ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION 1 Cover photo: Previous Nobel Prizes appeared on billboards in with the message “Celebrate and understand this year’s Nobel Prizes” during the Nobel Calling Stockholm events in October 2019. On this billboard, right outside Arlanda Airport, the twice Nobel Prize awarded UNHCR is displayed.


2 ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION uring the spring of 2020 we Korea, Brazil and Hong Kong. We have are in the midst of a terrible been forced to postpone all of them, crisis. At this writing, it is and instead we are now using our social still impossible to say what media channels to connect with our the consequen­c­es of the audience around the world. In light Dspreading corona ­virus might be for our of the current crisis, it is particularly societies and our economies. A pandemic encouraging that we have been able this knows no borders. It strikes us both as year to restart the Nobel Center project. individuals and as a species. The Slussen site in downtown Stockholm The importance of independent is the location chosen for the public research and is clear. cultural and science centre we intend were able to quickly map the genetic to build. sequence of the new coronavirus and Lars Heikensten has been Executive have begun working to develop a vaccine. t has truly been a privilege for me to Director of the Nobel Foundation Scientifc analyses and calculations are be able to work with the since 2011. now being done to try to understand for now almost nine years. I have PHOTO: DAN LEPP I and manage its efects on our society. looked forward to every day at work. We must put our faith in science if we There have certainly been challenges, are to make wise decisions. But this crisis but challenge is something this organisa- shows that knowledge is not going to be tion must be prepared for, and which we enough. We also need humanistic values, can expect in the future as well. It is sim- openness, tolerance and collaboration ply a consequence of the prominence of across national borders. the Nobel Prize in the world. At the end When I assumed the role of Executive of this year, someone else will be taking Director for the Nobel Foundation, I was over this position. That person will be struck by how many people were unaware working together with the of ’s comprehensive vision that award the Nobel Prize to preserve of working for the greatest beneft to and strengthen its unique status. The job humankind. The focus was on the various also includes maintaining the organisa- disciplines of the individual prizes. But tion’s sound fnancial condition and Nobel wanted to do more than just award further developing a platform of broad prizes. He wanted to create a better world. public engagement built on Alfred For almost 120 years, the Nobel Prize has Nobel’s vision. demonstrated humanity’s ability to fnd A great many people have made solutions to our greatest challenges. invaluable contributions to that work This year we were meant to have during the past few years. Its success gathered some twenty Nobel Laureates in the future depends on your continued together with leading decision-makers support. The Nobel Prize stands for and experts in Washington to address belief in science, education and human- the climate crisis in the frst-ever Nobel istic values, commitment to peace Prize Summit. We were to have created and faith in the future. This is needed similar dialogues on other themes in – perhaps now more than ever.


6 The 2019 Nobel Laureates 12 She wants to change the world 14 Celebrate and understand the year’s Nobel Prizes 16 Scientists convey knowledge with the aid of theatre 18 A new house for culture and science at Slussen 20 Focus on climate at the 22 The year in numbers 26 For the Greatest Benefit to Humankind 30 Science meets society 32 Italian floral splendour 34 Alfred Nobel 36 The prize-awarding institutions 38 The Nobel Foundation 40 To engage, inspire and spread knowledge 42 Highlights in December 44 Nobel Calling Space PHOTO:MAHMOUD ALEXANDER

ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION 5 The 2019 Nobel Laureates

In October each year new THE NOBEL PRIZE Nobel Laureates are announced. IN 2019 They have all contributed to the greatest benefit of humankind JAMES PEEBLES with their work. The Nobel Prize award ceremonies then take “for contributions to our place in Stockholm and understanding of the evolution on 10 December. of the universe and Earth’s place in the cosmos”

James Peebles Fundamental questions about the uni- verse’s structure and history have always fascinated human beings. James Peebles’ theoretical framework, developed since the mid-1960s, is the basis of our con- temporary ideas about the universe. Using his theoretical tools and cal­cu­ lations, James Peebles was able to inter- pret the cosmic background radiation, remaining traces from the infancy of the universe. The results showed us a Michel Mayor universe in which just fve per cent of its content is known matter. The remaining 95 per cent is unknown dark matter and dark energy. In 1995, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz announced the frst discovery of a planet outside our solar system, an exoplanet, orbiting a solar-type star in our home galaxy, the Milky Way. Using custom-made instruments, they were able to see planet 51 Pegasi b, in the Didier Queloz Pegasus constellation. Since then over 4,000 exoplanets have since been found in the Milky Way. Eventually, we may fnd an answer to the eternal question of whether other life is out there.


JOHN B. GOODENOUGH WILLIAM G. KAELIN JR. ALL PHOTOS: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD M. STANLEY WHITTINGHAM SIR PETER J. RATCLIFFE GREGG L. SEMENZA “for the development “for their discoveries of lithium-ion batteries” of how cells and adapt to oxygen availability” Storing electrical energy in batteries is a key factor in solving the world’s energy

John B. Goodenough supply. The element lithium is useful William G. Kaelin Jr. Animals need oxygen for the conversion in batteries since it willingly releases of food into useful energy. The funda- . Stanley Whittingham, John B. mental importance of oxygen has been Goodenough and Akira Yoshino have understood for centuries, but how cells conducted pioneering work in the adapt to changes in levels of oxygen has development of the lithium-ion battery. long been unknown. Whittingham developed an innovative William G. Kaelin, Sir Peter J. Ratclife, cathode in a lithium battery. This was and Gregg L. Semenza discovered how made from titanium disulphide which, at cells can sense and adapt to changing a molecular level, has spaces that can oxygen availability. They identifed house lithium-ions. In 1980 Goodenough molecular machinery that regulates the developed a lithium battery with a cath- activity of genes in response to varying M. Stanley Whittingham ode of cobalt oxide, which gave a higher Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe levels of oxygen. The seminal discoveries voltage than earlier batteries. In 1985 by Kaelin, Ratclife and Semenza revealed Yoshino developed a battery with an the mechanism for one of life’s most anode of petroleum coke, a mate- essential adaptive processes. rial that, like the cathode’s cobalt oxide, They established the basis for our has spaces that can house lithium-ions. understanding of how oxygen levels This was the frst commercially viable afect cellular metabolism and physio- lithium-ion battery. Such batteries are logical function. Their discoveries have widely used in electrical equipment, also paved the way for promising new for example mobile phones and electric strategies to fght anaemia, cancer and cars. many other diseases. Akira Yoshino Gregg L. Semenza


OLGA TOKARCZUK “for a narrative imagination “for an infuential work that that with encyclopedic with linguistic ingenuity passion represents the has explored the periphery crossing of boundaries as and the specifcity of human a form of life” experience”

Olga Tokarczuk Olga Tokarczuk is inspired by maps and Peter Handke a perspective from above, which tends Peter Handke is one of the most infuen- to make her microcosmos a mirror of tial writers in Europe after the Second the macrocosmos. She constructs her World War. His bibliography contains novels in a tension between cultural novels, essays, note books, dramatic opposites: versus culture, reason works and screenplays. As early as versus madness, male versus female, the 1960s Handke left his mark on the home versus alienation. Her magnum literary scene. His works are flled with opus so far is the historical novel a strong desire to discover and to bring , portraying the his discoveries to life by fnding new charismatic 18th-century sect leader literary expressions for them. One of . The work also gives us his books is A Sorrow Beyond Dreams, a remarkably rich panorama of an almost written after his mother’s suicide. neglected chapter in European history.


