of the Gail A. Kligman. University of Chicago, Il­ Philadelphia, Chopin's Nocturnes: The Func­ D C., Experiencing the Medieval Liturgy: The Certosa di Pavia, 1460-1473 linois, A Symbolic Analysis of Transylvanian tions of Genre in the Nineteenth Century Divine Office at Cluny ca. 1075 Jann C. Pasler, University of California, San Rituals of Life and Death Jonathan D. Kramer, University of Cincin­ Egon Verheyen, The Johns Hopkins Univer­ Diego, A Study of the French Avant-Garde: The William P. Murphy, University of New Mex­ nati, Ohio, Time and the Meanings of Music sity, Baltimore, Maryland, Embellishing the Apaches from Pelleas to The Rite, 1902-1913 ico, Albuquerque, Language and Politics in a Marilyn A. Lavin, Princeton University, Temple of Liberty: The Decoration of the U.S. William L. Presly, Chevy Chase, Maryland, West African Chiefdom New Jersey, Patterned Arrangements in Italian Capitol, 1790-1870 The British Response to History Painting, Rayna Rapp, New School for Social Fresco Cycles 1760-1850 Research, New York, New York, Studies in Thomas J. Mathiesen, Brigham Young SUMMER SEMINARS FOR SECONDARY Marylin M. Rhie, Smith College, Northamp­ Bioethics and American Culture University, Provo, Utah, A Catalogue Raisonne SCHOOL TEACHERS ton, Massachusetts, Early Koryo Buddhist Barbara H. Tedlock, Tufts University, Med­ of the Codices Presewing Ancient Greek Music Sculpture in Korea ford, Massachusetts, Zuni Worlds: The Arts, Theory Jay L. Halio, University of Delaware, Benito V. Rivera, North Texas State Univer­ Ethnicity, and Everyday Life David Rosand, Columbia University, New Newark, Shakespeare: Enacting the Text sity, Denton, Modal and Harmonic Aspects of Annette B. Weiner, , York, On Drawing: Critical and Historical (Seminar Location: The University of Fugal Counterpoint in Italian Treatises of the New York, Rituals and Exchange Events as Ob­ Studies Delaware and Stratford, England) Seventeenth Century jects of Regeneration Franklin Toker, University of Pittsburgh, John W. McCoubrey, University of Penn­ Frank R. Rossiter, University of Texas, Pennsylvania, Cathedral and City in Early sylvania, Philadelphia, Paintings as Texts: Dallas, The Rise and Fall of American' Music, FELLOWSHIPS FOR COLLEGE TEACHERS Medieval Florence: An Archaeological History Representation and its Determinants 1930-1960 Paul V. Turner, Stanford University, Califor­ Laurence O. Wylie, Harvard University, James E. Snyder, , Penn­ Marshall J. Becker, West Chester State Col­ nia, Joseph-Jacques Ramee (1764-1842), Interna­ Cambridge, Massachusetts, The Use of sylvania, Margaret of Austria as Collector and lege, Pennsylvania, The Lenape: Cultural Con­ tional Architect Nineteenth-Century French Classics in the Films Patron of the Arts servatism and Change from 1550 to 1750 Cynthia R. Zaitzevsky, Tufts University, of Jean Renoir (Seminar Location: Tufts Roberta K. Tarbell, Rutgers University, Andrew Lass, Mount Holyoke College, Medford, Massachusetts, The Model Housing University, Medford, Massachusetts) Camden, New Jersey, Twentieth-Century South Hadley, Massachusetts, The Movement in the U.S., 1850-1929: Social Reform American Sculpture Manuscript Debates and the Construction of Na­ and Architectural Innovation SUMMER STIPENDS Anne E. Walters, Chicago, Illinois, Music,

