A l



Presented to the Graduate Council of the

North Texas State University in Partial

Fulfillment of the Requirements

For the Degree of



Danna Behne, B. M. E.

Denton, Texas

May, 1973 Behne, Danna, 's Das Liebesverbot. Master of

Music (Musicology), May, 1973, 192 pp., 162 illustrations, bibliography, 76 titles.

Wagner's second Das Liebesverbot, composed in

1835 and first performed in in 1836, could be termed Wagner's "Italian" opera. It represents Wagner's attitudes and feelings at the time of its composition.

During this period in Wagner's life the had be come particularly enchanted with Italian music and also with the Italian way of sensuous and carefree living. At the same time his disillusionment with German conservatism and pedantry also had an influence on the composition of this opera.

Although Das Liebesverbot sounds for the most part like the French and Italian after which it was patterned, a few traits of the later Wagner can also be detected. The use of the in Das Liebesverbot foreshadows its more highly developed use in the later dramas. The dramatic compactness in this early opera is also a characteristic trait of all of Wagner's operas.

Das Liebesverbot was termed a "sin of my youth" by the composer and ordered never to be performed at Bayreuth.

This decree was recently broken with the performance of the

1 2 opera by the Bayreuth International Youth Festival. Over the years a few other German and English theaters have

staged Das Liebesverbot, among those being , Leipzig,

Berlin, Dortmund, Nottingham, and London. TABLE OF CONTENTS






Events Leading Up to the Composition of Das Liebesverbot The Composition and First Performance of Das Liebesverbot Further Attempts at a Performance of Das Liebesverbot


The Story of Das Liebesverbot General Analysis of the Text A Detailed Analysis of the Music and Text Stylistic Conclusions


Various Performances before 1972 Das Liebesverbot at the Bayreuth YouthFe"stival

V. CONCLUSION...... 184



Figure Page

1. Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 5-8 . . . . 70

2. Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 13-16 . 70

3. Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 38-49 71

4. Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 77-86 . . . 72

5. Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 123-126 . . 72

6. Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 147-150 73

7. , Act II, Scene 2, measures 1-4 ...... 73

8. Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 199-202 . . 74

9. Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 283-286 74

10. Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 377-381 . . 75

11. Tannhauser, Act I, Scene 3, measures 146-149 75

12. Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 454-457 . . 75

13. Herold, Zampa, , measures 1-4 .. 76

14. Herold, Zampa, Overture, measures 32-35 . . . 76

15. Herold, Zampa, Overture, measures 157-160 . . . 76

16. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 1-4 . . . 77

17. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 25-26 . . . 78

18. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 47-49 . . . 78

19. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 58-59 79

20. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 91-92 79

iv Figure Page

21. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 107-111 ...... 80

22. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 151-154o...... o...... 81

23. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 165-170...... 81

24. Weber, Der Freischutz, Act I, Number 1, measures 111-112...... 81

25. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 236-237 . . 82

26. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 259-260 . . 82

27. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 267-268 . . 83

28. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 305-307 . . 83

29. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 315-320 . 84

30. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 329-330.. 84

31. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 336-340.. 85

32. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 384-387 . 86

33. Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 423-426 . . 86

34. Das Liebesverbot, Number 3, measures 1-6 . . . . 87

35. Tannhaiuser, Act III, measures 47-51 ...... 88

36. , Act I, measures 39-43...... 88

37. Das Liebesverbot, Number 3, measures 17-19 . . . 89

38. Das Liebesverbot, Number 3, measures 37-39 . . . 89

39. Das Liebesverbot, Number 3, measures 74-81 . . . 90

40. Bellini, , Act I, Number 6, measures 277-278 ...... 90

41. Das Liebesverbot, Number 3, measures 158-160 . . 91

42. Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 1-6 . . . . 92

V Figure Page

43. Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 6-10 92

44. Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 10-14 93

45. Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 51-55 94

46. Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 82-87 94

47. Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 106-110 ...... 95

48. Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 183-185 ...... 95

49. Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 237-240 ...... 96

50. Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 23-26 97

51. Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 43-48 97

52. Rossini, Barber of Seville, Number 8, measures 25-26 ...... 97

53. Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 67-69 98

54. Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 75-80 98

55. Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 147-148 ...... 99

56. Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 161-164 ...... 99

57. Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measure 186 100

58. Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 201-203 ...... 100

59. Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 206-210 ...... 101

60. Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 234-235 ...... 101

61. Herold, Zampa, Overture, measures 175-178 101

62. Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 275-279 ...... 102

vi Figure Page

63. Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 367-368 ...... 103

64. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 1-4 . . . 103

65. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 9-10 . . 104

66. Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg, Act III, Scene 5, measure 568 ...... 104

67. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 19-20 . . 104

68. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 48-55 . . 105

69. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 58-62 . . 105

70. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 104-107.*...... 106

71. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 117-119...... -- -106

72. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 128-131...... 106

73. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 196-200...... 107

74. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 219-226...... 108

75. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 235-236...... 108

76. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 279-287...... 109

77. Beethoven, , Number 14, measures 79-80...... 109

78. Tannhauser, Act II, Scene 4, measures 836-837 ...... 110

79. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 291-294 ...... 110

80. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 349-357 ...... 111

vii Figure Page

81. Auber, Masaniello, Number 5, measures 49-52...... ---111

82. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 379-387 ...... -.-.-.-.-.-.. 112

83. Tannhauser, Act III, Scene 1, measures 215-222...... 112

84. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 404-406 ...... -.-.-.-.-.- 112

85. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 427-431 ...... 113

86. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 441-445...... -.-.-.-.-.-. 113

87. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 456-459...... -.- 114

88. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 521-524...... -.-..... 115

89. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 602-604...... -.-..... 115

90. Beethoven, Fidelio, Number 9, measures 5-6 . . 115

91. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 607-612 ...... 116

92. Tannhauser, Act II, Scene 4, measures 803-806...... 116

93. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 731-734...... -...... 117

94. Die Walkure, Act I, Scene 3, measures 60-61...... 117

95. Die Walkure, Act II, Scene 5, measure 136 . . 117

96. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 754-757 ...... 118

97. Beethoven, Piano , Op. 7, Second Movement, measures 1-4 ...... 118

viii Figure Page

98. Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op. 26, First Movement, measures 1-4...... 119

99. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 833-836 ...... - - 119

100. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 861-864 . . .1 *.....*...... - 0 120

101. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 953-954 . - - 120

102. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 976-977 . . . - - 121

103. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 1010-1012 . 0 121

104. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 1083-1086 0 - 122

105. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measure 1166 0 .122

106. Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 1195-1197 ...... 122

107. Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 3-6 123

108. Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 33-34 124

109. Tannhauser, Act I, Scene 4, measures 245-247 . .9.0.0.*.*.0.0.1. . 124

110. Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 56-60 . 124

111. Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 71-73 . . 125

112. Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 97-101...... 125

113. Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 187-189 126

114. Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 199-204 ...... 126

115. Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 217-218 . . .00. ...00. . . . . 127

ix Figure Page

116. Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 225-226 ...... 127

117. Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 244-250 ...... 128

118. Das Liebesverbot, Number 8, measures 1-4 . 128

119. Das Liebesverbot, Number 8, measures 30-33 ...... 129

120. Das Liebesverbot, Number 9, measures 3-7 . . 129

121. Das Liebesverbot, Number 9, measures 58-61 ...... 130

122. Das Liebesverbot, Number 9, measures 84-87 ...... 130

123. Das Liebesverbot, Number 9, measures 98-102 ...... 131

124. Das Liebesverbot, Number 9, measures 161-165 ...... 131

125. Das Liebesverbot, Number 10, measures 55-58 ...... 133

126. Das Liebesverbot, Number 10, measures 85-86 ...... 133

127. Das Liebesverbot, Number 10, measures 101-105 ...... 134

128. Das Liebesverbot, Number 10, measures 124-128 ...... 134

129. Das Liebesverbot, Number 10, measures 176-180...... 135

130. Die Walkure, Act II, Scene 1, measures 572-574 ...... 136

131. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 1-5...... 136

132. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 18-21 ...... 137

x Page Figure

133. Das Liebesverbot, Number, 11, measures 141-144...... -.-.-.-.-. - . . . 137

134. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 190-193...... -.-....-.-.-. - - - . 138

135. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 268-271...... *-*-..-. - - - - 138

136. Auber, Masaniello, Number 12, measures 39-42...... -.-.-.-.-.-.- - - - 138

137. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 465-466...... -.-.-.-. - - - - 139

138. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 474-478...... 4--...... - - - - 140

139. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 538-544...... - - - - 140

140. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 600-601...... m measure - - - - 141

141. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 614-615...... *..1. mmeasures - - - - 141

142. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 658-661...... - - - - 142

143. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 673-677...... - - - - 142

144. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 741-745...... mmeasure - - - - 143

145. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures ...... - -144 839-841...0 measures 146. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, ...0.0...... * . - . 144 853-855 measures 147. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, ...... -144 899-902...... measures 148. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, 909-911...... 145

xi Figure Page

149. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 913-915...... -..-.-.-..-.145

150 . Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 952-962...... -.-- 146

151. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 979-982 ...... -...... -.-. 147

152. Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 1086-1089...... -.-- 148

153. Program, Performance of Das Liebesverbot, Munich, March 24, 1923...... 158

154. Program, Performance of Das Liebesverbot, University College of London, February 16, 1965...... -..... 165

155. Program, Performance of Das Liebesverbot, Nottingham University Opera Group, February 6, 1968 ...... 166

156. Program, Performance of Das Liebesverbot, International Youth Festival Meeting, Bayreuth, August 18, 1972 ...... 179

157. (figure 1) Das Liebesverbot, International Youth Festival Meeting, Bayreuth, Act I, Scene 1...... 181

158. (figure 2) Das Liebesverbot, International Youth Festival Meeting, Bayreuth, Act I, Scene 2...... -..... 181

159. (figure 3) Das Liebesverbot, International Youth Festival Meeting, Bayreuth, Act I, Scene 3...... 182

160. (figure 4) Das Liebesverbot, International Youth Festival Meeting, Bayreuth, Act II, Scene 6...... 182

161. (figure 5) Das Liebesverbot, International Youth Festival Meeting, Bayreuth, Act II, Scene 6...... 183

162. (figure 6) Das Liebesverbot, International Youth Festival Meeting, Bayreuth, Act II, Scene 6 ...... 183



Wagner's second opera Das Liebesverbot was composed in 1835, a full seven years before the composer's name began to be well known. For it was not until the 1842 production of in that Wagner achieved his first success as an opera composer. However, with the

1836 Magdeburg performance, Das Liebesverbot still has the honor of being the first Wagner opera ever to be performed.

This so-called "youth opera" is worthy of consider ation for a number of reasons. First of all, it provides a necessary link in the overall development of the composer.

Wagner evidently had to go through several styles (German

Romantic Opera in , in Das Liebesverbot, and French in Rienzi) before he could settle into his own personal musical language--that of the music drama. These metamorphoses in style took place rather quickly, however, for less than ten years elapsed between the completion of Wagner's first opera Die Feen (1833) and his more mature and "Wagnerian" Der Fliegende Hollander (1841).

1 2

Das Liebesverbot, like Wagner's later works, repre sents the composer's attitudes and feelings at the time of its composition. His political and social attitudes, as well as his musical preferences at the time, are vividly reflected in its text and the music.

Most important, Das Liebesverbot can be considered a valid work in its own right because it is an early work of a now famous composer. Taken out of the shadow of

Wagner's mature works, it emerges as a quite effective opera, both musically and dramatically, and a work worthy of more attention than it has been given up to now.

This paper is an attempt to show Das Lievesverbot's historical significance as an early work of Wagner's, and also its musical validity as an opera in itself. The ways in which Das Liebesverbot reflects Wagner's revolutionary tendencies, his political and social activities, and his musical values at the time of its composition are fully explored.

A formal and stylistic approach is used in the musical analysis. From the examination of the thematic relation ships, their relation to each other and to the text, the opera is revealed to be a compact and unified whole.

Already Wagner's compositional technique of creating a large and concentrated work from the skillful combination of motives was being used in Das Liebesverbot. Comparisons 3

are also made between Das Liebesverbot and other works

contemporary with it, which may or may not have had an

influence upon its musical style. When possible, an

attempt is also made to establish links between Das

Liebesverbot and Wagner's later operas, through both musical and literary comparisons.

A chapter on the various performances of Das Liebes verbot has also been included. Since the opera has been performed only a few times, it was felt that each per

formance was important and worthy of discussion. In most

cases the opera was chosen to be performed because of a

desire to present a "complete" cycle of Wagner's operas.

Sometimes it was produced merely as a curiosity. In all

cases, however, the choice of Das Liebesverbot as a valid operatic production met with overwhelming success and public approval. CHAPTER II


Events Leading Up to the Composition of Das Liebesverbot

Germany at the time of Wagner's birth (May 22, 1813) was in a state of turmoil. To be sure, the French Revo

lution had by this time lost some of its effect, and the

Napoleonic era was drawing to a close, but within Germany

itself many problems and conflicts still existed or were beginning to arise. For example, the clash between con

servatism and liberalism; class conflicts; conflicts

between the church and state, and also between the Protes

tants and Catholics; the desire for a unified country in

opposition to the desire of the states to remain separate;

all these things contributed to the state of unrest found

in Germany during the period known as the Restoration.

This Restoration period began with the defeat of

Napoleon at Leipzig in October, 1813, when Wagner was only

five months old. It was primarily a period of rebuilding

and restoring all that had been disturbed or lost during

the years of the French Revolution. In Germany, the

4 5 nobility regained its former power, and, with a few minor exceptions, the old class system was restored.1

Princely absolutism once again held sway with all its bureaucracy, inefficiency, extravagance, fiscal oppression, pomp, mistresses, play at soldiery, arbitrary interference with state finances, and open traffic in public interests. The old social supremacy of the aristocracy once more asserted itself over the other classes. Nobles again were to dance only with the nobles, the best seats in the theater and opera were again to be reserved for the nobility, and the upstart bourgeois classes were put back in their former places. 2

The Austrian leader, Metternich, to a great extent dominated the political scene in Germany during this period.

He was definitely a conservative; the core of his conserva

tism was the idea of the social stability of organized

society and of the state, and the protection of this "order"

and "peace" by any and all means necessary, irrespective

of the effects upon the "individual soul." He was in

temperament and spirit a child of the eighteenth century,

and had no feeling or sympathy for the romantic spirit.

He was rational and practical minded in his approach to

political problems and preferred the discipline and

political order of the classic spirit to the disturbing

and dynamic of the nineteenth century. 3

lKoppel Smith Pinson, Modern Germany (New York, 1954), pp. 50-52.

2 Ibid., p. 53.

3 Ralph Flenley, Modern German History (London, 1953), pp. 136-141. 6

Prussia, also, had a conservative and weak leader in

Friedrich Wilhelm III. He, in fact, grew more and more

conservative during the course of his reign. Friedrich had

little or no concern for Germany as a whole, only for

Prussia. His conservatism was also reflected in the

ministry, the administration, the army, and the land

aristocracy. Although he was a Catholic, the King was

concerned with uniting the two Protestant factions, the

Lutherans and the Calvinists, and felt that this new

"Evangelical" Christian Church could serve as a barrier

against revolutionary ideas.4

Thus, political conservatism became the official

restoration philosophy in Germany, as was also the case

elsewhere on the continent. The basic goal of political

conservatism was to root out all traces of French revolution

ideology. The emphasis was upon the state as an organism

and upon the supreme importance of order, tradition, conti

nuity, religion, family, and authority. The true state was considered to be a Christian state, paternal and

absolute in character.5

However, this return to the old ways was not long

tolerated by the new and growing band of liberals, which

4Pinson, 2. cit., pp. 55-57.

5 Ibid., pp. 57-59. 7 consisted mainly of the educated middle class. In the years following 1815, this ever-increasing influence of the middle class began to be felt in many areas. Besides its primary concern for the freedom of the individual, liberalism also expressed the importance of more freedom of religion, freedom of press, equality before law, and a measure of political freedom. Along with this increasing desire for more freedom from the ruling classes, one of the main issues being championed by the liberals during the Restoration period was the desire for German unity. However, neither of the two strongest German states at that time, Prussia and Austria, wanted to give up its form of government in favor of a unified Germany.6

German liberalism during the Restoration period drew its native sustenance from the classic idealism of Kant and Wilhelm von Humboldt. Here the German liberals got their emphasis on the moral autonomy of the individual and the supreme importance of the free and unfettered develop ment of personality. Humboldt felt that the sole function of the state was to provide for external and internal security and that its activity should not be extended beyond this.7

6Flenley, op. cit., pp. 136-141.

7Pinson, op. cit., p. 59. 8

The chief center of liberalism in the period after

1815 was in the university. Most of the leaders of German

liberalism before 1848 were professors, some of the more

important ones being Karl von Rotteck, Karl Theodore

Welcker, and Jakob Grimm.8 Although both the students

and the professors were interested in all facets of the

liberalist movement, they were at this time chiefly con

cerned with carrying on the struggle for German national

unity. In this movement, the Burschenschaften were among

the most active agents.

The Burschenschaften was a student organization first founded at the University of Jena in 1815. The Burschenschaften movement represents the political activization of the academic youth of Germany. Born out of the experiences of the War of Liberation, it was a reaction against the traditional student corps of the German universities. It aimed to regenerate the moral virtues of the young people of Germany, but above all it strove to break down local allegiances and to kindle a huge nationalist flame that would en gulf all of Germany.9

The Burschenschaften movement was short-lived, however, for

with the murder of Kotzebue in 1819, Friedrich Wilhelm

ordered the Burschenschaften dissolved.1 0

A movement which displayed much more genius, maturity,

and political sagacity, but which exercised much less influ

ence upon German developments, was that of "Young Germany."