“for his eforts to achieve peace ALL PHOTOS: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD and international cooperation, and in particular for his “for their experimental decisive initiative to resolve approach to alleviating the border confict with global poverty” Abiy Ahmed Ali neighbouring Eritrea”

The relationship between the neigh­ Abhijit Banerjee One of humanity’s most urgent issues bouring countries Ethiopia and Eritrea is the reduction of global poverty, in all has long been tense. An armed confict its forms. Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Dufo took place between 1998 and 2000 and and Michael Kremer have introduced had been followed by renewed threats a new approach to obtaining reliable of war. When Abiy Ahmed became Prime answers about the best ways to fght Minister in 2018, he resumed peace talks global poverty. It involves dividing with Eritrea. After close cooperation this issue into smaller, more manageable, between Abiy Ahmed and Isaias Afwerki, questions – for example, the most the President of Eritrea, a peace agree- efective interventions for improving ment was reached. educational outcomes or child health. An important premise for the break- In the mid-1990s, Kremer used this through was Ahmed’s unconditional Esther Duflo approach in feld experiments to test willingness to accept the arbitration a range of interventions that could ruling of an international boundary improve school results in western Kenya. commission in 2002. In the wake of They all soon performed similar studies the peace process with Eritrea, Ahmed of other issues and in other countries. has engaged in other peace and reconcil- Their research fndings have dramati- iation processes in East and Northeast cally improved our ability to fght Africa. In Ethiopia, he has initiated poverty in practice. important reforms to strengthen dem­ ocracy in the country.

Michael Kremer


“Today it is exactly one hundred ten years since the first woman won the Nobel Prize in Literature – Selma Lagerlöf. I bow low to her across time, and to all the other women, all the female creators who boldly exceeded the limiting roles society imposed on them and had the courage to tell their story to the world loud and clear. I can feel them standing behind me.”

Literature laureate Olga Tokarczuk in her speech


“Colleagues, we hope that our discovery will let all of us work together to build a cleaner environment, make our planet more sustainable, and help mitigate global warming, thereby leaving a cleaner legacy to our children and grandchildren.”

Chemistry laureate M. Stanley Whittingham in his Nobel Banquet speech

ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION 11 She wants to change the world

Esther Duflo was awarded the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2019, together with Abhijit Banerjee and Michael Kremer, for their work to fight global poverty. Duflo is the second woman ever to be awarded the prize in Economic Sciences.

hen the prize was announced best answered via carefully designed in October, Esther Dufo experiments among the people who are Wexpressed her hope for the most afected. An important part of their future: “Showing that it is possible for work has been travelling to developing a woman to succeed and be recognised countries like Kenya and India to do for success I hope is going to inspire on-site feld studies. Their research fnd- many, many other women to continue ings have dramatically improved our working”. ability to fght poverty in practice. The trio introduced a new approach to In an interview with Nobelprize.org obtaining reliable answers about the best on the day the prize was announced, ways to fght global poverty. In brief, it Dufo asserted the importance of women involves dividing this issue into smaller, in the feld, but also the signifcance more manageable, questions – for exam- of conveying to young students that ple, the most efective interventions the subject of is essential While in Stockholm for Nobel Week, for improving educational outcomes or to addressing the issues that inspire Duflo visited schools such as child health. They have shown that these them today. the Lycée Français Saint Louis smaller, more precise, questions are often de Stockholm and Tibble Upper Secondary School. PHOTO:BRYCE VICKMARK

Esther Duflo and Abhijit Banerjee are the sixth married couple in history to be awarded a Nobel Prize or a prize in Economic Sciences.


“When I was in high school I didn’t know that a subject such as economics existed, so by definition I wasn’t interested in it. But I knew I wanted to change something in the world. It just took some time before I knew what that would be.”

Esther Duflo

Esther Duflo is the second woman to receive the prize in Economic Sciences, after in 2009.

ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION 13 Celebrate and understand the year’s Nobel Prizes

In October each year the world’s attention is directed to Stockholm as the new Nobel Laureates are announced. To celebrate and understand the work which contributed to the greatest benefit of humankind, several events take place where research, science, literature and peace are in focus.

ne of the highlights of the 2019 spoke at the Stock Exchange Building at the Royal College of Music, con­ver­ Stockholm programme series on the topic of Science for the Greatest sations about the year’s Economic Owas the crash course at Södra Beneft to Humankind, while over at the Sciences Prize at the Riksbank, a live Teatern on the year’s Nobel Prizes public library members of the Swedish recording of the educational podcast in Physics, Chemistry and Physiology Academy took part in an event called Bildningspodden on at or Medicine together with members of Finally a Nobel Prize in Literature where Kulturhuset Stadsteatern, and a lab the committees that select the laureates. representatives from the Swedish tour at the Royal Institute of Technology. A few days later, teachers from thirty Academy discussed the 2018 and 2019 The events of Nobel Calling Stock- diferent countries took part in the inter- Nobel Prizes in Literature. holm are arranged by Nobel Prize national Nobel Prize Teacher Summit There was an extensive programme of Museum in collaboration with the City with the theme of Climate Change events throughout the week at the Nobel of Stockholm and Karolinska Institutet, Changes Everything. Beatrice Fihn, Prize Museum, with the live announce- the Royal Institute of Technology, the Executive Director of ICAN, who ments of the Nobel Prizes in focus. Stockholm University, Stockholm was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize Various experts were present throughout Academic Forum, Stockholm Public in 2017 was one of the laureates who the week to explain the prize-awarded Library, Kulturhuset Stadsteatern, participated. work. Forum/Debatt, , Physics laureate and During the week, one could also take Stockholm City , the Swedish Chemistry laureate Mario J. Molina part in the Stockholm Explorative Talks Research Council, and the Riksbank.

14 ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION ‹ The audience at Södra Teatern sig- nalling that they understood this year’s science prizes.

“Small, light and energy-rich” is how Sara Snogerup Linse summarised the lithium-ion battery, awarded the 2019 “I have heard that education in Chemistry Prize. Scandinavia is so different from the rest of the world, and that really inspires me. I want to try to learn as much as possible during the Nobel Prize Teacher Summit and bring it back home with me to Vietnam. I want to discover new and different ways of learning.”

Trang Nguyen, an elementary Children at the museum learning and secondary school chemistry to embroider their own chemical teacher from Hanoi. element or put together a cute yarn molecule. ALL PHOTOS: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD

A knowledgeable panel discussed the exciting works of two authors at the Stockholm Public Library.

ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION 15 Scientists convey knowledge with the aid of theatre

Why is it so hard for us to accept certain truths? Can something be true to me and false to you? Why does fake news spread so easily, and why is it becoming more and more important to be critical about sources? In the fifth Performance Åsa Wikforss, pro­ fessor of theo­retical philosophy at Stockholm University and a member of the , gave a lecture on these subjects.