tional History and Historical Consciousness in Ceremony, and Architecture in French Medieval GRANTS Czech Scholarship Richard J. Agee, Colorado College, Colorado Monasteries Thomas N. Layton, San Jose State Univer­ FELLOWSHIPS FOR COLLEGE TEACHERS Springs, The Genesis of Willaert's Musica Nova Susan L. Youens, University of Notre Dame, sity, California, Western Pomoan Prehistory in and Music Patronage in the Sixteenth Century Indiana, Claude Debussy and the Evolution of Northern California Alice H.R. Hauck, Providence College, Glenn M. Andres, Middlebury College, Ver­ the Verlaine Songs Rhode Island, John Ruskin's Uses of Illuminated mont, The Role of Nanni di Baccio Bigio in the SUMMER SEMINARS FOR COLLEGE Manuscripts and Their Impact on His Theories Design of the Villa Medici in Rome TEACHERS of Art and Society Barbara A. Barletta, University of Florida, John M. Hunisak, Middlebury College, Ver­ Gainesville, Regional Style in Ancient Greek Classics Richard Bauman, University of Texas, mont, The Sculpture of Jules Delou in the Con­ Architecture Austin, Oral Literature text of Late Nineteenth-Century French Society Michael Beckerman, Washington Universi­ James W. Fernandez. Princeton University, Owen H. Jander, Wellesley College, ty, St. Louis, Missouri, The Endings of FELLOWSHIPS FOR INDEPENDENT STUDY New Jersey, Cosmology and Religious Massachusetts, Beethoven 's 4th Piano Concerto: Mozart's Don Giovanni AND RESEARCH Revitalization (Seminar location: University of The "Orpheus " Concerto H. Perry Chapman, University of Delaware, Colorado at Boulder) Arnold W. Klukas, Oberlin College, Ohio, Newark, Rembrandt's Roles: A Study of His Michael Gagarin, University of Texas, The Context, Function, and Meaning of the Self-Portraits Austin, The Morality of Homer and Hesiod SUMMER STIPENDS English Gothic Retrochoir Michael W. Cothren, Swarthmore College, Francis L. Newton, Duke University, Robert E. McVaugh, Colgate University, Pennsylvania, The Saint Benedict Window from Durham, North Carolina, The Major Centers Joyce C. Aschenbrenner, Southern Illinois Hamilton, New York, German History Paint­ the Abbey of Saint-Denis of Writing in Medieval S. Italy (ninth-twelvth University, Edwardsville, Changes in Southern ing in Rome, 1790-1820: The Roots of Modem Kenneth M. Craig, College, Chestnut centuries) Illinois Families since 1900 Nationalism and Individualism in Art Hill, Massachusetts, Jan van Eyck and the Robert A. Brightman. University of Wiscon­ Joyce Rheuban, CUNY/La Guardia Com­ Stigmatization o f St. Francis FELLOWSHIPS FOR COLLEGE TEACHERS sin, Madison, Studies of Potawatomi Discourse munity College, Long Island, New York, Mark DeVoto, Tufts University, Medford, Richard Handler, Lake Forest College, Fassbinder and Classical Cinema Massachusetts, Two Works of Alban Berg Vincent Farenga. University of Southern Illinois, American Anthropology and Poetry in David A. Schiff, Reed College, Portland, Dennis P. Doordan, , New California, Los Angeles, Tyranny and Culture the 1920s: Edward Sapir, Ruth Benedict, and Ed­ Oregon, 's Compositional Process: Orleans, Louisiana, Italian Architecture, in Ancient Greece ward Arlington Robinson A Study of His Sketches 1914-1942 Joel C. Kuipers, Seton Hall University, Pamela K. Sheingorn, CUNY/Bernard Suzette J. Doyon-Bernard, University of SUMMER SEMINARS FOR COLLEGE South Orange, New Jersey, Cultural Process Baruch College, New York, New York, The West Florida, Pensacola, A Study of the Tem­ TEACHERS in the Formation of Narrative in an Eastern In­ Interdependent Origins of Monumental Sculpture ple Complex at Chavin de Huanta, Peru donesian Community and Drama in the Early Middle Ages Joseph H. Dyer, University of Massa­ Arthur W. H. Adkins, University of Thomas G. Palaima, Fordham University, Kerala J. Snyder, University of Hartford, chusetts, Boston, Monastic Antiphonal Chicago, Illinois, Arete and Virtue: Ancient Bronx, New York, Sealings from the Palace of West Hartford, Connecticut, The Life and Psalmody of the Middle Ages Greek Values and Modem Values Nestor as Archival, Administrative, and Works o f Dietrich Buxtehude, 1637-1707 Jaroslav T. Folda, University of North Mary R. Lefkowitz, Wellesley College, Economic Documents in the Bronze Age Carolina, Chapel Hill, A Study of the Crusader Massachusetts, Women in Antiquity Frances A. Rothstein Towson State Univer­ SUMMER SEMINARS FOR COLLEGE Sculpture at Nazareth Gregory Nagy, Harvard University, Cam­ sity, Maryland, The Politics of Second- TEACHERS Elise Goodman-Soellner, University of Cin­ bridge, Massachusetts, The Ancient Greek Generation Workers in Rural Mexico cinnati, Raymond Walters College, Ohio Concept of Myth and Contemporary Theory and Michael E. Smith, Loyola University, Dudley Andrew and Steven Ungar, Univer­ Rubens' Conversatie A La Mode in its Artistic, Criticism Chicago, Illinois, An Archaeological Investiga­ sity of Iowa, Iowa City, Politics of the Image: Literary, and Socio-Cultural Contexts James M. Redfield. University of Chicago, tion into the Expansion of the Aztec Empire French Film and Fiction Between the Wars Judith W. Hurtig, Simpson College, Iowa Illinois, The Homeric Epics: Text and Context Albert Beimel, CUNY/Herbert H. Lehman City, Iowa, The Emergence of Neoclassicism in (Seminar Location: Dartmouth College, College, Bronx, New York, Theatrical Explora­ the Tomb Sculpture o f Nicholas Stone Hanover, New Hampshire) Arts—History & tion of Sixteen International Plays Philip T. Jackson, Ball State University, Thomas Bishop, New York University, New Muncie, Indiana, The Mass in Italy, 1535-1565 SUMMER STIPENDS Criticism York, Avant-Garde Theater in Europe and the Vance I. Kepley, University of Wisconsin, United States Madison, In Search of the Audience: Film Ex­ Alden A. Mosshammer, University of San FELLOWSHIPS FOR INDEPENDENT STUDY Robert G. Calkins, Cornell University, hibition in the U.S.S.R., 1918-1929 Diego, La Jolla, California, Gregory of Nyssa AND RESEARCH Ithaca, New York, The Medieval Illuminated William Davies King, Colorado College, and Christian Hellenism Book: Context and Audience Colorado Springs, Arthur Conan Doyle's Short Eleanor J. Baker, Bloomington, Indiana, Seymour B. Chatman, University of Califor­ Play, Waterloo (1895): A Turning Point in “Silas Green from New Orleans": A Part of the nia, Berkeley, Fiction into Film: Creative Theatre History FACULTY GRADUATE STUDY PROGRAM Richard A. Jackson, University of Houston, 1880-1930 Texas, A Critical Edition of Medieval French Cor­ Bertram Wyatt-Brown, University of Honda, History— Lydia Lindsey, North Carolina Central onation Texts Gainesville, Ethics and Behavior in the University, Ph.D. in British History Janet L. B. Martin, University of Miami, Cor­ American South, 1865-1910 Non-U.S. al Gables, Florida, Land Tenure and Economic SUMMER SEMINARS FOR COLLEGE Development in Sixteenth-Century Russia FELLOWSHIPS FOR COLLEGE TEACHERS FELLOWSHIPS FOR INDEPENDENT STUDY TEACHERS James C. McCann, Boston University, AND RESEARCH Massachusetts, State, Poverty, and Rural Socie­ Richard V. Buel, Jr.,Wesleyan University, John H. Coatsworth, University of Chicago, ty in Haile Sellasie's Ethiopia, 1919-1935 Middletown, Connecticut, Naval Warfare and Illinois, Economic History of Latin America, Robert G. Moeller, Columbia University, the American Rei>olutionary Economy 1760-1960 Kenneth J. Andrien, Ohio State University, New York, Women's Lives and Social Policy in Betty B. Caroli, CUNY/Kingsborough Com­ Albert Craig and Harold Bolitho, Harvard- Columbus, The Kingdom of Quito in the Eight­ West Germany, 1945-1960 munity College, Brooklyn, New York, A Yenching Institute, Cambridge, Massa­ eenth Century Peter E. Nosco, St. John's University, Biography of Mary K. Simkhovitch chusetts, lapan's Nineteenth-Century Trans­ William M. Bowsky, University of Califor­ lamaica, New York, The Background of Daniel J. Czitrom, Mount Holyoke College, formation nia, Davis, The Florentine Church in the Age Japanese Nativist Thought, 1740-1801 South Hadley, Massachusetts, Tabloid City: Alexander Dallin, Stanford University, of Dante: A Case Study Susan D. Pennybacker, Trinity College, New York Commercial Popular Culture, California, Major Controversies in Twentieth- James C. Boyajian, Fresno, California, Hartford, Connecticut, The Local State, 1890-1920 Century Soviet History Portuguese-Asian Trade Under the Habsburgs, Popular Culture, and Public Morality: London, Lee W. Form wait, Albany State College, Barbara Hanawalt and Lawrence M. Clop- 1580-1640 1839-1919 Georgia, Recovering the Nineteenth Century per, Indiana University, Bloomington, Lay Shaye J. D. Cohen, Jewish Theological Dennis Romano, University of Mississippi, Georgia Black Belt's Past: Dougherty County, Life in the Late Middle Ages Seminary of America, New York, Crossing the University, Social Networks and State Structure 1820-1900 W. Roger Louis, University of Texas, Austin, Boundary: Conversion to Judaism and Marriage in Early Renaissance Venice Carol S. Gruber, William Paterson College, End of the British Empire Between jews and Non-Jews in Greco-Roman Robert Somerville, Columbia University, Wayne, New Jersey, Contracts for A Bombs: Edward E. Malefakis, Columbia University, Antiquity New York, The Papal Councils, 1049-1139 Government-University Collaboration in World New York, Comparative History of Southern Charles J. Dellheim, Arizona State Univer­ Tyler E. Stovall, Berkeley, California, A War II and the Emergent Cold War Europe Since 1800 sity, Tempe, Historical Perspectives on British History of the Parisian Metalworkers' Strike of Alice Kessler-Harris, Hofstra University, Afaf Marsot, University of California, Los Business, 1880-1914 1919 Hempstead, New York, Women's Culture at Angeles, Islamic Resurgence in the Arab World Georg G. Iggers, SUNY/Buffalo, New York, Carl J. Strikwerda, University of California, Work: The Southern Textile Industry Between Leonard M. Thompson, Yale University, History as a Scholarly Discipline in Germany Riverside, A Comparative Study of Working 1920 and 1935 New Haven, Connecticut, Race and Political 1760-1914 Class Organizations in Ghent, Brussels, and Paul A. C. Koistinen, California State Mythology Nancy S. Kollmann, Stanford University, Liege, 1880-1914 University, Northridge, Beating Plowshares in­ Henry A. Turner, Yale University, New California, A Social Approach to Autocratic James D. Tracy, University of Minnesota, to Swords: The Political Economy of Warfare in Haven, Connecticut, Fascism as a Generic Politics and Social Values: “ Precedence" Minneapolis, The Rise of Holland: A Hapsburg America Phenomenon (Mestnichestvo) in Muscovy, 1555-1682 Province, 1478-1566 Peter McCandless, College of Charleston, Jerzy Linderski, University of North South Carolina, A Social History of Insanity in SUMMER SEMINARS FOR SECONDARY Carolina, Chapel Hill, Roman State and the South Carolina from the Colonial Era to World SCHOOL TEACHERS Gods: Religion and Politics in Republican Rome War 11 Ted W. Margadant, University of California, Thomas S. Bums, , Atlan­ History—U.S. Teresa A. Murphy, University of Rhode Davis, Urban Rivalries During the French ta, Georgia, The Decline and Fall of the Island, Kingston, Conversion, Persuasion and Revolution Roman Empire; Edward Gibbon and His Politics: Evangelical Artisans in Ante-Bellum