The first in was awarded to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen for his discovery of X-radiation. The X-ray tube pictured on the cover is on display at the .

Photo: Alexander Mahmoud



“I wish to commend the Nobel Museum for (…) this new exhibition. I believe that my parents’ message of social justice and equality is as important today as ever before.”

The exhibition A Right to Freedom - Martin Luther King, Jr. was inaugurated by King’s daughter Bernice A. King at the Nobel Prize Museum on 28 September 2018.

Photo: Alexander Mahmoud

2 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 3 For the greatest beneft to humankind


4 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 “I can tell you how. It is very easy. The first thing you must do is to have great teachers.”

Paul A. Samuelson, 1970 Laureate in Economic Sciences, on how to earn a Nobel Prize.

obel Laureates often Luther King, Jr., and with a Nobel Prize attest to how crucial Teacher Summit on the theme Teach their teachers have been. Love and Understanding, with 350 Teachers, researchers and teachers from 15 countries attending. others who contribute , the 2007 Peace Prize Lars Heikensten, Executive Director Nto increased knowledge are the heroes Laureate, addressed How to Solve the of the Nobel Foundation since 2011. and heroines of our age. When the very Climate Crisis when he spoke at the 2018 Photo: Kari Kohvakka idea of science is being questioned, our Forum in . During school systems are being allowed to the coming year, many of our outreach decay, children are even being prevented activities will focus on the climate crisis. from attending school and many people It will be a central issue at both the are still being denied fundamental hu- Nobel Week Dialogue in Gothenburg and man rights, the forces of open, tolerant the Nobel Prize Teacher Summit in and democratic societies need to defend . We are also planning a major education, research and enlightenment – conference on the climate change issue proactively and passionately. in Washington D.C. during the spring of Denial of facts, nationalism and pro- 2020. tectionism are diametrically opposed to the vision of . He was con- ctivities of this kind, in the spirit vinced of the advantages of an open of the Nobel Prize, are what we world and the ability of science to make A want to carry out at a future the world even better. The Nobel Prize Nobel Center in Stockholm. This is why recognizes no boundaries of nationality, many of us were disappointed last au- and each year it rewards important tumn when the new political majority in contributions and discoveries for the the City of Stockholm halted the Nobel greatest beneft to humankind. Center project. But we have not given up, Among our biggest challenges today and we are continuing our dialogue with are human rights and climate change. the City. The heavily attended activities The 2018 Peace Prize was awarded to of this past year are an eloquent testi- and “for mony to the need for a new and larger their eforts to end the use of sexual vio- home for the Nobel Prize. lence as a weapon of war and armed Alfred Nobel’s vision is perhaps more confict”. Last year also marked the 70th important today than ever before. We anniversary of the Uni- will therefore continue to develop our versal Declaration of Human Rights and activities, both digitally and in various the 50th anniversary of the assassination places around the world. This Annual of Martin Luther King, Jr. We observed Review provides a picture of what is these anniversaries with the year’s big happening and of our 2018 activities. exhibition at the Nobel Prize Museum in Stockholm, A Right to Freedom – Martin I wish you enjoyable reading!


8 The 2018 Nobel Laureates 14 Celebrate and Understand 16 A Right to Freedom 19 Vital Learning 20 The Year in Numbers 22 An Eventful Year of Stockholm Activities 26 Research for the Greatest Benefit to Humankind 28 The Body as a Battlefield 30 2019 Programme 32 The Institutions that Select the Nobel Laureates 34 Alfred Nobel 36 New Visual Identity 38 The Nobel Foundation 40 To Engage, Inspire and Spread Knowledge 42 Highlights in December

Photo: Alexander Mahmoud


In October each year new THE 2018 Nobel Laureates are presented, who all contributed to the “for groundbreaking greatest benefit of humankind inventions in the feld with their work. The Nobel Prize of laser physics” Award Ceremonies then take place in Stockholm and Oslo Arthur Ashkin “for the optical tweezers on 10 December. and their application to biological systems”

GÉRARD MOUROU AND “for their method of generating high-intensity,

Gérard Mourou ultra-short optical pulses”

The sharp beams of laser light have given us new opportunities for deepen- ing our knowledge about the world and shaping it. Arthur Ashkin invented opti- cal tweezers that grab particles, atoms, molecules, and living cells with their laser beam fngers. The tweezers use la- ser light to push small particles towards the center of the beam and to hold them there. In 1987, Ashkin succeeded in cap- Donna Strickland turing living bacteria without harming them. Optical tweezers are now widely used to investigate biological systems. In 1985, Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland succeeded in creating ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses without destroying the amplifying mate- rial. First they stretched the laser pulses in time to reduce their peak power, then amplifed them, and fnally compressed them. The intensity of the pulse then increases dramatically. This technique, called chirped pulse amplifcation, CPA, has many uses, including corrective eye surgeries.


FRANCES H. ARNOLD JAMES P. ALLISON AND “for the directed evolution of enzymes” “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative Frances H. Arnold GEORGE P. SMITH AND James P. Allison SIR GREGORY P. WINTER immune regulation” “for the phage display of peptides and antibodies” Cancer kills millions of people every year and is one of humanity’s greatest health challenges. By stimulating the Evolution - the adaption of species to inherent ability of our immune system diferent Environments - has created to attack tumor cells James P. Allison an enormous diversity of life. Frances and Tasuku Honjo have established an Arnold, , and Gregory entirely new principle for cancer therapy. Winter have used the same principles In 1994–1995, Allison studied a known George P. Smith – genetic change and selection – to Tasuku Honjo protein that functions as a brake on the develop proteins that solve humankind’s immune system. He realized the poten- chemical problems. tial of releasing the brake and thereby In 1993, Arnold conducted the frst unleashing our immune cells to attack directed evolution of enzymes, which are tumors. He then developed this concept proteins that catalyze chemical reac- into a brand-new approach for treating tions. The uses of her results include patients. more environmentally friendly manu- In 1992, Honjo discovered a protein on facturing of chemical substances, such immune cells and, after careful explora- as pharmaceuticals, and the production tion of its function, eventually revealed of renewable fuels. In 1985, George that it also operates as a brake, but with Smith developed an elegant method a diferent mechanism of action. Thera- Sir Gregory P. Winter known as phage display, where a bacte- pies based on his discovery proved to be riophage – a virus that infects bacteria strikingly efective in the fght against with its genes – can be used to evolve cancer. new proteins. Allison and Honjo showed how used phage display diferent strategies for inhibiting the for the directed evolution of antibodies. brakes on the immune system can be Since 2002 this has led to new pharma- used in the treatment of cancer. ceuticals, such as medications to counteract autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.