8 Ibid., p. 60.

9Ibid., p. 65.

1 0 Ibid. 9

This movement in Germany assumed quite a different character

from similar movements in other European countries at this

time, because of the peculiar conditions in Germany. Like

the other European movements, it too was motivated by a

thirst for liberty, and drew its inspiration from French

revolutionary ideals. But it was not directed against a

foreigner, for there was no foreigner oppressing Germany.

While it aspired toward a united Germany, its main attack

was centered upon the racialist, aggressive nationalism in

its own country. The leaders of this movement came to be

looked upon as "un-German" and hostile to the "true spirit"

of their country. Some of the leading literary figures in

the Young Germany movement were Ludolf Wienbarg, Karl

Gutzkow, Theodor Mundt, and Heinrich Laube. They proclaimed

the rights of youth and aspired to literature which would

be identified with life. Much of their political inspiration

came from the July revolution in France.1 1

Besides being a person of some importance in the

intellectual life of Leipzig, Heinrich Laube also had a

considerable reputation in Germany as a publisher, chiefly

because of his editorship of the Zeitung f~r die elegante

Welt. He became a friend of the in 1834,

making Richard's acquaintance through his sister Rosalie.

llIbid., pp. 65-66. 10

Laube, himself positive, pushy, and experienced in the ways

of the world, had a good deal to do with infecting the young

Wagner with the superficial notions of the Young Germany of

the epoch, with its catchwords of "freedom" and "the emanci pation of the flesh."1 2 Laube's Das junge Europa, which preached a free political life, was later to furnish one of

the keynotes in the conception of the to Das


Wagner's growing passion for the liberal movement, however, did not begin with his acquaintance with Laube.

His interest in politics and revolution had first been st emulated by the July Revolution of Paris in 1830.

The special editions of the Leipzig Gazette brought us the news of the July Revolution in Paris. The King of France had been driven from his throne; Lafayette, who a moment before had seemed a myth to me, was again riding through a cheering crowd in the streets of Paris; the Swiss Guards had once more been butchered in the Tuileries, and a new King knew no better way of commending himself to the populace than by declaring himself the embodiment of the Republic. Suddenly to become conscious of living at a time in which such things took place could not fail to have a startling effect on a boy of seventeen. The world as a historic phenomenon began from that day in my eyes, and naturally my sympathies were wholly on the side of the Revolution, which I regarded in the light of a heroic popular struggle crowned with victory, and free from the blemish of the terrible excesses that stained the first French Revolution. As the whole of Europe, including some of the German states, was soon plunged more or less violently into rebellion,

1 2 , The Life of , 4 vols. (New York, 1933-46), 1, 96-97. 11

I remained for some time in a feverish state of suspense, and now first turned my attention to the causes of these upheavals, which I regarded as struggles of the young and hopeful against the old and effete portion of mankind.1 3

As a result of the repercussions of the Paris Revolution in Saxony, Wagner wrote a "Political Overture," of which the manuscript no longer exists.1 4

Saxony also did not remain unscathed; in Dresden it came to actual fighting in the streets, which im mediately produced a political change in the shape of the proclamation of the regency of the future, King Friedrich, and the granting of a constitution. This event filled me with such enthusiasm that I composed a political overture, the prelude of which depicted dark oppression in the midst of which a strain was at last heard under which, to make my meaning clearer, I wrote the words 'Friedrich und Freiheit.' 5

Here Wagner was referring to the liberal Friedrich August

II of Saxony.

Wagner entered the University of Leipzig in 1830, primarily to become a part of the student life there and take part in the various liberalist activities characteristic of University students at this time. He got involved in antagonisms between the students and the police, "the latter being the arch-enemy upon whom the youthful love of liberty vented itself." He drank heavily during this period, and

1 3 Richard Wagner, My Life, authorized translation (New York, 1911), pp. 47-48.

14 Newman, op. cit., pp. 75-76.

1 5Wagner, op. cit., p. 48. 12 stayed away from home for long stretches, gambling to get money to pay off debts, which he had already started collecting at this early age. There were also promises of duels between Wagner and skilled swordsmen, which, fortunately for him, never took place.1 6 This entire period was one of wildness and social excesses, which show how very susceptible he was to mass influences in his en vironment. This susceptibility endured in him until 1849.

It was this that made him an ardent admirer of Italian music for a few years after 1833, when he was dragged into the theatrical life of the smaller German towns, and that caused him, in his later Dresden days, to throw in his lot with the political revolutionaries .17

Various musical events and experiences were also making

their impressions on the young Wagner. One of the most

shattering and moving experiences of his youth was hearing

Wilhelmine Schroder-Devrient sing in the Leipzig performance

of Fidelio in 1829. In after years he declared that his

first experience of her was the most powerful impression of

his whole life.

If I look back on my life as a whole, I can find no event that produced so profound an impression upon me. After the performance I rushed to a friend's house and wrote a short note to the singer, in which I briefly told her that from that moment my life had acquired its true significance, and that if in days to come she should ever hear my name praised in the

1 6 Ibid., pp. 46-62.

17Newman, op. cit., p. 80. 13

world of Art, she must remember that she had that evening made me what I then swore it was my destiny to become. This note I left at her hotel, and ran out into the night as if I were mad.1 8

Besides his enthusiasm for Beethoven's opera, Wagner had also studied the scores of Beethoven's , and had completely copied out the scores of the Fifth and the

Ninth. He also arranged the Ninth for piano solo, and, on

submitting this to the publisher Schott in Mainz, received

in return a score of the Missa Solemnis.19 Wagner was also

able to hear Beethoven's works performed, however badly, on

the frequent concerts given by the Gewandhaus in

Leipzig. The performance of Beethoven's Ninth which Wagner

heard in April of 1830 can be taken as a good example of the

low standard of performance prevalent in Germany in the first

half of the nineteenth century. At the Gewandhaus, which

prided itself on being one of the best German institutions

of its kind, symphonies and other instrumental works were

given without a conductor, such guidance as there was being

supplied by the leader of the violins. Wagner described

this particular performance of Beethoven's Ninth as follows:

. . . after the first three movements had been played straight through like a Haydn , as well as the orchestra could manage it, Pohlenz, instead of having to conduct a vocal quartette, a , or an Italian , took his place at the desk to undertake

1 8Wagner, op. cit., p. 44. 19 Ibid., pp. 42-43. 14

this highly complicated instrumental work, with its particularly enigmatical and incoherent opening,.one of the most difficult tasks that could possibly be found for a musical conductor. I shall never forget the impression produced upon me at the first rehearsal by the anxiously and carefully played 3/4 time, and the way in which the wild shrieks of the [with which this movement begins] resulted in the most extra ordinary confusion of sound. He had evidently chosen this tempo in order, in some way, to manage the of the double basses; but it was utterly hopeless. Pohlenz was in a bath of perspiration, the recitative did not come off, and I really began to think that Beethoven must have written nonsense.20

The vast majority of public performances of music at this time were hopelessly inadequate. Naturally the greatest and most advanced music suffered most, for here the technical incompetence of players and conductors was reinforced by the lack of any tradition of interpretation.2 1 Many of the solo singers in the opera must have been even worse than the . Germany had produced a few first-class singers, for instance, Schroder-Devrient, but it was mainly to the

Italians, or to Germans who had studied in Italy and who specialized in Italian opera, that German audiences had to look for tolerable singing. It was no wonder that the public preferred the Italian opera, when it was only from the

Italians that reasonably good singing could be expected.

This lack of competent German singers was one of the greatest obstacles with which the German opera had to contend in the first half of the nineteenth century.2 2

20Ibid., pp. 69-70. 2 1Newman, op. cit., p. 87.

2 2 Ibid., pp. 143-144. 15

Not only was the German performance standard considered inferior, but also German music itself, especially operatic music, was thought by both the public and many prominent musicians to be not as good as that produced by French and

Italian . Moritz Hauptmann, the well-known theorist, said that the German opera had too much philosophy and not enough music. The Germans were so intent on extending the resources of harmony that they did not know how to manage a melodic cantilena. They had no feeling for recitative, partly because their language was not propitious to it, partly because, from onward, they had been inclined to

insist too much on instrumental expression.2 3

reported that the Italians were content to remain ignorant

of any music other than their own, and that at least the

Italians were unified in the musical impulses and tastes, whereas Germany was distracted by the conflict between

various schools and theories. It was generally accepted

during this time that a German composer before being recog

nized in his own country would have to first be accepted in


The idea expounded all over Germany by such musicians

as Nicolai and Hauptmann, and also later by Wagner, was that

the best solution would be a fusion of the German and Italian

231bid., p. 119.

2 4 Ibid., p. 117. 16 operatic styles. Wagner concludes his article "On German

Opera," (Zeitung fur die elegante Welt) , written in 1834 before the drafting of the poem for Das Liebesverbot, by saying:

For why has no German opera-composer come to the front since so long? Because none knew how to gain the voice (ear?) of the people,--that is to say, because none has seized true warm Life as it is . . . . We must take the era by the ears, and honestly try to cultivate its modern forms; and he will be master, who neither writes Italian, nor French--nor even German.2 5

Even this early, Wagner was searching for a new and as yet unheard-of form of opera. These few statements perhaps foreshadow his eventual development of a completely new form of opera--his "music drama." It can also be seen in this article that Wagner was gradually turning away from the stiff, cold and formal conservatism in German music, just as he was rebelling against the conservatism in the

German political institutions.

When we talk of German music, and especially when we listen to talk about it, the same confusion of ideas always appears to prevail as in the con ception of freedom by those old-German black-frocked demagogues who curled their noses at the results of modern reforms abroad with just as much contempt as our Teutomaniac music-savants now shrug their shoulders. By all means, we have a field of music which belongs to us by right,--and that is Instrumental-music;--but a German Opera we have not, and for the selfsame reason that we own no national Drama. We are too intellectual

25 William Ashton Ellis, translator, Richard Wagner's Prose Works, 8 vols. (New York, 1966), VIII, 58. 17

and much too learned, to create -warm human figures . . . . 0 this wretched erudition,--the source of every German ill! . . . Every hearer enjoys a clear, melodious thought--the more seizable the whole to him, the more will he be seized by it;--the composer knows this himself,--he sees by what he makes an effect, and what obtains applause;--in fact it comes much easier to him, for he has only to let himself go; but no! he is plagued by the German devil, and must show the people his learning too! . . . This is an evil which, however ingrained in the character of our nation, must needs be rooted out; in fact it will annul itself, as it is nothing but a self deception. Not that I wish French or Italian music to oust our own;--that would be a fresh evil to be on our guard against--but we ought to recognize the true in both, and keep ourselves from all self satisfied hypocrisy.26

Wagner mentions the word "warm" several times in this article. These concepts of "warm blood," "warm human figures," "warm life," he will later exploit to a great extent in the text of Das Liebesverbot.

Because of the strong impression made on the young

Wagner by Beethoven's works, it was natural that his early attempts at symphonic composition were influenced by the master, and were indeed modeled after him. Wagner's

Symphony in C was composed in 1832, and received two per

formances immediately after its completion, one by the

Euterpe Society in Schneider-Herberge, and the other at a

Gewandhaus Concert which took place on the 10th of January,

1833.27 Of the Symphony, Wagner wrote:

2 6 Ibid., pp. 57-58.

2 7Newman, op. cit., p. 95. 18

After this [the Konig Enzio overture] I tried my hand at a big symphony (in C major); in this work I showed what I had learnt by using the influence of my study of Beethoven and Mozart towards the achieve ment of a really pleasant and intelligible work, in which the was again present at the end, while the themes of the various movements were so con structed that they could be played consecutively. Nevertheless, the passionate and bold element of the Eroica was distinctly discernible, especially in the first movement.2 8

Wagner began a Symphony in E in August of 1834 but never completed it, for by that time he was ready to cast away his model of Beethoven and go on to something new. This something new was to be Das Liebesverbot.

Before the composition of Das Liebesverbot, Wagner had worked on two other operas. His first attempt,

(1832), was never finished. However, the second opera, Die

Feen, was completed in 1833.

While vacationing in and Prague in the summer of

1832, Wagner wrote the text to Die Hochzeit. He himself

admits he did not know exactly where he had come by the medieval subject matter, but it is probable that it was

derived from J. G. Busching's Ritterzeit und Ritterwesen.2 9

The story, briefly, is as follows:

A frantic lover climbs to the window of the sleeping chamber of his friend's bride, wherein she is awaiting the advent of the bridegroom; the bride struggles with the madman and hurls him into the courtyard below, where his mangled body gives up

28 Wagner, op. cit., p. 71.

2 9Newman, op. cit., p. 95. 19

the ghost. During the funeral ceremony, the bride, uttering one cry, sinks lifeless on the corpse.3 0

For this opera, Wagner composed an orchestral introduction, a chorus, and a solo septet. The music to Die Hochzeit was praised by Christian Theodor Weinlig, Wagner's harmony teacher, for its clarity and good vocal quality.3 0 Wagner himself said that he had written the music in the darkest vein, in keeping with the serious text, and without operatic embellishments. However, when he later read the text to his sister Rosalie, and found that it was completely distasteful to her, he destroyed the entire libretto.3 1 Today, there exist only the portions for which Wagner had already composed music.

Die Feen, Wagner's first completed opera, was sketched

in Leipzig in the spring of 1833, and was composed that

summer and fall, while Wagner was visiting his brother

Albert in Wurzburg.

During my stay in Wurzburg I composed a romantic opera in three acts: Die Feen, for which I wrote my own text, after Gozzi's: Die Frau als Schlange. Beethoven and Weber were my models; in the ensembles of this opera there was much that fell out very well, and the Finale of the Second Act, especially, promised a good effect. The 'numbers' from this work which I brought to a hearing at concerts in WUrzburg, were favourably received.32

3 0Wagner, op. cit., p. 83.

3Ibid., pp. 83, 88.

32 Ellis, op. cit., I, 8-9. 20

The story of Die Feen is as follows:

In pursuit of a doe, Prince Arindal of Tramond plunges into a river and loses consciousness. He awakens in the castle of Ada, a surpassingly beautiful woman. They pledge their love, and he agrees to her stipulation that for eight years he make no inquiry concerning her origin. When the time has passed, he poses the question, and Ada and her castle vanish midst thunder. Arindal is found by courtiers from Tramond, who, advising him that he has been thrall to a wicked enchantress, urge his return home. During his absence his royal father has died of grief, and Lora, his sister, now defends the last city of the realm still free from the invader's ravages. But Ada is really a benevolent spirit deeply in love with Arindal. Her father was human, which makes her only half a fairy. She longs to shed her immortality and join Arindal as his earthly wife. To accomplish this end both must undergo harsh tests; she must torment him with terrible acts. If he prove steadfast, her reward is mortality; if he curse her, then she must be metamorphosed into stone and so remain for a full century. She sets about her disagreeable tasks, and Arindal, confused and uncomprehending, execrates her. Appalled by his inconsistency and her own future, she reveals the purpose of the trials. Arindal sinks into madness. But with the help of the magician Groma, he gathers his resources and penetrates into the underworld, where he overcomes its guardian spirits. To the tones of a magic lyre and with the warmth of his love song, he disenchants the cold stone, and Ada stirs to life. He becomes immortal and mounts Fairy land's throne with her at his side.3 3

The music to Die Feen is in a German style, modeled not only after Beethoven and Weber, but also containing very definite influences of Marschner, and to some extent also Mendelssohn.3 4

Wagner had hopes of getting his opera produced at

Leipzig. He returned there early in 1834 and offered the

3 3Robert Gutman, Richard Wagner, The Man, His Mind, and His Music (New York, 1968), pp. 41-42.

3 4 Ibid., p. 44. 21 score to the director of the Leipzig theater, Frank Hauser.

The director, although polite, friendly, and even sympathetic toward Wagner, was no judge of German opera, and moreover, felt that he could only give the public what it wanted, namely, the established French and Italian successes.3 5

Wagner's reaction to this refusal was thus a natural one for a disappointed German opera composer.

I was soon forced to the same experience that every German opera-composer has nowadays to win: we are discredited upon our own native stage by the success of Frenchmen and Italians, and the production of our operas is a favor to be cringed for.3 6

Die Feen was therefore put aside by the composer and was never performed in his lifetime.

Wagner's friendship with Laube began during this period of struggle and frustration of trying to get Die Feen pro duced in Leipzig. While waiting for something to come of his opera there, he passed his time reading Young Europe and enthusiastically discussed its ideas with Laube.

The delay was borne with better spirits . . . . I now began to enjoy the company of a new friend in the person of Laube, who . . . was at the zenith of his fame. The first portion of his novel, Young Europe . . . had a most stimulating effect on me, more particularly in conjunction with all the youthful hopefulness which at that time pulsated in my veins. Though his teaching was essentially only a repetition of that in Heinse's Ardinghello, the forces that surged in young breasts were given full and eloquent expression.37

3 5 Newman, _. cit., p. 108.

3 6 Ellis, op. cit., I, 9.

3 7 Wagner, op. cit., p. 98. 22

In the spring of 1834 Wagner heard Wilhelmine Schrder

Devrient again. She sang the part of Romeo in Bellini's

I Montecchi ed i Capuletti. He was once more deeply im pressed, both by her performance and also by the music

itself, although this time it was an Italian opera in which

she sang.