Justin A. McCarthy, University of Louisville, Sources in Light of New Discoveries FELLOWSHIPS FOR INDEPENDENT STUDY America Kentucky, The Last Ottoman Wars and Their Ronald C. Finucane, University of Puget AND RESEARCH Gregory H. Nobles, Georgia Institute of Effects on Turkey Sound, Tacoma, Washington, Augustine Technology, Atlanta, Commerce in the Coun­ Joseph C. Miller, , Guibert, Abelard, and Cellini: Medieval and Norma Basch, Rutgers University, Newark, tryside; Merchants and the Transformation of Charlottesville, Slavery Through Time: A Com­ Renaissance Autobiography New Jersey, Divorce in Victorian America: A New England, 1700-1815 parative World History Richard G . Fox, Duke University, Durham, Cultural History Loren L. Schweninger, University of North Allan Mitchell, University of Califomia-San North Carolina, Gandhi: Autobiography and Allan G. Bogue, The University of Wiscon­ Carolina, Greensboro, Property Ownership Diego, La Jolla, A Comparative Social History Nonviolent Resistance sin, Madison, The World of the Mid-Nineteenth Among Blacks in America, 1800-1915 of France and Germany, 1870-1918 John Lukacs, Chestnut Hill College, Century Congressman Michael L. Smith, Williams College, Kathryn Norberg, University of California- Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Churchill's Clayborne Carson, Stanford University, Williamstown, Massachusetts, Technological San Diego, La Jolla, The Political Economy of History: The Second World War California, American Racial Thought Since 1954 Display: Nuclear Power, Space Exploration, and the Eighteenth-Century French Peasantry Michael S. Mahoney, Princeton University, W illiam H. Chafe, Duke University, the Social Presentation of Technology in Postwar Donald T. Roden, Rutgers University, New New Jersey, Technology and the Human Durham, North Carolina, Social Change and America Brunswick, New Jersey, The Changing Con­ Experience Contemporary ceptions of Manliness in Modem Japan Mark P. O. Morford, University of Virginia, Clarke A. Chambers, University of Min­ FACULTY GRADUATE STUDY James J. Sheehan. Stanford University, Charlottesville, Roman Historians: Sallust, nesota, Minneapolis, Towards a Redefinition PROGRAM California, German History, 1750-1866 Livy, and Tacitus of Welfare History Eric J. Van Young, University of California- John E. Murdoch, Harvard University, Cam­ Paul G. E. Clemens, Rutgers University, Ruben L. Hines, Johnson C. Smith Univer­ San Diego, La Jolla, A Social History of the bridge, Massachusetts, The Enterprise of New Brunswick, New Jersey, Commerce and sity, Ph.D in American History Mexican Independence Movement, 1810-1817 Science in Antiquity Community: The Transformation of Rural Life James J. O'Donnell, University of Penn­ and Culture in Early America, 1750-1820 SUMMER SEMINARS FOR COLLEGE FELLOWSHIPS FOR COLLEGE TEACHERS sylvania, Philadelphia, The Confessions of Saint James C. Cobb, University of Mississippi, TEACHERS Augustine (Seminar Location: Bryn Mawr University, An Economic, Social, Cultural, and Jackson H. Bailey, Earlham College, Rich­ College, Pennsylvania) Political History of the Mississippi Delta Jack P. Greene, The Johns Hopkins Univer­ mond, Indiana, Social and Economic Change Jaroslav J. Pelikan, Yale University, New Ellen C. DuBois, SUNY/Buffalo, New York, sity, Baltimore, Maryland, Social History of in a Japanese Village, 1950-1980 Haven, Connecticut, Readings in Reformation Harriot Stanton Blatch and the Progressive Era Colonial British America, 1607-1763 Elizabeth Endicott-West. Middlebury Col­ History Woman Suffrage Movement Michael H. Hunt, Columbia University, lege, Vermont, Chinese Society in Yuan Times, Ronald G. Witt, Duke University, Durham, Robert R. Dykstra, SUNY'Albany. New New York, The U.S.-China Relationship in 1272-1368 North Carolina, Petrarch, Machiavelli and York, Race Relations in Iowa, 1838-1880 Historical and Global Perspective Robert P. Ericksen, Olympic College, Erasmus; The Humanist as Reformer Paula S. Fass, University of California, Kenneth T. Jackson, Columbia University, Bremerton, Washington, Nazi Coordination Berkeley, School, Culture and Society: Educating New York, American Urban History: Cities and and Allied Denazification at Gottingen Univer­ SUMMER STIPENDS Minorities in Twentieth-Century America Neighborhoods sity: A Study in Education, Public Policy, and George M. Fredrickson, Stanford Universi­ Morton Keller, Brandeis University, Morals Edward G. Berenson, University of Califor­ ty, California, An Interpretive History of the Waltham, Massachusetts, American Political Leonard A. Gordon, CUNY/Brooklyn Col­ nia, Los Angeles, The Affaire Caillaux: French United States, 1865-1900 History in Comparative Perspective lege, New York, Brothers Against the Ray. A Politics and Culture on the Eve of World War 1 James R. Grossman, University of Chicago, August Meier, Kent State University, Ohio, Biography of Indian Nationalist Leaders Subhas Gail M. Bossenga, Riverside, California, Illinois, A Dream Deferred: Migration, Ur­ The Black Protest Movement in Twentieth- and Sarat Bose Taxes, Deficits, and a Bourgeois Revolution: Lille, banization, Industrialization and Change in Afro- Century America James S. Grubb, University of Maryland, 1667-1789 American Culture and Society Daniel S. Smith, University of Illinois, Catonsville, The Articulation of the Renaissance John W. Chaffee, SUNY/Binghamton, New Marc W. Kruman, Wayne State University, Chicago, Family, Individual, and Society in State: Venetian Territorial Dominion in the Fif­ York, Li Hsiu-ch'uan and the Dilemmas of Detroit, Michigan, Democracy and Disfran­ American History teenth Century Statecraft in S' Sung China chisement in the United States, 1776-1860 Steven C. Hause, University of Missouri, St. Alvin D. Coox, San Diego State University, Jan E. Lewis, Rutgers University, Newark, SUMMER SEMINARS FOR SECONDARY Louis, and the Social Politics of California, Policy-making in Japan, 1941: The New Jersey, An Intellectual and Cultural SCHOOL TEACHERS Modem France Pearl Harbor Decision History of the Development of Motherhood in Gail B. Hershatter, Williams College, Jerry P. Dennerline, Amherst College, America Robert C. Carriker, Gonzaga University, Williamston, Massachusetts, Prostitution in Massachusetts, The Memoirs of the Historian Frank A. Ninkovich, St. John's University, Spokane, Washington, The Search for Urban China, 1911-1949 and Educator, Qian Mu Jamaica, New York, Culture and Civilization Knowledge in Nineteenth-Century America: Peter M. Krentz, Davidson College, North Nicholas P. Dirks, California Institute of in American Foreign Policy, 1900-1968 Coues's History of the Expedition Under the C arolina, A Historical Commentary on Technology, Pasadena, California, The Old Marvin R. O'Connell, University of Notre Command of Lewis and Clark Xenophon's Hellenica Regime in South India: State and Society in Tan- Dame, Indiana, Biography of John Ireland W. Turrentine Jackson, University of Califor­ John J. Martin, Trinity University, San An­ javur, 1600-1865 (1838-1918) nia, Davis, Classics on the Frontier Experience: tonio, Texas, Artisans and Heretics in Sixteenth- Judith Ewell, College of William and Mary, Joel Perlmann, Harvard University, Cam­ Turner, Parkman. Twain, Roosevelt, and Cather Century Venice Williamsburg, Virginia, A Regional History of bridge, Massachusetts, Education and Social Harvey C. Mansfield, Jr., Harvard Univer­ Steven E. Ostrow, Dartmouth College, Zulia, Venezuela: 1890-1980 ■ Mobility in an American City: Providence, R.l. sity, Cambridge, Massachusetts, The Hanover, New Hampshire, The Social Mobil­ J. Clayton Fant, University of Akron, Ohio, 1880-1945 American Experiment (Seminar Location: The ity of Roman Freedmen Under the Empire: The The Roman Imperial Marble Trade Stephen G. Rabe, University of Texas- Colorado College, Colorado Springs) Case of the Augustales Cornell H. Fleischer, Washington Universi­ Dallas, Richardson, The Latin-American Policy James P. Shenton, Columbia University, Jennifer T. Roberts, Southern Methodist ty, St. Louis, Missouri, The Ottoman Ruling of the Eisenhower Administration New York, Classic Studies in American Ethnic University, Dallas, Texas, Shifting Attitudes Elite in the Age of Suleyman I John G. Sproat, University of South and Racial History Toward Athenian Democracy and Vicissitudes of Paul R. Hanson, Butler University, In­ Carolina, Columbia, “Conspiracy for Peace": Political Thought in the West dianapolis, Indiana, Monarchist Clubs in the Race Relations in South Carolina, 1920-1980 SUMMER STIPENDS Gary D. Stark, University of Texas, Ar­ Early Years of the French Revolution Wayne J. Urban, Georgia State University, lington, Cultural Censorship in Imperial Ger­ Patricia J. Hilden, Emory University, Atlan­ Atlanta, Horace Mann Bond (1904-1972): A Paul A. Cimbala, University of South many, 1871-1918 ta, Georgia, Working Women in the Society and Biographical Study Carolina, Aiken, The Freedmen's Bureau and William N. Turpin, Swarthmore College, Economy of Belgium, 1830-1914 Rudolph J. Vecoli, University of Minnesota, Reconstruction in Georgia, 1865-1870 Pennsylvania, Late Roman Legislation and Im­ Emily Honig, Lafayette College, Easton, Minneapolis, Italian Radical Movements in the Leonard P. Curry, University of Louisville, perial Ideology Pennsylvania, The Life and Times of Cora Deng United States: Their Trans-Atlantic Dimension, Kentucky, Free Black Owners of Slaves 26 fames E. Davis, Illinois College, Jacksonville, New York, Medieval Natural Rights Theories, Julia H. Gaisser, Bryn Mawr College, Penn­ The Overland Diary of Charles Parke, M.D. 1150-1350 sylvania, Renaissance Interpretations of Catullus Charles M. Dobbs, Metropolitan State Col­ Marjorie C. Woods, University of Rochester, Language & David G. Goodman, University of Illinois, lege, Denver, Colorado, Canadian-American New York, Rhetoric and Literary Theory: Com­ Urbana, Modem Japanese Plays and Playwrights Relations and Great Power Rivalries, 1 940-1953 mentaries on the Poetna Nova Linguistics Thomas R. Hart, University of Oregon, Melvyn Dubofsky, SUNY 'Binghamton, Eugene, Don Quixote in Context: Cervantes New York, The State and Labor-Capital Rela­ FELLOWSHIPS FOR COLLEGE FELLOWSHIPS FOR INDEPENDENT STUDY and Ariosto tions in Modem America TEACHERS AND RESEARCH J. Paul Hunter, University of Rochester, New Nancy F. Cabin, Purdue University, West York, Contexts of the English Novel Lafayette, Indiana, A History of Women Auto William R. Cook, SUNY/Geneseo, New Patricia J. Donegan, Columbus, Ohio, Sylvia J. Huot, University of Chicago, Il­ Workers and the United Automobile Workers' York, The Early Images of St. Francis of Assisi Universal Vowel Phonology linois, From Song to Book: Lyricism and the Union, 1935-1970 Gary B. Deason, St. Olaf College, North- Jay H. Jasanoff, Cornell University, Ithaca, Written Text in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Susan A. Glenn, Scripps College, Clare­ field, Minnesota, A Comparison of Protestant New York, The Hi-Conjugation in Hittite and Centuries mont, California, Jewish Immigrant Women in and Catholic Contributions to the Mechanical Indo-European Verbal Systems Kenneth R. Johnston, Indiana University, the American Garment Industry, 1880-1920 Philosophy Olga B. Nedeljkovic, University of