Ashkin, photo: Nokia Murad, photo: Ken Opprann All other portraits: Alexander Mahmoud


DENIS MUKWEGE AND WILLIAM D. NORDHAUS NADIA MURAD “for integrating climate “for their eforts to end change into long-run the use of sexual violence macroeconomic analysis” as a weapon of war and Denis Mukwege William D. armed confict” Nordhaus PAUL M. ROMER “for integrating technological Sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed confict constitutes both a war innovations into long-run crime and a threat to peace and secu- macroeconomic analysis” rity. A more peaceful world can only be achieved if women and their fundamen- tal rights and security are recognised and At its heart, economics deals with the protected. As a surgeon Denis Mukwege management of scarce resources. Nature has helped thousands of victims of dictates the main constraints on sexual violence in armed conficts in the economic growth and our knowledge Nadia Murad Democratic Republic of Congo. Both on Paul M. Romer determines how well we deal with these a national and an international level he constraints. has demon- has repeatedly condemned impunity for strated how knowledge can function as mass rape and criticized the Congolese a driver of long-term economic growth. government and other countries for not He showed how economic forces govern doing enough to stop the use of sexual the willingness of frms to produce new as a strategy ideas and innovations. Romer’s central and weapon of war. theory, which was published in 1990, Nadia Murad is herself a victim of war explains how ideas are diferent to other crimes. She is a member of the Yazidi goods and require specifc conditions to minority in northern Iraq, and in 2014 thrive in a market. the Islamic State (IS) launched a brutal, ’ fndings deal with systematic attack on her home village. interactions between society, the eco- Several hundred people were massacred, nomy and climate change. In the mid- and girls and young women were abduc- 1990s, he built the frst integrated ted and held as sex slaves. While a cap- assessment model, i.e. a quantitative tive of the IS, Nadia Murad was repea- model that describes the global interplay tedly subjected to rape and other abuses. between the economy and the climate. After three months she managed to fee His model integrates theories and empi- and spoke openly about what she had rical results from physics, chemistry, and sufered. She now works to help women economics. Nordhaus’ model is used to and children who are victims of abuse examine the consequences of climate and human trafcking. policy interventions, for example carbon taxes. The discoveries by Romer and Nordhaus have brought us considerably Footnote: on 4 May the Swedish closer to answering the question of how Academy decided not to award we can achieve sustained and sustaina- a Nobel Prize in Literature in 2018. ble global economic growth.

10 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 Frances H. Arnold at the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm 10 December.

Photo: Alexander Mahmoud

THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 11 When I was in grad school working on the project for which Gérard and I are being honoured, Cyndi Lauper had a big hit: Girls Just Want to Have Fun. But they wanted to wait until the working day is done. As for me, I want to have fun while I’m working. Now not everyone thinks physics is fun, but I do.

Donna Strickland in her speech on 10 December 2018.

12 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 Over the last half-century, the full implications of cli- mate change and its impacts have been illuminated by the intensive research of scientists in different fields. (…) The science is clear. The economics is clear. Now, it is up to those who represent us, our elected leaders, to act responsibly to implement durable and effective solutions.

William D. Nordhaus in his Nobel Banquet speech on 10 December 2018. Photo: Alexander Mahmoud


Under the name Nobel Calling, a number of activities were arranged in Stockholm in conjunction with the announcements of the 2018 Nobel Prizes in October. These events were a festival of knowledge and humanism, aimed at celebrating and understanding the year’s advances. A total of about forty such activities took place during Nobel Calling.

urious Stockholm residents could Teach love & understanding. Hundreds talked about science and human rights attend a crash course at Hotel of teachers from all over the world parti- during a lunch lecture at the Nobel Prize C Rival to learn more about the cipated, spending the day closely exami- Museum. During the week, an extensive year’s scientifc Nobel Prizes, presented ning common challenges related to programme was also ofered to school by members from the committees that democracy, non-violence and sustaina- classes and other Museum visitors, and selected the Laureates. Comedian and ble development. international university-level students author Fredrik Lindström spiced up Three Nobel Laureates took part in the attended a pub evening. Several universi- the evening by talking about the human week’s activities. Literature Laureate ties and colleges in the Stockholm area factor, identity and cinnamon buns. Wole Soyinka visited the Stockholm participated in Nobel Calling during the Another of the week’s highlights was Public Library, among other venues. week, opening their doors for lunchtime the Nobel Prize Teacher Summit, a yearly Peace Prize Laureate lectures, doctoral dissertation presenta- international conference with the theme and Chemistry Laureate Martin Chalfe tions and lab tours.

14 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 ”We want to improve our education. All the teachers here have great ideas, I want to learn from them. During the entire week visitors at the Joseph Amukusana from Zambia Nobel Prize Museum could post their was one of the many teachers who It is a great own greetings to the new Nobel travelled to Stockholm to participate Laureates at the museum walls. in the Nobel Prize Teacher Summit. exchange.”

All photos: Alexander Mahmoud

Miaolung Shih from Great Britain, participant in the Nobel Prize Teacher Summit.

THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 15 Photo: Jonas Lindkvist


The exhibition A Right to Freedom - Martin Luther King, Jr. at the Nobel Prize Museum highlights the importance and necessity of fundamental human rights and promotes the 1964 Peace Prize Laureate’s vision of equality and justice for all through non-violence.

ew people, if anyone, have so rights movement grew strong and fought strongly personifed a political against segregation laws and discrimina- Fmovement as Martin Luther King, tion. The 1964 Nobel Peace Prize was an Jr. His rhetorical talent has left a mark important source of recognition for King on many of us. The life and contribu- and the civil rights movement. tions of Dr King are a fascinating part One of King’s closest associates, the of an important period in 20th century Reverend Jesse Jackson, visited the exhi- history. His dreams, ideas and ability to bition and made a series of public appea- express them appear immortal. rances in Stockholm, including a Of all the Nobel Laureates, King is the much-appreciated conversation at Södra one most often searched for on the Teatern with journalist Jenny Ström- Nobelprize.org website. The year 2018 stedt, an interview on the Skavlan televi- marked both the 70th anniversary of the sion show and an on-stage conversation United Nations Universal Declaration of before a capacity crowd at Kärrtorp Human Rights and the 50th anniversary Upper Secondary School. of the assassination of Martin Luther At the Museum’s King exhibition, King, Jr. Creating an exhibition about school classes have made up a sizeable this champion of the civil rights struggle share of visitors. They have had an was therefore a natural choice for the opportunity to deliver impassioned Nobel Prize Museum. speeches to each other in a purpose- Thanks to donated items and archival built auditorium, based on the central material from the King Center, the Hern- concepts in the exhibition. Students have don Home Museum and Morehouse Col- especially appreciated being able to talk lege − all in Atlanta − the exhibition is about their dreams, which are often extensive and detailed. Bernice A. King, about a more equitable society, free of the youngest child of Martin Luther King racism and prejudice. and Coretta Scott King, is CEO of the “Their visit engages the students, who King Center, whose primary mission is share their thoughts and opinions on to advance the legacy of non-violence. these topics, and it is inspiring and Before inaugurating the exhibition in instructive for us educators to view the Stockholm, she said: exhibition and discuss its contents “I wish to commend the Nobel together with young people. It is heart- Museum for its decision to dedicate a ening to hear them stand up for the new exhibition to his life’s work, and I equal worth of everyone,” says Åsa am equally pleased that my mother Cor- Sundelin, the Museum’s head of etta Scott King’s role and contribution as exhibitions and education. an activist in her own right are also high- After the assassination of Martin lighted. I believe that my parents’ mes- Luther King, Jr. on 4 April, 1968, events sage of social justice and equality is as took a somewhat diferent turn, but important today as ever before.” King’s ideas and struggle for the equal The 1950s and 60s were turbulent worth of all people have lived on. decades in the United States. The civil 17 VITAL LEARNING

ach year, a number of meetings The year began in India with a fve-day This topic was explored through inspir- take place around the world in series of events in Goa, Mumbai and ing lectures and panel discussions in E which the Nobel Prize serves as New Delhi about how science afects our front of a capacity crowd. The day’s dis- a starting point for bringing science and lives. Four Nobel Laureates gave lectures cussion themes included how we can society closer together. Students, resear- and participated in round table discus- feed a growing population, what we can chers, opinion leaders, teachers and an sions together with other experts and eat to improve our health, how we can interested general public can meet Nobel students from several universities. The create sustainable food production and Laureates and other leading experts − travelling exhibition The Nobel Prize: how far science has come in terms of attending lectures, panel discussions and Ideas Changing the World was inaugura- innovation, technology and food. conversations about the major issues ted and shown for a month in Goa, and a Water is essential to human survival, of our time. Through these meetings, conference for teachers was organized and every drop is precious. This year’s people are inspired to ask questions, for the frst time in India. big full-day conference in Stockholm, challenge the status quo and want to In Tokyo, Japan, the focus was on the the Nobel Week Dialogue, turned its gaze understand and improve the world. issue of what we should eat in the future. on the challenges that exist in relation to

18 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 “I like looking at the world from a scientific point of view” water. Issues discussed during the day included: How does humanity impact the oceans? Where does water get wasted, Anugraha and Aishwarya are and can we change patterns of water students at the India Institute of Science Education and Research use? Among the speakers were eight Mohali in Punjab. “Science makes Nobel Laureates as well as other resear- you think about things in a different chers and water activists from all over way and see the world in a different the world. Internationally famous artist perspective,” says Anugraha. Marina Abramović highlighted the issue Photo: Alexander Mahmoud of water by presenting a Performance Lecture. In 2018, meetings were held in countries such as Japan, India, Sweden, the United States and Spain.