The Performance Lecture concept enables scientific researchers to convey their knowledge of different areas in an easily accessible way with the aid of the Royal Dramatic Theatre’s directors, set designers, actors and other onstage and back- stage creative staff. Behind the appreciated concept are and Dramaten&. Robotics researcher Danica Kragic Jensfelt presented an earlier Performance Lecture on robots, Professor of Ulf Danielsson lectured about the universe, psychology researcher Armita Golkar lectured on fear and eco- nomics professor Micael Dahlen on happiness.


17 The construction of the Nobel Center is being made possible by an agreement between the real estate company Atrium Ljungberg and the City of Stockholm. The Nobel Center will be located in front of Atrium Ljungberg’s existing Glashuset property, where there is an approved local plan for the construction of an office building which is marked in the photo. This local plan will deter- mine the size of the Nobel Center.

18 ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION IMAGE: DBOX/FOSTER AND PARTNERS A new house for culture and science at Slussen

Early in 2020 came the long-awaited announce- ment of a fresh start for the Nobel Center project. The Nobel Center will take shape at a new site next to Slussen in central Stockholm.

he need for a house dedicated to ending struggle for human rights. King’s ideas, knowledge and refection well-known voice and powerful rhetoric Tis even greater today than when can inspire students to give their own the Nobel Foundation began the process speeches about their dreams for the of creating a Nobel Center almost a future. decade ago. In today’s increasingly polar- The Nobel Center’s exhibitions will ised world – where facts, science and bring together the diferent perspectives fundamental human values are being of the Nobel Prize – science, literature questioned – there is an obvious place and peace. An exhibition may be about for a public and independent house for anything from the tiniest component of culture and science, where people will the human body to the vastness of space meet to exchange ideas and experience. surrounding us. They will include stories It will be a few years before the Nobel about Nobel Prize-awarded achievements Center can take shape. This period will that have helped provide the greatest be used well in order to develop the range beneft to humankind – such as penicil- of public activities surrounding the Nobel lin, artifcial fertiliser, the LED lamp, Prize, to seek private funding for the the , refugee aid and research building and to work together with a showing how we can best allocate renowned architect to create a building resources and combat world poverty. that is open and accessible to Stockholm They will also deal with literature that residents, tourists, students and teachers. explores what it really means to be Future Nobel Laureates will not come to human. the Nobel Center to receive their prize, Slussen and the adjacent Stadsgårds- but to meet and inspire the younger kajen waterfront are a historic site generation in particular. undergoing a transformation, where a At the Nobel Center, Stockholm resi- house for culture and science with public dents will be able to listen to a conversa- activities will be an important element tion between a writer and a scientifc in transforming the area from a trafc researcher about how we can deal with interchange into a meeting place. Slussen new viruses and pandemics, such as the has many advantages: it is easily reached event organised during the 2019 Nobel by public transport, bicycle, pedestrian Week between Peter C. Doherty (laureate routes and waterways – a perfect place in Physiology or Medicine) and for public activities that should be easy Danish novelist Hanne-Vibeke Holst, for everyone to reach. Here the Nobel author of Som pesten (Like the Plague). Center has great potential to become one Students visiting the Nobel Center of Stockholm’s most accessible destina- will feel that they themselves can help tions, with a fantastic location in the contribute to a better world. A school heart of the city. programme may deal with Peace Prize Laureate Martin Luther King, Jr., the civil rights movement and the never-

19 The KlimaLab exhibition was on display at the Nobel Peace Center in Oslo from April to November 2019. PHOTO: ØYSTEIN THORVALDSEN

20 ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION Focus on climate at the Nobel Peace Center

PHOTO: JOHANNES GRANSETH 2019 was the year that climate change came into focus all around the world, including at the Nobel Peace Center in Oslo. In the KlimaLab exhibition and a series of other events, the focus


NOBELS FREDSSENTER was on the link between climate and peace.

he KlimaLab exhibition, which Climate change was also the theme was on view from April to Novem- of the Oslo Pax international peace con- Tber 2019, was about climate, nature ference, which was held for the frst time and people. It was inspired by the Peace in September 2019. The event was Prize’s founder, Alfred Nobel, with his ofcially opened by Norwegian Minister idea of acting for the greatest bene­ft to of Foreign Afairs Ine Eriksen Søreide humankind, and by Peace Prize Laure- and headed by climate change expert ates , and the Christiana Figueres. The participants UN Climate Panel (IPCC). The overall included Peace Prize Laureate Tawakkol intention of the exhibition was to get Karman, climate activist Penelope Lea the general public more involved in the and Secretary- problem of climate change and to show General Kumi Naido. About 150 enthusi- how everyone can contribute to solving it. astic youths and adults attended, and “The climate crisis can only be resolved the fnal declaration from the conference through collaboration,” says Visitor was presented at the UN Climate Action Engagement Coordinator Nicolò Sattin. Summit in late September. “So when the Nobel Peace Center was The last part of the exhibition, in which planning for the opening of an exhibition eleven people were given an opportunity on climate change in the spring of 2019, to realize their own particular ideas, it was only natural to invite the public to was appropriately entitled Be Part of participate in the creative process.” the Solution. PHOTO: JULIE HRNCIROVA

Be Part of the Solution focused on People living in Oslo were invited to create recycling and consumer power. parts of the exhibition KlimaLab.


● In 2019, Nobel Prize digital channels surpassed 5 million followers. ● YouTube followers increased by 119% between 2018 and 2019. Olga Tokarczuk ● Twitter followers surpassed 550,000. Olga Tokarczuk’s personal diary is filled donated her 2018 with notes about what she did day by diary to Nobel Prize Museum. day during 2018. The following year, Tokarczuk was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, which had been 100,000 postponed from 2018. When she For the third year in a row, the Nobel arrived in Stockholm in December 2019, Prize Lessons were published in English she explained that she felt like a time and Swedish as the year’s Nobel Prizes traveller. Of course her 2018 diary were announced. The teacher’s guide, mentions nothing about the Nobel slideshow, speaker’s manuscript and Prize, since she still did not know that student worksheet were downloaded she would become the 2018 laureate. around 14,000 times. An estimated Instead she went to the cinema on 100,000 students worldwide took 10 December. part in at least one lesson. PHOTO: CLÉMENT MORIN

In a manuscript dating from 1922, com- mented on an article by mathematician Erich Trefftz − who said he had solved a problem in Einstein’s general theory of relativity – and pointed out errors in Trefftz’s solution. Einstein wrote the manuscript shortly after hearing he had received the Nobel Prize.

The manuscript was donated to Nobel Prize Museum by Åsa and Per Taube. Per Taube presenting Einstein’s 1922 manuscript to Erika Lanner, Director of Nobel Prize Museum.