Illinois, Bloomington, Young Wordsworth: The Creation James F. Goode, University of Georgia, Rachel C. Laudan, Virginia Polytechnic In­ Chicago, The Greek Diaspora and the Eastern of a Poet Athens, United States-lranian Relations Dur­ stitute and State University, Blacksburg, The Slavic Orthodox Revival in the Sixteenth and Edward K. Kaplan, Brandeis University, ing the Mosaddeq Period, 1951-1953 Image of Science in Nineteenth-Century Histories Seventeenth Centuries in the Polish-Lithuaman Waltham, Massachusetts, Book-Length Study Mary McD. Gordon, University of Santa of Science State of Baudelaire s Prose Poems Clara, California, A Biography of W. English Dean S. Worth, University of California, Los David R. Knechtges, University of Wash­ Walling FACULTY GRADUATE STUDY Angeles, A Sociohnguistic History of the Rus­ ington, Seattle, The Formative Period of Chinese Carl ). Guarneri, St. Mary's College of PROGRAM sian Language Literature: Third Century B.C. to Seventh Cen­ California, Moraga, Fourierist Utopian tury A.D. Socialism in Nineteentk-Ce,uury America Eleanor Hoytt, Atlanta University, Ph.D. in FELLOWSHIPS FOR COLLEGE Ellen Z. Lambert, Boston University, Alonzo L. Hamby, Ohio University, Athens, American Studies TEACHERS Massachusetts, The Presentation of Feminine A Biography of Harry b. Truman Beauty in Western Literature With Particular Walter A. Jackson, North Carolina State SUMMER SEMINARS FOR COLLEGE John J. Pauly, University of Wisconsin, Reference to the Victorians University, Raleigh, Gunnar Myrdal and TEACHERS Milwaukee, News and Modem Democracy Charles R. Larson, American University, American Racial Liberalism Gary A. Rendsburg, Canisius College, Buf­ Washington, D.C., A Critical Biography of lean David A. Johnson, Portland State Universi­ Asger Aaboe, Yale University, New Haven, falo, New York, A Historical Grammar of Toomer and Nella Larsen ty, Oregon, Politics, Ideology, and the Passing Connecticut, Exact Sciences in Antiquity and Biblical Hebrew Morphology Robert L. Montgomery, University of of Frontier Society: The Far Western United the Middle Ages John D. Schaeffer, Marymount College of California, Irvine, Baroque and Neoclassical States, 1840-1880 Larry L. Laudan, Virginia Polytechnic In­ Kansas, Salina, Sensus Communis: Vico's Theories of Audience Response Clayton R. Koppes, Oberlin College, Ohio, stitute and State University, Blacksburg, Theory of Rhetoric and Its Contemporary Suzanne E. Nalbantian, Long Island Univer­ The Office of War Information and the Hollywood Agreement and Disagreement in Science Significance sity, Greenvale, New York, Aesthetic Auto­ Feature Film Everett Mendelsohn, Harvard University, biography: Objects of Transmutation Jama Lazerow, University of Puget Sound, Cambridge, Massachusetts, The Social History FACULTY GRADUATE STUDY Stephen M. Parrish, Cornell University, Tacoma, Washington, Religion and Working of Modem Science PROGRAM Ithaca, New York, The Art of Wordsworth's Class Life in Pre-Civil War America Robert S. Westman, University of Califor­ Prelude Ralph E. Luker, Wilmington, Delaware, nia, Los Angeles, Reappraisals of the Scientific Joan T. Eldridge, Howard University, Gustavo F. Perez-Firmat, Duke University, Theologies of Race Relations in the Progressive Revolution Washington, D.C., Doctor of Arts in Spanish Durham, North Carolina, Studies in the Cuban Era Margaret Eskew, Dillard University, Ph.D. Literary Vernacular James I. Matray, New Mexico State Univer­ SUMMER SEMINARS FOR SECONDARY in Linguistics Marjorie G. Perloff, University of Southern sity, Las Cruces, American Foreign Policy in SCHOOL TEACHERS Annette I. Kashif, Bethune-Cookman Col­ California, Los Angeles, Avant-Garde/ Korea, 1950-1953 lege, Ph D in Linguistics Avant-Guerre: "The Futurist Moment" and the Paul Mattingly, New York University, New Hubert M. Martin, Jr., University of Ken­ Language of Rupture York, Private Wealth and Public Learning, tucky, Lexington, The Intellectual, Moral, and Max F. Schulz, University of Southern 1860-1930 Religious Environment of Athens in the Fifth SUMMER SEMINAR FOR COLLEGE California, Los Angeles, A Biography of Daniel Nelson, University of Akron, Ohio, Century B.C. TEACHERS Samuel Taylor Coleridge Higher Education and Scientific Management, Charles F. Segal, Brown University, Prov­ 1915-1940 SUMMER STIPENDS Joseph M. Williams, University of Chicago, idence, Rhode Island, Poetry and Mythical James W. Oberly, University of Wisconsin, Illinois, Style and the Structure of Discourse Form in the Odyssey of Homer Eau Claire, Pioneer Squatters on the Antebellum Liahna K. Babener, Grinnell College, Iowa, John E. Tidwell, , Upper-Mississippi Frontier Growing Up in the Heartland: Autobiographies SUMMER STIPENDS Lexington, The Critical Realism of Sterling A. James R. Perry, Washington, D.C., The For­ by Midwesterners Brown mation of a Society on Virginia's Eastern Shore, Mary Catherine A. Bodden, Marquette Leonard H. Babby, Cornell University, Jane P. Tompkins, Temple University, 1615-1655 University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, The Ithaca, New York, The Syntax of Case and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Escape into Reali­ Michael Schaller, University of Arizona, Knowledge of Greek in Early England Quantifiers in Russian ty: Traditions of American Popular Fiction Tucson, Douglas MacArthur and the American Paul H. Freedman, Vanderbilt University, Richard L. Enos, Carnegie-Mellon Univer­ James G. Turner, University of Virginia, Experience in Asia, 1935-1951 Nashville, Tennessee, The Origins of Peasant sity, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Rhetorical Charlottesville, Sexual Libertinism in English Constance B. Schulz, Georgetown Univer­ Servitude in Medieval Catalonia Theory and the Compositions of the Sophists: A Literature, 1640-1790 sity, Washington, D C., Veterans, Widows and Peter B. Hales, University of Illinois, Reconstruction Joseph S. Viscomi, University of North Early Federal Entitlements: A Case Study of the Chicago, William Henry Jackson: The Philip E. Grundlehner, The Johns Hopkins Carolina, Chapel Hill, William Blake and the Revolutionary War Pension System Photography of American University, Baltimore, Maryland, A Zara- Idea of the Book William B. Scott, Kenyon College, Gambier, Martin J. Irvine, Wayne State University, thustra Commentary Steven C. Weisenburger, University of Ken­ Ohio, New York Modem: The Making of a Detroit, Michigan, A Study of Medieval Literary Heather K. Hardy, North Texas State tucky, Lexington, Satire and the Novel in Cosmopolitan Culture, 1910-1970 Theory University, Denton, A Study of the American America, 1930-1980 Frank A. Strieker, California State Univer­ Clarence G. Lasby, University of Texas, Indian Language Alabama Joan M. Westenholz, University of Chicago, sity, Carson, Incomes and Expectations of Austin, A History of Coronary Heart Disease in David A. Pharies, University of Florida, Illinois, Akkadian Heroic Epics American Professors, 1890-1929 Twentieth-Century America Gainesville, Bilingualism and Correspondences James A. Winn, University of Michigan, Ann Shelton Stromquist, University of Iowa, David C. Lindberg, University of Wiscon- in Spanish and Basque Arbor, Biography of fohn Dryden Iowa City, The Transformation of Working Class son, Madison, Faith, Reason, and Experience Matthew W. Stolper, University of Chicago, Political Culture in America, 1890-1910 in Roger Bacon Illinois, Reconstructing an Achaememd Babylo­ FELLOWSHIPS FOR COLLEGE Helena M. Wall, Pomona College, Clare­ Lonna M. Malmsheimer, Dickinson College, nian Archive TEACHERS mont California, The Transformation of Fami­ Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Photographic Images of ly and Community in Early America Acculturation at the Carlisle Indian School, Frank A. Bergon, , Donald W. White, New York University, 1879-1918 Poughkeepsie, New York, Language and New York, An Intellectual History of American Ewa T. Morawska, University of Penn­ Literature Society in the Writings of Nineteenth-Century Foreign Relations in the Post-World War II Era sylvania, Philadelphia, Insecure Prosperity: American Explorers, Artists, Scientists, and Jews in Small-Town Industrial America, Naturalists 1870-1940 FELLOWSHIPS FOR INDEPENDENT STUDY Peter A. Brazeau, St. Joseph College, West M. Alison Stones, University of Pittsburgh, AND RESEARCH Hartford, Connecticut, A Biography of Interdisciplinary Pennsylvania, French Illuminated Manuscripts, 1260-1320 Joseph R. Allen III, Washington Universi­ Marina S. Brownlee, Dartmouth College, Louise Olga Vasvari, SUNY/Stony Brook, ty, St. Louis, Missouri, Music Bureau Poetry Hanover, New Hampshire, Space and Time FELLOWSHIPS FOR INDEPENDENT STUDY New York, The Subversion of Denotative of Classical China: The Definition of the Genre in the Mester De Clericia AND RESEARCH Language in the Libro de Buen Amor with New Criteria Maurice A. Cagnon, Montclair State College, Donald J. Wilcox, University of New Hamp­ Ross Brann, New York University, New New Jersey, Issues of Social and Artistic Iden­ Margaret W. Ferguson, Yale University, shire, Durham, The Measurement of Time in York, The Compunctious Poet: Cultural Am­ tity Among Contemporary Quebec Writers New Haven, Connecticut, Women as Writers Western Historiography before Newton biguity and Hebrew Poetry in Muslim Spain John D. Cox, Hope College, Holland, and Readers in Early Modem Europe Karen W. Brazell, Cornell University, Ithaca, Michigan, Shakespeare and the Dramaturgy of Nicholas P. Howe, Rutgers University, New New York, A Study of Zeami's Noh Plays Pouter Brunswick, New Jersey, Migration and Im­ Harry G. Carlson, CUNY/Queens College, Reed W. Dasenbrock, New Mexico State agination: A Reinterpretation of Anglo-Saxon Jurisprudence Flushing, New York, Tradition and Revolution University, Las Cruces, English as an Inter­ Culture in Strindberg's Drama: Strindberg as a Major national Literary Language John Randal Johnson, University of Florida, Link Between Romanticism and Modernism William C. Edinger, University of Gainesville, Authoritarianism and Culture: SUMMER STIPENDS James K. Chandler, University of Chicago, Maryland,Catonsville, Tradition and Innova­ Literary Production During 's Estado Illinois, England in 1819: Historical Explana­ tion in British Criticism, 1700-1765 Novo, 1937-1945 Stanley L. Paulson, Washington Universi­ tion and Literary Achievement Lee Erickson, Marshall University, Hunt­ John F. Moe, Ohio State University, Colum­ ty, St. Louis, Missouri, Normativism and the Patricia B. Craddock, Boston University, ington, West Virginia, Literary Form and the bus, Elijah Pierce: The Life and Work of an Afro- Law Massachusetts, A Biography of the Later Life Periodical Format, 1800-1850 American Folk Artist Austin D. Sarat, Amherst College, Massa­ of Edward Gibbon Neil M. Flax, University of Michigan, Dear­ David W. Paul, Seattle, Washington, The chusetts, The Fate of Law: A Study in Contem­ Joan C. Dayan, Yale University, New born, The Rise of Professional Art Criticism in Politics of Film in Eastern Europe porary Jurisprudence Haven, Connecticut, Finding A Voice: Five the Nineteenth Century Charles W. Scruggs, University of Arizona, Tinsley E. Yarbrough, East Carolina Univer­ Caribbean Poets Lorrie Goldensohn, Vassar College, Tucson, The