4M Nobelprize.org and social media A successful project premiering last year, the Nobel Prize Lessons, were published again in 2018 on Nobelprize.org as the Nobel Prizes were announced. The lessons were distributed mainly through social media. Material from the lessons were downloaded 13,500 times, with the US and India at the top of the list of nations. If each teacher displayed the material to at least one class, it was estimated to have reached 100,000 students.

 The number of followers on Facebook and Twitter increased by 7% from 2017 to 2018  Facebook crossed 4,000,000 likes  Twitter hit 400,000 followers  The Instagram follower count tripled during 2018  The reach on Twitter increased 87% from 2017 to 2018

International Women’s Day

On International Women’s Day, over 13 million individuals were reached on Facebook alone.

The announcements Over 11 million people were reached on average for each announcement day. The highest was physics, when over 14 million people were reached. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to 181 persons and Sir Gregory P. Winter is one of them.


The more than 60 tables at the Nobel Laureates Nobel Banquet at the Stockholm “Creativity is City Hall was covered with combining facts 908 Laureates and 27 organizations some 500 metres of linen cloth, have been awarded the Nobel Prize and the meticulous table setting no one else has between 1901. A small number of comprised no fewer than some 9,540 porcelain pieces, 5,400 glasses connected individuals and organizations have and 9,450 items of cutlery. been honoured more than once, Those who worked with the banquet before” which means that 904 individuals and meal during the evening included a 24 unique organizations have received total of more than 40 chefs and Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine a Nobel Prize in total. 190 servers. 1995, participating in the Nobel Prize Series India 2018.  Laureates: 935  Prize categories: 6  Awarded women: 51  Awarded organisations: 24  1,250 persons visited the  Youngest Laureate: 17 Nobel Week Dialogue in 262,409  Oldest Laureate: 96 Stockholm on Decem- ber 9. More than haft of Nobel Prize them were students and Museum scientists.

During 2018 the Nobel Prize  During Nobel Prize Seried Museum had 262,409 visitors Indina 7,200 persons par- which was a record. ticipated in 14 different activities. More than 50,000 persons visited the exhibition The Nobel Prize: Ideas Changing the World 239,385 which was on display for a month in Goa.  After Nobel Prize

Dialogue in Tokyo a survey The Nobel Peace Center in Oslo had was made among the 239,385 visitors during 2018. visitors and 95% of those who participated in the survey would like to visit a similar event again.

With nearly 7 million impressions, this became The Nobel Banquet, photo: Dan Lepp the best-performing tweet ever. Other two photos: Alexander Mahmoud


The Nobel Prize related activities in Stockholm were extensive during 2018. The year’s highlights included the eventful Nobel Calling series in October, a record number of visitors at the Nobel Prize Museum and intensive activities during the Nobel Week in December.

n addition to spreading knowledge, year’s major project, A Right to Freedom − science and humanism for the Martin Luther King, Jr., an extensive and I greatest beneft to humankind − in in-depth exhibition designed to mark the the spirit of the Nobel Prize − the goal of 50th anniversary of the American civil the Nobel Prize Museum in 2018 was to rights leader’s assassination (read the attract more Stockholm residents and to article about the exhibition on page 14). make Nobel Prize-related activities more A new set of artistically designed book easily accessible. bindings, inspired by the works of Litera- Today, the Nobel Prize Museum is the ture Laureates Bob Dylan and Kazuo Ish- base of Nobel Prize public activities in iguro, were the focus of an exhibition fea- Stockholm and one of the most well- turing book binders from Sweden and visited museums in town. Here, the the Baltic countries. Nobel Laureates leave a lasting impres- The museum shop provided a wide sion when they visit the museum in range of souvenirs and gift items based December – by donating personal arte- on the Nobel Prize, and the Bistro Nobel facts and by signing the chairs in Bistro restaurant continued to deliver excellent Nobel. The large number of museum vis- lunches and hosted countless events. itors is evidence of how important the Forskarhjälpen (Helping Researchers), pioneering achievements of the Laur- in which the Nobel Prize Museum colla- eates are, and a visit to the Museum is a borates with Swedish scientifc research- source of pride; this is clear from posts ers and schools, carried out a successful on social media. During the summer project called The Spider Chase, where season, there is a crush of visitors and school pupils from all over the country it gets crowded inside this undersized collected spiders near bodies of water for historically listed building on the main further analysis by researchers at Umeå square of the Old Town. Because of over- University and the Swedish University of crowding, the Museum unfortunately Agricultural Sciences. had to turn 78 classes down that wanted The task of providing teachers with to participate in its school programmes both educational materials and organi- during the autumn. Aside from tourists, sing inspirational meetings continued school pupils are the largest visitor cate- during the year. As the year before, a gory. Nobel Prize Lesson was published online At the Museum, 2018 began with the within 24 hours after each Prize announ- Literary Rebellion exhibition, featuring cement. images of Nobel Laureates in Literature The cooperation with the City of by Spanish photographer Kim Manresa. Stockholm, and several other institu- 28 September marked the opening of this tions, expanded during 2018 to be able to 

22 Activities for families remained an important part of the Museum’s activities: Sunday and school holiday workshops, a Children’s Nobel Club, and a much- appreciated Summer Camp programme in June.

THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 23 Medicine Laureate Tasuku Honjo visited the museum shop during the Nobel Week.

 present a broad and exciting programme and attendance, showing how important readings on the theme of resistance. under the tagline Nobel Calling! during it is to use fresh thinking to present sci- Another collaboration was initiated 1–8 October. This included lectures and ence and facts to a broader audience. with the #hurvetdudet? (“#how- conversations with Nobel Laureates, an Under the Talk about… concept, linked doyouknowthat?”) campaign, whose international teachers’ conference, initia- with afterwork gatherings at the Museum approach to facts and science is exactly tives such as Stockholm Explorative on Fridays, various experts were invited the same as that of the Nobel Prize. A Talks, a Crash Course on the year’s sci- to take part in conversations about such conversation was organised at Stock- entifc Nobel Prizes, a Nobel Walk at topics as the brain, the universe, in vitro holm’s municipal cultural centre (Kultur- Stockholm University and more. fertilisation and behavioural economics. huset) with prominent researchers in The Museum began a collaboration In April the Nobel Prize Museum such felds as exercise, future technology with Stockholm’s Royal Dramatic Thea- greeted visitors until the wee hours, since and space research − yet another highly tre aimed at developing Performance it was one of numerous venues for events appreciated and heavily attended event in Lectures based on science and enhanced during the Stockholm Culture Night. the spirit of Alfred Nobel. using the tools of theatre. The outcome Specially invited authors and actors took The past year clearly shows the need was successful both in terms of content part in conversations and performed for a new home for the Nobel Prize.

24 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 The Nobel Prize Museum is the base of the Nobel Prize public activities in Stockholm.