22 ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION 950 Nobel Laureates Since 1901, the Nobel Prize and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel have been awarded to 950 individuals and organisations. ● Laureates: 950 ● Prize categories: 6 ● Prize-awarded women: 53 ● Prize-awarded organisations: 24 ● Youngest laureate: 17 ● Oldest laureate: 97

285,338 Short film high-

people visited Nobel Prize Museum PHOTO:MAHMOUD ALEXANDER in Stockholm during 2019, which lights Nobel was double the number of visitors Prize-awarded during 2010. organisation

Lost and Found is a touching docu- mentary about human kindness in 209,085 the world’s largest refugee camp. people visited the Nobel Peace In the film, we follow Rohingya refu- Center in Oslo during 2019. gee Kamal Hussein, who dedicates his life to reuniting children with their parents with the help of the 500,000 Office of the United Nations High chocolate Nobel medals were sold Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). at the Nobel Prize Museum shop The film is the result of collaboration during 2019. with Academy Award winning direc- tor Orlando von Einsiedel. It is dis­ tributed via National Geographic Documentary Films. PHOTO: LENA KOLLER

The post about Literature laureate Kenzaburo Oe The Bubble Chamber at Nobel Prize Museum was re-inaugurated reached 1.8 million individuals on Facebook and during 2019 after a renovation. Here the museum’s smallest received more than 770,000 views on Twitter. visitors can make discoveries and play on their own.


During 2019 Nobel Media initiated editorial collaboration with BBC World. Several interviews with Nobel Laureates were made, for example with who participated in International events Nobel Prize Series India. ● Nobel Prize Dialogue Santiago 19 January 2019 The Future of Learning ● Nobel Prize Dialogue Tokyo Nobel Media and BBC World 17 March 2019 The Age to Come PHOTO: DAN LEPP During 2019 Nobel Media initiated ● Nobel Prize Inspiration editorial collaboration with BBC World. Initiative Brazil During the first year, the goal was to 8–10 April 2019 generate journalistic content related ● Nobel Prize Dialogue Madrid to the global meetings that Nobel 22 maj 2019 Media produces, centred on their The Future of Ageing future-oriented themes as well as the ● Nobel Prize Series India Nobel Laureates and other experts 11–13 September 2019 featured at these events. The results Teaching and Learning included articles, video clips for social ● Nobel Prize Inspiration Initiative media, short documentaries, radio Canada productions and interactive Q&A 24–26 September 2019 sessions. ● Nobel Prize Dialogue Berlin During the year, this material was 8 November 2019 published on 35 of BBC World’s plat- : Towards Health: Equality, forms and channels and in 19 different “Old age on one hand terrifies us Responsibility and Research languages including Spanish, Chinese, but it’s important to remember ● Nobel Week Dialogue Gothenburg when you feel anxious how awful Gujarati, Uzbek and Korean. More than it would be to live forever. If eternity 9 December 2019 20 interviews were conducted, includ- was guaranteed all incentives of life Into the unknown: Uncertainty, ing laureates , and illusions would disappear. This risk and opportunity and Kailash Satyarthi. thought can help us experience old ● Nobel Week Dialogue Gothenburg An interview with Literature laureate age in a better manner.” Participants represented 52 coun- Mario Vargas Llosa during Nobel Prize tries. Of all participants, 52% were Dialogue Madrid in May was a major women and 98% would like to attend digital success on BBC Mundo. an event again.


2020 ● The Nobel Day begins with the The year’s Nobel Prizes will be awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize announced between 5 and 12 October at a ceremony at . Later 2020. All six announcements will be the other prizes are presented at the live-streamed on the official Nobel traditional Nobel Prize Award Cere- Prize website, www.nobelprize.org. mony at Konserthuset (Stockholm Concert Hall), with about 1,560 guests. ● The subsequent Nobel Banquet at the Stockholm City Hall is served Nobelmiddagen to about 1,350 guests. ● The first such banquet, held at the Early in December 2020, the new in the Middle Ages – but that has Hall of Mirrors of Stockholm’s Grand exhibition Nobelmid­dagen also become a modern tradition Hôtel in 1901, had 113 guests. (The Nobel Banquet) will open because of Swedish Tele­vision’s ● About 500 metres of linen table- at Nobel Prize Museum in Stock- broadcasts. The Nobel Day is cloths are used for the 65 tables holm. The exhibition will focus on celebrated with prize award in the Blue Hall of the Stockholm the role of this festive meal for ceremonies and festive meals at City Hall. the creative conversations and schools and retirement homes, ● The table setting comprises no fewer for encounters between people. and many people have made than some 9,540 porcelain pieces, Nobelmiddagen will be a beauti- it a tradition to gather in front of about 5,400 glasses and 9,450 items ful, thought-provoking exhibition the TV over a meal. The exhibition of cutlery. about a dinner that largely follows examines the cultural, social and ● During the evening, those working the pattern of other ceremonial economic aspects of the meal. with the Nobel Banquet meal include banquets – a tradition with roots more than 40 chefs and 190 servers. PHOTO: DAN LEPP

Head chef at the Nobel Banquet, Sebastian Gibrand, puts the finishing touches on the first course before it is served.


26 ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION For the Greatest Benefit to Humankind

The thematic exhibition For the Greatest Benefit ALL PHOTOS: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD to Humankind, which opened in October 2019, presents Nobel Prize-awarded achievements that save lives, feed humanity, protect the planet and bring people together – achievements crucial to our world and our future.

LED GMO Lighting plays a major role in our quality (Genetically modified organism) of life, but also consumes a substantial Since the 1950s our understanding of amount of the world’s electricity. Light- the chemistry behind genetics has under- Hiroshi Amano in LED lighting. emitting diodes (LEDs) are electronic gone a revolution. When components that provide much more and successfully mapped efcient lighting than was previously the structure of the DNA molecule, they available. Creating white light that can provided a key to how genetic informa- be used for lighting requires a combina- tion is stored. Eventually this opened up tion of red, green, and blue light. Blue new opportunities to alter genes. Paul LEDs were the most difcult to create, Berg found a way to create DNA mole- but Physics Laureates , cules with pieces of DNA from diferent Hiroshi Amano, and organisms. Methods for changing genetic succeeded in doing so. LEDs provide make-up have evolved enormously since an increasing share of the lighting we then. Plants and animals developed use in everyday life. with genetic technology have presented opportunities for increased food produc- The Red Cross tion, but they have also raised questions When fellow humans are afected by war about biological hazards and ethics. The well-known symbol of the Red and confict, many people have a desire Cross. to help. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent, as the organisation is known in Muslim countries, include thousands of organizations that mobilise millions of people worldwide. Through their volunteer work and fundraising, which the general public can contribute to, those in need can receive help. The International Red Cross Committee, which unites the Red Cross and Red Crescent organisations in diferent coun- tries, has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize three times: in 1917, 1944, and 1963.

‹ Night lights over Tokyo. The efficient LED lights provide much more effi- One of the exhibition’s installations shows how cient lighting than was previously cereal production has been able to increase due to available. the use of GMO and the use of artificial fertilisers.