Idea of the City in the Afro- sity, Greenville, North Carolina, Justice Black. Sally M. Fitzgerald, Cambridge, Poughkeepsie, New York, Style and Structure American Novel Justice Rehnquist, and the Judge’s Task in Con­ Massachusetts, Life and Work of Flannery in the Poetry of Elizabeth Bishop Brian Tierney, Cornell University, Ithaca, stitutional Construction O'Connor Anne H. Groton, St. Olaf College, North- 27 field, Minnesota, Commentary on Menander's New York, Chaucer's Language Games: Socie­ Emily S. Apter, Williams College, Wil- orado, Boulder, The Modem Francophone APIS (The Shield) ty as Art in the Canterbury Tales liamstown, Massachusetts, The Genre of Novel in Africa James V. Hatch, CUNY/City College, New Bernth O. Lindfors, University of Texas, Grotesque Realism: Maupassant, Mirabeau. Vincent P. Pecora, University of Arkansas, York, New York, The Life and Art of Owen Austin, Major African Authors Gide, and Toumier Fayetteville, Nietzsche, the Frankfurt School, Dodson James J. Y. Liu, Stanford University, Califor­ Albert R. Ascoli. Northwestern University, and Critical Theory William L. Hedges, Goucher College, nia, Chinese Literature in an Interlingual Context Evanston, Illinois, Literature and Authority in Marjorie L. Pryse, University of Tennessee, Baltimore, Maryland, In a New Country: Ciriaco Morbn-Arroyo, Cornell University, the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance Knoxville, American Literary Regionalism: A American Literature in the Age of Adams and Ithaca, New York, Ortega y Gasset 's Idea of Milton J. Bates, Marquette University, Women's Genre Jefferson Art, Literature, and Literary Criticism Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Essays on Vietnam Dale F. Salwak. Citrus College, Azusa, John D. Lyons, Dartmouth College, Han­ Ralph W. Rader. University of California, War Literature California, The Life and Achievement of Kingsley over, New Hampshire, Exemplum: The Berkeley, The Emergence and Dei’elopment of Thomas F. Bonnell, St. Mary's College, Amis Rhetoric of Example in Renaissance France the English Novel: A Theoretical Overview Notre Dame, Indiana, Bookselling and Literary Barry P. Scherr, Dartmouth College, and Italy Thomas P. Roche, Jr. Princeton University, Canon-Making Rivalry for the Poetry Market in Hanover, New Hampshire, The Life and Work Peter E. Martin, New England College, Ben- New Jersey, Spenser and the Epic Romance England, 1776-1783 of Maxim Gorky niker. New Hampshire, The Scholar's Scholar: Jeffrey L. Sammons, Yale University, New Evelyn C. Bristol, University of Illinois, Ur- James A. Schultz, Yale University, New A Life of Edmond Malone Haven, Connecticut, Germans and Jews: The bana, A History of Russian Poetry Haven, Connecticut, The Conceptualization of Mitzi Myers, Scripps College, Claremont, Literary Experience Carolyn T. Brown, Howard University, Childhood in German Narrative, 1150-1350 California, Rational Dames and Moral Mothers: Andras Sandor, Howard University, Washington, D C., Lu Xun's Prose Poems M. Jean Sconza, Rutgers University, New British Women Writers and juvenile Literature, Washington, D C., The Poet as Folk-Poet: Ger­ John L. Bryant, Pennsylvania State Univer- Brunswick, New Jersey, A Critical Edition and 1780-1830 man Romantic Concepts, Practices, and sity/Shenango Valley, Sharon, Melville and Study of the Siete Edades del Mundo John T. O'Brien, Illinois Benedictine College, T ransformations the Rhetoric of Lying Michael A. Sells, Haverford College, Penn­ Lisle, The Black Male Hero: 1900-1970 David E. Simpson, Northwestern Universi­ Frances B. Cogan. University of Oregon, sylvania, The Pre-lslamic Arabic Ode Michael L. Ossar, Kansas State University, ty, Evanston, Illinois, Social Themes in English Eugene, Young American Women and the Ideal James S. Shapiro, Goucher College, Manhattan, Anarchism and Literature, 1750-1811 of Economic Self-Reliance, 1840-1880 Towson, Maryland, Marlowe and the Problem Tanya Page, University of Rochester, New Barbara Herrnstein Smith, University of Rita Copeland, Syracuse University, New of Influence York, The Philosophic Prose of A. N. Radischev Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Value and Eval­ York, Translation as Reception, Interpretation, Jon Snyder, University of California-San Joan T. Richardson, CUNY/La Guardia uation: Classic Issues and Contemporary Invention: The Poetics of Middle English Diego, La Jolla, California, Italian Theories of Community College, Long Island City, New Perspectives Translation Dialogue, 1560-1650 York. A Biography of Lewis M. Dabney, University of Wyoming, Charles C. Soufas, Jr., West Chester State David H. Richter, CLINY/Queens College, SUMMER SEMINARS FOR SECONDARY Laramie, in the 1930s College, Pennsylvania, Ideology as Poetics: The Flushing, New York, The Gothic Novel and SCHOOL TEACHERS Carolyn L. Dinshaw, University of Califor­ Generation of 27 Literary History nia, Berkeley, Chaucer's Sexual Poetics Harold R. Stevens, Western Maryland Col­ Margery Sabin, Wellesley College, Lawrence I. Buell, Oberlin College, Ohio, Susan Dunn, Williams College, Williams- lege, Westminister, A Critical Edition of Joseph Massachusetts, English-Language Traditions in Hawthorne, Stowe, Thoreau, and Dickinson: town, Massachusetts, The Nineteenth-Century Conrad's Last Essays Modem Fiction: fames, Lawrence, Joyce, and Romantic Imagination in New England Myth of Louis XVI Hans R. Vaget, Smith College, Northamp­ Beckett David Cavitch, Tufts University, Medford, Carole Fabricant, University of California, ton, Massachusetts, The Correspondence of Jeffrey Steinbrink, Franklin and Marshall Massachusetts, Joyce, Lawrence, and Fitzgerald: Riverside, The English Country House and the and Agnes E. Meyer College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Mark Fiction and Life Histories Tourist Business in the Eighteenth Century Susan R. Van Dyne, Smith College, North­ Twain in Three Contexts: Buffalo, Elmira, and H.R. Coursen, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, C. Stephen Finley, Haverford College, Penn­ ampton, Massachusetts, A Study of the Hartford Maine, Richard II, Henry IV, and Henry V: sylvania, The Theology of Landscape in John Creative Process: The Manuscripts of Sylvia Eugene L. Stelzig, SUNY/Geneseo, New Shakespeare's Sense of History Ruskin’s Works, 1826-1860 Plath's Late Poems York, 's Fictions of the Self J. Martin Evans, Stanford University, Suzanne L. Graver, Williams College, Sarah E. Westphal-Wihl, Duke University, Stephen J. Tapscott, Massachusetts Institute California, Classical and Christian Traditions in Williamstown, Massachusetts, Representa­ Durham, North Carolina, A History of the of Technology, Cambridge, Emergence: Essays Milton's Poetry tions of Mental Power and Womanhood in Vic­ Medieval German Novelle, from the Beginning on Contemporary Barbara C. Ewell, University of Mississip­ torian Fiction to 1500 Deborah A. Thomas, Villanova University, pi, University, The Short Stories of Chopin, N. Eileen Gregory, University of Dallas, Ir­ John J. Winkler, Stanford University, Pennsylvania, Thackeray and Slavery Welty, O'Connor, and Walker: Linking Region, ving, Texas, The Sapphic Erotic Vision in California, A New Theory of the Origin of Greek Mary Ann Wimsatt, Southwest Texas State Gender and Genre H. D. 's Early Poetry T ragedy University, San Marcos, Simms's Major Fic­ Christie K. Fengler, and William A. James R. Hall, University of Mississippi, William B. Worthen, University of Texas, tion: Cultural Traditions and Literary Form Stephany, University of Vermont, Burl­ University, Frederic Madden and the Text of Austin, Sites of Theater: Actor, Spectator, and Susan W. Wittig, Southwest Texas State ington, The Canterbury Tales and the English Beowulf the Play of Modem Drama University, San Marcos, From Story to Illuminated Book (Seminar Location: Univer­ Anne C. Herrmann, University of Michigan, Discourse: The Emergence of Voice in English sity of Vermont and London, England) Ann Arbor, The Mutability of Gender as Social Prose Fiction Dean Flower, Smith College, Northampton, and Literary Experiment Massachusetts, Hawthorne, Dickinson, and Avraham Holtz, Jewish Theological Philosophy FACULTY GRADUATE STUDY fames: The Diziided Self Seminary of America, New York, An An­ PROGRAM David C. Fowler, , notated Edition of S.Y. Agnon's Hakhnasat Seattle, Piers the Plowman as History Kalla FELLOWSHIPS FOR INDEPENDENT STUDY Vivian A. Brown, Morehouse College, Ph.D. (Seminar Location: Oxford, England) Joanne Jacobson, Middlebury College, Ver­ AND RESEARCH in French Literature Donald P. Haase, Wayne State University, mont, Loss and Recovery in Literature of the Dolan Hubbard, Winston-Salem State Detroit, Michigan, The Tales of the Brothers Rural Midwest Henry E. Allison, University of California- University, Ph.D. in Afro-American Grimm: Discovering Their Literary and Cultural Barbara A. Johnson, Indiana University, San Diego, La Jolla, An Examination of Kant's Literature Significance Bloomington, Piers Plowman and Pilgrim's Theory of Freedom Emma J. Waters, Ph.D. in English Robert W. Hamblin, Southeast Missouri Progress: A Study in Literary and Cultural Robert L. Barry, Pope John Center, St. Rodger E. Wilson, Jackson State Universi­ State University, Cape Girardeau, William Continuity Louis, Missouri, A Survey of Roman Catholic ty, Ph D in British Literature Faulkner: The Regional and the Mythic Donald B. Johnson, University of California, Thought on Health Care Ethics Walter Harding, SUNY/Geneseo, New Santa Barbara, Sasha Sokolov's Palisanrija as Allen E. Buchanan, University of Arizona, SUMMER SEMINARS FOR COLLEGE York, The Concord Authors: Thoreau, Emerson, a Syntagmatic Novel Tucson, Deciding for Others: The Ethics of Sur­ TEACHERS and Hawthorne (Seminar Location: The Con­ Allen Josephs, University of West Horida, rogate Decision-Making cord Academy, Massachusetts) Pensacola, An Analysis of 's Charles S. Chihara, University of California, Houston A. Baker, Jr., University of Penn­ Hamlin L. Hill, Georgetown University, Vision of Spam Berkeley, Mathematics Without Existence sylvania, Philadelphia, Modernism in Afro- Washington, D C., Masterworks of American Karl Keller, San Diego State University, Assertions American Literature Humor California, The Connection between Walt Whit­ Joshua Cohen, Massachusetts Institute of Jonas A. Barish, University of California, Thomas H. Jackson, Bryn Mawr College, man's Homosexuality and His Poetry Technology, Cambridge, A Study of lean Jac­ Berkeley, Shakespeare's Sources Pennsylvania, The Modem American Epic: Jean S. Kimball, University of Northern ques Rousseau’s Theory of Justice Ernst Behler, University of Washington, Pound's Cantos and Williams's Paterson Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa, Psychoanalytic Con­ Fred I. Dretske, University of Wisconsin, Seattle, Origins of Romantic Literary Theory Gessler M. Nkondo, Vassar College, texts for Joyce's Madison, Philosophy of Mind Content and the Patricia Bell-Scott and Beverly Guy-Sheftall, Poughkeepsie, New York, Eliot, Brutus, Bruce A. King, University of North Explanation of Behavior , Atlanta, Georgia, Images Owoonor, and Soyinka: African Poetry and the Alabama, Florence, The Emergence of Indian Clyde L. Hardin, Syracuse University, New of Black Women in