Ice cream at Bistro Nobel created by the pastry chef at the Banquet, Daniel Roos.

Although plans for a Nobel Center on the Blasieholmen peninsula in central Stock- holm have now been shelved, we are con- tinuing to work on fnd a new site and a new home where we can gather and fur- ther develop our activities. The main task of the Nobel Prize Museum is to inspire and engage people with the stories of the Laureates’ lives, Denis Mukwege and Ulf Larsson of the Nobel discoveries and works and to connect Prize Museum. Mukwege had Ulf’s aunt as a teacher at a school in Bukavu in the early 1970s. with the core of the Nobel Prize and highlight the courage, creativity and Ice cream, photo: Dan Lepp perseverance of the Nobel Laureates. Honjo, photo: Nanaka Adachi To illustrate how ideas can change the All other photos: Alexander Mahmoud world.

THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 25 Photo: Alexander Mahmoud


During the Nobel Week in Stockholm, James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo – the 2018 Laureates in Physiology or Medicine − met cancer patients who have been treated using the Nobel Prize-awarded immunotherapy.

uring the Nobel Week, a meeting foundation for the development of very took place between this year’s efective cancer therapies. Allison’s and D Laureates in Physiology or Med- Honjo’s research has opened the door to icine and cancer patients who have been testing and combining various methods treated using immunotherapy. Many for inhibiting the immune system’s people wanted to thank Allison and brakes in order to treat cancer. Their Honjo personally, since the two Laure- seminal discoveries constitute a land- ates’ research has had a crucial impact mark in our fght against cancer. on their lives. It was a very emotional Cancer is a collective term for several encounter arranged by the Swedish diseases that are all characterised by Melanoma Association, whose chairman uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal Magnus Norin said the following in his cells capable of spreading to healthy opening remarks: organs and tissues. A number of thera- “You have done exactly what Alfred peutic approaches are available, includ- Nobel intended in his will, by contribu- ing surgery and radiation as well as other ting research for the greatest beneft to strategies that have been awarded earlier humankind.” Nobel Prizes. They includes hormone By stimulating the inherent ability of treatment for prostate cancer (Huggins, our immune system to attack tumour 1966), chemotherapy (Elion and cells, this year’ Nobel Laureates have Hitchings, 1988) and bone marrow established an entirely new principle for transplantation for leukaemia (Thomas, cancer therapy. James P. Allison studied 1990). a known protein that functions as a brake on the immune system. He re- alised the potential of releasing the brake and thereby unleashing our immune cells “I have met patients to attack tumours. He then developed before, but never this concept into a brand new approach for treating patients. In parallel, Tasuku like this. If feels Honjo discovered a protein on immune good and it gives cells and, after careful exploration of its function, revealed that it also operates as me hope.” a brake, but with a diferent mechanism of action. These discoveries laid the James P. Allison


This year’s Nobel Peace Prize Exhibition at the Nobel Peace Center presents the two Laureates Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad, awarded for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict.

he 2018 Nobel Peace Prize exhi- “The violence itself is in many cases FACTS bition, The Body as a Battlefeld, so overwhelming that it’s hard to convey T depicts how sexual violence has sufciently through the documentary The Nobel Peace Center in Oslo, been, and still is, used as a weapon of genre”, explains photographer Cristina Norway is the museum about the war worldwide through photographs de Middel. therefore, she also portrays Nobel Peace Prize. The Nobel Peace Prize Laureates and their work are taken by Cristina de Middel. She spent the topic of sexual violence in confict presented as well as the story of time with both Denis Mukwege, the and war in a series of staged photo- Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Peace Congolese surgeon who has helped graphs taken in Nigeria in 2018 using Prize. The Nobel Peace Center has reconstruct the shattered bodies of local volunteers. achieved international recognition thousands of victims of sexual violence, for the use of documentary photography. and Nadia Murad, a member of Iraq’s Yazidi minority and a survivor of sexual Some of the exhibitions shown violence and slavery. Held captive by during 2018 was: ISIS, she managed to escape after three  months of enslavement. The Exhibition Shifting Boundaries an exhibition showing how Mukwege was photographed in the boundaries are challenged in hospital he runs in DR Congo, along with a Europe that is undergoing some of the thousands of women he has changes, displayed in treated. Nadia was photographed in collaboration with the Paris, France, between meetings with organisation Fritt Ord.  The photo exhibition Generation government ofcials and world leaders. Wealth created by Lauren Since her escape from Iraq, she has Greenfield, depicted today’s devoted her life to telling her story in the all-consuming pursuit of status, hope helping those still in captivity. beauty and wealth.  The stories in the exhibition are told The photo exhibition Tell the World About Us created in by women, children and men; all victims cooperation with Amnesty of sexual violence in wars and conficts International and created by around the world. Sexual violence has Rune Eraker, deals with issues been used as a weapon of war since the of human rights such as imprison- dawn of time. Systematic rape, violent ment and opened 70 years after the adoption of the Universal sexual assault and are Declaration of Human Rights. used to spread fear, reward soldiers or  Denis Mukwege The 2018 Nobel Peace Prize exterminate entire religious and ethnic Both photos: Cristina de Middel/ exhibition Ban the Bomb, minorities. Magnum Photos for the Nobel Peace Center. presenting ICAN, was on display until November 2018.

28 “Every time I tell my story, I feel I’m taking a little bit of power away from the terrorists.”

Nadia Murad


INTERNATIONAL EVENTS Friday 22 March 7 – 14 October NOBEL PRIZE MUSEUM’S  Talk about: Bob Dylan’s poetry.  Nobel Calling (events both at the OTHER EVENTS  Nobel Prize Dialogue Santiago Writer/actor Ludvig Josephson in Nobel Prize Museum and other conversation with novelist/critic Stockholm venues) (Chile), January 2019 Tuesday 15 January  Elise Karlsson and singer/songwri-  Live broadcasts of the Prize Nobel Prize Dialogue Tokyo (Japan),  Ideas changing the world : Jesse ter Amanda Bergman. announcements at the Museum, March 2019 Jackson about Martin Luther King  with commentary by experts. Nobel Prize Dialogue Madrid and the civil rights movement. A Tuesday 26 March  Wednesday 9 October, Crash (Spain), March 2019 talk with Jesse Jackson and Jenny   Panel discussion on climate change Course on the 2019 scientifc Nobel Nobel Prize Dialogue Berlin (Ger- Strömstedt at Södra Teatern. many), November 2019 and other environmental factors: Prizes at Södra Teatern.  Nobel Prize Inspiration Initiative, how our future adjustments to these  Thursday-Saturday 10–12 October, factors will look. Radio personality Nobel Prize Teacher Summit at Brazil, Austria and Canada Tuesday 29 January Fritte Fritzson moderates a panel of Münchenbryggeriet, as part of a  Performance Lecture On Fear fea- researchers who answer audience three-day programme for interna- turing Armita Golkar. Royal Drama- questions. tional participants. NOBEL PRIZE MUSEUM, tic Theatre, Small Stage (Dramaten,  Saturday 12 October, meeting with STOCKHOLM Lilla scenen). Friday 29 March – Saturday 6 April Nobel Laureates (external venue).  Green Week with Talk about ses-  Sunday 13 October, pub evening for Monday 14 January Tuesday 5 February sions, conversations and clothing international university students.  Jesse Jackson visits the exhibition  Performance Lecture On Fear swop day.  Monday 14 October, Economics about Martin Luther King, Jr. featuring Armita Golkar. Dramaten, Prize programme at Sveriges Riksbank Lilla scenen. 15–18 April (Sweden’s central bank) preliminary Friday 22 February  Easter break workshops for child-  Talk about gravitational waves. Tuesday 9 April ren, including sessions targeted to 25 October Maria Gunther Axelsson, science  Performance Lecture On Happiness recreation centres in socio-econo-  Talk about journalist at Dagens Nyheter, inter- featuring Micael Dahlen. Dramaten, mically vulnerable neighbourhoods. views Christian Forssén, Professor Lilla scenen. 28 October – 1 November of at Chalmers Saturday 27 April  Autumn Leaves Workshop University of Technology. 14–15, 23 and 31 May  Stockholm Culture Night, A Right  Performance Lecture On Happiness to Freedom – Martin Luther King, 22 November 26 February – 3 March featuring Micael Dahlen. Dramaten, Jr. The Civil Rights Movement and  “Talk about”.  Winter holiday workshop for the Lilla scenen. Music. A conversation between ra- whole family about sports, medicine dio journalist Mats Nileskär and the 6 December and chemistry. 1 and 4 June newspaper Dagens Nyheter’s Måns  Get Together at the Museum for the  Performance Lecture On Happiness Mosesson. Workshops, puzzles, year’s Laureates and their families. Thursday 7 March featuring Micael Dahlen. Dramaten, guided tours.  Teachers’ evening focusing on Lilla scenen. 7 December gender equality and diversity – one Friday 10 May  Closing conference of Forskar- of ten teachers’ evenings on various Monday 17 June– Thursday 20 June.  Talk about: . A talk hjälpen (Helping Researchers ), a themes during the year.  Research camp for children who between Yvonne Hirdman and project in which 30 lower secondary have completed 5th and 6th grade. Gustav Källstrand. school classes from all over Sweden Friday 8 March provide assistance to researchers  Scandal - a performance by Besatta New Performance Lecture during the 20 September for one year. Teatern, and a conversation with autumn.  Talk about. Thomas Perlmann, Secretary of the 10 December for Physiology or In December, a seminar will be held 4 October  Nobel Day Medicine at Karolinska Institu- at the Riksdag (Swedish Parliament).  Inauguration of the exhibition For tet, on eforts to increase gender Date and speakers to be announced. the Greatest Beneft to Humankind. Christmas break equality in selecting future Nobel  Family workshop Laureates.