The effect of it was not to be compared with any thing that had been witnessed theretofore. To see the daring, romantic figure of the youthful lover against a background of such obviously shallow and empty music prompted one, at all events, to meditate doubtfully upon the cause of the great lack of effect in solid German music as it had been applied hitherto to the drama. Without for the moment plunging too deeply into this meditation, I allowed myself to be borne along with the current of my youthful feelings, then roused to ardour, and turned involuntarily to the task of working off all that brooding seriousness which in my earlier years had driven me to such pathetic mysticism.3 8

Wagner could not help comparing the Italian-style music and

Schroder-Devrient's performance with the German music and its deplorable performances which he had been experiencing in

Leipzig for the past few years.

What Pohlenz had not done by his conducting of the Ninth Symphony, what the Vienna Conservatoire, Dionys Weber, and many other clumsy performances (which had led me to regard classical music as absolutely -colorless) had not fully accomplished, was achieved by the inconceivable charm of the most unclassical Italian music, thanks to the wonderful, thrilling, and entrancing impersonation of Romeo by Schroder-Devrient . . . had been performed

38 Wagner, op. cit., p. 98. 23

by the Leipzig company shortly before the appearance of Schroder-Devrient; cold and colorless performers, among whom the singer in the title-role . . . is still a disagreeable memory . . . the company did its utmost to dispel even the enthusiastic impressions of Weber's music which I had formed in my youth. I did not know what answer to make to a brother critic of Laube's, when he pointed out to me the labored character of this operatic performance, as soon as he was able to contrast it with the entrancing effect of that Romeo evening. Here I found myself confronted with a problem, the solving of which I was just at that time disposed to take as easily as possible, and displayed my courage by discarding all prejudice, and that daringly in a short criticism (written for the Elegante Zeitung) I simply scoffed at Euryanthe. Just as I had had my season of wild oat sowing as a student, so now I boldly rushed into the same courses in the develop ment of my artistic taste.3 9

The "artistic taste" which Wagner was developing at this time was soon to be reflected in his choice of musical style for his next opera, Das Liebesverbot.

The Composition and First Performance of Das Liebesverbot

During the summer of 1834, Wagner vacationed with his friend Theodore Apel in Bohemia. This friendship had begun in 1829, when they were fellow students at the St. Nicholas school in Leipzig. Part of Apel's attraction for Wagner was that Apel was well-to-do and of a good family; this gave

Wagner opportunity to come into contact with the upper classes of society. Outside of this, Apel was as enthusiastic and as devoted to art as Wagner. Naturally, the entire trip

3 9 Ibid., p. 99. 24 was financed by Apel.4 0 Much of their time was spent in

Teplitz, at that time a famous resort town, where they "ate well of the local trout, drank well of Czernosek wine, indulged in long drives, and gave free vent to their youthful energies in every way." 4 l

While at Teplitz, Wagner sketched the libretto to Das

Liebesverbot. It was inevitable that all of the influences and conditions of Germany and German music working on Wagner at this time would eventually culminate in this new opera's libretto and music.

It was May, and beautiful spring weather, and . . . Bohemia was destined to bring the unrestrained 'Young European' mood in me to full maturity . . . . One fine morning I stole away from my friend in order to take my breakfast alone at the 'Schlackenburg,' and also to seize an opportunity of jotting down the plan of a new operatic composition in my notebook. With this end in view, I had mastered the subject of Shakespeare's , which, in accordance with my present mood, I soon transformed pretty freely into a libretto entitled Liebesverbot. Young Europe and Ardinghello, and the strange frame of mind into which I had fallen with regard to classical operatic music, furnished me with the keynote of my conception, which was directed more particularly against puritanical hypocrisy, and which thus tended boldly to exalt 'un restrained sensuality.' I took care to understand the grave Shakespearean theme only in this sense. I could see only the gloomy strait-laced viceroy, his heart aflame with the most passionate love for the beautiful novice, who, while she beseeches him to pardon her brother condemned to death for illicit love, at the same time kindles the most dangerous fire in the

4 0Wagner, o. cit., p. 99.

4 1 Newman, op. cit., p. 121. 25

stubborn Puritan's breast by infecting him with the lovely warmth of her human emotion.4 2

Upon returning to Leipzig, Wagner found that Stegmayer, the conductor of the Leipzig theater, had recommended him for a position as conductor with the Magdeburg theater company. The director of this company, Heinrich Bethmann, was dissatisfied with his present conductor and had applied to Leipzig for help in finding a successor. Stegmayer probably had two motives behind his recommendation. First, it made Wagner indebted to him, and second, it would prevent

Wagner from bothering him any more about producing Die Feen.4 3

Before deciding whether or not to accept the position,

Wagner made a trip to Lauchstadt, where the Bethmann company was performing for the summer. There he met Bethmann, an old man who received Wagner in his dressing gown; Schmale, the stage manager, who ate cherries and spit out the seeds while talking with Wagner; and Kroge, the theater attendant, whom Wagner described as a "toothless skeleton." After talking with these three, Wagner was disgusted, and quickly decided he wanted nothing to do with the Bethmann theater company. He informed them that he could not accept the position under any circumstances, and that they could

4 2Wagner, . cit., pp. 99, 101-102.

43 Newman, op. cit., p. 123. 26

certainly not count on him to conduct the upcoming per

formance of there in Lauchstadt.4 4

However, fate intervened. At the boarding house where Wagner had taken a room for the night, he met the young , who was the junior lead of the Bethmann company.

Her appearance and bearing formed the most striking contrast possible to all the unpleasant impressions of the theatre which it had been my lot to receive on this fateful morning. Looking very charming and fresh, the young actress's general manner and move ments were full of a certain majesty and grave assurance which lent an agreeable and captivating air of dignity to her otherwise pleasant expression * . . . I engaged a room on the spot, agreed to Don Juan for Sunday, regretted greatly that I had not brought my luggage with me from Leipzig, and hastened to return thither as quickly as possible in order to get back to Lauchstadt all the sooner. 4 5

This sudden change of mind indicated two basic things about Wagner's nature. First of all, it showed how impulsive and easily influenced he was, a trait which also played a part in his turning to the musical style of Das Liebesverbot.

Secondly, it was an example of his weakness and fascination

for women and his need for their companionship. This part of his nature later influenced his entire personal life, as well as his characterization of the heroines in his operas. Throughout his life he relentlessly searched for the "eternal feminine" ideal, going through several affairs,

44 Wagner, op. cit., pp. 105-106.

4 5 Ibid., p. 107. 27

before finally finding it in Cosima. In most of his operas

the major role is created for a woman, and she is always

characterized as an almost super-human figure, as the

inspirational force behind the main male characters. Al

though she does not always have the largest part in the

opera, for example Eva or Kundry, still the drama more or

less centers around her. It is almost as if Wagner tried

again and again in his operas to create a womanly figure of

perfection, for which he was searching in real life and

could not find.

When Wagner returned to Leipzig, he learned that his

friend Laube had been warned to leave Saxony, as part of

the reaction of Prussia against liberalism. Although Laube was more devoted to aesthetics than to politics, his Zeitung

fur die elegante Welt made him dangerous in the eyes of the

authorities. Wagner tried to get Apel to shelter Laube from

the police, but Apel rejected the request on the grounds that

it might cause some unpleasantness to his family. Laube was

later arrested, on the premise that he was at one time a member of the Burchenschaft.

After gathering up his belongings, Wagner returned to

Lauchstadt and immediately took up his duties as conductor of the opera company. The above mentioned performance of

Don Giovanni was the first time Wagner had ever conducted an opera. Although he lacked experience and formal training, 28 his natural instinct and ability helped him out of any difficult situation which arose, and he quickly gained a reputation of having a great deal of ability and competence in the theater. Wagner's new position served both as an outlet for his energy and enthusiasm at this time and as an opportunity to correct and perfect performances of works which he had up to then only heard badly done.

The sensation of sitting in command at the conductor's desk . . . was not without its charm for me, and, indeed, I very quickly succeeded in obtaining perfect confidence in conducting an orchestra. The achievements of my fiery and often exuberant zeal won me recognition from the singers, and were greeted by the audience with rapturous appreciation.4 6

From Lauchstadt the troop traveled to Rudolstadt, where

they gave another series of performances. Here Wagner wrote

the libretto to Das Liebesverbot from the sketches he had

made a few months earlier at Teplitz.

I completed the greater part of my operatic poem, taking infinitely more pains, both as regards words and versification, than with the text of my earlier Feen. Moreover, I found myself possessed of in comparably greater assurance in the arrangement and partial invention of situations than when writing that earlier work.4 7

The writing of this wild and sensuous libretto made Wagner

want to get out in Rudolstadt and have a little of the same

kind of fun which the characters in Das Liebesverbot were


4 6Ibid., pp. 113-114. 4 7.bid., p. 112. 29

I proceeded to accentuate the more extravagant situations of my Liebesverbot by rioting with a few comrades in the sausage-scented atmosphere of the Rudolstadt Vogelwiese. At this time my troubles again brought me in more or less contact with the vice of gambling . . . .48

The Bethmann troupe returned to Magdeburg for its winter season after stopping in Bernburg for a few performances on its way home. Some of the works in the 1834-35 season at

Magdeburg included Rossini's and Barbiere, Auber's

Fra Diavolo and Masaniello, Paisiello's La Molinara,

Marschner's Der Templer und die JUdin, and Bellini's I

Montecchi ed i Capuletti.4 9 The constant exposure to

these composers had a great effect on the overall sound

and style of the music to Das Liebesverbot, which was being

composed during this 1834-35 period.

Meanwhile, in spite of numerous other distractions, I found time during the brief six months of this theatrical season in Magdeburg, to complete a large portion of my new opera, besides doing other work, I ventured to introduce two duets from it at a concert given in the theatre, and their reception encouraged me to proceed hopefully with the rest of the opera.5 0

Wagner, the optimist and egotist, is shown in his

letter to Apel of October 27, 1834, in which he reveals his

far-reaching plans for his as yet uncompleted second opera,

and his not yet begun third opera. This letter also shows

4 8 Ibid., p. 113.

4 9Newman, op. cit., p. 178.

5 0Wagner, op. cit., p. 118. 30 how he is already convinced that in order to be a success, he must first go outside of Germany to gain recognition.

Wagner's thinking here will later result in his sad and futile Paris years.

I am now contemplating a few years in Italy. Yes, my dearest Theodore, my plan is now fixed and irrevocable. My Feen, by being performed at three or four good theatres, is to give honourable ad vertisement in advance to my Liebesverbot, which I am now completing. I shall make a hit with this opera and win fame and money. If I am fortunate enough to acquire both I shall take them both, and you too, to Italy without fail in the spring of 1836. In Italy I shall then compose an Italian opera, and according as that goes, others too. Then, brown and strong, we shall go on to France. In Paris, I shall compose a --and God knows where I shall be then! Who I shall be, I know, certainly no longer a German Philistine!5 1

For a New Year's Day gala performance (1835), Wagner

was asked to compose the music for a New Year's Cantata,

Beim Antritt des Neuen Jahres.

This was very speedily done; a rousing overture, several melo-dramas and choruses were all greeted with enthusiasm, and brought us such ample applause that we repeated the performance with great success, although such repetitions after the actual gala day were quite contrary to usage.5 2

Such lightly won success much fortified my views that in order to please, one must not too scrupulously choose one's means. In this sense I continued the composition of my Liebesverbot, and took no care whatever to avoid the echoes of the French and Italian stages.53

5 1 Wilhelm Altmann, editor, Letters of Richard Wagner, translated by M. M. Bozman, 2 vols. (London, 1927), I, p. 20.

52 Wagner, op. cit., p. 114.

5 3Ellis, op. cit., I, 10-11. 31

During this season, Wagner also conducted several

concerts given by the Logengesellschaft, a concert society in Magdeburg. These concerts provided an opportunity for

some of Wagner's youthful compositions to be heard.5 4

Through these concerts, his Columbus overture, written for his friend Apel's drama Christopher Columbus, became popular in Magdeburg. Apel's play was also performed by the theater company. On the January 10, 1835 concert, the

overture to Die Feen was performed with great success.5 5

However, Wagner stated after the concert that he had actually lost all interest in his first opera, and cared no more about trying to get it produced. All his attentions were now centered on Das Liebesverbot.5 6

Minna Planer was also beginning to occupy much of his time. Up until early in 1835, their relationship had re mained relatively cool, mainly due to Minna's level headedness in dealing with Wagner's professions of love for her. Several upper-class men in the town were also interested in her, and although her conduct was at all times above reproach, these attentions of other suitors made Wagner almost insanely jealous. He would try anything

5 4 Julius Kapp, editor, Der junge Wagner (Berlin and Leipzig, 1910), p. 63.

5 5 Newman, op. cit., p. 177. 5 6 Ellis, . cit., I, 10. 32 in order to play on Minna's sympathies and thus gain her attention.

I pretended to be fond of the most undesirable associates, and acted in every way with such blatant levity that Minna, as she told me after wards, was filled with the deepest anxiety and solicitude concerning me.5 7

Wagner was at last successful in his attempts to gain complete possession of Minna. He did this by carrying out an act designed to arouse her sympathy and concern for him.

One evening I had promised Minna to have tea with her and Mme. Haas, but I had thoughtlessly promised to go to a whist party first. This engagement I purposely prolonged . . . in the deliberate hope that her companion might have left before my arrival. The only way in which I could do this was by drinking hard . . . . To my intense disgust the elder woman was still there when I arrived . . . . I scoffed at her in the coarsest manner so that she immediately left the house in high dudgeon . . . . As soon as she [Minna] realized that my condition was such as to render my removal impossible without great com motion, she rapidly formed a resolution which must indeed have cost her an effort, though it was carried out with the utmost calmness and good-humour. She did all she could for me, and procured me the necessary relief, and when I sank into a heavy slumber, un hesitatingly resigned her own bed to my use. There I slept until awakened by the wonderful grey of dawn . . . from that day forward we freely and openly gratified our desires as an acknowledged pair of lovers .58

The Magdeburg season ended in May, and Wagner returned to Leipzig to live with his sister Rosalie. Upon learning

5 7Wagner, op. cit., pp. 114-115.

5 8 Ibid., pp. 116-117. 33

that Laube had been provisionally set free, he travelled

to Bad KOsen to see him.

I can still call his woebegone appearance to mind. He seemed hopelessly resigned, though he spoke cheerfully with regard to all his earlier dreams of better things; and owing to my own worries at the time about the critical state of my affairs, this impression still remains one of my saddest and most painful recollections. While at Kosen I showed him a good many of the verses for my Liebesverbot, and although he spoke coldly of my presumption in wishing to write my own libretto, I was slightly encouraged by his appreciation of my work.5 9

In July, Wagner was re-engaged for his second year at Magdeburg. Upon receiving this news, he offered to set out on a tour of Germany for the purpose of recruiting new singers for the coming season. Since Bethmann could not afford to finance this journey, Wagner offered to pay all the expenses himself. In compensation, it was decided that Wagner was to receive all the proceeds from a benefit performance which would be given at the end of the season.

This arrangement later turned out to be a disaster for

Wagner. The tour was in the end financed, not by Wagner himself, but by Rosalie, Apel, and Friedrich Brockhaus, the publisher and husband of Wagner's sister Luise.6 0

Included in Wagner's journey were the cities of Bayreuth,

Nurnberg, Wu{rzburg, Wiesbaden and Frankfurt.

5 9 Ibid., p. 121 6 0 Gutman, op. cit., p. 50. 34

Full of enthusiasm and bringing several new singers with him, Wagner returned to Magdeburg in the fall for the beginning of the 1835-36 season. New works in the repertoire included Bellini's Norma, Auber's Lestocq, Spohr's* Jessonda, and Herold's Zampa.6 1 That Wagner was thinking more and more along the lines of Italian and French operatic style is indicated in a letter to Apel of October 27, 1835.

I am rehearsing Jessonda . . . . The opera fills me once more with utter disgust; the soft Bellini is a veritable Hercules compared with this great, lengthy, pedantic, sentimental Spohr. A little while ago it occurred to me to compose an overture to Romeo and Juliet. I was thinking out a rough plan when--would you believe it?--Bellini's stale, insipid overture, with its battlefield of a crescendo, turned up of itself in my sketch!6 2

Das Liebesverbot was nearing completion, and Wagner had intentions of using the opera as the work for the benefit performance promised to him as a means of defraying his expenses. In a letter to Apel of October 26, Wagner mentions wanting Das Liebesverbot's premiere to take place in Berlin at the Konigstadt Theater, a hope which eventually came to nothing.

Wagner was at this time so completely involved in the operatic world that he confessed to Apel that he was no longer interested in purely orchestral composition.

6 1Ibid., p. 51.

6 2Altmann, p. cit., p. 34. 35

I may perhaps even not take your advice that I should send a good overture to Leipzig. I don't want to be anyone's hanger-on, and your reports of Mendelssohn have finally dissuaded me. Adieu, ye solid splendours, I give myself up to the tinsel of the stage! I am now a composer of operas only, and am casting myself, body and soul and all my hopes, into my opera Liebesverbot at which I am hard at work now. The practice of this art absorbs me now entirely, and during the short time I have been back here I have been well rewarded there for.63

On December 27, Wagner again wrote to Apel concerning the premiere of Das Liebesverbot. In this letter he re vealed that the premiere would take place in Magdeburg and not, as originally hoped, in Berlin.