Literature Modem English Tradition English-Language Poetry since Independence York, A Philosophical Study of Color Perception Mary Ann Caws, CUNY/Graduate Center, David J. O'Connell, University of Illinois, Ullrich G. Langer, Bryn Mawr College, Saul A. Kripke, Princeton University, New New York, Perception in Literature and Art Chicago, CMme, Bemanos, and Camus: Evil in Pennsylvania, Forms of Renaissance Orthodoxy: Jersey, Studies in Reference, Existence, Identi­ Jane Chance, Rice University, Houston, the Modem World Noel Beda ty, and Time Texas, Chaucer and Mythography Jarold W. Ramsey, University of Rochester, Herbert Lederer, University of Connecticut Robert C. Stalnaker, Cornell University, Peter Conn, University of Pennsylvania, New York, Native American Literature from Health Center, Storrs, A Lexicon of Drama in Ithaca, New York, Philosophy of Language and Philadelphia, Literature and Society in America, Traditional to Modem the German Democratic Republic Logic: The Nature of Mental Representation 1900-1920 Lawrence V. Ryan, Stanford University, Beverly B. Mack, Georgetown University, Michael G. Cooke, Yale University, New California, Homer, Cervantes, Dickens, and Washington, D.C., Social Change among Hausa FELLOWSHIPS FOR COLLEGE TEACHERS Haven, Connecticut, English Romanticism: Joyce: The Hero's Journey to Self-Discovery Muslim Women in Kano, Nigeria The Problem of Wholeness, (Seminar Location: Daniel R. Schwarz, Cornell University, John S. Maddux, University of Dallas, Irv­ Richard T. Bernstein, Haverford College, Stanford University, California) Ithaca, New York, lames Joyce's Ulysses ing, Texas, Robert de Boron's Arthurian Cycle: Pennsylvania, Humanism and Its Contemporary Lillian R. Furst, University of Texas-Dallas, Ronald A. Sharp. Kenyon College, Gambier, The Hermeneutics of Old French Romance Critics Richardson, Reading Ironies in Fiction Ohio, Aristotle to Keats: The Literature of James C. McKusick. University of Maryland, Jill V. Buroker, California State College, San (Seminar Location: Stanford University, Friendship Catonsville, The Influence of Linguistic Theory Bernardino, Perception and Judgment in Carte­ California) Harry J. Solo, Mankato State University, on English Romantic Poetry sian Thought Jane Gallop, University of Wisconsin, Mil­ Minnesota, Beowulf and its Contexts Elias F. Mengel, Georgetown University, Robert J. Gooding-Williams, Simmons Col­ waukee, Feminist Criticism: Issues in Literary Weldon E. Thornton, University of North Washington, D.C., A Study of Boileau's In­ lege, Boston, Massachusetts, Nietzsche's Pur­ Theory Carolina, Chapel Hill, Lawrence and Joyce: fluence on Dryden and Pope suit of Dionysian Grace Marjorie Garber, Harvard University, Cam­ Complementary Modes of Modernism Maria Rosa Menocal, University of Penn­ Peter K. Mclnemey, Oberlin College, Ohio, bridge, Massachusetts, Shakespeare and the Diana A. Wilson, University of Denver, Col­ sylvania, Philadelphia, The Dialogue of Self and Time Consciousness, Temporal Realism, and the Problem of Genre orado, Cervantes and Borges: Writing and Other in Aucassin Et Nicolette Nature of the Experiencer Roberto GonzSlez-Echevarrii, Yale Univer­ Rewriting Don Quixote Piotr A. Michalowski, University of Alfred R. Mele, Davidson College, North sity, New Haven, Connecticut, The Concept Michigan, Ann Arbor, A Critical Edition of the Carolina, Weakness of Will, Action, and Belief of Culture and the Idea of Literature in Modem SUMMER STIPENDS Lamentation Over the Destruction of Sumer Timothy Stroup, CUNY/John Jay College, Latin America and Ur New York, An Intellectual Biography of Edward Giles B. Gunn, University of Horida, Carlos J . Alonso, Wesleyan University, Mid­ Wesley A. Morris, Rice University, Houston, Westermarck Gainesville, Literature and Religion dletown, Connecticut, A Reappraisal of the Texas, A Critical Reading of William Faulkner Barbara Von Eckardt, Wellesley College, Robert W. Hanning, Columbia University, Works of Romulo Gallegos Mildred P. Mortimer, University of Col­ Massachusetts, Foundational Challenges to 28 Cognitive Psychology Religious Belief Orlando Patterson, Harvard University, Henry R. West, Macalester College, St. Paul, Susan A. Harvey, University of Rochester, Cambridge, Massachusetts, The Comparative Minnesota, The Utilitarian Ethics of John Stuart New York, Poetic and Behavioral Symbolism in Study of Slavery Mill Religion Early Syrian Sidney G. Tarrow, Cornell University, Wayne T. Pitard, University of Illinois, Ithaca, New York, Reassessing Histories of Col­ SUMMER SEMINARS FOR COLLEGE Champaign, Illinois, Ancient Canaamte Con­ lective Action TEACHERS FELLOWSHIPS FOR INDEPENDENT STUDY cepts of Death and the Afterlife AND RESEARCH David M. Rhoads, Carthage College, SUMMER SEMINARS FOR SECONDARY Bernd Magnus. University of California, Kenosha, Wisconsin, Punty Rules and Com­ SCHOOL TEACHERS Riverside, Fnednch Nietzsche: Problems in Con­ Malcolm David Eckel, Harvard University, munity Boundaries m the Gospel of Mark temporary Philosophy and Criticism Cambridge, Massachusetts, The Concept of E. Springs Steele, University of Scranton, David R. Costello, Canisius College, Buffalo, Gareth B. Matthews, University of Buddhahood in Classical Madhyamaka Literature Pennsylvania, Slavery, Abolition, and Religion: New York, Camus, Djilas, Orwell, and Silone: Massachusetts, Amherst, Issues in the Ernest L. Fortin, Boston College, Chestnut Biblical Interpretation of Crisis The Quest for a Democratic Humanism in Philosophy of Childhood Hill, Massachusetts, Book on Dante and the Lloyd H. Steffen, Northland College, Twentieth-Century Europe Martha Nussbaum, Brown University, Prov­ Politics of Christendom Ashland, Wisconsin, Ethics and Self-Deception Julian H. Franklin, Columbia University, idence, Rhode Island, The Practical Value of Henry Samuel Levinson, University of Robert F. Stoops, Jr., Western Washington New York, fohn Locke's Two Treatises on the Study of Ethics in Ancient Greek Thought North Carolina, Greensboro, Santayana's University, Bellingham, The Political Role of Government: Foundations of Liberal Theory (Seminar Location: Wellesley College, Religious Naturalism Early Christian Churches The Pauline Mission George Friedman, Dickinson College, Car­ Massachusetts) Thomas V. Morris, University of Notre in Greece and Asia Minor lisle, Pennsylvania, Karl Marx Political and Sydney S. Shoemaker, Cornell University, Dame, Indiana, A Problem in the Traditions of Lawrence E. Sullivan. University of Social Thought Ithaca, New York, Self-Consciousness and Theism and Platonism Missouri, Columbia, South American Religions John P. Nichols, St. Joseph's College, Self-Reference Alan Sponberg, Princeton University, New Karen J. Torjesen, Mary Washington Col­ Rensselaer, Indiana, Aristotle, Aquinas, Sylvia Walsh, Clark College, Atlanta, Jersey, Paramartha and the Formation of Chinese lege, Fredericksburg, Virginia, Controversies Machiavelli: Morality and Politics Georgia, Kierkegaard on Sexuality, Love, and Buddhism About Women's Leadership in Early Christianity Robert V. Remini, University of Illinois, Personal Identity Stephen J. Stein, Indiana University, Bloom­ Arthur W. Wainwright, Emory University, Chicago, Locke, Madison, and Tocqueville: ington, Reassessing the Shaker Experience in Atlanta, The Interpretation of the Book of Evolution of Democracy SUMMER SEMINARS FOR SECONDARY America: An Interdisciplinary Study Revelation in the Eighteenth Century John P. Roche, Tufts University, Medford, SCHOOL TEACHERS Udo M. Strutynski, Northwestern Univer­ Wade T. Wheelock, James Madison Univer­ Massachusetts, Wist’, Locke, and Adams: The sity, Evanston, Illinois, Moral Dimension in sity, Harrisonburg, Virginia, Ritual and Society American Constitution Allie M. Frazier, Hollins College, Virginia, Germanic Myth of "Twilight of Gods" in Early Vedic India Mulford Q. Sibley, University of Minnesota, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Freud: The World John Van Seters, University of North O. Larry Yarbrough, Middlebury College, Minneapolis, Swift, Butler, and Zamiatin: of Morality Revalued Carolina, Chapel Hill, The Pentateuch and An­ Vermont, Marriage and the Crisis of Social Political and Social Satire Charles L. Griswold, Jr., Howard Univer­ cient Historiography: The Yahunst as Historian Worlds in Early Christianity sity, Washington, D.C., Plato's Political SUMMER STIPENDS Philosophy FELLOWSHIPS FOR COLLEGE TEACHERS Charles D. Hamilton, San Diego State Robert Michael Berry, Turku School of University, California, Thucydides, Sophocles Jonathan M. Butler, Loma Linda Universi­ Social Science Economics, Finland, American Foreign Policy and Plato: Greek Values in Crisis ty, Riverside, California, The World's End: and Finland during World War 11 Alan C. Kors, University of Pennsylvania, Ellen G. White and the Passing of Victorian Elizabeth R. Bethel, Lander College, Green­ Philadelphia, Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, and America FELLOWSHIPS FOR INDEPENDENT STUDY wood, South Carolina, Personal Narrative and Mill: The Texts of Toleration Ron D. Cameron, Wesleyan University, AND RESEARCH Collective Identity: From Rhetoric to Social Action Walter P. Metzger, Columbia University, Middletown, Connecticut, The Gospel of Michael G. Burton, Loyola College, New York, Dewey, Arendt, Mills, and Fried­ Thomas from the Nag Hammadi Library Robert K. Faulkner, Boston College, Baltimore, Maryland, A Comparative Analysis man: Major American Contributions to Social Susan R. Niditch, Amherst College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, Francis Bacon of Historic Leadership Compromises in England. Thought in the Twentieth Century Massachusetts, Underdogs and Tricksters: Tales and the Politics of Progress Sweden, Mexico, Columbia, and Venezuela Thomas V. Morris, University of Notre of Biblical Heroes in a Traditional Narrative Jeffrey C. Herf, Harvard University, Cam­ Sue Davis, University of Tulsa, Oklahoma, Dame, Indiana, Pascal's Pensees: Faith, Context bridge, Massachusetts, National Identity, The judicial Philosophy of justice Rehnquist Reason, and the Meaning of Life Reginald A. Ray, Naropa Institute, Boulder, Western Security and the Disjunction of Realms Ward E. Elliott, Claremont McKenna Col­ Peter J. Steinberger, Reed College, Portland, Colorado, Taranatha 's History of the Siddhas in West Germany, 1969-1983 lege, Claremont, California, The Politics of Oregon, Plato and Hegel: The Ethical Bases of A. Gregory Schneider, Pacific Union Col­ John M. Montias, Yale University, New Population Control Politics lege, Angwin, California, The Way of the Cross Haven, Connecticut, An Analysis of Seven­ Jim D. Faught, Loyola Marymount Univer­ Theodore E. Uehling, Jr., University of Min­ Leads Home: Foundations of Domestic Ideology teenth-Century Inventories of Dutch Paintings sity, Los Angeles, California, Utilitarianism nesota, Morris, The Ethical and Social Thought in Nineteenth-Century Revivalism Walter J. Nicgorski, University of Notre in Tocqueville's Thought of Kant and Rousseau Lloyd Michael White, Oberlin College, Dame, Indiana, The Statesman and His Educa­ Lewis P. Hinchman, Clarkson College of Ohio, From House to Church: The Social Con­ tion: The Moral and Political Philosophy of Cicero Technology, Potsdam, New York, What is an