30 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 NOBEL PEACE CENTER, 11 December 11 December Armita Golkar at the Royal OSLO  Inauguration of an exhibition about  Nobel Peace Prize Forum. Dramatic Theatre. the . Photo: Sören Vilks 11 December January – November  Nobel Peace Prize Concert. Nobel Peace Center, photo:  Peace Prize exhibition, The Body as Johannes Granseth /Nobel Peace a Battlefeld, April – December. NORWEGIAN NOBEL A number of lectures and academic Center INSTITUTE/NOBEL PEACE seminars are being organised during April 2019 – January 2020 PRIZE – RESEARCH & the year. Other photos:  KlimaLab, a climate exhibition, INFORMATION AS, OSLO Alexander Mahmoud part of Oslo European Green Capital 2019. 13 February For further information, see: THE NOBEL WEEK  2019 Climate Conference: Ideas that www.nobelprize.org 28 April will shape the energy transition. www.nobelprizemuseum.se  Tourist in Your Own City. Free 6–12 December www.nobelpeaceprize.org/Research entry.  The Nobel Week includes the Nobel 12–14 March Prize Concert at the Stockholm www.nobelpeacecenter.org  Norwegian Nobel Institute Teachers’ 13 September Concert Hall on 8 December and Course, number 72: The Conditions  Oslo Culture Night. Open all the Nobel Lectures, as well as the of Peace in 2019. evening and free entry. Nobel Day on 10 December with the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony and 28 May 11 October the Nobel Banquet. Also the Nobel  High-Level Conference: Camp  Announcement of the 2019 Nobel Week Dialogue, a full-day seminar David at Forty – the legacy of the Peace Prize. in Gothenburg on 9 December. Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty.

12 October 5-12 December  Open House to celebrate the new  Oslo Peace Days. Peace Prize.


n his will, Alfred Nobel stipulated nominees. They subsequently present across all prize categories. The Commit- which institutions should select their proposals for Nobel Laureates to tees frst confrm that the nominations Nobel Laureates in each prize the respective prize-awarding institu- were submitted by individuals who have category. Presumably, he chose tion. The actual decision as to who will the right to nominate. Since a nomina- the academic institutions that he be awarded Nobel Prizes is made not by tion is only valid for the current year, it Iconsidered to be best suited to the task. the respective Nobel Committees, but is common for some candidates to be Nobel was less specifc regarding the by all members of the prize-awarding nominated several times. Some candi- organisation that was to manage his as- institution. For the Peace Prize, Alfred dates may also be nominated by more sets. What would later become the Nobel Nobel referred to the (national than one nominator in the same year. Foundation was only mentioned in his parliament) in Norway in his will. The Nominations are recorded and compiled will as a fund. The Nobel Prize’s inter- Storting appoints the fve members of in a list. nationally unique position is largely due the Norwegian Nobel Committee. The to the century-long independence of the Norwegian Nobel Committee difers he list is processed in a series of prize-awarding institutions in selecting from the other prize-awarding institu- phases during the spring. Initially, Nobel Laureates. The fact that these or- tions in the sense that it is responsible T it consists of a large selection of ganisations have engaged exceptionally both for evaluating the nominees and names, which is then narrowed down to knowledgeable individuals within their selecting the recipient. a smaller number of candidates. Remai- own organisations as well as extensive ning candidates are then evaluated in international expertise has played a vital n September of each year the res- depth with the assistance of domestic role in achieving this standing. pective Nobel Committees send out and foreign experts. During the summer I individual invitations to thousands of the Nobel Committee members produce he Royal Of members of academies, university pro- a comprehensive report detailing the Sciences selects the Nobel Laure- fessors and other scientists in numerous candidate or candidates proposed as the T ates in Physics and Chemistry. It countries, previous Laureates, members recipient(s) of the year’s Nobel Prize. also selects the recipients of the Sveriges of parliamentary assemblies and others. The proposal is presented to the mem- Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in The invitation recipients are chosen so bers of the prize-awarding institution in Memory of Alfred Nobel, established in to ensure that as many countries and September. The fnal selection of Nobel 1968 on the occasion of the Riksbank’s universities as possible are represented Laureates takes place by a vote. The de- (Sweden’s central bank) 300th anni- over time. A much broader group can cisions are announced by the respective versary. The Academy has about 450 make nominations for the Nobel Peace prize-awarding institutions immediately Swedish and about 175 foreign mem- Prize without receiving an invitation after the vote, usually during the frst bers. The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska from the Norwegian Nobel Committee half of October. All documents related to Institutet selects the Nobel Laureates in compared to the other prizes. This nomi- the nomination process and evaluations Physiology or Medicine. The Assembly nation procedure for the Nobel Prize remain confdential for 50 years. has 50 members. The Swedish Academy difers from many other prizes where selects the Nobel Laureates in Literature. it is the responsible committee which The Academy has 18 members. All of appoints both the nominees and the these institutions appoint special Nobel recipients. Those who have been invited Committees of three to ten members, a are able to nominate candidates for the secretary and, in some cases, also depu- coming year. Nominations, which are More information about the ties. Members are, in general, elected for confdential, must be received by the prize-awarding institutions is available a term of three years and may serve for Committees no later than 31 January of on their respective websites: a maximum of three consecutive terms. the year in which the prize will be awar- www.kva.se The Nobel Committees evaluate nomina- ded. The procedures may vary somewhat www.nobelprizemedicine.org tions for the respective Nobel Prizes and between the Nobel Committees, but the www.svenskaakademien.se extensively examine a selection of the selection process is largely the same www.nobelpeaceprize.org

32 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 The presentation speech for the Nobel THE INSTITUTIONS THAT SELECT Prize in Physiology or Medicine at the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony THE NOBEL LAUREATES was delivered by Klas Kärre, member of the medicine committee.