. . . there is the composition of my opera which I shall have finished by New Year's Eve. I am now at the focus of my talent, I do everything with ease and success. As regards the production I have now made up my mind. It will do well here at the end of February 1836 . . . . In many respects I could nowhere produce the opera more advantageously than here, with two excellent and an Isabella such as I could seldom better, our real genius of a Pollert. She has no name in Germany as yet, because she comes from Petersburg, but she will soon draw tears from all your eyes. So I shall produce my Liebesverbot for the first time here, get Cornet from Braunschweig, Cerf from Berlin and Ringelhardt from Leipzig for the occasion, and then please God, I launch my opera . . . . That is the scheme of opera-tions! 6 4

The music to Das Liebesverbot was finished by the beginning of 1836. The benefit performance of the opera was to take place at the end of the season, ordinarily the end of April. However, by the beginning of March, the company was so near bankruptcy that many of the singers were

6 3 Ibid., pp. 33-34. 6 4 Ibid., pp. 37-38. 36

beginning to abandon it and were looking for new engage ments. Wagner's benefit performance was thus moved up to

the end of March, and most of the singers stayed on until

then, only out of personal liking for the conductor. Some

of the singers participating in Das Liebesverbot were Frau

Pollert, FraEulein Limbach, Herrn Fernmliller, Schreiber, Krug,

and Unzelmann. Bethmann had talked Wagner into agreeing to

two performances. The proceeds from the first were to cover

the expenses of the production. The receipts taken in from

the second night were to go to Wagner personally.6 5

The work was almost not allowed to be given at all.

The police objected to the title of the opera, and tried to

prohibit its performance, but Wagner got around them simply

by changing its title.

It was the week before Easter, and the theater was consequently forbidden to produce jolly, or at least frivolous, plays during this period. Luckily the magistrate, with whom I had to treat concerning the matter, did not show any inclination to examine the libretto himself; and when I assured him that it was modelled upon a very serious play of Shakespeare's, the authorities contented themselves merely with changing the somewhat startling title. Die Novize von Palermo, which was the new title, had nothing suspicious about it, and was therefore approved as correct without further scruple.66

After Wagner had agreed with Bethmann on a premiere date

of March 29, ten days were left for him to try and prepare

6 5 Newman, o. cit., p. 206.

6 6Wagner, op. cit., p. 148. 37 his opera for performance. Rehearsals were held morning and night. The orchestral parts were quickly copied out, and Minna even had to sell a bracelet in order to pay the copyist.67 Wagner never gave up hope that a successful performance would somehow emerge from all this chaos.

. . . the time at our disposal was so very short that, for all the rehearsals, we had but ten days before us. And since we were concerned not with a light comedy or farce, but with a grand opera, and one which, in spite of the trifling character of its music, contained numerous and powerful concerted passages, the undertaking might have been regarded almost as foolhardy. Nevertheless, I built my hopes upon the extraordinary exertions which the singers so willingly made in order to please me; for they studied continuously morning, noon, and night. But seeing that, in spite of all this, it was quite impossible to attain to perfection, especially in the matter of words, in the case of every one of these harassed performers, I reckoned further on my own acquired skill as conductor to achieve the final miracle of success. The peculiar ability I possessed of helping the singers and of making them, in spite of much uncertainty, seem to flow smoothly onwards, was clearly demonstrated in our orchestral rehearsals, in which, by dint of constant prompting, loud singing with the performers and vigorous directions as to necessary action, I got the whole thing to run so easily that it seemed quite possible that the performance might be a reasonable success after all. 6 8

However, on the evening of the actual performance, Wagner of course was unable to sing along and gesture wildly as he had been doing at the rehearsals. The result was that

67 Newman, op. cit., p. 206.

6 8Wagner, op, cit., p. 139. 38 the singers, especially the men, forgot half of their lines and merely substituted lines from other operas.

FreimUtller, the , whose memory was most defective, sought to patch up the lively and emotional character of his badly learned role of the madcap Luzio by means of routine work learned in Fra Diavolo and Zampa, and especially by the aid of an enormously thick, brightly coloured and fluttering plume of feathers . . . With the exception of a few portions played by the lady singers, which were favourably received, the whole performance, which I had made to depend largely upon bold, energetic action and speech, remained but a musical shadow-play, to which the orchestra con tributed its own inexplicable effusions, sometimes with exaggerated noise.6 9

There was also no printed libretto available in time for the performance. Consequently the audience did not have the slightest idea of what the opera was about, and left the theater quite bewildered.

The performance for the second night was allowed to be given because no one had understood the story, and thus the authorities were still not aware that this opera was indeed no suitable work to be allowed on the stage a week before

Easter. Wagner counted on a large crowd for the second night, and even went so far as to raise the price of tickets.

However, fifteen minutes before curtain time Wagner looked out into the audience room, and saw that a grand total of two people had gathered for the performance. It was not to matter that the audience was so small, for the second performance did not take place.

6 9 Ibid., pp. 139-140. 39

I was still hoping for an increase in the audience, when suddenly the most incredible commotion occurred behind the scenes. Herr Pollert, the husband of my (who was acting Isabella), was assaulting Schreiber, the second tenor, a very young and handsome man taking the part of Claudio, and against whom the a secret injured husband had for some time been nursing rancour born of jealousy. It appeared that the singer's husband . . . had decided that the longed-for hour was at hand when . . . he could wreck vengeance on his wife's lover. Claudio was so severely used by him that the unfortunate fellow had to seek refuge in the dressing room, his face covered with blood. Isabella . . . went into convulsions. The confusion that en sued amongst the company soon knew no bounds; they took sides in the quarrel, and little was wanting for it to turn into a general fight, as everybody seemed to regard this unhappy evening as particularly favourable for the paying off of any old scores and supposed insults. This much was clear, that the couple suffering from the effects of Herr Pollert's conjugal resentment were unfit to appear that evening. The manager was sent before the drop-scene to inform the small and strangely assorted audience gathered in the theater that, owing to unforseen circumstances, the 7 0 representation would not take place.

Thus, Wagner's career at Magdeburg came to an end, and all the hopes which he had placed on a successful performance of Das Liebesverbot were destroyed. To make matters worse, his creditors, whom Wagner had managed to put off until after the Liebesverbot performance, were pursuing him again.

Wagner had promised them that he would take care of his innumerable debts after the success of his new opera. How to ever, when the opera failed and Wagner was still unable

satisfy his creditors, legal proceedings were started

7 0 Ibid., p. 148. 40 against him. He began to avoid his own dwelling, in order to make it more difficult for the authorities to track him down.71

Further Attempts at a Performance of Das Liebesverbot

After the failure of Das Liebesverbot in Magdeburg,

Wagner tried to get Leipzig to accept the opera for pro duction, and even offered the part of to the daughter of Leipzig's director, Ringelhardt. The director was shocked by this scandalous work. He replied to Wagner that, even if the Leipzig magistrates passed the work for performance, he, as a respectable father, would never permit his daughter to be seen in it.7 2

On April 19, 1836, Wagner sent an article to Robert

Schumann for publication in his Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik.

The article, "Aus Magdeburg," was published in the May 3,

1836 issue. In it was a description of musical life at

Magdeburg, with favorable comments included about the theater's musical director (Wagner himself, of course).

At the end of the season, a new opera by Richard Wagner--Das Liebesverbot oder Die Novize von Palermo was done . . . . The production was a hurried-up affair, but even if this were not the case, I cannot understand what could have moved the composer to produce a work like this opera for the first time in Magdeburg . . . . What I do know is that, if the composer is lucky enough to have the work well

71Ibid.,r-p.148. 7 2Newman, op. cit., p. 148. 41

produced in a good theater, it will come through. There is a lot in it, and what pleases me is that everything sounds; there is music and in it, which at this time is what we have to look hard for in our German operas.7 3

In a letter to SchumannWagner explained why he feels

he must say something about himself.

Dearest Friend! I send you herewith a kind of report on Magdeburg. There is not much to be said and on the whole I have not said much. I have once mentioned you--if you do not like my article alter it as you wish. With the best will I could not altogether avoid speaking some what of my own personality--in any case I was bound to be cited as musical director in any report of musical life in Magdeburg. Secondly, it would be absurd to put an undeserved slight on myself, and thirdly, my special reason for writing about my opera is that no one else does and I much wish that it should be discussed. It is tragic that one is forced to help oneself! Otherwise I think I have not said too much about myself. Nevertheless, I think you will find that my name had better not be mentioned to anyone, else woe is me. I shall probably soon see you in Leipzig, and God knows I rejoice thereat. The people here are nothing but so much filth! Adieu, my dearest Schumann.7 4

Wagner wrote to Apel on April 20, and asked him to send a small cask of 1834 wine. He had promised each of the chorus members in Das Liebesverbot a glass of wine as payment for staying on and singing for the performance.7 5

In May, Wagner traveled to Berlin, where he again saw his friend Laube. Laube advised Wagner to visit Cerf, the

7 3 Richard Wagner, "Aus Magdeburg," Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik, translated by Danna Behne (May 3, 1836), pp. 151-152. 7 4Altmann, op. cit., pp. 39-40.

7 5 Ibid., p. 40. 42

director of the Konigstadt theater, and try to persuade him

to produce Das Liebesverbot in Berlin. The proposal was to

appear especially plausible, because some of the singers who had sung in the Magdeburg performance of Das Liebesverbot were now working at the Konigstadt theater.

At first Cerf was very encouraging, and promised Wagner that rehearsals of his opera would begin at once. Upon these promises, Wagner again wrote to Schumann, told him about the up-coming performance of Das Liebesverbot in Berlin, and asked him to publish a notice of it in his Zeitschrift.7 6

However, after waiting around for weeks, Wagner became convinced that Cerf's promises actually meant nothing, and he finally had to abandon hope of the work's ever receiving a performance in Berlin at that time.

From Berlin, Wagner traveled to KOtnigsberg, where he applied for and obtained the position of music director. The way had been paved for him by Minna, who already had been hired as an actress for the coming season in Knigsberg, and had been living there for two months. Wagner's new position was actually to begin only when the present director, Louis

Schubert, who had already been hired at , left. However,

Schubert was in no hurry to leave, because of an affair with one of the singers at KOnigsberg. Thus Wagner was given a

7 6 Ibid., p. 41. 43

small retaining fee to keep him there, and also to keep

Minna there, which was probably more important to the management at that time.7 7

One of the most important events in Wagner's year at

Konigsberg was his marriage to Minna. Although they really never got along very well, quarrelling mainly over Wagner's ever-increasing debts, Wagner's jealousy and passion finally got the better of him and they were married on November 24,

1836. Wagner's description of his feelings during the wedding ceremony is almost tragically sad.

At that moment I saw, as clearly as in a vision, my whole being divided into two cross-currents that dragged me in different directions; the upper one faced the sun and carried me onward like a dreamer, whilst the lower one held my nature captive, a prey to some inexplicable fear. The extraordinary levity with which I chased away the conviction which kept forcing itself upon me, that I was committing a two fold sin, was amply accounted for by the really genuine affection with which I looked upon the young girl whose truly exceptional character (so rare in the environment in which she had been placed) led her thus to bind herself to a young man without any means of support. It was eleven o'clock on the morning of the 24th of November, 1836, and I was twenty-three and a half.7 8

A benefit performance for their wedding had been promised them by the KOnigsberg director Hibsch. Masaniello was given, with Wagner conducting and Minna playing the part of the dumb girl Fenella. The performance brought in a large sum. But

7 7 Newman, op. cit., pp. 212-213.

7 8Wagner, My Life, p. 165. 44

even so, it was not enough for Wagner. On the morning after

his wedding night he had to appear in court to answer the

demands of his Magdeburg creditors, who had by this time

finally caught up with him.7 9

During his year in KOnigsberg , Wagner began thinking more seriously about trying to get Das Liebesverbot produced outside of Germany, preferably in Paris. He believed that this would be his only chance of really becoming successful as an opera composer. He had written a libretto, Die hohe

Braut, for the purpose of gaining a commission from Paris to compose the music for it. This libretto he sent to

Scribe, the famous librettist of Auber and Meyerbeer, and asked him if he would use his influence in Paris to try to get it accepted. Wagner also sent Scribe the score to Das

Liebesverbot "to convince him of my ability to compose

Parisian operatic music." 8 0 At the same time he wrote to

Meyerbeer and asked him for support in Paris. Although he heard nothing from either of these men, Wagner remained undaunted.

I was not at all disheartend at receiving no reply, for I was content to know that now at last 'I was in communication with Paris.' 8 1

7 9 Gutman, op. cit., pp. 56-57.

80Wagner, My Life, p. 193.

8 1Ibid., p. 193. 45

Never afraid to ask for help, Wagner also wrote to

Schumann in December of 1836, telling him what a difficult time a German composer had in his own country, and asking him if he would use his influence to help make Wagner's name known in the Paris musical circles.

I should like to speak my mind and come to the point at once. You know that at the end of last year, I finished an opera, Das Liebesverbot oder die Novize von Palermo, the libretto from Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. Devil knows how it is, but I don't think the opera is bad . . . . The thing is unsuitable on German soil, both subject and music, and even if I wished to adapt it particularly to Germany, what gigantic difficulties has not the unknown German composer to face in order to find favour in Germany! That is, indeed, the curse under which all German opera labours! I really do not know where I should try to fix it. I barred Leipzig from the first because the subject would not be to the taste of the great Ringel hardt. I shall stumble on similar obstacles on every German stage, particularly as I am practically banished here in Siberia and my presence is prohibited in places where my personal influence counts for a little. Furthermore, what good would it be to me if I did succeed in Breslau or Braunschweig, places of which I had hopes? It would lead to nothing! I will make a bold bid for it and attempt Paris. The thing would just suit the Opera Comique. . . . I should like to send my comic opera direct to the manager of the Opera Comique. He might first have the music and plot -criticised by Auber (and God knows whom else) and then, should it please him, he might have the libretto worked up by anyone he chose and the music adapted. I think the idea's not so bad. My God!--Auber can't surely write him a new opera every month and why shouldn't the originality of the idea please him? When all's said and done it's only an experiment. First, however I turn once more to you. You have, of course, manifold connections with the Parisian authorities. Could you not tell me some good way of attaining my end with them? Or, if not, could you not at least send me, through your correspondents, the exact address of the entrepreneurs of the Opera Comique 46

and the easiest way of getting at them? Please see what can be done. If you yourself should light upon the most appropriate method of conducting the affair, I would send the score to you at Leipzig so that you may know approximately what you have to deal with. Now, just tell me, 0 most honoured patron of the Romantic School, what roughly is your opinion of it, what may be hoped for it, and what made of it . . . . I place this amount of trust in your cosmopolitanism, that you will not leave me unnoticed, and I earnestly implore an answer.8 2

In the spring of 1837, Wagner wrote a letter to August

Lewald, in Stuttgart, and told him about his opera, Das

Liebesverbot. He also sent him a copy of the Carnival Song from the opera. Lewald not only published the Song in his quarterly journal Europa, but also gave Wagner a welcome piece of publicity. 8 3

In April, Schubert finally left KOnigsberg. Wagner was at last able to take over his duties as musical director, only to have the theater close down in May due to bankruptcy.

Added to this frustration, Minna suddenly left him in May and went to Dresden to live with her parents. She was by this time fed up with Wagner's way of living, his debts, his hopes and dreams which always seemed to come to nothing, and she felt she could no longer live with him.

Wagner obtained a new position in June, that of music director at the theater in Riga. He then immediately went

to Dresden and tried to convince Minna that he now had a

82Altmann, op. cit., p. 45.

8 3Newman, op. cit., p. 221. 47

good stable position and was actually going to change his ways. However, she refused to come back to him at that

time, and in fact, did not join him in Riga until October of that year.

Wagner was engaged in Riga mainly because of his supposed enthusiasm for the French and Italian style of music. The theater patrons and the director, Holtei, wanted to see only the lightest of operas. Thus, at Riga

Wagner spent two more years of his life being exposed only to the music of such composers as Bellini, Donizetti, Auber, and Adam. However, he was, during this time, undergoing a secret change in his artistic tastes. His real genius was beginning to take over and drive out the superficialities and frivolities of his reckless youth.8 4

Wagner spent the entire two years at Riga thinking about and planning his Paris journey. His mind was by then com pletely made up: Paris was the only way out for him. In

November, 1838, he again wrote to Lewald in Stuttgart, thanking him for publishing the Carnival Song from Das

Liebesverbot in his Europa. This publication had been, by the way, almost two years ago. Naturally Wagner again wanted something, or the letter probably never would have been written.

8 4 Ibid., p. 227. 48

I have never discharged my debt of thanks to you for having taken up a man quite unknown to you in an extraordinarily friendly manner, for having acceded to my request that you would place my composition in your Europa and for having vouch safed very particular attention to my interests. May I now, by way of thanks, intrude upon you with yet greater confidence? Well, then, I wrote to you about an opera which I had offered Scribe with sug gested surrender of author's rights in the libretto . . . After waiting six months in vain for an answer, I wrote again to Scribe, taking upon myself part of the blame for his having ignored my letter, and saying I could well believe he would be in doubt how to reply since he knew nothing of me nor of my capacity as a composer, and meeting this difficulty by sending him the score of my big operatic comedy already completed, Das Liebesverbot . . . . I asked him to get an opinion on the score from Auber or Meyerbeer so that he might judge whether I were capable of composing an opera for Paris. In case the opera was approved I offered him this one at once, suggesting that he should get someone or other to do a free French translation of the libretto which he could then work up to his liking into an operatic plot of the Scribe type suitable for offering to the Opera Comique . . . . I posted the letter- unfranked for safety--and then--silence! I must make another bid for it and--don't be afraid!--I am going to open my attack upon you. Scribe and Paris are too far away from me now, andI need a middleman accustomed to that world and able to deal with the business direct. But what makes me plague you of all people, for whom the world is all too full of Richard Wagners? Listen then! More than by the brilliant standing which you frequently show in assisting the deserving yet un fortunate efforts of others. You seem to have made it a duty to spend your rich resources in encouraging and bringing to light unrecognized talents. Moreover, without being yourself in our position, you sympathised so completely with us unfortunate German operatic com posers that one's heart warms to you and one is inclined to believe you must sometime or other have secretly composed an opera and seen it moulder unnoticed . . tell him [Schlesier, an old school friend of Wagner's] to tell you whether I'm not worth anybody's interest . . . setting aside all question of an operatic project which will undoubtedly confer a lot of immortality upon all who have anything to do with it! Seriously, though, 49

I hope Schlesier will warm your heart towards me, or rather to my interests . . . . Now how would it be, my dear Sir, if you were to constitute yourself my complete protector and in that capacity were to have a cut at the famous Scribe'...... Oh Gustav, Gustav- but I won't give way to sentiment, I rather trust my self with good courage to you, your kindness and un deserved support. Be successful and you will indeed have done a great service to all us poor composers! . . . .tI can also give you the pleasure of knowing that a free copy of Europa would delight me greatly.8 5

While at Riga, Wagner sought to improve the standards of performance, and also made frequent demands for a more serious repertory. These higher standards of taste made him unpopular with Holtei, for these improvements were not what had originally been expected of Wagner, and not what he had been hired for.