SUMMER STIPENDS text of Early Christian Assembly and Sal Restivo, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, lndividual? GRANTS Organization Troy, New York, A Historical-Sociological Pamela K. Jensen, Kenyon College, Gam­ Phillip A. Bricker. Yale University, New Analysis of Mathematics as a Value System and bier, Ohio, The Context and Influence of Haven, Connecticut, The Use of Pragmatic SUMMER SEMINARS FOR COLLEGE Worldview Rousseau's Letter to M. D'Alembert on the Criteria in the Choice of Metaphysical Theories TEACHERS Joel B. Schwartz, University of Michigan, Theater John D. Caputo, Villanova University, Penn­ Ann Arbor, Complement and Critic: Freud's Susan A. Mann, University of New Orleans, sylvania, Radical Hermeneutics Calum M. Carmichael, Cornell University, Ambivalent Relationship to the Classical Liberal Louisiana, A Social History of Sharecropping in Albert F. Casullo, University of Nebraska, Ithaca, New York, Biblical Law in Historical Tradition the American South Lincoln, A Theory of a priori Knowledge Perspective Gordon J. Schochet, Rutgers University, Steven G. Crowell, Rice University, Louis H. Feldman, Yeshiva University, New FELLOWSHIPS FOR COLLEGE TEACHERS New Brunswick, New Jersey, A Critical Edi­ Houston, Texas, Heidegger's Early Philosophy York, The Greek Encounter with Judaism in the tion of John Locke's Various Writings on Religious Gerald B. Dworkin, University of Illinois, Hellenistic Period Frank D. Balog. Nazareth College of Toleration Chicago, Moral judgment Stanley H. Hauerwas, Duke University, Rochester, New York, Adam Smith and Alexis James W. Trent, University of Southern Richard Feldman, University of Rochester, Durham, North Carolina, Happiness, the Life de •Tocqueville on Commercial Society and Mississippi, Hattiesburg, A History of the Idea New York, The Philosophical Significance of of Virtue, and Friendship: The Aristotelian Democracy of Mental Deficiency in the U.S., 1876-1917 Psychological Studies of Human Reasoning Tradition Ava Baron, Rider College, Lawrenceville, Stephen P. Turner, University of South Owen J. Flanagan, Jr., Wellesley College, Huston Smith, Pacific School of Religion, New Jersey, The Transformation of Work and Florida, St. Petersburg, Patronage and Trust: Massachusetts, Self-Knowledge: A Philosophical Berkeley, California, The Great Cham of Be­ Changes in the Sexual Division of Labor in the A Case Study of Nineteenth-Century Science Analysis ing in World Perspective U.S. Printing Industry, 1800-1920 Mary Gerhart, Hobart-William Smith Col­ Harry M. Clor, Kenyon College, Gambier, leges, Geneva, New York, The Role of Genre SUMMER SEMINARS FOR SECONDARY Ohio, Perspectives on Law and Morality, Rights, in Public Discourse: The Model of Literary Texts SCHOOL TEACHERS Liberty, and the Ethical Role of the Law U.S. Constitution Allen S. Gotthelf, Trenton State College, Robert E. Kapsis. CUNY/Queens College, New Jersey, Substance, Cause, and Teleology William E. Carroll, University of , Flushing, New York, American Genre Film in Aristotle's Biological Works Toronto, Canada, Aquinas and Galileo: Religion Production Since 1960 FELLOWSHIPS FOR INDEPENDENT STUDY David R. Hiley, Memphis State University, and Science (Seminar Location: Cornell Col­ Arjo A. Klamer, Wellesley College, AND RESEARCH Tennessee, Scepticism and Anti-lntellectualism lege, Mt. Vernon, Iowa) Massachusetts, The Art of Economic Persuasion Sallie B. King, Southern Illinois Universi­ Ewert H. Cousins, Fordham University, Thomas F. Payne, Hillsdale College, Anne M. Cohler, Chicago, Illinois, Spirit and ty, Carbondale, A Study of the Buddha Nature New York, New York, Augustine, Bonaven- Michigan, Plato's Phaedo and the Doctrine of Moderation: Montesquieu and the Constitution Concept ture, and Eckhart: The Mystical journey the Immortality of the Soul as a Political Teaching Walter E. Dellinger, Duke University, Carl J. Posy, Duke University, Durham, William F. May, Georgetown University, Alan N. Woolfolk, Southern Methodist Durham, North Carolina, Constitutional North Carolina, A Semantic Study of Kant's Washington, D C., The Humanities and the University, Dallas, Texas, Nihilism: A Change: The Amendment Process Ethics Civic Self Neglected Concept for Sociology Paul D. Erickson, Harvard University, Cam­ James E. Scheuermann, Carnegie-Mellon Wayne A. Meeks, Yale University, New M. Richard Zinman, Michigan State Univer­ bridge, Massachusetts, The Romantic Myths University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Morali­ Haven, Connecticut, The Beginnings of sity, East Lansing, The Origins of Political of the American Constitution from 1789 to 1865 ty and Politics: Kant's Philosophy of Right Christianity Philosophy: Plato's Dramatization of the Socratic Gerald Gunther, Stanford University, Robert L. Simon, Hamilton College, Clinton, Revolution California, The Biography of Learned Hand: The New York, Comparable Pay for Comparable SUMMER STIPENDS judge and the Man Work? A Study in Ethics and Public Policy SUMMER SEMINARS FOR COLLEGE Russell A. Kirk, Mecosta, Michigan, Edmund Robin A. Smith, Kansas State University, David E. Aune, St. Xavier College, Chicago, TEACHERS Burke and the American Constitution Manhattan, The Subject-Predicate Paradigm and Illinois, The Influence of Greco-Roman Thomas L. Pangle, University of Toronto, Aristotle's Analysis of Logical Structure Revelatory Magic on the Apocalypse of fohn Richard E. Ashcraft, University of Califor­ Canada, The Philosophic Principles Informing Bonnie Steinbock, SUNY/Albany, New Carl W. Bielefeldt, Stanford University, nia, Los Angeles, Politics and Culture in the American Constitution York, The Philosophical Implications of the Vic­ California, Dogen Studies in Japan Restoration England Michael J. Sandel, Harvard University, tims' Rights Movement Debra Campbell, Gettysburg College, Penn­ Joel B. Grossman, University of Wisconsin, Cambridge, Massachusetts, The Predicament Robert R. Williams, Hiram College, Ohio, sylvania, Lay Catholic Evangelists in Twentieth- Madison, Courts in American Society of Liberal Democracy in America Hegel's Concept of Recognition Century England: The Catholic Evidence Guild Irving Leonard Markovitz, CUNY-Queens Harry N. Scheiber, University of California, Francis X. Clooney, Boston College, College, Hushing, New York, Pcrwer and Class Berkeley, Federalism and Constitutional Values: Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, The Philosoph­ in Africa (Seminar Location: CUNY Graduate California and the Nation, 1849-1985 ical and Ritual Components of Orthodox Center, New York) Brahmanical Hinduism Walter F. Murphy, Princeton University, John W. Hart, College of Great Falls, Mon­ New Jersey, Toward A Constitutional tana, Land and Spirituality in Native American jurisprudence 29 FELLOWSHIPS FOR COLLEGE TEACHERS HOW TO continued from page 23 details of housing, library tant parts of the proposal are the facilities, and the cultural and in­ narrative, the letters of recom­ Murray P. Dry, Middlebury College, Ver­ tellectual opportunities available mendation, and the budget page. mont, The Founding Principles and the Modern research field. For the secondary Supreme Court's Treatment of Race and Gender- schools program, teachers from at the host institution and loca­ Many prospective directors ap­ Based Classifications all fields are invited to apply to tion. Once again, this criterion proach the budget page with fear Eugene W. Hickok, Dickinson College, must be seen in terms of the aim and trembling. For these pro­ Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Constitutionalism in any given seminar. Congress The all-important criteria of in­ of the seminars: to create the grams, that is not necessary. The Owen S. Ireland, SUNY/Brockport, New tellectual quality and appropri­ best possible environment in budget page is, at least by En­ York, Culturally-Based Partisan Politics in Penn­ which the participants may read, dowment standards, not com­ sylvania, 1776-1790, and the Creation of the U.S. ateness cannot be divorced from Constitution other issues. The quality of the write, and study. Applicants plicated, because most items are Sanford H. Kessler, North Carolina State director, for example, includes need not have worked out all the fixed for the program as a University, Raleigh, Tocquei’ille on Freedom far more than scholarly accom­ details in advance. After a whole. Each college seminar is and the American Character James F. Shepherd, Whitman College, Walla plishment, important as that is. seminar has been funded, many eight weeks in length and con­ Wall a, Washington, U.S. Tariff History Dur­ The application must give a of the details of housing will be sists of the director and twelve ing the 1780s sense of the director as both handled by an administrative participants. Each secondary SUMMER STIPENDS teacher and colleague as well as assistant, so we are not sug­ school seminar—four, five, or six a scholar. The director will be gesting that a prospective weeks in length by choice of the Robert A. Becker, Louisiana State Univer­ dealing with participants whose seminar director must become an director—consists of the director sity, Baton Rouge, Consent of the Governed: Election of State Ratifying Conventions own level of intellectual achieve­ instant expert in housing and and fifteen participants. For both Steven R. Boyd, University of Texas, San ment is very high and whose related kinds of administration in seminars, directors' salaries are a Antonio, The Impact of the Constitution: The order to submit a proposal. What fixed percentage of their annual Effects of the Adoption of the Constitution, accomplishments as teachers de­ 1789-1815 mand that they be treated as col­ we are suggesting is that pros­ academic salary. All the par­ William F. Connelly, Jr., Clemson Univer­ leagues engaged in a common pective directors understand that ticipants receive a stipend, which sity, South Carolina, The Federalist and Anti- one of their chief tasks is to is intended to cover transporta­ Federalist Roots of Pluralist and Elite Theories enterprise rather than as stu­ of Interest Group Politics dents—-even advanced students. foster the conditions for an in­ tion, living expenses, books, and Paul Finkelman, SUNY/Binghamton, New An application will convey this tellectual community to come incidentals for the duration of York, Fugitive Slaves and the American Con­ into being. To do this, a director the seminar period. (NEH sends stitution: A History of the Fugitive Slave Laws sense of collegiality through Tony A. Freyer, University of Alabama, recommendations evidence of must understand that an intellec­ information about seminars to University, The British Influence and American teaching awards and accomplish­ tual community can be im­ universities, colleges, and high Antitrust Tradition, 1888-1914 poverished by lack of air condi­ schools. Would-be participants Hilail Gildin, CUNY/Queens College, ments, of course, but also from Flushing, New York, Aristotle on the Rights the sense of the director that tioning almost as easily as by a can then choose the seminar to Rule and Modem Constitutional Democracy emerges from the way the pro­ lack of books. What must come they would like to attend and Ralph C. Hancock, Hillsdale College, across in the proposal is a sense write to the director for an ap­ Michigan, The Role of Religion in Tocquei’ille's posal is written. Perhaps it is fair Account of American Democracy to say that successful applica­ that serious discussion and in­ plication. The director selects the Ronald M. Labbe, University of Southwest tions in the seminars competition vestigation has taken place in finalists). In addition to these Louisiana, Lafayette, Slaughter House Cases: tend to be personal in a way that items, the budget page consists Civil Rights, Property Rights, and Judicial Power these areas, and an understand­ at the Crossroads might not be appropriate to an ing that they are legitimate and of the direct and indirect costs William Lasser, Clemson University, South application for a fellowship. important areas of concern. necessary to the operation of the Carolina, The Supreme Court in Crisis A successful application to The technical aspects of sub­ seminar. Although details of the Charles W. McCurdy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Stephen / Field and the Grmoth direct a seminar also is one that mitting a proposal are straight­ budget will be prepared by a of Judicial Pouter in America, 1816-1899 shows care and attention to forward. The three most impor­ grants officer at the applicant's institution, the budget page should not be submitted without the director's knowledge and ORDER FORM NON-TRIVIAL approval. As in all Endowment pro­ grams, each application is judged PURSUITS by a peer review panel. For the seminar programs, it is important to point out, each panel includes both former directors and former participants, as well as scholars in the subject area who may not have been previously connected with the program. One implica­ tion of this composition is that these panels will probably pay close attention to the guidelines of the programs. One resource that potential directors can take advantage of when drawing up a proposal is the staff of the Endowment. For both secondary school and col­ What has happened in the various disciplines of the lege teachers' seminar proposals, humanities in the last twenty-five years? the Endowment is happy to cri­ tique a preliminary draft, one When is a museum like a university or a library? which takes into account both the content of the proposal and How can a scholar bring the humanities to a large general its suitability for the program. audience? —Rick Emmerson and Ron Herzman What are the most recent NEH grants? Correction Answers to these and other urgent questions are regularly The building on our January discussed in Humanities. Yet this award-winning bimonthly cover that was referred to as costs only $14 for a whole year. the East Wing of the National Gallery is properly called the Join the growing list of Humanities subscribers. East Building. We regret the Mail this order form today. error. 30 Deadline in For projects boldface beginning after Please note: Area code for all telephone numbers is 202.