27 Waiting for new laureates. During Nobel Calling Stockholm in October, the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded to Robert G. Edwards for the development of IVF was recognised on the large LED sign at Stureplan in central Stockholm. PHOTO: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD

28 ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION 29 Science meets society

Each year, a number earning is a lifelong activity, and During the spring, other meetings dis- there are many ways to inspire cussed the challenges and opportunities of meetings take place Lpeople to constantly seek new that an ageing population poses to a soci- around the world in knowledge. This was the theme of the ety. This theme was raised in both Tokyo year’s frst Nobel Prize Dialogue in and Madrid. In various panel discussions, which the Nobel Prize Santiago, Chile, entitled The Future invited speakers talked about such issues serves as a starting point of Learning. Teaching and Learning was as: How long will we live in the future? also the theme of the Nobel Prize Series How long can we aford to live? And how for bringing science and in India. During three days in Punjab long should we actually live? The Nobel society closer together. and Delhi, university lectures, round­ Prize Dialogue held in Berlin focused on table discussions and a special con­ the theme of health. Among other things, Students, researchers, ference for teachers were organised. speakers asked how we can achieve opinion leaders, teachers In Mohali, Nobel Prize Museum’s new a healthier life for everyone, and what travelling exhibition, For the Greatest we can hope for from future research. and an interested general Beneft of Humankind, also had its world In 2019 the Nobel Prize Inspiration public can meet Nobel premiere. For one month, school classes Initiative also took place in several cities in Punjab had an opportunity to visit the in Canada and Brazil. This venture Laureates and other exhibition and learn more about Nobel enables Nobel Laureates to meet young leading experts. Prize-awarded achievements that have scin­ ­e ­tists. The ambition is that all of saved lives, fed humanity, protected the these meetings should inspire people planet and connected people – achieve- to ask questions, to seek out knowledge ments that are crucial to improving and to understand and improve our our world. world.

Conversations and encounters between audience members and speakers are an important part of the international meetings. PHOTO: DAN LEPP

30 Several Nobel Laureates and other experts met in Santiago to discuss how to inspire people to constantly seek new knowledge throughout life. PHOTO: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD


Florist Per Benjamin and his colleague The flowers in focus on the stage and sister, Lena Benjamin. at the Nobel Prize award ceremony. PHOTO: DAN LEPP PHOTO: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD

32 Italian floral splendour

Ever since 1905, flowers from Sanremo have adorned the celebration of Nobel Day in Stockholm. Today, the donated flowers are a self-evident element of the traditions that surround the Nobel Prize.

“ y home is where I work, and I in Villa Nobel and passed away on Hässelby Flowers, was in charge of the work everywhere.” Alfred Nobel 10 December 1896. foral decorations for the Nobel Prize M was always travelling around For more than one hundred years fow- award ceremony at Konserthuset the world and managed his business ers from Sanremo has been decorating Stockholm, and Per Benjamin created empire by himself. the Konserthuset Stockholm and the the arrangements for the Nobel Banquet However, Nobel managed to settle City Hall thanks to a generous donation in the City Hall. down in a few places, in Krümmel near from the Italian government, the Liguria The 2019 overall theme was the inter- Hamburg, Avenue Malakof in Paris and Region, the City of San Remo and the action between humans and nature, the at the end of his life he settled down Riviera di Liguria Chamber of Commerce. cycles in nature and the Swedish seasons. in Sanremo, Italy, in a part of the Italian This Italian foral splendour is one of the The table of honour depicted a modern Riviera known as the Riviera dei Fiori, most appreciated traditions surround­ ing­­ interpretation of a fowery summertime named for the fowers that are grown the Nobel Prize and always attracts much meadow with the faded golden beige there. Alfred bought a sea view villa attention due to the beautiful arrange- tones of last year’s grass and seed pods and had a laboratory built where he ments made by the skilful and artistic together with this year’s tender, wonder- could conduct his experiments and make forists. fully bright greens and the somewhat new inventions. He spent his last years Helén Magnusson, head forist at bolder fower colours.

About 300 kilos of green plants were used Per Benjamin pushed the boundaries along with 25,000 flowers such as carnations, when crea­ting a huge summer meadow chrysanthemums, orchids, roses and mimosa in the Blue Hall. for the Nobel Prize award ceremony. PHOTO: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD PHOTO: NANAKA ADACHI


he inventor, entrepreneur the problem of the substance’s volatility and very successful business­ by mixing nitroglycerine with a type of man Alfred Nobel continually sand, kiselguhr. The result was a mould- travelled between his facto- able mass that was easy to package ries. Nobel built up an enor- and that could be shipped and handled Tmous fortune that he chose in his will safely. It was patented in 1867 under to dedicate to those who had contributed the name . With the patenting to the greatest beneft to mankind. The of diferent forms of dynamite together prize would reward outstanding eforts with detonators, which he had invented within the diferent felds that he was previously, Alfred Nobel achieved his most involved in during his lifetime. major technical and industrial break- Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm throughs. in 1833. His father, Immanuel, was an Alfred Nobel led the rapid exploitation inventor and who had varying of his inventions and built factories and success. His mother, Andriette, was laboratories around the world – Vinter- described as energetic and intelligent, viken in , Krümmel in Germany and when Immanuel went to Russia after and Ardeer in were some of a bankruptcy, she was forced to support the frst. He eventually built just over the family. When Immanuel established 90 factories in 20 countries. At his death, a company in the war industry in 1842, he had 355 patents and left behind an the family was fnally able to reunite. enormous fortune. Nobel was a man of The Nobel brothers were given a frst his time, embodying many of the class education by private tutors, and at Enlightenment’s central ideas, both in the age of 17 Alfred spoke fve languages: his practical work and in his philosophy. Swedish, Russian, English, French and He combined his religious doubt with German. At the time, he was interested a belief in the natural sciences and was in poetry and even wrote his own works. a true optimist about technology and an But his father disliked Alfred’s interest entrepreneur who actively took part in in literature and sent him abroad for industrialisation. Alfred Nobel died on studies that focused more on the natural 10 December 1896 in his home in San sciences. Remo, Italy, and his will attracted signif- Alfred visited a number of countries cant attention when it was published. and fnally ended up in Paris, where He had allocated most of his fortune to he studied chemistry under Professor rewarding outstanding eforts within T. J. Pelouze. It was there that Alfred frst physics, chemistry, physiology or medi- came into contact with nitroglycerine, cine, literature and peace. which was invented by the Italian The will was challenged by relatives, Ascanio Sobrero. Nitroglycerine was a authorities in several countries and highly explosive liquid considered too by Swedish King Oscar II. Thus began dangerous to be useful. Alfred Nobel a long process on the road to realising returned to Sweden and soon began Alfred Nobel’s vision. After a few years experimenting with nitroglycerine, of complicated legal processes led by the both in its production and in making executors of the will, and the substance reliable enough to use in Rudolf Lilljequist, the Nobel Foundation industry. The work was dangerous and was established in 1900 and the frst an accident killed several people, includ- Nobel Prizes were awarded the following ing his younger brother Emil. year. Alfred Nobel was fnally able to solve


“Dear Alfred Nobel (…) The book I am writing is not only about you, your dramatic life and your tumultuous clan. It is just as much about the era you lived in, about all the things that fascinated you. I am thinking of the telegraph, electric light- ing and the discovery of bacteria, about atoms and magnetism, about dreams of peace and about wars. I am thinking about the whirlwind of scientific progress you were drawn into, which challenged the power of the church in a way you found amusing. And of course I am thinking about all the books, both those you devoured and those you dreamt of writing yourself. How can anyone understand you and your great prize without grasping all of that? Dear Alfred Nobel, I want to say: Give me a chance!”