Wagner quickly accumulated more debts while in Riga.

His Magdeburg and Konigsberg creditors also tried to collect from him, but he was at least safe from them in Russia.8 6

For these and other reasons, Wagner's contract for the

1839 season was not renewed. Although his pride was hurt by this seeming betrayal (his friend Dorn had accepted the position after Wagner had been fired), this was actually the push he needed in his growing resolve to try his luck in Paris.

There were many difficulties to be overcome before this

journey could be achieved. As usual, Wagner had no money,

85 Altmann, op. cit., pp. 46-47.

8 6Gutman, op. cit., p. 42. 50

and his passport had been taken away because of his debts.

However, after sneaking across the Russian border in the middle of the night, and spending three and a half weeks on a boat between Prussia and London, Wagner and Minna

finally arrived in France in August of 1839.

They first spent a month in Boulogne, where Wagner called on Meyerbeer. From him, Wagner obtained a letter of introduction to be used in helping him become accepted in the Paris musical circles. Meyerbeer also listened to parts of Rienzi, which Wagner had begun in Riga.

While we were here I made my first call on Meyerbeer. He did not seem in the least inclined to depreciate my intention of trying my luck in Paris as a composer of opera; he allowed me to read him my libretto for Rienzi, and really listened up to the end of the third act . . . He promised to give me letters of recommendation to Duponchel, the manager of the , and to Habeneck, the conductor. I now felt that I had good cause to extol my good fortune which, after many vicissitudes, had sent me precisely to this particular spot in France. What better fortune could have befallen me than to secure, in so short a time, the sympathetic interest of the most famous composer of French opera!8 7

In September Wagner went from Boulogne to Paris where he accidentally came across his old friend Laube again.

Laube had married a wealthy widow and they were now spending some time enjoying Paris together. Although Wagner was truly happy to see Laube again, he lost no time in explaining his situation to him, and then asking him for money.

8 7 Wagner, My Life, p. 208. 51

One of the first people Wagner went to see in Paris was Duponchel, the director of the Opera.

Duponchel . . . did actually see me at his office, where, fixing a monocle in his right eye, he read through Meyerbeer's letter without betraying the least emotion, having no doubt opened similar communications from the composer many times before. I went away, and never heard another word from him.88

Wagner then called on the conductor of the Opera, and got a more friendly response.

Habeneck, on the other hand, took an interest in my work that was not merely polite, and acceded to my request to have something of mine played at one of the orchestral practices at the Conservatoire as soon as he should have leisure.8 9

Wagner decided against seeing Scribe right away, on the grounds that the famous and busy author would probably have no time for "a young and unknown musician" like him self.9 0

With the help of Meyerbeer, who had by this time arrived in Paris, Wagner met Antdnor Joly, the director of the Th65tre de la Renaissance. Joly actually promised

Wagner that Das Liebesverbot would be produced there. All that was needed for a final acceptance was an audition.

About this time Wagner also met Marion Dumerson, an older man who had written many vaudeville pieces. Dumerson was delighted when approached with the offer of writing a libretto in French for Das Liebesverbot.

88Ibid., p. 211. 89 Ibid., p. 211. 90Ibid., p. 212. 52

He had no idea of standing on his dignity as an author, and was quite willing to undertake the translation of an existing libretto into French verse. We therefore entrusted him with the writing of my Liebesverbot, with a view to a performance at the Th69tre de la Renaissance, as it was then called * . . . On the understanding that it was to be a literal translation, he at once turned the three numbers of my opera, for which I hoped to secure a hearing, into neat French verse. Besides this, he asked me to compose a chorus for a vaudeville en titled La Descente de la Courtille which was to be played at the Vari6F s~during the carnival.9 1

Again with Meyerbeer's help, singers from the Opera were

engaged to prepare the three numbers which Dumerson had

already translated. However, before the audition for the

Renaissance Theater took place, Wagner received news that

the theater had gone bankrupt and had closed down. This

came as a particular blow to Wagner, not only because of his hopes for his opera, but also because he had just moved

to more expensive lodgings on the strength of Joly's promises. This was to become a lifelong habit of Wagner's,

to anticipate a success financially before it actually became a reality.

Still determined that these singers who had learned the numbers of Das Liebesverbot should be heard, he pre vailed upon the new director of the Opeora, Edouard Monnaie to grant them an audition. It was held in the green room of the Opgra; surprisingly, Scribe appeared in response to

9 1 Ibid. 53

Wagner's invitation. The three pieces were heard, with

Wagner presiding at the piano.9 2

They pronounced the music charming, and Scribe expressed his willingness to arrange the libretto for me as soon as the managers of the opera had decided on accepting the piece; 9 3 all that M. Monnaie had to reply to this offer was that it was impossible for them to do so at present. I did not fail to realize that these were only polite expressions; but at all events I thought it very nice of them, and particularly condescending of Scribe to have got so far as to think me deserving of a little politeness. But in my heart of hearts, I felt really ashamed of having gone back again seriously to that superficial early work from which I had taken these three pieces. Of course I had only done this be cause I thought I should win success more rapidly in Paris by adapting myself to its frivolous taste. My aversion from this kind of taste, which had been long growing, coincided with my abandonment of all hopes in Paris.9 4

Wagner remained in Paris two and a half years. It was probably the most miserable time of his life. He was poorer than ever, and met every day with numerous frustrations.

Merely to survive, he was forced to do transcriptions of popular pieces, such as Halevy's Reine de Chypre and

Donizetti's La Favorita, for the publisher Schlesinger.

He also earned a little money from his journalistic abilities,

9 2 Gutman, op. cit., p. 73.

9 3 "Scribe erkla'rte seine Bereitwilligkeit sofort einen Text fiar mich zu arrangieren, sobald die Administration der Oper mir die Composition desselben auftragen wurde." This seems to mean that Scribe would arrange a text for an opera as soon as the Administration commissioned Wagner to write a new opera, and that they had no intention of accepting Das Liebesverbot.

9 4 Wagner, My Life, p. 223. 54 contributing articles to various journals. During the

Paris years Rienzi was completed, and Der Fliegende

Hollander was also partially composed. The only good thing Paris had done for Wagner was that it had completely

Germanized him again. By 1842, when he finally returned to Germany, he wanted nothing more to do with the frivolous

French tastes and French music.

It was not until almost twenty-five years later that

Wagner thought about Das Liebesverbot again. In 1866 he presented the score of the opera to his patron King Ludwig

II as a Christmas present. On the title page is the following date and dedication.

Lucerne, Christmas 1866

Ah, once I erred, and now long to atone; How may I free myself from youthful sin? Its work I lay most humbly at thy feet That it may be redeemed by thy grace.9t

It appears that in his later years Wagner felt almost guilty about having written such an opera, which musically at least was the antitheses of his mature artistic style and beliefs. He was probably over-reacting when he labeled this work "a sin of my youth," for 1866 was also the year of Die

9 5 Edgar Istel, "Richard Wagners Opera, 'Das Liebesverbot" Die Musik, Wagner Heft VIII, 4 (1908-1909), p. 4. "Ich irrte einst, und mocht' es nun verbussen; Wie mach' ich mich der Jugendsunde frei? Ihr Werk leg' ich demiitiV Dir zu Fussen, Dass Deine Gnade ihm Erlosung sei." 55

Meistersinger. This reaction against his early passion for the Italian style can also be seen in his leaving out of the collected prose works the articles in which he praised Italian music.9 6

In 1879, Wagner played the of his first two operas for Cosima. She preferred Die Feen, but Wagner thought there was more "genius" in the overture to Das

Liebesverbot.9 7 Glasenapp tells us that Wagner liked the overture to Das Liebesverbot better than that of Die Feen, but thought the rest of Das Liebesverbot was "horrible," except for the Salva Regina.9 8

Wagner ordered that Das Liebesverbot, as well as Die

Feen and Rienzi, never be produced at Bayreuth.9 9 His mature judgement of the opera was that it was "atrocious, abominable, nauseating." 1 0 0 His ban remained in force until the Bayreuth Youth Festival's production of Die Feen in 1967, which will be discussed in a later chapter.

9 6 Ernest Newman, Wagner as Man and Artist (New York, 1924) , p. 161.

9 7 Newman, The Life of Richard Wagner, p. 209.

9 8 Carl Friedrich Glasenapp, Das Leben Richard Wagners, 6 volumes, (Leipzig, 1905-1911) , VI, 187. 9 9 Letter from Gertrud Strobel, archive keeper, Richard Wagner Archive, April 5, 1971.

10 0Gutman, op. cit., p. 55. CHAPTER III


The Story of Das Liebesverbot

The King of Sicily, away on a journey to Naples, has left the regency in the hands of the Governor, Friedrich, who has been given full power to completely reform the social habits of the people of Sicily. At the beginning of the first act, Friedrich's soldiers are busy destroying wine booths and other places of amusement which have been set up to celebrate the Carnival. The people of Palermo are protesting loudly against the interruption of their merry-making. Dorella, Pontio Pilato, and other servants at a local wine house have been taken prisoners, and the crowd demands to know the meaning behind these police measures.

After a drum roll, Brighella, the chief of police, reads a proclamation from Friedrich. Every kind of pleasure, be it

Carnival, wine, or love, is henceforth forbidden. Brighella's announcement is met with loud laughter and scorn. The crowd is silenced by the entrance of Claudio, who has been taken prisoner for his "crime" of loving Julia too much. Claudio, because of legal technicalities, has been unable to marry

Julia, and she has now had a child. Because of this, Claudio is to be executed the next day. His only hope of being saved

56 57 lies in his sister Isabella, who is a novice in the convent of St. Elisabeth. Claudio asks his friend Luzio to go to the convent and persuade Isabella to come to his trial and plead with Friedrich for her brother's life.

The next scene takes place in the convent. Isabella is talking with Mariana, also a novice, and in the course of the conversation, Mariana discloses why she has come to the convent. She was at one time the wife of Friedrich, but he deserted her for his political ambitions. She now seeks peace and comfort in the convent as a nun. Isabella is horrified at her story and expresses a desire to avenge women against such heartless men. As Mariana leaves, Luzio enters. He tells Isabella that her brother awaits execution because of Friedrich's new laws, and that only she can save

Claudio. In a fervent outburst Isabella prays for the strength to exterminate the hypocritical governor, and then agrees to go with Luzio. He has by this time fallen in love with the beautiful and impassioned novice. Luzio entreats her to leave the convent forever and become his wife. Isabella discourages his advances, and says she will only leave the convent this one time, in order to save her brother.

The third scene takes place in the courtroom. Friedrich has not yet arrived. Brighella, alone, speculates on how good he would be as a judge, and decides to try a few cases himself.

He orders the soldiers to send in the prisoners, one by one. 58

Pontio Pilato whose business it is to arrange various types of entertainment at a local wine house, is brought in first.

Brighella pronounces a sentence of banishment on him. Pontio who thinks nothing of love "for only one hour," is terribly worried about what banishment would do to his honor. He is led away by the soldiers, and Dorella is brought in.

Brighella is overcome by her pert, flirtatious ways, and, as a result, completely loses control of the situation. She calls the rest of the.crowd in, and accuses Brighella of infidelity to the laws.

Friedrich enters and calls for silence. A petition is presented to him by a young nobleman, Antonio, asking him to revoke his strict rules against the Carnival. In answer to Antonio, Friedrich tears up the petition. Claudio is brought in, and Friedrich mercilessly pronounces the death sentence on him. Isabella and Luzio arrive, and she demands to speak with Friedrich alone. After the others have left,

Isabella is able to soften Friedrich's heart. He agrees to revoke Claudio's sentence, if Isabella will show him how heavenly Claudio's crime was. Isabella then realizes she must pay for her brother's freedom with her honor. She anxiously calls the crowd back in, intending to show them the hypocrisy of Friedrich. However, before she is able to reveal anything, Isabella is warned by the governor to remain silent. After a few despairing moments, an idea comes to 59

Isabella. She has figured out how she can conquer the wicked

Friedrich, and at the same time free her brother. Isabella agrees to his conditions, and says she will send him a note stating where he is to meet her. The act ends triumphantly,

Friedrich and Isabella both thinking they have won, and the crowd, although in confusion over the whole state of affairs, going along with Isabella's appearance of success.

Act Two opens in the prison garden, where Claudio is

lamenting his fate. He is soon visited by Isabella, who

tells him of Friedrich's proposition to her. Claudio heroically states that he is prepared to sacrifice himself

to preserve his sister's honor. Isabella, convinced that he

is truly worthy of saving, is ready to reveal her plan, when

Claudio weakens, and begs her to reconsider. Angered,

Isabella hastily leaves, letting Claudio suffer in the

thought that he is to die after all. Isabella still intends

to carry out her plan to trap Friedrich in his own game. She

will send Mariana disguised to the agreed place of the

rendezvous. Friedrich is to come masked, and the meeting is

to take place at the Carnival.

The second scene takes place in Friedrich's room. Torn

between loyalty to his own laws and his passion for Isabella,

he finally resolves to be true to both. He will enjoy Isa

bella's love, but by his own law will afterward die for it.

Claudio must die, too. When Friedrich receives Isabella's 60 note, he is confused by her request that he come disguised, but is determined to carry the whole thing through.

The last scene takes place on the Carnival grounds, In defiance of the law, the people are continuing with their

Carnival celebrations. Luzio sings a Carnival Song, and urges all the people to join in the fun. Brighella appears and breaks up the group. When all have dispersed, however, he puts on a Carnival costume and goes off to look for

Dorella. Isabella and Mariana enter, and Isabella explains to Mariana what she is to do. As they leave, Friedrich appears, cautiously sneaking around so that he will not be recognized. Luzio intercepts him, but pretends not to recognize him; he intends to wait and see what develops.

Friedrich finally loses Luzio, and goes on his way to meet

Isabella. In the meantime, Pontio Pilato has intercepted the note which was supposed to be Claudio's reprieve and brings it to Isabella. Upon reading it, she realizes that

Claudio is to die after all. She calls the people together and tells them of Friedrich's treachery. Pontio Pilato, who has gone to the location of the rendezvous, has captured

Friedrich and Mariana, and now brings them before the crowd.

Friedrich is unmasked. Humiliated, he says he is prepared to die for breaking his own laws. The people answer that they will be more merciful than he has been. The unnatural laws will be abolished. Mariana reveals herself as his wife, 61 to the astonishment of the crowd. Claudio, who has been rescued by his friends, comes in. Isabella admits that she loves Luzio and agrees to marry him. Brighella and Dorella are also paired off. A messenger announces that the King is returning, and the crowd forms a Carnival procession to go and greet him. They are sure he will approve of his warm-blooded Sicilians' overthrowing the puritanical rules which had been imposed on them by the German Friedrich. In triumphant mood, the opera comes to a close.

General Analysis of the Text

Wagner based the story of Das Liebesverbot on Shakes peare's play Measure for Measure. He had early in his life become acquainted with Shakespeare's works through his uncle,

Adolf Wagner, who had made German translations of Shakes peare's plays, and had also translated a biography of


At the age of fourteen Wagner attempted his first dramatic work, the play , modelled after ,

Otello, King Lear, and . For this he was severely reprimanded by his uncle who thought Richard should have his mind only on school studies. 2

1William Ashton Ellis, Life of Richard Wagner, 6 vols. (London, 1900-1908) I, 17-26.

2 Newman, op. cit., p. 61. 62

Wagner's only other work in which he used Shakespeare as a background for the text was Das Liebesverbot. In choosing a Shakespeare text for this particular opera, he may have been thinking of Bellini's Romeo and Juliet, with which he had earlier been so impressed, mainly because of

Schroder-Devrient's singing. Das Liebesverbot was also

Wagner's only opera to use an already existing dramatic text as its basis. In fact, except for Das Liebesverbot and Rienzi, taken from Bulwer Lytton' s novel, all of Wagner's operatic texts arose out of a wide variety of sources.

The Shakespeare text of Measure for Measure was not very strictly adhered to in Das Liebesverbot. Wagner readily admitted that in using Shakespeare's work he was not con cerned with the moral justice which, in the original, triumphs in the end. The true meaning of "measure for measure" was deliberately left out by Wagner.

The fact that these powerful features [love and power] are so richly developed in Shakespeare's creation only in order that, in the end, they may be weighed all the more gravely in the scales of justice, was no concern of mine; all I cared about was to ex pose the sinfulness of hypocrisy and the unnaturalness of such cruel moral censure.3

The first thing that Wagner changed in Das' Liebesverbot was the location; he moved the setting from Vienna to Sicily.

The warmth and sunniness of southern Italy symbolized to

3 Wagner, My Life, p. 102. 63

Wagner freedom from hypocritical moral standards and out worn customs. Italy represented the warmth and passion of true life, in contrast to the cold north of Germany.