DIVISION OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS—John Andrews, Acting Director 786-0373

Central Disciplines in Undergraduate Education— John Walters 786-0380 Improving Introductory Courses—Donald Schmeltekopf 786-0380 October 1, 1985 April 1986 Promoting Excellence in a Field—Martha Crunkleton 786-0380 October 1, 1985 April 1986 Fostering Coherence Throughout an Institution—Eugene Carver 786-0380 October 1, 1985 April 1986

Humanities Instruction in Elementary and Secondary Schools— Carolynn Reid-Wallace 786-0377 May 15, 1985 January 1986

Exemplary Projects in Undergraduate and Graduate Education—William McGill 786-0384 May 15, 1985 January 1986

Humanities Programs for Nontraditional Learners—Christine Kalke 786-0384 October 1, 1985 April 1986

Improving the Preparation of Teachers in the Humanities—John Andrews 786-0373 Call for deadline.

DIVISION OF FELLOWSHIPS AND SEMINARS—Guinevere Griest, Acting Director 786-0458

Fellowships for Independent Study and Research—Maben Herring 786-0466 June 1, 1985 January 1, 1986

Fellowships for College Teachers—Karen Fuglie 786-0466 June 1, 1985 January 1, 1986

Constitutional Fellowships—Maben Herring and Karen Fuglie 786-0466 June 1, 1985 January 1, 1986

Faculty Graduate Study Grants—Jerry W ard 786-0463 March 15, 1986 September 1, 1987

Summer Stipends for 1986—Joseph Neville 786-0466 October 1, 1985 Summer 1986 DEADLINES

Travel to Collections—Gary Messinger 786-0466 September 15, 1985 December 15, 1985

Summer Seminars for College Teachers—Richard Emmerson 786-0463 Participants: 1986 Seminars April 1, 1986 Summer 1986 Directors: 1987 Seminars March 1, 1986 Summer 1987

Summer Seminars for Secondary School Teachers—Ronald Herzman 786-0463 Participants: 1986 Seminars March 1, 1986 Summer 1986 Directors: 1987 Seminars April 1, 1986 Summer 1987

DIVISION OF GENERAL PROG RAMS- Donald Gibson, Director 786-0267

Humanities Projects in Media—James Dougherty 786-0278 September 16, 1985 April 1, 1986

Museums and Historical Organizations—Gabriel Weisberg 786-0284 June 10, 1985 January 1, 1986

Humanities Programs for Adults—Malcolm Richardson 786-0271 September 20, 1985 April 1, 1986

Humanities Programs for Libraries—Thomas Phelps 786-0271 September 6, 1985 April 1, 1986

Humanities Programs for Youth—Leon Bramson 786-0271 Youth Projects June 15, 1985 January 1, 1986 Younger Scholars Program November 1, 1985 June 1, 1986

DIVISION OF RESEARCH PROGRAMS-Richard Ekman, Director 786-0200

Basic Research Program—786-0207 Project Research—David Wise 786-0207 March 1, 1986 January 1, 1987 Research Conferences—Eugene Sterud 786-0207 September 15, 1985 April 1, 1986 Humanities, Science, and Technology—Daniel Jones 786-0207

NEH HST Projects March 1, 1986 January 1, 1987 NUMBERS & NAMES NEH-NSF EVIST Projects August 1, 1985 April 1, 1986 Publications—Margot Backas 786-0204 May 1, 1985 October 1, 1985

Research in Selected Areas—John Williams 786-0207 Centers for Advanced Study—David Coder 786-0207 November 1, 1985 January 1987 Intercultural Research—786-0207 February 15, 1986 July 1, 1986

Reference Works—Dorothy Wartenberg 786-0210 Tools—Crale Hopkins 786-0210 October 1, 1985 July 1, 1986 Editions—Helen Aguera 786-0210 October 1, 1985 July 1, 1986 Translations—Susan Mango 786-0210 July 1, 1985 April 1, 1986 Access—Dick Cameron, Patricia Shadle 786-0210 June 1, 1985 April 1, 1986

DIVISION OF STATE PROGRAMS-Marjorie Berlincourt, Director 786-0254

Each state establishes its own grant guidelines and application deadlines; a list of these state programs may be obtained from the Division.

OFFICE OF CHALLENGE GRANTS-/ames Blessing, Director 786-0361 May 1, 1985 December 1984

OFFICE OF PRESERVATION—/-/aro/d Cannon, Director 786-0570 Preservation—Marcella Crendler, Steven Mansbach 786-0570 June 1, 1985 April 1, 1986 U.S. Newspapers Project—Jeffrey Field 786-0570 June 1, 1985 April 1, 1986

Guidelines are available from the Public Affairs Office two months in advance of the application deadline.

31 Featured in this issue of Humanities 11 15 19 A History of Southern Literature Black Novelists and the Southern Literature in Louisiana The first comprehensive literary Literary Tradition by Chezia Why two-thirds of Louisiana's history of the South since 1954 Thompson-Cager parish libraries are overbooked for adds some previously ignored The kinship between black and courses on "Readings in American authors to the literary canon. white traditions in the South shows Themes." that the literature of black Americans should be seen in the larger context of the southern culture that gave it birth. 21 The Encyclopedia of Southern Brooks and Warren Culture by William Ferris by Robert Penn Warren An informed discussion of why One-half of the famous anthology kudzu, collards, snake handlers, team pays tribute to the other—his Tell About The South: The stock-car racing, the blues, grits, colleague, collaborator, and lifelong Southern Rage To Explain maiden aunts and moonshine make friend. by Fred Hobson the whole much greater than the Excerpts from the prologue of a re­ sum of its parts. Cleanth Brooks, the Fourteenth Jef­ cent book examine the southerner's ferson Lecturer in the Humanities, need to interpret the South for by Linda Blanken those who weren't "bom there." A profile of Cleanth Brooks who has been called "our best critic of our best literature.” 12 Tales of the Unknown South. A trilogy of southern stories adapted for a two-hour television program 18 on PBS. Set in the Carolinas, they Classes in American Classics tell about the South's critical years An institute for high school 7 of social change. teachers of English offers an oppor­ What is not old about the New tunity to reread and reinterpret Critics? by Wayne Booth classics of American literature. The New Criticism's positive legacy—a "passionate insistence on the ethical importance of litera­ ture." 14 Faulkner's Negro: Art and the 23 How to Become a Director of a Southern Context Summer Seminar A young black critic examines the 24 DO's and DON'T's for role of "N egroes" in Faulkner's fic­ Fellowship Applicants tion and finds that their presence 25 1985 NEH Fellowship Awards 9 made a significant difference in his The Southern Republic of Letters 30 Subscription Information work and that of other prominent by Lewis P. Simpson 31 Deadlines southern authors. Is the search for the meaning of the southern experience responsible for 2 Editor's Notes the southern literary renascence? Or does the South's literature merely reflect the archetypal situa­ tion of modern letters?


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