Ingrid Carlberg addressed a few words to Alfred Nobel about working on her major biography, which was published in 2019 under the Swedish title “Nobel – Den gåtfulle Alfred, hans värld och hans pris” (Nobel – The Enigmatic Alfred, His World and His Prize). Hopefully it will be translated to English soon.

ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION 35 The prize-awarding institutions

n his will, Alfred Nobel stipulated tions for the respective Nobel Prizes and somewhat between the Nobel Commit- which institutions should select extensively examine a selection of the tees, but the selection process is largely Nobel Laureates in each prize nominees. They subsequently present the same across all prize categories. category. Presumably, he chose their proposals for Nobel Laureates to The Committees frst confrm that the the academic institutions that he the respective prize-awarding institu- nominations were submitted by individ- Iconsidered to be best suited to the task. tion. The actual decision as to who will uals who have the right to nominate. Nobel was less specifc regarding the be awarded Nobel Prizes is made not Since a nomination is only valid for the organisation that was to manage his by the respective Nobel Committees, but current year, it is common for some assets. What would later become the by all members of the prize-awarding candidates to be nominated several Nobel Foundation was only mentioned . times. Some candidates may also be in his will as a fund. For the Peace Prize, Alfred Nobel nominated by more than one nominator The Nobel Prize’s internationally referred to the (national parlia- in the same year. Nominations are unique position is largely due to the ment) in in his will. The Storting recorded and compiled in a list. The list century-long independence of the appoints the fve members of the Norwe- is processed in a series of phases during prize-awarding institutions in selecting gian . The Norwegian the spring. Initially, it consists of a large Nobel Laureates. The fact that these Nobel Committee difers from the other selection of names, which is then nar- institutions have engaged exceptionally prize-awarding institutions in the sense rowed down to a smaller number of can- knowledgeable individuals within their that it is responsible both for evaluating didates. Remaining candidates are then own organisations as well as extensive the nominees and selecting the recipient. evaluated in depth with the assistance of international expertise has played domestic and foreign experts. During the a vital role in achieving this standing. n September of each year the respec- summer the Nobel Committee members tive Nobel Committees send out indi- produce a comprehensive report detail- he Royal Swedish Academy of Ividual invitations to thousands of ing the candidate or candidates proposed Sciences selects the Nobel Laure- members of academies, university pro- as the recipient(s) of the year’s Nobel Tates in Physics and Chemistry. It fessors and other scientists in numerous Prize. The proposal is presented to the also selects the recipients of the Sveriges countries, previous Laureates, members members of the prize-awarding institu- Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences of parliamentary assemblies and others. tion in September. The fnal selection in Memory of Alfred Nobel, established The invitation recipients are chosen so of Nobel Laureates takes place by a in 1968 on the occasion of the Riksbank’s to ensure that as many countries and vote. The decisions are announced by (Sweden’s central bank) 300th anniver- universities as possible are represented the respective prize-awarding institu- sary. The Academy has about 450 Swed- over time. A much broader group can tions immediately after the vote, usually ish and about 175 foreign members. make nominations for the Nobel Peace during the frst half of October. All docu- The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Prize without receiving an invitation ments related to the nomination process Institutet selects the Nobel Laureates in from the Norwegian Nobel Committee and evaluations remain confdential Physiology or Medicine. The Assembly compared to the other prizes. This nomi- for 50 years. has 50 members. The Swedish Academy nation procedure for the Nobel Prize selects the Nobel Laureates in Literature. difers from many other prizes in that The Academy has 18 members. All of it is the responsible committee which these institutions appoint special Nobel appoints both the nominees and the Committees of three to fve members, recipients. Those who have been invited More information about the prize- a secretary and, in some cases, also are able to nominate candidates for the awarding institutions is available deputies. coming year. Nominations, which are on their respective websites: Members are, in general, elected for confdential, must be received by the www.kva.se a term of three years and may serve for Committees no later than 31 January www.nobelprizemedicine.org a maximum of three consecutive terms. of the year in which the prize will be www.svenskaakademien.se The Nobel Committees evaluate nomina- awarded. The procedures may vary www.nobelpeaceprize.org

36 ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION Literature laureate Peter Handke delivers his Nobel Prize lecture at the Swedish Academy. PHOTO: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD

Berit Reiss-Andersen announces the Laureate Abiy Ahmed Ali at the Norwegian Nobel Institute. PHOTO: KEN OPPRANN

Selecting Nobel Laureates

Nomination forms Deadline for Assessment of Committee submits Nobel Laureates Nobel Prize are sent out submissions candidates with recommendations are chosen and the assistance of announced Award external experts Ceremony