Friedrich, the only character with a German name, stood for the cold lifelessness of unnatural morality, for

German hypocrisy, and also for the pedantry of the learned

German musical heritage. Wagner had been reading Ardinghello by Heinse, and Laube's literary works about Verona and

Vincenza, in all of which the joyous sensualism of the South was painted in glowing colors. Die Stumme von Portici

(Masaniello) by Auber and certain memories of Die

Sizilianische Vesper (the 13th century historical Sicilian

Vespers)4 probably also contributed to this theme.5

Being instinctively a good dramatist, Wagner was able to condense Measure for Measure into the proportions necessary for a successful opera. The number of characters was reduced to eleven, compared with twenty-two in the

Shakespeare work. The characters of Isabella, Mariana,

Claudio, and Luzio remained the same. Shakespeare's two unnamed noblemen became in Das Liebesverbot Angelo and

Antonio. The governor, named Antonio in Measure for Measure, was changed to the German-named Friedrich, since Wagner very

4 Ellis, Richard Wagner's Prose Works, I, 8.

5Wagner, My Life, p. 102. 64 obviously wanted to associate the villain in the play with

Germany. The comic character of Elbow became Brighella in

Das Liebesverbot, Mistress Overdone became Danieli, and the servant Pompey was in Das Liebesverbot named Pontio Pilato.

One new character, Dorella, was added. The main character in the Shakespeare play, Prince Vincentio, Wagner chose to

leave out completely. He is only mentioned at the end of

Das Liebesverbot when he is sighted returning to Palermo

from his journey. In Measure for Measure the Prince

supposedly leaves, but actually disguises himself and stays

around to watch how the governor is able to rule when he is


The complicated action of Measure for Measure was also

simplified by Wagner. He reduced the five -act Shakespeare play

to two acts, each having only three scenes. The three scenes

of the first act are respectively; a place outside the city,

the cloister of St. Elisabeth, and the courtroom. Those of

the second act are: the prison, Friedrich's room, and the

Carnival grounds. A type of symmetry can be seen here, with

almost identical crowd scenes at the beginning and end, and

the more intimate settings in the middle.

In his re-construction of Das Liebesverbot from Measure

for Measure, Wagner already showed signs of his superb oper

atic craftsmanship. Das Liebesverbot is a well-made play,

excluding some dramatic inconsistencies at the end. Istel, 65 in his article on Das Liebesverbot, says that the opera could only have been written by a musical-dramatic genius.6

Wagner himself admitted that, in writing the libretto, he took great pains to do the verses well.7

Wagner's political and social feelings during this time in his life were vividly represented in Das Liebesverbot.

He was passing through a period of freedom from convention and emancipation from the past. This insurgent mood sub sided for a time after Das Liebesverbot, only to arise again more strongly than ever during his years in Dresden. His later revolutionary attitude eventually led in 1848 to his twelve-year exile from Germany.

Wagner's disgust with the conservatism of Germany, and his current enthusiasm for the ideas expressed in "Young

Europa," are represented in his treatment of the stone hearted, cold character of Friedrich. He is the puritanical

German element in the play and in the end he is overcome by the people. Wagner saw revolution as the only method of resolving the conflicts, and for this reason did not need

Shakespeare's character of the Prince. Wagner's ending was in direct contrast to Shakespeare's, who had the Prince appear and judge the situation by using the maxim of "measure

6 Istel, op. cit., p. 47.

7Ellis, The Prose Works of Richard Wagner, VII, 16. 66 for measure." Wagner was not concerned with Shakespeare's scale of justice at the end. His only object was to expose the sin of hypocrisy and the unnaturalness of a ruthless code of morals.8

Besides the "scourging of puritanical hypocrisy,"

Wagner also "exalted unrestrained sensuality" in Das


I robbed it [Measure for Measure] of its pre vailing earnestness . . . free and frank sensuality gained, of its own sheer strength, the victory over Puritanical hypocrisy.9

In this praise of unrestrained sensual enjoyment, Wagner's own wild and hectic life and his own strong sexual drive are exemplified. It is probable also that his lovesickness for

Minna at this time also led him to intensify the extravagant

situation in Das Liebesverbot.1 0 Sexual desire was perhaps

the strongest force in Wagner's nature. This could be seen

in his wild student years, his early marriage, and his sub

sequent adventures with women throughout his life. This

idea of unrestrained physical enjoyment, introduced in Das

Liebesverbot, was later expressed with even more intensity

in Tannhauser, Die WalkUire, and Tristan und Isolde.

8 Ibid., p. 8.

9 Ellis, The Prose Works of Richard Wagner, I, 10.

1 0 Julius Kapp, The Women in Wagner's Life (London, 1932), p. 129. 67

Wagner was against moral censures. In Das Liebesverbot he discarded the idea of love-guilt associated with sexual enjoyment and became interested only in the joy of life and love. In doing this he also parted company with the German

Romantic Opera, which was based on critical and ethical con ceptions of sexual emotions. Instead he joined hands with the typical French and Italian music dramas of the day, which were generally concerned with this unrestrained sensuality.1 1 Wagner even later admitted that the French translation suited the music better than the original German.

During the composition of Das Liebesverbot Wagner was beginning to really discover women. He says in his Com munication to my Friends, "Woman had begun to dawn on my horizon. 112 The only women who had had a large influence on him before Minna were his sisters Rosalie and Cacilie, and Wilhelmine Schroder-Devrient. A part of all of them can be seen in the character of Isabella.

It was Isabella that inspired me: she who leaves her novitiate in the cloister,.to plead with a hardhearted Stateholder for mercy to her brother, who, in pursuance of a draconic edict, has been condemned to death for entering on a forbidden, yet Nature-hallowed love-bond with a maiden. Isabella's chaste soul urges on the stony judge such cogent reasons for pardoning the offence, her agitation

llPaul Bekker, Richard Wagner: His Life in His Work, translated by Mildred Mary Bozeman (New York, 1931), p. 15. 1 2 Ellis, The Prose Works of Richard Wagner, I, 274. 68

helps her to paint these reasons in such entrancing warmth of colour, that the stern protector of morals is himself seized with passionate love for the superb woman.13

Thus the basis of Wagner's drama is a sensuous woman, who was also created along heroic lines. This basic theme is not a little like that of Fidelio, which Wagner greatly admired.

The combination in Isabella of purity and renunciation on the one hand and sensuous desire on the other, Wagner later divided into two characters, the Venus and Elisabeth in


The motive of redemption through love was Wagner's favorite literary motive, and one he used throughout his works. In Das Liebesverbot, Isabella, the pure and re sourceful virgin, takes it upon herself to save a not so deserving male, whom she loves. Through this theme Das

Liebesverbot can also be compared with Tannhaiuser. However, in Das Liebesverbot the redeeming love is not yet that of a beloved, but only the love of a sister. Wagner uses

Isabella's love not only to save her brother, but also to charge the hypocritical Friedrich. "So I left the 'measure for measure' completely out of sight and let avenging love love alone arraign the hypocrite." 1 4

Das Liebesverbot was the dramatic expression of Wagner's anti-German and pro-Italian sentiments. This was shown in

1 3Ellis, The Prose Works of Richard Wagner, I, 295.

14Ibid., VII, 8. 69 his preference for the Italian operatic style, and also in his enthusiasm for the Italian national temperament.1 5

Thus, Wagner displayed his contempt for all things German, both in the music and in the text to Das Liebesverbot.

Thirty years later, in Die Meistersinger, Wagner went to just as great extremes to express his pro-German tendencies.

Das Liebesverbot could be considered an international, or anti-national opera, while Die Mestersinger is the epitome of nationalism. However, Das Liebesverbot can be compared to Die Meistersinger in at least one way, for these are the only two operas Wagner wrote which can be said to have a

"happy ending."

A Detailed Analysis of the Music and Text

The overture to Das Liebesverbot gives a good idea of the musical style of the entire work. It is noisily effective, and some of the themes are so incessantly re peated that one is almost compelled to listen, regardless of whether or not one wants to. The music is lively and energetic throughout. The orchestra required for the opera is a relatively large one, especially for the 1830's. The instrumentation is as follows:

1 5 Gutman, op. cit., p. 53. 70

Piccolo Ophicleide 2 Flutes Timpani 2 Oboes Castanets 2 Clarinets Tambourine 2 Bassoons Triangle 4 Horns Drum 4 Cymbal 3 Trombones Strings

The overture begins with four measures of percussion, followed by a rousing Carnival theme in C major played by the full orchestra.

Fig. 1--Das Liebesverbot, Number I, measures 5-8

This theme will later be heard in the last act as an intro duction to Luzio's Carnival Song. After eight measures of this incessant eighth-note pattern, a second Carnival motive is heard.

Fig. 2--Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 13-16

This four-measure phrase is alternated between the woodwinds and the full orchestra until the original motive breaks in again. The repetition of a piquant figure such as this second motive is a typical French and Italian device. Einstein 71

compared this section to "the bleating rhythm of Meyer beer." 1 6 After a pause which interrupts the busy for

tissimo Carnival motives, the love-ban theme is heard

in the strings, low brass and low woodwinds.


- I,

Fig. 3--Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 38-39

It sounds very sinister and inflexible in contrast to the

gay Carnival motive heard just before and after it. The

contrast of ideas cannot be more obvious. In fact, the

oppositeness of these two motives symbolizes the dramatic

conflict inherent in the entire opera.

At the end of the restatement of the Carnival theme,

a new sextuplet chromatic figure is introduced. Again

the love-ban theme is heard, in doubled time. However

as it tries to restate itself, it is regularly interrupted

by fragments of the Carnival motive.

1 6 Einstein, op. cit., p. 384. 72

-wQ. Si-t LOW

Now MW I L


-IRV mw Itir

Fig. 4--Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 77-86

Here Wagner is again emphasizing the conflict of these two

main ideas, each struggling for supremacy. A sustained G

in the low strings and brass calms this struggle for the

moment. After another pause, a new theme is introduced,

that of Friedrich's passion, or love-frenzy.


44wg mop 60000 'ii)

Fig. 5--Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 123-126

It begins softly in the strings, but is repeated several times, with crescendo and addition of instruments, until it is finally heard fortissimo played by the full orchestra. The second half of the theme is then heard. 73

Fig. 6--Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 147-150

This figure is also repeated many times fortissimo until,

almost at the breaking point of frantic sensuousness and

passion, it is interrupted by the love-ban theme. The

pushing and driving of this sensuous them, repeated in

cessantly at a fortissimo level, reminds one of the breath less passion expressed in the orchestra at the meeting of Tristan and Isolde in Act II.

Fig. 7--Tristan und Isolde, Act II2, Scene 2, measures 1-4.

The love-ban motive does not gain much ground, however, for the percussion enters introducing still another Carnival motive, which in turn leads back to the original Carnival theme heard at the beginning of the overture. 74

Fig. 8--Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 199-202

After its restatement, all of the motives which have been

introduced up to now are developed, the inherent conflict between the fun-loving people of Palermo and the strict,

cold-hearted Friedrich with his love-ban being constantly

emphasized. The love-ban theme is mostly used in an ab

breviated form throughout the development, and it is

skillfully combined contrapuntally with the other themes.

Fig. 9--Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 283-286

At the end of the development the love-ban theme is

heard for the last time in the overture, this time sounding

very weak and defeated. It finally gives in to the per

cussion and the Carnival . A is heard which

anticipates the arrival of the King at the end of the opera.

Its rhythm is similar to that of the triplet Carnival motive. 75

Fig. 10--Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 377-381

This fanfare announcing the arrival of the King can be com

I, pared with the arrival of the Landgraf in Tannhauser, both the King in Das Liebesverbot and the Landgraf in Tannhauser being the reasonable and just figures in each opera.

Fig. ll--Tannhauser, Act I, Scene 3, measures 146-149

The descending eighth-note Carnival theme enters again.

A presto section follows introduced by another, more stately fanfare, in the horns and trumpets. The Carnival themes are all heard once more and, with the addition of one new merri ment motive, they hold triumphantly to the end of the over ture.

Fig. 12--Das Liebesverbot, Number 1, measures 454-457 76

The overture to Das Liebesverbot is similar to the overture to He'rold's Zampa, harmonically and formally. The first frivolous measures of Zaxnpa could be compared to the first Carnival themes,

r AI

i W! a I '1 1 ",

Fig. 13--Herold, Zampa, Overture, measures 1-4 the shocking Bb octave whole-note interruption in Zampa, shocking because of the D major key, to the interruption of

the love-ban theme,

Fig. 14--Herold, Zampa, Overture, measures 32-35

and the third, more lyrical and passionate theme in the Zampa

overture to the love-frenzy theme in Das Liebesverbot.

Fig. 15--Herold, Zampa, Overture, measures 157-160 77

Wagner was well-exposed to Herold's opera. He heard it for the first time in 1832 while visiting in Vienna. Zampa was in the Wurzburg theater's repertoire when Wagner was there in 1833 as chorus director, and the opera was also performed in Magdeburg during the 1835-1836 season. However, Das

Liebesverbot is much better developed and is more interesting musically than Zampa, or, for that matter, any of the other

French or Italian operas after which it was patterned.

The first act begins with loud, booming unison C's in the brasses and low strings. As these C octaves continue, a frenzied upward-moving eighth-note passage is introduced, which is the music of the crowd's protest against the soldiers tearing up the Carnival booths (their blows being the unison

C's, perhaps).

m m 4p -JIIL

+ V


LOP I I - A 4T --- I T T t -1 I a 12 ACE At -MA-1 kw i- I ----

Fig. 16--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 1-4

Also in the orchestral introduction is one of the Carnival merriment themes, first heard in the coda of the overture.

After two measures of a descending chromatic scale in the high strings and woodwinds the chorus enters. There is much 78 activity and confusion on stage, as in the music. Ascending and descending chromatic scales in sextuplets, tremolos in the strings, and breathless fragmented melody in the chorus all contribute to a mood of general excitement. The rhythmic figure x / c is especially predominant throughout this first section; it is used antiphonally, as laughter, and also in other short statements by the chorus.

As Luzio, Antonio, and Angelo come out of the tavern, their lightheadedness is emphasized by a carefree and flippant motive in the violins and woodwinds.

Fig. 17--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 25-26

Dorella pleads with Luzio to help her, in some of the most serious music associated with her in the opera.

I"- tD-I : Ac bet rs4N Iif W

Fig. 18--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 47-49 79

There is a touch of sensuousness to the pleading; Dorella work best probably knows that this type of approach will with Luzio. The offer to be released from a marriage of promise is appealing to Luzio, and his consideration this offer is indicated in the orchestra.


Fig. 19--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 58-59

Brighella suddenly stops the incessant and crescendoing

demands of the crowd with a loud "Halt." For the first

time since the scene began, the tension and drive of the

music is abated. A drum roll announces Brighella's reading

of Friedrich's proclamation. In sarcastic anticipation the

crowd sings here sotto voce without orchestral accompaniment.

seiA SILWaS YVV&5AaS tile- e setY

Fig. 20--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 91-92

Now for the first time, outside of the overture, the love-ban

theme is heard, slowly and sinisterly stated by the strings 80 and woodwinds. The nature of this motive is similar to that of the various curse motives which occur in the later Wagner operas. And, like these later motives, the love-ban theme, more than any other motive in Das Liebesverbot, is brought up by the orchestra throughout the work whenever it can

comment appropriately on the particular dramatic action on

stage. This theme provides a sense of foreboding whenever it is introduced, and is in this way similar to 's

forbidden question motive, or Alberich's curse on the ring.

In answer to the proclamation, the people burst out


Vn. va

I4aa-m) aA

AF Ai-!mif

Fig. 21--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 107-111

The chorus then sings a laughing song deriding Friedrich's

new laws. 81

Fig. 22--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 151-154

The sound of their laughing is skillfully represented in the music.

Fig. 23--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 165-170

This mocking laughter in half-steps reminds one of the de rision of Max by the chorus in the first act of Der Freischutz.

Fig. 24--Weber, Der Freischutz, Act I, Number 1, measures 111-112.

The people refer to Friedrich as the "German fool," and de mand "send him home to his snow, let him be chaste and dull."

This chorus is repeated, with fragmentation of the main ideas.

Throughout this chorus section Brighella sings his own line, independent of the chorus's laughing and merrymaking. During 82

the final outburst of laughing, one of the Carnival themes

is heard in the orchestra, and the section closes after

several measures of cadencing.

The mood changes as Claudio is brought in, to a somewhat

suspenseful melody in the orchestra.




Fig. 25--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 236-237

The tension and excitement are increased, mainly by the

orchestra, after Claudio explains to the crowd that he is to

die tomorrow.

-0W - I I L A. t

_ _ _LW_ _ _ _

Fig. 26--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 259-260

The orchestra in Das Liebesverbot can be incredibly busy at

times when Wagner wanted17Gumanop. it.,pp. excitement. WC56 One cannot help agreeing with Gutman's statement, "The music is terribly busy . ...

One must wonder at the adroitness involved in expressing relatively so little musically by so many notes. "1 7 -o ct "p.5 1 83

Dorella explains her crime to Claudio, accompanied by a carnival-like motive in the orchestra, which is actually taken from her earlier plea for help.

Fig. 27--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 267-268

Then, accompanied by a tense tremolo in the strings, Luzio describes Friedrich as a fool, who has neither warm flesh nor warm blood, but only a stone heart. He goes on to say in a passionate , "If he must freeze beneath our warm

Sicilian sky, let him beware; hot passions have Sicilian men."