In October each year, the new Nobel Prizes are announced and there is much interest from media all over the world. Olga Botner, chair of the physics committee, participa- ted in many interviews concerning the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics.

Photo: Alexander Mahmoud

Selecting Nobel Laureates

Nomination forms Deadline for Assessment of Committee submits Nobel Laureates Nobel Prize are sent out submissions candidates with recommendations are chosen and Award the assistance of announced external experts Ceremony

September 31 January February–August September October 10 December


lfred Nobel was an in- the problem of the substance’s volatility ventor, entrepreneur and by mixing nitroglycerine with a type of a very successful busi- sand, kiselguhr. The result was a mould- nessman who continually able mass that was easy to package and travelled between his that could be shipped and handled factories.A Nobel built up an enormous safely. It was patented in 1867 under the fortune that he choose in his will to name . With the patenting of dedicate to those who had contributed diferent forms of dynamite together to the greatest beneft to mankind. The with detonators, which he had invented Prize would reward outstanding eforts previously, Alfred Nobel achieved his within the diferent felds that he was major technical and industrial break- most involved in during his lifetime. throughs. Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm in 1833. His father, Immanuel, was an lfred Nobel led the rapid exploi- inventor and engineer who had varying tation of his inventions and built success. His mother, Andriette, was des- A factories and laboratories around cribed as energetic and intelligent, and the world — Vinterviken in Sweden, when Immanuel went to Russia after a Krümmel in Germany and Ardeer in bankruptcy, she was forced to support Scotland were some of the frst. He the family. When Immanuel established eventually built just over 90 factories in a company in the war industry in 1842, 20 countries. At his death, he had 355 the family could fnally reunite. patents and left behind an enormous fortune. Nobel was a man of his time, he Nobel brothers were given a embodying many of the Enlightenment’s frst class education by private central ideas, both in his practical work T tutors, and at the age of 17 Alfred and in his philosophy. He combined spoke fve languages: Swedish, Russian, his religious doubt with a belief in the English, French and German. At the natural sciences and was a true optimist time, he was interested in poetry and about technology and an entrepreneur even wrote his own works. But his father who actively took part in industrialisa- disliked Alfred’s interest in literature and tion. sent him abroad for studies that focused Alfred Nobel died on 10 December more on the natural sciences. He visited 1896 in his home in San Remo, Italy, and a number of countries and fnally ended his will attracted signifcant attention up in Paris, where he studied chemistry when it was published. He had allocated under Professor T. J. Pelouze. It was most of his fortune to rewarding out- there that Alfred frst came into contact standing eforts within physics, chemis- with nitroglycerine, which was invented try, physiology or medicine, literature by the Italian Ascanio Sobrero. Nitro- and peace. The will was challenged by glycerine was a highly explosive liquid relatives, authorities in several countries considered too dangerous to be useful. and by Swedish King Oscar II. Thus Alfred Nobel returned to Sweden and began a long process on the road to rea- soon began experimenting with nitro- lising Alfred Nobel’s vision. After a few glycerine, both in its production and in years of complicated legal processes led making the substance reliable enough to by the executors of the will, Ragnar Sohl- use in industry. The work was dangerous man and Rudolf Lilljequist, the Nobel and an accident killed several people, Foundation was established in 1900 and including his younger brother Emil. the frst Nobel Prizes were awarded the Alfred Nobel was fnally able to solve following year.

34 “If I have 300 ideas and only one turns out to be useful, I am satisfed.”



he Nobel Prize is a unique Alfred Nobel’s intention. The importance concept encouraging human of always basing informational eforts on T development − about respect the core of the Nobel Prize, and always for knowledge and science, about a communicating this core, became clear belief in international fellowship and and also served as a starting point in the the possibility of change. But the Nobel task of revising the visual identity of the Prize can also be viewed as a powerful Prize. brand, based on a historical legacy and Together with Stockholm Design Lab, a solid reputation that has been built the Nobel Foundation implemented a up over more than a century. Selecting comprehensive visual identity project. In Laureates year after year in keeping with 2018 it launched a new, coherent graphic Alfred Nobel’s instructions, and reward- expression of the activities connected to ing them with a beautiful medal and an the Nobel Prize. It is based on Erik Lind- artistically decorated diploma as part of berg’s medal from 1901 and its timeless an award ceremony that follows a clear typography. A word mark emerged from tradition can of course be viewed as a Alfred Nobel’s name − The Nobel Prize − form of persistent brand-building. and with it a unique font, which has The work of building public outreach been named Alfred Sans. activities, for almost twenty years, can Along with gold and a colour scale that be seen in the same way. has drawn its inspiration from the era When the Nobel Foundation conduct- when the Prize was established, the ed its own international brand survey, a typography creates a graphic framework few years ago, it confrmed the strong with great scope for variation. The Nobel position and reputation of the Nobel Prize should be able to operate on dife- The new wordmark. Prize, but it also showed that the image rent platforms and meet a variety of of the Prize actually varies quite a lot audiences with completely diferent between diferent countries. In Sweden, needs, but at the same time be clear and people associate the Nobel Prize with consistent. At the core of all public award ceremonies and TV broadcasts of activities are Alfred Nobel’s vision, the the Nobel Banquet. Elsewhere in Europe Nobel Laureates and their contributions and in the United States, people associ- for the greatest beneft to humanity. But ate the Prize with the Laureates them- equally important is the everyday efort selves and their achievements, while to generate a commitment to education, people in South American and Asian research, literature and peace eforts. countries view the Nobel Prize as visio- This is an important task, and now the nary, progressive and socially respon- graphical tools are in place to reach out A timeless colour scale. sible. The greater the geographical dis- even better with the concept of the tance, the closer its image comes to Nobel Prize and turn it into a reality.

ALFRED SANS ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZÅÄÖ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzåäö 0123456789 (;=%&+§:?!-”–$£¿Ç»«[†Ø])

A unique font created with inspiration from the medal.

36 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 The Nobel Foundation Executive Director Lars Heikensten at the 2018 Nobel Week Dialogue.

THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 37 All Nobel Laureates visiting the Nobel Foundation are asked to sign a guestbook. Photo: Alexander Mahmoud