September 31 January February–August September October 10 December



he Nobel Foundation is a pri- tion are essentially fnanced by the 2019 Annual Report, which is available vate foundation established fortune that Alfred Nobel left behind. on the website Nobelprize.org. in 1900 on the basis of the The market value of the Foundation’s The Nobel prize-awarding institutions will of Alfred Nobel and total invested capital amounted to SEK − the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the founding statutes pro­ 4,902 m at the end of 2019. Portfolio the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Insti- Tmulgated in connection with the will. capital was allocated among 47 per cent tutet, the Swedish Academy and the Its primary purpose is to ensure that equity funds and stock index futures, Norwegian Nobel Committee − appoint the intentions of the will of Alfred Nobel 9 per cent property funds, 31 per cent 15 trustees to the Nobel Foundation, for are fulflled. The Foundation is respon­ alternative assets such as hedge funds two calendar years at a time. Six repre- sible for managing Alfred Nobel’s fortune and 13 per cent other assets. The year’s sentatives are appointed by the Academy in a manner that ensures a secure fnan- return on portfolio capital was 16.6 per of Sciences and the other prize-awarding cial base for the Nobel Prize over the cent. In addition to this, the Nobel institutions appoint three each. The long term and that the prize-awarding Foundation owns a property in Stock- Academy of Sciences also appoints four institutions are guaranteed independence holm and one in Oslo. deputies and the other institutions in their work of selecting recipients. During 2019 the overall sum of all appoint two deputies each. The most The Foundation is also tasked with Nobel Prizes and operating expenses was important task of the trustees is to strengthening the Nobel Prize’s position SEK 109.2 m. This was divided among appoint the Nobel Foundation’s Board by administering and developing the four main categories: the Prizes, SEK and to audit the Foundation’s accounts. brands and intangible assets that have 54 m; compensation to the Prize Com- The Nobel Foundation’s board, which been built up during the Nobel Prize’s mittees, SEK 25.4 m; the Nobel Week in is based in Stockholm, consists of seven history, which spans more than 100 Stockholm and Oslo, SEK 17.4 m; plus members and two deputy members. years. administration etc., SEK 12.4 m. The cost Board members and deputies are The Nobel Foundation also strives level in 2019 was higher than normal appointed for a term of two years to safeguard the prize-awarding institu- because two Literature Prizes were each. From among its own members, tions’ common interests and to represent awarded. Additional information about the Board chooses a Chairperson, a the Nobel sphere externally in many con- the Nobel Foundation’s fnancial man- Vice-Chairperson and an Executive texts. In the past two decades a number agement is available in the Foundation’s Director. of public operations have been devel­ oped with the aim of inspiring and dis- seminating knowledge about the Nobel Prize. These include exhibitions, school Early in the 2010s, overall operating SEK m % activities, meetings and programme expenses totalled more than SEK 120 120 4.2 activities as well as digital productions. m. The withdrawals that are made The Nobel Foundation has overall yearly from the Foundation’s equity 3.7 are of crucial importance to its 100 responsibility for the Nobel Week that finances. Unlike returns, this amount 3.2 takes place in Stockholm in December. is controlled by the Foundation itself. 80 2.7 This week has a busy schedule for the By lowering expenses and, starting in 2018, also receiving larger com- Nobel Laureates, culminating in the 2.2 Nobel Prize Award Ceremony and the pensation from Sveriges Riksbank, 60 it has been possible to reduce the 1.7 Nobel Banquet held on 10 December. annual withdrawal from equity to Both of these events are planned and about SEK 100 m. 40 1.2 run by the Foundation. The Norwegian Nobel Institute was established in The expenditure ratio (calculated as 0.7 20 operating expenses including those 1904 and acts as the Norwegian Nobel 0.2 for the Nobel Prizes as a percentage Committee’s secretariat and the Nobel of the market value of the Founda- 0 -0.3 Foundation’s branch ofce in Oslo. tion’s equity at year-end) has 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 The Institute administers the activities de ­creased over a period of years. Nobel Prizes Yearly underlying with- Expenditure ratio ** connected with the awarding of the During 2019 it was 2.2 per cent. (SEK m) drawal from equity * Nobel Peace Prize, including press The corresponding figure for the underlying expenditure ratio (when conferences, the Award Ceremony * Yearly operating expenses minus external compensation (Riksbank), the 2018 Nobel Prize in Literature and the Banquet. smoothed for temporary fluctuations. is subtracted in the 2018 income ** Yearly underlying withdrawal from equity as a percentage The operations of the Nobel Founda- statement) was 2.1 per cent. of the market value of the Foundation’s equity at year-end.

ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION 39 To engage, inspire and spread knowledge

The Nobel Prize rewards science, humanism and peace eforts. NOBEL MEDIA AB NOBEL CENTER This is one of the central concepts in the will of Alfred Nobel, Nobel Media AB spreads knowledge FOUNDATION and it also permeates the broad outreach activities that have about Nobel Prize-awarded achieve- The Nobel Center Foundation ments and stimulates interest in been developed for the purpose of engaging, inspiring and (Stiftelsen Nobel Center) is respon- science, literature and peace eforts sible for the public activities carried spreading knowledge to a broad general public based on through digital channels and inspiring out on the basis of Nobel Prize the Nobel Prize as well as the discoveries and achievements events. The company is also respon- Museum in Stockholm. of the laureates. sible for the Nobel sphere’s intern­ ● Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive ational activities and partnerships. Director of the Nobel Foundation, ● Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive BOARDS OF DIRECTORS, ALFRED NOBEL Chairman Director of the Nobel Foundation, ● Mårten Castenfors, Museum 2019 MEMORIAL FOUNDATION Chairman Director, Liljevalchs konsthall The purpose of the Alfred Nobel ● Peje Emilsson, Founder and ● Dilsa Demirbag-Sten, General Memorial Foundation is to promote THE NOBEL FOUNDATION Chairman of Kreab Secretary, Berättarministeriet education, culture, peace and scien­ The Nobel Foundation is a private ● Karin Pettersson, Culture Editor, ● Bente Erichsen, flm director, author tifc research, in part by fnancially foundation established in 1900 on Aftonbladet ● Cecilia Gunne, Attorney, Lindskog or otherwise contributing to the the basis of the will of Alfred Nobel ● Mia Horn af Rantzien, Dr, CEO of Malmström Advokatbyrå KB activities and objectives of the Nobel and the founding statutes promulga­ the Center for Business and Policy ● Göran K. Hansson, Professor, Foundation. in connection with the will. Its primary Studies (SNS) Secretary General of the Royal ● Carl-Henrik Heldin, Chairman purpose is to ensure that the inten- ● Erika Lanner, Lawyer and CEO Swedish Academy of Sciences ● Göran K. Hansson tions of the will of Alfred Nobel are of Nobel Prize Museum ● Gunnar von Heijne, Professor, ● Lars Heikensten fulflled. ● Sara Mazur, Chairman of WASP Secretary of the Nobel Committee ● Mats Malm ● Carl-Henrik Heldin, Professor, – Wallenberg AI, Autonomous for Chemistry ● Tomas Nicolin Chairman Systems and Software Program ● Lisa Månsson, PhD, Director, ● Thomas Perlmann ● Göran K. Hansson, Professor, ● Marie Nilsson, CEO of Mediavision Vasa Museum ● Berit Reiss-Andersen Vice Chairman, Secretary General ● Olav Njølstad, Professor, Director ● Åsa Wikforss, Professor, writer, of the Royal Swedish Academy of the Norwegian Nobel Institute Member of the Swedish Academy of Sciences NOBEL GROUP ● Juleen Zierath, Professor, member ● Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive INTERESTS AB of the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska NOBEL PEACE PRIZE Director of the Nobel Foundation Institutet and associate member of The aim of the company is to own – RESEARCH & ● Mats Malm, Professor, Permanent and actively manage shares and parti- the Nobel Committee for Physiology INFORMATION AS Secretary of the Swedish Academy cipations within the sphere of interest or Medicine Nobel Peace Prize – Research & ● Tomas Nicolin, MSc of the Nobel organisations. Another Information AS (Nobels Fredspris – ● Thomas Perlmann, Professor, task of the company is to facilitate NOBELHUSET AB Forskning og Informasjon AS) is the Secretary General of the Nobel fnancial and administrative coordina- Nobelhuset AB is the company that research arm of the Norwegian Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet tion between the companies in the has been entrusted with planning, Institute. and the Nobel Committee for Nobel sphere. building, owning, administering and ● Olav Njølstad, Director of the Physiology or Medicine ● Carl-Henrik Heldin, Chairman developing a future Nobel Center Norwegian Nobel Institute, ● Berit Reiss-Andersen, Attorney, ● Göran K. Hansson in Stockholm. ● Chairman Chair of the Norwegian Nobel ● Lars Heikensten Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive ● Bente Erichsen, flm director, author Committee ● Gunnar von Heijne Director of the Nobel Foundation, ● Jon Ola Sand, Executive Supervisor, ● Gunnar Ingelman Chairman ● The European Broadcasting Union Deputy members ● Mats Malm Olov Amelin, PhD, Director, Jamtli ● Henrik Syse, Professor, Peace ● Gunnar Ingelman, Professor, ● Tomas Nicolin Foundation and Jämtland County Research Institute Oslo Secretary of the Nobel Committee ● Thomas Perlmann Custodian of Antiquities ● ● Lotta Wristel, CFO of the Nobel for Physics ● Berit Reiss-Andersen Lars Anell, former Chairman of ● Gunnar von Heijne, Professor, the Swedish Research Council Foundation Secretary of the Nobel Committee ● Birgitta Ed, founding partner of for Chemistry Six Year Plan ● Gunnar von Heijne, Professor, Secretary of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry ● Anders Nylander, former CEO of Atrium Ljungberg ● Stefan Ränk, CEO, Einar Mattson AB ● Monica von Schmalensee, Architect ● Erika Lanner, Lawyer and CEO of Nobel Prize Museum