Fig. 28--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 305-307

Claudio, knowing of only one thing which could possibly save him, sings a moving aria in which he tells Luzio of his 84 sister, Isabella. The woodwind introduction suggests the purity of Isabella and the convent.

ir, I .%oat ft 4

Alloo. ro"I , C21 F7 1 1 4 *j ----j t --A -- IIII lK j Jrldlk. I -ddft

"WAY* ow

IcQ Q st~ -e Of-t,)

Fig. 29--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 315-320

As Claudio sings "Hurry, friend, to her," the orchestra begins a simple Italian-style repeated chord accompaniment in the strings.


Fig. 30--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 329-330

This technique is not completely abandoned by Wagner until after Tannhauser. However, he cannot stand that much simplicity for long, for he soon adds two countermelodies to this choral accompaniment. 85




Fig. 31--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 336-340

As the chorus enters again, the orchestra accompanies

them with music from the laughing-song. It is alternated

with the theme of Claudio's plea for help. In a good

Italian style the excitement is built up, with the chorus

repeating endlessly "How shall this madness end," and the

soloists each commenting on their particular plight. The

laughing-song motive is reiterated in the brass, low strings

and, surprisingly enough, piccolo. In fact, throughout the

opera, the piccolo is used independently or with this unusual

combination, and not always with the flute or other woodwind

instruments as one would expect. In this final section, led

into by the laugh theme and an ascending scale, the chorus,

still singing "How shall this tale of madness end," alternates

with Claudio, Luzio, Brighella, and the orchestra. Claudio

and Luzio's melodies are serious in nature, Brighella's more

in the style of a patter song. 86


Fig. 32--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 384-387

This idea, always building, is repeated many times. In this finale a new Carnival theme is introduced, based on the triplet fanfare and the triplet Carnival motive first heard in the overture.

ovLa I i I -s t /i I

lef ya#U 0Va 11 ru r

Fig. 33--Das Liebesverbot, Number 2, measures 423-426

There is a stretto section at the end with a final outburst by everyone, "Our freedom shall he destroy."

The fast repetition and fragmentation of words and motives, the continuous building to the end, and the different characters expressing different thoughts also characterize the popular

Italian operas of the time, especially Rossini, and this final 87 chorus could stylistically be compared to the finale of the first act of Barber of Seville.

After a fortissimo climax in the chorus, the orchestra reminisces over what has just happened. The triplet Carnival motive is repeated by the woodwinds and violins, and under neath, the cellos play in counterpoint a variation of

Claudio's song. The cellos then continue alone dying down to a pianissimo. Wagner cleverly ends the scene with a final, scoffing statement of the laughing song.

At the beginning of the Cloister Scene a Salve Regina theme is heard, first in the violins and high woodwinds, and then sung by an offstage chorus of nuns.

Fig. 34--Das Liebesverbot, Number 3, measures 1-6

This theme, more than any other, provides a link between Das

Liebesverbot and Wagner's other operas. It is basically the same as the Salvation theme heard in the orchestral prelude beginning the third act of Tannhauser. 88

Ut ill I "lf of 0 1 , II1 I I ~L~i . IW.,~R


T I f I' I

i Fig. 35--Tannhauser, Act III, measures 47-51

This in turn links Das Liebesverbot to Parsifal, because of

the Salvation motive's relationship to the Belief motive and

the Grail motive, the so-called in Parsifal.

'0000,00,0011 f,% I oowoo A&

Fig. 36--Parsifal, Act I, measures 39-43

A bell on the stage also adds to the atmosphere of the convent. A motive of peace and tranquility is played by the cellos, and then echoed by the flutes. 89

Fig. 37--Das Liebesverbot, Number 3, measures 17-19

Mariana and Isabella begin a duet, with the voice lines

remaining a third apart most of the time.

Fig. 38--Das Liebesverbot, Number 3, measures 37-39

The vocal lines are florid, with grace notes and thirty second note runs. As they sing, the orchestra occasionally gives out the tranquility motive. When the melody is not being sung, it is taken up by the orchestra. At the end of the first section, the two women have a cadenza in the very best Italian style. 90

I - loop", . "At MMW-N -W- a In F FAMP- . a I 1 A .1 ANN_ r rRAW M.L W' of 'W '*&W FW Afti 11 WW Her :Zeov)

12 a AM a R,_ im w _T LID -T z PW IF

Al F-1-61 'm I wk IM PW a 31 9 1 TIAL __7V FF rAd I

gAl I boom wm R qw -V.nI I- MOMMver-D

Fig. 39--Das Liebesverbot, Number 3, measures 74-81

Just how Italian this is can be seen by comparing the

Liebesverbot passage to the cadenza in Norma at the end of

the duet between Norma and Adalgisa.

MAa a' e \eve i an. , T , .1

IL -0 FM w -W r M m r I I t I T T, A 7 b...d T_ ta t -1 - ir I i, ;



tA __ "mom "PF

% ce av%.

rw-- =47 vot% e

Fig. 40--Bellini, Norma, Act I, Number 6, measures 277-278. 91 A dialogue follows, partly in recitative style, and partly with chordal accompaniment in the strings. When Mariana tells Isabella that Friedrich is really her husband, the orchestra breaks in with dotted and double-dotted chords to emphasize the "drama" of the revelation. The bells and the Salve Regina are heard again introducing the return of the first section, thus making this number a simple ABA form. With the return of the A section, however, instead of singing a similar line in thirds with Mariana, Isabella provides a counterpoint to Mariana's melody.

t ~~YyvA-scv~e Ru l& Mw G Ai~1; en- I

Fig. 41--Das Liebesverbot, Number 3, measures 158-160

Throughout this last section each voice is more independent, the singers sometimes singing alone, sometimes passing the melody back and forth, and sometimes providing two counter melodies while the main melody is played by the orchestra. The orchestra ends the number with a few final statements of the tranquility motive followed by a staccato upward moving broken chord which leads directly into the next number. 92 A loud tutti chord begins the fourth number. As Luzio enters the convent he is accompanied in the orchestra by a striding dotted melody.

160 II -IFW i

Fig. 42--Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 1-6

A dialogue between Isabella and Luzio follows. The orchestra

contrasts the personalities of the two by providing a dif fer

ent background when each is speaking. For Isabella a smooth and simple background in half notes is heard, suggesting her purity.

e:%n maym voav.wift) ich TIN Axe. 7.4 ea,14 .LA e,-

A --- -A IL I& 41 F7 -1 on I lu W- ME 1 76 N" 1,'% 0 v 491

Fig. 43--Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 6-10

When Luzio speaks, however, there is a livelier accompani ment, using contrapuntal dotted rhythms, which suggest his fun-loving nature. 93

Fig. 44--Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 10-14

As Luzic tells Isabella she must save her brother, the orchestra accentuates his excitement with an ascending chro matic scale in sixteenth notes, and then punctuates Isabella's shocked exclamations with loud staccato tutti chords.

Luzio sings a melodious aria based on his lively entrance theme, in which he explains the situation to her. Throughout his aria the orchestra closely follows the dramatic impli cations in the text. The music begins somewhat calmly with

Luzio's melody line being doubled in the violins with the other strings providing a counter melody. 94

Fig. 45--D Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 51-55

As Luzio becomes more excited, telling about Friedrich's new laws and Claudio's resulting death sentence, the orches tra underlines this excitement with fortissimo chords. Isabella interrupts Luzio with a heroic outburst, one of Xer------Wr----YW--Q----i-- several in the opera which makes the character of Isabella

Fi . 45 'D's L e worthy of taking e-s er o p u b e ., her place among the laterm as Wagnerianr s 1 5 heroines such as Senta and AsLui bcme mr ecte,?tlKnElisabeth. aoutridic'

Fig. 46-'-Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 82-87 95

In the duet which follows, in Piu Mosso tempo, Luzio sings of his love for Isabella, Isabella of her desire for revenge.

Iva: D" tom-erevi BruAAers L _.V1 Len~ st;ei w ~evv\ S6\L&tZvevr-AraA, n -iF I lD A La I _I 1


LoX tAji', er~ ~

Fig. 47--Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 106-110

The duet contains many eighth-note scale passages, and also

ample opportunity to pause on high notes. A particularly Italian style of "excitement" accompaniment can also be found at times.

Isk ROns.At

Fig. 48--Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 183-185

After a brief dialogue Luzio continues alone, passionately trying to convince Isabella to leave the convent forever. He falls to his knees before her, accompanied by a de scending chromatic scale in the woodwinds and strings. While 96 Isabella repeatedly tries to discourage Luzio, he is by now so overcome with emotion that he can only gasp. The tension

is increased by the orchestral figures here.

~:Nie-wals, L;ach 1: h :~h :Ne~~~~:A~,I~-~l. :H~~ i S~re

Fig. 49--Das Liebesverbot, Number 4, measures 237-240

The two then sing the virtuosic duet again, with Isabella imploring for justice and strength, and Luzio lamenting be cause of his lack of courage and strength. The music to the fifth number is especially descriptive and in keeping with the dramatic situation. Wagner pur posely created the light and burlesque nature of this scene to contrast with the seriousness of the atmosphere when Friedrich eventually enters.1 8 The action takes place in the courtroom, and as the scene opens Brighella is carrying on a conversation with himself to the accompaniment of the love-ban theme in unison strings. He then breaks into a comical aria, in which he tries to imagine himself as a

18 Ellis, Richard Wagner's Prose Works, I, 12. 97

judge. The music is similar to the style of French comic

opera, characterized by the numerous grace notes.

Bt;, a14 t.& Lat I o LI. " IK ----AM, -W IR

ha l% i t* eYwe- Y%* 1Y;o,- e

Fig. 50--Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 23-26

The aria is also typical of the kind of music assigned to

the comic figures in Italian opera of this time.

Brighella's repetitious text and buffo music could be

compared with that of Dr. Bartolo in Barber of Seville.

0 As r- 4 4 - I-,.lk 40 --4! T ' wrowWI t I

I I mi.1q

Fig. 51--Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 43-48


pet- cov bet Ia , 'aj-ro -al-4rc -att

Fig. 52--Rossjni.,' Barber' of Seville, Number 8 measures 25-260. 98

During this number the sinister love-ban theme assumes a less serious nature, through the transformation of the characteristic half-step interval into a whole step.

Brighella takes his place on the judge's stand to the sound of loud pompous chords in the orchestra.

Pontio Pilato is brought in, as a Carnival theme, re worked to fit the burlesque nature of the scene, is heard in the orchestra.

4$ AW

Fig. 53--Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 67-69

Brighella's assumed sternness, Pontio's nervousness, and his attempted bravery as he states his name are all vividly depicted in the orchestra.

Fb measres5, 67-9


1 redm* ta P,4'o- et-sse, Ic t

Fig. 54--Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 67-69 99

The love-ban theme and the Carnival theme predominate throughout the dialogue; the former, however, retains its lighter character, since it is still being used in con nection with Brighella. It is once more transformed, almost parodied, as Brighella throws Pontio out of the courtroom.

Fig. 55--Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 147-148

Brighella's repeated text here is another good example of the Italian buffo style.

Dorella is now brought in to a new theme in the orches tra. This music, played by the first violins, perfectly describes the flirtatious and prissy soubrette.

VY I. Iva

14 ;qm= OW& (fi

SW a,

Fig. 56--Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 161-164 100

The love-ban theme underlies Brighella's explanation of the new laws. Dorella merely laughs at him and her theme is combined in the orchestra with the love-ban theme.



orchestra, in half notes, illustrates his weakening.

Ft i3

Fig. 58--Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 201-203

This passage leads into a coquettish duet between the two, the music of which is similar to that of Italian and French light opera. 101

h,wI. .l If t bids I Alm1A

Ila A V W- 17 LFL I %NO _ Ow*ft@Mw

Fig. 59--Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 206-210

The harmonic sequences and descending chromatic counter melodies create an especially pleasing effect in this delightful number. One figure is especially reminiscent of French comic opera, for example Zampa.

1Do-:-. la,,0000w L N *P~~ L" j 1L 7 r A L, ac' 13 ri: A;~s

Fig. 60--Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 234-235

vt"- ol A AV L.A r I fit I a- i

I-ML ip F I 4I-

Fig. 61--Herold, Zampa, Overture, measures 175-178

This Zampa theme is also similar in its flirtatious nature to the previous two themes associated with Dorella. 102 Suddenly Brighella remembers himself and the law. His conflict between love and the love-ban is comically repre sented, in contrast to Friedrich's later conflict, which borders on the tragic. Dorella, however, with her per suasive music, succeeds in making him forget all about Friedrich's laws.

-- A


-7r F r VWTr 10 i II V I 1 2 1 t

Fig. 62--Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 275-279

They again sing their duet, Brighella happily in love, and Dorella thinking she has won her case. With the increased tempo the duet begins to resemble the later Gilbert and Sullivan patter song. In the following dialogue the music becomes very chromatic, emphasizing Brighella's passion and confusion. The crowd outside demands entrance, and Brighella becomes even more confused. The crowd's music sounds like their beating on the door, and it is alternated with Brighella's frenzy, the music of which is the parodied form of the love ban. 103

I- t j -INW VF

MIACI 341 MX t4tAV% IS 'S VO'r

Fig. 63--Das Liebesverbot, Number 5, measures 367-368

Above all the confusion, Dorella is still singing the music to the flirtatious duet, in a mocking manner. This melody is also being played by the full orchestra. The number ends with a stretto section, which, as in the previous choral finale, contains much repetition and fragmentation of the main melodic ideas.

The crowd's pounding on the door outside the courtroom begins the Finale to the first act.

v'u. I. F7 6 I I t 1-3 A'S W K -V 4*1 #4WI

Fig. 64--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 1-4

The excitement of the people is portrayed in the orchestra in a mocking theme which is strikingly similar to the

"people's" motive or hilarity motive in Die Meistersinger. 104

Fig. 65--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 9-10

n I t% A% vKV* u r

Fig. 66--Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg, Act III, Scene 5, measure'5;T.

The situation in Die Meistersinger, in which the sound instinct of the people is in conflict with strict rules, is also quite similar to what is happening at this point in Das

Liebesverbot. The orchestra continues with the mocking theme, while the chorus sings another melody.

IL H % I K I V I IT C3 M A -a 3- Z9

tjt^ UATI P-5 LIAM W11A .'ES wAdA es 61A mow a AL gr

Fig* 6 7-'-''Das* Lieb,(:.l.'sverbot Number 6, measures 19-20 105

Suddenly Friedrich enters, and calls for silence. His

entry is of course accompanied by the love-ban motive in the

low strings and trombones. The timpani are also used here

to emphasize the seriousness of the situation. The love-ban

theme is modified during Friedrich's speech.

Z~r- Was

Fig. 68--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 58-62

Brighella tries to explain that he was only trying to help, but the orchestra gives away the secret of his mock court.

Ver. zet, V1 W01WUIiNuX er, - r lCn

Fig. 69--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 58-62

This technique foreshadows Wagner's later use of the orches tra to tell things which the words or action on stage do not reveal. The chorus comments to itself about Friedrich, using the rhythm. This rhythm is augmented until 106

Friedrich interrupts to begin the trial. There follows a

brief maestoso section which portrays his pompousness.

After four measures, however, a march-like melody taken over

as Antonio steps forward to hand a petition to Friedrich.

ww L V, at a Af X MV -- lion - F Ionia 1IR Zj

Fig. 70--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 104-107

Antonio sings a short passage and his last phrase, finally

melodically independent of the orchestra, is very effective.

Oboe,,, O -f v rm 1 1 Ai -1 1 Agm -w


Fig. 71--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 117-119

The chorus joins in, singing a variation of this march melody.

Ciftrs I fft s

Igr* i *~~rAe, BW- e Iass 1 tS Ale. se

Fig. 72--Das'Liebe'sverbot, Number 6, measures 128-131 107

A sustained note on the word "uns" shows how Wagner was not

always so careful to mold the melody line to the inflection

of the text in this early work as he was in later operas.

Angry fortissimo chords, followed by the love-ban theme,

accompany Friedrich's tearing up of the petition. He chides

the people in a recitative, which is interspersed with

contrapuntal statements of the love-ban theme. Wagner uses

fortissimo chords in a common Italian rhythm to show the

fanatical Friedrich's anger.


Fig. 73--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 196-200

The sudden key change to C major on the word "rein" is an interesting and colorful detail on Wagner's part. Friedrich's outburst is followed by a short reply in the chorus, 108

accompanied in the orchestra by a descending chromatic

scale, which is a modification of the mocking motive heard


Claudio is led in, to a plaintive theme marked

"pathetico" and played by the high woodwinds.

Fig. 74--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 219-226

This theme also contains a turn figure, like that which later becomes the characteristic "Rienzi turn." As Friedrich speaks to Claudio, he is accompanied by a sarcastic-sounding figure.

Fig. 75--Das Liebegverbot, Number 6, measures 235-236

Claudio answers him to the melody of his entrance theme.

Just as Friedrich is pronouncing the death sentence on Claudia and Julia, Isabella appears. 109

St +*a * , # Yi # 6.1 C 12 64014i hl

+ - -A_

0 (s~%I~a: Ei~ hPIPhowA

- p ____

v I C

Fig. 76--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 279-287

Her entrance is one of the dramatic high points of the opera.

Wagner has obviously modelled this rescue of Claudio after

Leonore's outcry in the second act of Fidelio.

Fig. 77--Beethoven, Fidelio, Number 14, measures 79-80

It can also be compared to the second act of Tannh'auser, when

Elisabeth rushes forward to save Tannhauser. 110

Fig. 78--Tannhauser, Act II, Scene 4, measures 836-837

The chorus joyously reacts to Isabella's entrance, and Claudio,

Luzio and Isabella express their happiness in a major modifi

cation of the C minor entrance theme of Claudio.