he Nobel Foundation, a private institu- 12.0 m. Additional information about the Nobel tion established in 1900, has ultimate Foundation’s fnancial management is available in responsibility for fulflling the inten- the Foundation’s 2018 Annual Report, which is avai- tions in Alfred Nobel’s will. The main lable at Nobelprize.org. mission of the Nobel Foundation is to The Nobel Foundation’s symposium activities Tmanage Alfred Nobel’s fortune in a manner that en- were initiated in 1965. Over the years they have sures a secure fnancial standing for the Nobel Prize achieved a high international standing. The sympo- over the long term and that the prize-awarding sia are devoted to areas of science where bre- institutions are guaranteed independence in their akthroughs are occurring or deal with topics of pri- work of selecting recipients. mary cultural or social signifcance. The Foundation is also tasked with strengthening During 2017 it was decided that the Nobel Sym- the Nobel Prize’s position by administering and posia will no longer be administered by the Nobel developing the brands and intangible assets that Foundation. Starting in 2019, the responsibility for have been built up during the Nobel Prize’s history, funding and administering the symposia is being which spans more than 100 years. The Nobel Foun- licensed out to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sci- dation also strives to safeguard the prize-awarding ences and the Norwegian Nobel Committee. institutions’ common interests and to represent the Symposium activities as well as other large inter- Nobel sphere. In the past two decades a number of disciplinary meetings in the Nobel sphere are pre- public operations have been developed with the aim pared by the Nobel Foundation’s Programme Com- of inspiring and disseminating knowledge about the mittee, which includes representatives of the Nobel Prize. The Nobel Foundation has overall prize-awarding institutions and the Nobel Founda- responsibility for the Nobel Week that takes place in tion. Stockholm in December. This week has a busy During 2018 the following Nobel Symposia took schedule for the Nobel Laureates, culminating in place: NS 164, Nuclear Disarmament, organiser Pro- the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony and the Nobel fessor Olav Njølstad, Solstrand Hotel, Bergen, Nor- Banquet held on 10 December. Both of these events way, June 13-16, 2018 and NS 165 Money and Ban- are planned and run by the Foundation. king, organiser: Professor Bo Becker, Clarion Hotel The Norwegian Nobel Institute was established in Sign, Stockholm, Sweden, May 26-28, 2018. 1904 and acts as the Norwegian Nobel Committee’s The Nobel prize-awarding institutions; the Royal secretariat and the Nobel Foundation’s branch Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Nobel Assembly ofce in Oslo. The Institute administers the activi- at Karolinska Institutet, the Swedish Academy and ties connected with the awarding of the Nobel the Norwegian Nobel Committee, appoint 15 trus- Peace Prize, including press conferences, the Award tees to the Nobel Foundation, for two calendar Ceremony and the Banquet. years at a time. Six representatives are appointed by The market value of the Nobel Foundation’s total the Academy of Sciences and the other prize-awar- invested capital amounted to SEK 4,338 m (4,496) at ding institutions appoint three each. The Academy the end of 2018. Portfolio capital was allocated of Sciences also appoints four deputies and the among 44 (50) per cent equity funds and stock other institutions appoint two deputies each. The index futures, 9 (7) per cent property funds, 15 (17) trustees elect a chairman from their own number. per cent fxed income assets, 33 (25) per cent alter- The most important task of the trustees is to native assets and -1.5 (1) per cent accrued currency appoint the Nobel Foundation’s Board and to audit hedging income. The year’s return on portfolio the Nobel Foundation’s accounts. capital was -2.1 (8.7) per cent. The Nobel Foundation’s board, which is based in During 2018 the overall sum of all Nobel Prizes Stockholm, consists of seven members and two and operating expenses was SEK 89.6 m (102.6). deputy members. Board members and deputies are This was divided among four main categories: the appointed for a term of two years each. From Prizes, SEK 36 m, compensation to the Prize Com- among its own members, the Board chooses a mittees, SEK 27.4 m, the Nobel Week in Stockholm Chairperson, a Vice-Chairperson and an Executive and Oslo, SEK 14.2 m, plus administration etc., SEK Director.


The Nobel Prize rewards science, humanism and peace eforts. NOBEL MEDIA AB NOBELMUSEET AB This is one of the central concepts in the will of Alfred Nobel, Nobel Media AB spreads knowledge Nobelmuseet AB is in liquidation, and it also permeates the broad outreach activities that have about Nobel Prize-awarded achieve- since as of January 1, 2019 the Nobel ments and stimulates interest in scien- Center Foundation (Stiftelsen Nobel been developed for the purpose of engaging, inspiring and ce, literature and peace eforts through Center) acquired the operations car- spreading knowledge to a wide general public based on the digital channels and inspiring events. ried out by the Nobel Prize Museum Nobel Prize as well as the discoveries and achievements of the The company is also responsible for − formerly the Nobel Museum − in Laureates. the international work of the Nobel Stockholm’s Old Town. Sphere and partner relations.  Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive  Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive Director of the Nobel Foundation, BOARDS OF DIRECTORS, ALFRED NOBEL MEMORIAL Director of the Nobel Foundation, Chairman 2018 FOUNDATION Chairman  Ulf Danielsson, Professor, The purpose of the Alfred Nobel  Daniel Birnbaum, Dr, Director of Uppsala University THE NOBEL FOUNDATION Memorial Foundation is to promote Moderna Museet in Stockholm  Peje Emilsson, Founder and education, culture, peace and scien- The Nobel Foundation is a private (during 2018) Chairman of Kreab tifc research, in part by fnancially foundation established in 1900 on  Karin Hedensjö Pettersson, Director  Marika Hedin, Dr, Honorary Doctor or otherwise contributing to the the basis of the will of Alfred Nobel of Public Policy, Schibsted of Technology, Director of Museum activities and objectives of the Nobel and the founding statutes promulga-  Mia Horn af Rantzien, Dr, CEO of Gustavianum (Uppsala University Foundation. ted in connection with the will. Its the Center for Business and Policy Museum)  Carl-Henrik Heldin, Chairman primary purpose is to ensure that the Studies (SNS)  Klas Kärre, Professor, member of  Sara Danius intentions of the will of Alfred Nobel  Erika Lanner, during 2018 General the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska  Göran K. Hansson are fulflled. Counsel, the Nobel Foundation Institutet  Lars Heikensten  Carl-Henrik Heldin, Professor,  Sara Mazur, Vice President and  Erika Lanner, during 2018 General  Tomas Nicolin Chairman Head of Ericsson Research Counsel, the Nobel Foundation  Thomas Perlmann  Göran K. Hansson, Professor, Vice  Marie Nilsson, CEO of Mediavision  Nina Wormbs, Associate Profes-  Berit Reiss-Andersen Chairman, Secretary General of the  Olav Njølstad, Professor, Director of sor, Royal Institute of Technology Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences the Norwegian Nobel Institute (KTH)  Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive NOBEL GROUP  Juleen Zierath, Professor, member  Sara Öhrvall, Chief Digital, Custo- Director of the Nobel Foundation INTERESTS AB of the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska mer Experience and Communica-  Sara Danius, Professor The aim of the company is to own and Institutet and associate member of tions Ofcer at SEB  Berit Reiss-Andersen, Attorney, actively manage shares and participa- the Nobel Committee for Physiology Chair of the Norwegian Nobel tion within the sphere of interest of or Medicine THE NOBEL CENTER Committee the Nobel organisations. Another task FOUNDATION  Tomas Nicolin, MSc of the company is to facilitate fnan- NOBELHUSET AB The Nobel Center Foundation (Stiftel-  Thomas Perlmann, Professor, Secre- cial and administrative coordination Nobelhuset AB is the company that sen Nobel Center) is responsible for tary General of the Nobel Assembly between the companies in the Nobel has been entrusted with planning, the public operations carried out by at Karolinska Institutet and the sphere. building, owning, administering and the Nobel Prize Museum. Nobel Committee for Physiology or  Carl-Henrik Heldin, Chairman developing a future Nobel Center in  Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive Medicine  Sara Danius Stockholm. Director of the Nobel Foundation,  Göran K. Hansson  Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive Chairman Deputy members  Gunnar von Heijne Director of the Nobel Foundation,  Helene Andersson Svahn, Professor,  Gunnar von Heijne, Professor,  Lars Heikensten Chairman Royal Institute of Technology Secretary of the Nobel Committee  Gunnar Ingelman  Lars Anell, former Chairman of the (KTH) for Chemistry  Tomas Nicolin Swedish Research Council  Mårten Castenfors, Director of  Gunnar Ingelman, Professor,  Thomas Perlmann  Birgitta Ed, founding partner of Six Liljevalchs konsthall (art museum) Secretary of the Nobel Committee  Berit Reiss-Andersen Year Plan  Bente Erichsen, flm director, author for Physics  Gunnar von Heijne, Professor,  Cecilia Gunne, Attorney, Lindskog Secretary of the Nobel Committee Malmström Advokatbyrå KB for Chemistry  Göran K. Hansson, Professor,  Anders Nylander, former CEO of Secretary General of the Royal Atrium Ljungberg Swedish Academy of Sciences  Eva Nygren, Architect  Gunnar von Heijne, Professor,  Stefan Ränk, CEO, Einar Mattson Secretary of the Nobel Committee AB for Chemistry  Erika Lanner, during 2018 General  Stafan Normark, Professor, Counsel, the Nobel Foundation, Karolinska Institutet Deputy Member  Per Wästberg, writer, member of the Swedish Academy