40 ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION PHOTO:MAHMOUD ALEXANDER NOBEL PEACE CENTER COMPANY INFORMATION NOBEL PEACE CENTER FOUNDATION FOUNDATION The Nobel Peace Center in Oslo is THE NOBEL FOUNDATION (Stiftelsen Nobels Fredssenter) a museum that showcases the Peace ● Executive Director: ● CEO: Liv Tørres, since 1 January Prize Laureates and their work, Dr Lars Heikensten 2020 Kjersti Fløgstad information about Alfred Nobel ● Swedish registration number: ● Norwegian registration number: and exhibitions with a focus on 802002-4462 985226237 documentary photography. ● Number of employees: 11 ● Sales: NOK 61,136 K ● Olav Njølstad, Director of the ● Established: 1900 ● Number of employees: 38 Norwegian Nobel Institute, Chair ● Address: Sturegatan 14, ● Established: 2005 ● Siri Hatlen, business owner, Stockholm, Sweden ● Address: Brynjulf Bulls Plass 1, Deputy Chair ● Website: nobelprize.org Rådhusplassen, Oslo, Norway ● Olav Aaraas, Director, Norwegian ● Website: nobelpeacecenter.org Museum of Cultural History NOBEL MEDIA AB ● Jessica Barlindhaug Angstreich, ● CEO: Laura Sprechmann NOBEL PEACE PRIZE Board member elected by the ● Swedish registration number: – RESEARCH & employees 556667-5194 INFORMATION AS ● Anne Enger, former Storting ● Sales: SEK 73,324 K (Nobels Fredspris – Forskning og member, Minister of Culture ● Employees: 20 Informasjon AS) Laura Sprechmann, and County Governor ● Established: 2004 ● Norwegian registration number: CEO of Nobel Media AB ● Lotta Wristel, CFO of the Nobel ● Address: Sturegatan 14, 996179397 Foundation Stockholm, Sweden ● Sales: NOK 2,395 K “Our meetings around the ● Website: nobelprize.org ● Number of employees: 2 world provides a global (1 full-time) NOBEL CENTER ● Established: 2010 platform for cutting-edge FOUNDATION ● Address: Henrik Ibsens Gate 51, dialogue on issues of great (Nobel Prize Museum) Oslo, Norway importance for humanity. ● CEO: Erika Lanner ● Website: nobelpeaceprize.org/ During 2019 we discussed ● Swedish registration number: research questions related to themes

802478-2107 like health, ageing, learning ● Sales: SEK 73,324 K ● Employees: 42 and how to deal with the ● The original Nobel Museum opened unknown. It is always inspir- in 2001. Efective from 1 January ing to gather students, policy 2019, the Nobel Center Foundation makers, laureates and other (Stiftelsen Nobel Center) acquired leading experts.”, says Laura the operations carried out by Nobel Prize Museum, formerly Nobel­ Sprechmann, CEO of Nobel museet AB (the Nobel Museum), Media. in Stockholm’s Old Town. ● Address: Stortorget 2, Stockholm, Sweden ● Website: nobelprizemuseum.se

Nobel Foundation

Organisational structure Alfred Nobel Memorial Foundation March 2020 Nobel Group Interests AB

Nobel Peace Nobel Center Nobel Media Nobelhuset Nobel Peace Prize Center Foundation AB AB Research & Foundation Information AS

ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION 41 Highlights in December PHOTO: HENRIK JANSSON “I am one of those who dream of freedom, dignity and democracy”, said Nobel Peace Prize Laureate in a speech at the 2019 Nobel Week Dialogue that focused on uncertainty, risk and oppor- tunities. A number of Nobel Laureates, experts, research- ers and artists offered their own perspectives on some fundamental issues surrounding how uncer­ tainty and risk affect our society, our culture and our daily lives. PHOTO: DAN LEPP

Chef Sebastian Gibrand and Pastry Chef Daniel Roos, both celebrated Swedish culinary leaders, composed the menu that was served at the 2019 Nobel Banquet. For dessert Daniel offered raspberry mousse, dehy­ drated chocolate mousse, raspberry kissel and rasp- berry sorbet.

Nobel Week in Stockholm began with a visit to the Nobel Prize Museum at PHOTO:MAHMOUD ALEXANDER PHOTO: KEN OPPRANN Stortorget in Gamla Stan on 6 December. There the year’s laureates, including Chemistry laureate John B. Goodenough, the oldest Nobel Prize Laureate ever, were welcomed along with their families to an event- filled week in Stockholm.

A number of previous Peace Prize laureates were dis- played in the background as Abiy Ahmed Ali visited the Norwegian Nobel Institute.

42 ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION PHOTO:MAHMOUD ALEXANDER PHOTO: ELMEHED NIKLAS At the conclusion of the Nobel Banquet, students hold up banners on the stair- case and along the balus- trade of the Blue Hall. The banners represent colleges and universities from all over Sweden. This is the time for the laureates to give their acceptance speeches, introduced by the evening’s toastmaster, stu- dent Sara Tabari. Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe delivered his acceptance speech for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

The Nobel Prize Concert PHOTO: CLÉMENT MORIN took place on 8 December in the Stockholm Concert Hall, with world-renowned Swedish conductor Herbert Blomstedt leading the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra. The soloist was Swedish soprano and Court Singer Miah Persson.

Many laureates visit schools during Nobel Week to meet with and inspire students. Akira Yoshino visited the Hökaräng School, pictured here, as well as the Japanese School of Stockholm.



The Nobel Week in Stockholm began with a unique live conversation between three of the 2019 Nobel Laureates and two astronauts on the Inter­ national Space Station (ISS). The conversation, moder- ated by astronaut Christer Fuglesang, was arranged by Nobel Prize Museum and the European Space Agency.

Astronauts Jessica Meir and Luca Parmitano told about the research being conducted on the space station and the challenges posed by their space walks, in a live conversation with two of the Nobel Laureates in Physics, Didier Queloz and Michel Mayor, who made the first discovery of an exoplanet, and Nobel Laureate in Chemistry Stanley Whittingham, who was awarded for his work in developing the light, rechargeable and powerful lithium-ion battery. Both of these Nobel Prizes were crucial to the work being carried out at the time on the ISS.

ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION 45 46 ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION Editors: Annika Pontikis, Director of Communications and Jonna Petterson, Public Relations Officer

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ANNUAL REVIEW 2019 · THE NOBEL FOUNDATION 47 www.nobelprize.org