40 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 NOBEL PEACE PRIZE COMPANY INFORMATION NOBEL PEACE CENTER – RESEARCH & FOUNDATION INFORMATION AS THE NOBEL FOUNDATION (Nobel Peace Center) Nobel Peace Prize – Research &  Executive Director:  CEO: Liv Tørres Information AS (Nobels Fredspris – Dr Lars Heikensten  Norwegian registration number: Forskning og Informasjon AS) is the  Swedish registration number: 985226237 research arm of the Norwegian Nobel 802002-4462  Sales: NOK 56,031 K Institute.  Number of employees: 12  Number of employees: 42 (25  Anne Enger, former Storting mem-  Established: 1900 full-time) ber, Minister of Culture and County  Address: Sturegatan 14,  Established: 2005 Governor Stockholm, Sweden  Address: Brynjulf Bulls Plass 1,  Bente Erichsen, flm director, author  Website: nobelprize.org Rådhusplassen, Oslo, Norway  Olav Njølstad, Director of the Nor-  Website: nobelpeacecenter.org Erika Lanner, new Director wegian Nobel Institute, Chairman NOBEL MEDIA AB of the Nobel Prize Museum:  Jon Ola Sand, Executive Supervisor,  CEO: Mattias Fyrenius NOBEL PEACE PRIZE The European Broadcasting Union  Swedish registration number: – RESEARCH & “The Nobel Prize has an  , Professor, Peace 556667-5194 INFORMATION AS Research Institute Oslo  Sales: SEK 75,779 K outstanding international  Norwegian registration number:  Lotta Wristel, CFO of the Nobel  Employees: 20 996179397 reputation. All over the world, Foundation  Established: 2004  Sales: NOK 4,830 K the prize is associated with  Address: Sturegatan 14, Stockholm,  Number of employees: 3 fresh thinking, innovation Sweden NOBEL PEACE CENTER (1 full-time)  Website: nobelprize.org and creativity. It draws a FOUNDATION  Established: 2010 large number of internatio- The Nobel Peace Center in Oslo  Address: Henrik Ibsens Gate 51, is a museum that showcases the NOBELMUSEET AB Oslo, Norway nal visitors to our Museum Peace Prize Laureates and their work, (Nobel Prize Museum)  Website: nobelpeaceprize.org/ every year. One important  CEO: Dr Olov Amelin information about Alfred Nobel and research focus in 2019 is to reach out  exhibitions with a focus on documen- Swedish registration number: even better to people living 556667-5210 tary photography. in the Stockholm region,  Olav Njølstad, Director of the Nor-  Sales: SEK 77,436 K wegian Nobel Institute, Chair  Employees: 43 among other things through a  Siri Hatlen, business owner, Deputy  Established in 2004 (operations growing range of programme Cahir were previously carried out as part activities, expanded con-  Olav Aaraas, Director, Norwegian of the Nobel Foundation Rights tacts with schools and new Association) Museum of Cultural History institutional partnerships. We  Jessica Barlindhaug Angstreich,  Address: Stortorget 2, Stockholm, Board member elected by the Sweden Efective from January 1, 2019, are the museum of the Nobel employees  Website: nobelprizemuseum.se the Nobel Center Foundation Laureates and view it as our  Anne Enger, former Storting mem- (Stiftelsen Nobel Center) acquired task to inspire and engage ber, Minister of Culture and County the operations carried out by the people with the stories of Governor Nobel Prize Museum, formerly the Laureates’ lives, disco-  Lotta Wristel, CFO of the Nobel Nobelmuseet AB (the Nobel Museum), Foundation in Stockholm’s Old Town. veries and works. With our new name, the Nobel Prize Museum, we want to empha- Nobel Foundation sise our connection with the core of the Nobel Prize and highlight the courage, creati- Alfred Nobel Memorial Foundation Organisation structure vity and perseverance of the April 2019 Nobel Laureates. Ideas can Nobel Group Interests AB change the world. This be- comes clear when we learn how the Nobel Laureates – who number more than Nobel Peace Nobel Nobel Peace Nobel Media Nobelhuset Center Center Prize Research 900 since 1901 – have asked AB AB Foundation Foundation & Info AS questions, sought answers and overturned old truths.”


42 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 Donna Strickland’s Nobel Prize- awarded work involves creating extremely short and intense laser pulses. She used this laser rod in her experiments, which was donated to the Nobel Prize Museum. It consists of glass treated with neodymium and used to create infrared laser light. Strickland did her work when she was still a doctoral student at the University of Rochester.

Photo: Nanaka Adachi


The Nobel Prize Museum is well visited during the Nobel Day 10 December. Åsa Husberg, dressed in national costume, was one of many staff at the museum welcoming visitors.

The Nobel Week Dialogue takes places in Stockholm or Gothenburg on 9 December each year. The event aims to stimulate discussion on a topical science-related theme by bringing together Nobel Laureates, the world’s leading thinkers and experts within one area of expertise, policy makers and the gene- ral public, online as well as on site. By bridging science and society, it’s an oppor- tunity to excite imagination and inspire greatness. The 2018 theme was water.

Chef Tom Sjöstedt and pastry chef Daniel Roos (photo), both of them celebrated Swedish culi- nary innovators, created the 2018 Nobel Banquet Menu. The dessert served was a medley of apples with caramelised Frida apples from Österlen, apple sorbet, vanilla custard, caramel sauce and oat crumbs.

Gérard Mourou and his wife Marcelle Mourou in a warm embrace on stage after the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in the Stockholm Concert Hall.

44 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 Towards the end of the Nobel Banquet at the Stockholm City Hall, students will assemble with massed standards on the grand stairway and the balustrade above the Blue Hall. Colleges and universi- ties from all parts of Sweden will be represented among the standards. The evening’s toastmaster was Sara Tabari.

Violinist Lisa Batiashvili was the soloist in the 2018 Nobel Prize Concert. The Royal Stockholm Philhar- monic Orchestra was led by American conductor Karina Canellakis.

During the Nobel Days in Oslo, the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates visit the Norweg- ian Nobel Institute and sign the guestbook, as many Laureates have before them.

Oslo, photo: Ken Opprann Roos, photo: Dan Lepp Others, photo: Alexander Mahmoud


Arthur Ashkin’s Nobel Diploma. Artist Berndt Wennström, calligrapher Marie A. Györi. The Diploma also has a monogram on the cover which is designed by Marian­ne Pettersson Soold. Book binder Leonard Gustafssons Bokbinderi AB. Photo Lovisa Engblom.


48 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 49 50 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 Editors: Annika Pontikis, Director of Communications and Jonna Petterson, Public Relations Officer

The text The Body as a Battlefield by Ingvill Bryn Rambøl.

Design/Production: Rickard Frank Studio

Printing: Danagård LITHO AB, Ödeshög 2019 Paper: Scandia 2000 white

All images in the Annual Review are © The Nobel Foundation, © Nobel Media AB or © The Nobel Prize Museum, unless otherwise indicated.

Subject to changes regarding exhibitions, programmes and events during 2019 For questions regarding the Annual Review, please contact: [email protected]

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THE NOBEL FOUNDATION · ANNUAL REVIEW 2018 51 www.nobelprize.org