Fig. 79--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 291-294

Throughout all this, the orchestra excitedly plays ascending

and descending sixteenth-note scale passages. Isabella asks

to talk to Friedrich alone, and the others leave, to Antonio's march motive.

Left alone, Isabella sings a simple aria, in which she

implores Friedrich's sympathy and mercy. 111

Fm m 1 Pit. Raw-TTI

U _ p E__ a ______"e-_

I qrwp

1%1lsabella 3 JIL

Km1mAa4 s LeAc Aevt El - 6\ o

Fig. 80--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 349-357

The introduction to her aria is remarkably similar to a

passage in Masaniello, where Fenella acts out her "crime"

and asks for Elvira's mercy and protection.

Fig. 81--Auber, Masaniello, Number 5, measures 49-52

Isabella's pleas for mercy, in a simple 4,rhythm, can be 4 compared with Elisabeth's plea in the third act of Tannhall-user, 112


r- I e-' -Ae


Ic- e.Art~ r~.Ae LBcVLAee. A4 c~GYNa-Ae. vwe'l- Y\Y\SCJV.erL'

Fig. 82--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 379-387

E4 - [ i IIII 11b AM I

aslhe Ga-enreck-s M~lorsoa-flknAr s\ T $kd

Fig. 83--Tannhauser, Act III, Scene 1, measures 215-222

The second section of Isabella's -like aria is intro

duced in a typical Italian manner. The first phrase, played

by the orchestra, is broken off, and the melody is then

repeated by Isabella, this time with a simple broken-chord

accompaniment in the orchestra.


L)A sc)Vnii-st "e- ie ,a%A-re 6e-e, ,A "eGo~tIt.e vt i , A,' ". e

Fig. 84--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 404-406 113

Wagner places the passages in this section well,

the decoration emphasizing the words "tor" (fool) and "heuchler" (hypocrite).

f - I --r II J A A

ernTo TI--- _ __ _ tin__


Fig. 85--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 427-431

The full orchestra builds the intensity to the end of this

section. Then follows one of the more ingenious passages

in the opera. The orchestra dramatically portrays Friedrich's

emotions at this moment, especially in the low strings which sound like his quickening heartbeat.

- .L.I

vT _u

yr.+t40 I

Fig. 86--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 441-445 114

The love-ban is weakly heard, this time in the oboe and clarinet, instead of decisively in the low strings and trombone, as it was stated earlier. The music to Friedrich's vocal line fits the text perfectly here, and resembles

Wagner's later writing for the voice. This dramatic charac terization lasts only a moment, however, before the orchestra, in an accelerando Italian rhythm, leads into the section of Isabella's aria--Friedrich's few lines having served as the characteristic "interruption."

a L 111 erTIIs sA &er- s Art- IKIIsloteIIPIVV

0 4ero I erz Av~% ol sy(e- c ose

Fig. 87--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 456-459

This melody is the second part of the love-frenzy motive, first heard in the overture. It will later be heard again as Friedrich, alone in his room thinks back over this en counter with Isabella. Fragments of the melody are doubled in the orchestra from time to time.

The first part of this love-frenzy motive is then stated by the orchestra, and Friedrich sings still another melody above it. 115

~A - A::zFd::+4- P

Fig. 88--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 521-524

Here again Wagner uses the orchestra to express emotions and

action--this time, Friedrich's passion. There follows an

excited dialogue between Friedrich and Isabella, as the two

parts of the love-frenzy theme alternate in the orchestra.

When Isabella finally realizes the price she is to pay for

her brother's freedom, she bursts out with a violent excla


AY i F2s

Fig. 89--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 602-604

This is strongly reminescent of Leonore's expression of her

feelings toward Pizarro.

Fig. 90--Beethoven, Fidelio, Number 9, measures 5-6 116

The shocked Isabella calls for the people to come back in, and the orchestra portrays everyone's turmoil and confusion.

Her-- be, pe

- mw

Fig. 91--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 607-612 I I-I

A fortissimo descending chromatic scale must have signified to Wagner shocked excitement, for he uses almost the same figure in Tannhauser, when the people react to Tannhauser's song of profane love.

A A no

I Ha

LI Iere r.~~. e

i Fig. 92--Tannhauser, Act II, Scene 4, measures 803-806

The chorus sings to Isabella, using their now familiar rhythm. Friedrich warns Isabella to remain silent, as a sinister melody is heard in the low strings and bassoon.

Isabella's defeat is portrayed by an oboe solo, a minor version of her theme heard earlier in this scene. 117


ALI r i T 'r I AIL r i -17- i i I I i i le r LAW ~I I I ~

Fig. 93--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 731-734

This technic of manipulating and harmonically altering a motive to fit a certain situation is one which Wagner fully develops in his later works. For example, at the moment in Die Walkure when Siegmund is defeated in battle by

Hunding, and Nothung is shattered, the Sword theme, originally in C major

0r L O-V% mwlp vF lir,. r-I a i I 1 I ~AL

Fig. 94--Die Walkire, Act I, Scene 3, measures 60-61 is heard in the orchestra in C minor.


Fig. 95--Die Walkur.Ie,.IF Act II, Scene 5, measure 136 118

The chorus questions Isabella in a chant-like manner, and then the dramatic action stops for a moment while the chorus comments on Isabella's state.

Fig. 96--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 754-757

The choral commentary on the helpless state of the innocent maiden is similar to that of the chorus in the first act of

Lohengrin as Elsa appears. In fact, the words in Das

Liebesverbot, "In silence and grief she stands," could also describe Elsa at this point. The orchestra merely doubles the voices in this passage, and the music sounds very much like Beethoven here. For example:


Fig. 97--Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op. 7, Second Move ment, measures 1-4. 119

Fig. 98--Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op. 26, First Move ment, measures 1-4.

As this chorus increases in intensity, Friedrich and Isabella

join in, each expressing their own feelings.

Suddenly Isabella has an idea, and she cries out Mari ana's name to a fortissimo tremolo in the orchestra. She

speaks to herself in a short recitative; then, accompanied by a light, happy melody signifying her planned farce, she

approaches Friedrich.


Fig. 99--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 833-836

Isabella agrees to his proposition, and a duet in a quick tempo follows, in which each expresses apparent triumph. 120

4,ev1Js Lt v ek F1L~wl- n

Lu..S+ ljcA sells r a- h

Fig. 100--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 861-864

Wagner has effectively combined the faster coloratura

line with the slower countermelody of the baritone. As the

two continue their own individual lines, the chorus enters,

again using their characteristic rhythm pattern. Friedrich

quiets the crowd, and once more declares the love ban, while

the love-ban theme is heard very decisively in the orchestra.

The people think all is lost, but the orchestra gives

away the true state of affairs by playing Isabella's farce

motive underneath their comments.

-rr 7

0 4,% e ASv\- 1

Fig. 101--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 953-954

Isabella then tells everyone to be happy and gay, to a jumpy

grace-note figure in the high woodwinds and first violins. 121


'I I I I

0 sec yv - tA k~

Fig. 102--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 976-977

She sings a modification of the above frenzy motive, in which she tells the people to trust her.

Fig. 103--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 1010-1012

Friedrich breaks in, and, to the love-frenzy theme, speaks of his and Isabella's intended meeting. However, when Isabella answers that she will send him a letter, the farce melody is heard in the orchestra. The two then sing their duet once more, and again the chorus joins them. A new musical idea is soon introduced in counterpoint, first by the soloists, then by the chorus. 122

Fig. 104--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 1083-1086

This is repeated several times, while Isabella and Friedrich still sing their own independent melodies. The love-ban theme is played in diminution and transformed so that its character fits in with the merry-making on stage.

A VL6' I

r of . rp P6-.r6- A ~'. . r I ItV I I I , I I- . L I I 1 ' -F

Fig. 105--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measure 1166

Fig. 106--Das Liebesverbot, Number 6, measures 1195-1197

The Carnival theme heard in the coda to the overture is also introduced into this finale. 123

A stretto section follows in which the previous themes continue to be employed. Here, Wagner curiously repeats exactly part of the finale to Number 2. Only the words and key are changed. This formal repetition has a tendency to weaken the finale, but the number is on the whole very effective because of its energy and boisterousness.

The second act, set in the prison and opening with a tenor aria, resembles the opening of the second act of

Fidelio. The long orchestral introduction, with its dra matic intensity and dark coloring, could almost have been written by Verdi. It begins with fortissimo chords in the full orchestra, followed by a passage for strings alone in which the gloom and impending tragedy are expressed.

Fig. 107--Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 3-6

The melody to Claudio's upcoming aria is foreshadowed in this introduction, and a fragment of his earlier aria to

Luzio, where he sang "Hurry, friend to her," is also heard. 124 The opening phrase of Claudio's aria,

Fig. 108--Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 33-34 is similar to a passage in Tannhauser.I'


8er. wi-Ay

Fig. 109--Tannhauser, Act I, Scene 4, measures 245-247

At this point in both operas each hero is singing of his beloved, and of wanting to return to the beautiful world.

Suddenly the mood changes, and, to ascending sixteenth note scale passages, Isabella rushes in. She explains to

Claudio that she can save him only by losing her honor. The word "honor" is emphasized by a high coloratura passage.

Fig. 110--Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 56-60 125

As Isabella describes her meeting with Friedrich, the

love-frenzy theme is excitedly played in diminution by the


4 Isa-, Lrs e-- sc. Av; 2 se>-yev\ 1-As.. P-V\S-Va e r A

Fig. 111--Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 71-73

A short dialogue follows, and then Claudio breaks into a

heroic aria, similar in style to Rienzi. The strings pro

vide a bolero rhythm.


Fig. 112--Das'Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 97-101

The Wagner "turn" is also employed again here. 126 Isabella soon joins him as the duet continues. The orches tral writing becomes more and more complex and the intensity builds. One of the accompanying figures in the woodwinds and strings is a modification of the love-frenzy theme.

Fig. 113--Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 187-189

To tremolo chords in the orchestra, Claudio bids Isabella farewell, but then he begins to think twice about going to his death. The chromatic half-note chords in the orchestra portray his indecision, and the pizzicato cellos and basses add drama to the situation.

Claw K6*"%t

.1 D ci

I- L t. too f Affi -- A f [:.- --- , 41 711mv

' -'Tac

-Ir"I U C3,40 -.4t cp

Fig. 114--Das Liebe sverbot, Number 7, measures 199-204 127

As he speaks of his death, the strings play a modification

of the gloomy prison motive from the orchestral introduction.

si 6ge- rj3 Aes Brm-.Ae-s~e..

Fig. 115--Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 217-218

The orchestra, with tremolo chords and a sixteenth-note figure in the first violins, portrays Isabella's anger at

Claudio's change of heart.

Fig. 116--Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 225-226

A fiery duet follows, with each singing music characteristic of their emotions and attitudes. 128

M lsa - 'N

34 im, Rtuv. e,

42 it 40a 1 C-19- a I M In M>W& -- I t 0, IMP a I i I a-- I I I - QI J I 8 .5 0 6 ve -. t Roe.

Fig. 117--Das Liebesverbot, Number 7, measures 244-250

The number ends climactically, and Isabella rushes out to strains of Claudio's last pleading music in the orchestra.

The next number consists only of recitative, alternating with orchestral sections, which tend to comment on what has been said. The orchestral introduction is agitated, like Isabella's feelings.

OOMO-A% +:e 11*.44.n.1k 4. 14)a* Am . -lowoww 0---t---*- -P

Fig. 118--Das Liebesverbot, Number 8, measures 1-4

This same music is repeated after a recitative section; following Isabella's second recitative, in which she speaks of trapping Friedrich, a new theme is heard. 129

3 *

Fig. 119--Das Liebesverbot, Number 8, measures 30-33

Its repeated notes resemble her original farce motive.

Isabella speaks of the Carnival, and the triplet Carnival motive is stated. The love-ban theme is heard as Isabella declares that she will catch Friedrich with his own laws.

Dorella enters and a dialogue follows. It is written out in rhythm with a very few chords punctuating the dia logue here and there. Wagner indicates that the dialogue here may be merely spoken. It might be added that this is the composer's only opera which contains spoken dialogue.

The following number, a trio for Isabella, Dorella, and

Luzio, is graceful and charming. The first theme indicates the happy mood of this number. The orchestra has the melody most of the time, and the singers only fragments of it in true conversation style.

Fig . 120--Das Liebesverbot, Number 9, measures 3-7 130

Another melody, that of Luzio's love and loyalty to Isabella,

is similar in its use of a turn figure and its sequencing,

to the love-frenzy theme.

Fig. 121--Das Liebesverbot, Number 9, measures 58-61

In the second section of the trio each singer has an inde pendent voice line, with Isabella and the orchestra taking the melody most of the time.

Das s trc4 fsc V-;it, Ur l s i\r ' e. e o ir -s

Fig. 122--Das Liebesverbot, Number 9, measures 84-87

Isabella's line contains a great deal of chromaticism, por traying her irritation toward Luzio at this point, and also some coloratura passages. Her melody also includes a

Carnival motive here. 131

100 lo AS% a 1 ago I WIL V Tr I 0 W IW Alrr'UF


sie. et4c lci4 rs e.. c& s 'Q

m&6 MIN 1.01 go M-Omn m n n m -A IL -iou

IF et"

Fig. 123--Das Liebesverbot, Number 9, measures 98-102

Isabella then sings alone a countermelody to Luzio's love theme in the orchestra. She scolds him for tempting her with marriage, and says she must go back to the cloister. As she mentions the cloister the woodwinds color her passage with serene half-note chords which sound like cloister music.

Iaa. e d ~tLA A it- e

I -A


or-3 t-3 I C3

Fig. 124--Das Liebesverbot, Number 9, measures 161-165

The orchestra becomes agitated again as Isabella thinks of her brother. Luzio offers to help her, and a descending chromatic scale in sextuplets is heard, a theme first used in 132 the overture. Dorella and Luzio argue, and above them

Isabella sings again the light-hearted melody from the beginning of this number. In a Piu mosso section, the two women's lines are decorated by triplet eighth notes, and the orchestra plays ascending and descending chromatic scales. Finally Luzio and Dorella run out angrily to a final statement of the opening melody in the orchestra.

A rhythmed dialogue between Isabella and Pontio takes place, followed by a purely spoken dialogue between Luzio and Pontio.

Friedrich, alone in his room, sings the next number.

This number is a regular Italian scenario, with all the ingredients to make it fit the format. There is an accompa nied recitative, in which Friedrich carries on a dialogue with himself; a slow aria, the cavatina; an interruption, in which Friedrich receives Isabella's letter; and then a faster aria, the cabaletta. The whole number, especially the recitative, is dramatically impressive. It opens with a low G tremolo and timpani roll, with contrapuntal state ments of the love-ban theme above it. After a series of descending chromatic chords Friedrich enters. His passion is expressed, not in the traditional melodic line, but in naturalistic declamatory phrases. The love-ban theme recurs throughout the recitative. As he thinks about Isabella, the motive from her slow aria in the first act is played in the 133 orchestra. This is followed by the theme from the fast section of this same aria, which is identical with the love frenzy theme.

A cello solo leads into the slow aria, which contains some of the most substantial music in the opera.

Fig. 125--Das Liebesverbot, Number 10, measures 55-58

In this aria Friedrich is romanticizing his situation, and the music fits the text well, especially with the clarinet playing ascending and descending broken chords. The orches tral accompaniment also contains some interesting counter melodies. As Brighella brings in the letter, the woodwinds

indicate heightened excitement.

Fig. 126--Das Liebesverbot, Number 10, measures 85-86 134

Friedrich reads the letter to fragments of the love-frenzy motive. He then bursts into a joyous aria.

Fig. 127--Das Liebesverbot, Number 10, measures 101-105

At first only broken chords in the strings accompany him, but a countermelody in the clarinet is soon added. The woodwinds later take over the melody and Friedrich sings only melodic fragments. Friedrich pauses a moment to think about the terms of the meeting, and a Carnival motive illustrates his thoughts.


Fig. 128--Das Liebesverbot, Number 10, measures 124-128

This motive will first be heard in its entirety in the Finale when it depicts the masking festival. Its occurrence here foreshadows this event, for here Friedrich speaks of having to come disguised. He does not question these terms long, however, for the love-frenzy theme interrupts his thoughts 135 and leads him back into his rapturous aria. He is once again interrupted by the orchestra, this time with Claudio's crime motive, which was heard in the first act when Claudio was led onstage. It is alternated with the love-ban motive, and the two clearly show the conflict going on in Friedrich's mind. He must decide what to do with Claudio, his own laws, and his passion.

He at last decides to be true to all three. As he signs the paper, which should have set Claudio free but is in fact condemning him to death, the love-ban. theme is at this point heard very decisively in the orchestra. Friedrich then dramatically states:

Fig. 129--Das Liebesverbot, Number 10, measures 176-180

In this one declamatory phrase, Friedrich begins to resemble the later baritone characters of Wagner. The way in which his resignation and despair is shown reminds one of Wotan's resignation when he finally agrees to Fricka's demands, also a "love-ban" for the Walsungen twins, in the second act of

Die Walkure. Wotan, like Friedrich, knows that he is also agreeing to his own death. 136

Fig. 130--Die Walkure, Act II, Scene 1, measures 572-574.

The love-frenzy theme then takes over again and is repeated incessantly, illustrating the passion which is con suming Friedrich. He once again sings his aria, finally deciding to give in to his love for Isabella, but along with it to accept death. It is an almost Tristan-like text here,

"I await both death and bliss of love." The number ends with the love-frenzy theme and a final statement of the love ban by the orchestra.

A short dialogue between Brighella and Dorella takes place, and then the Finale begins. The orchestral intro duction is loud and energetic and sounds not a little like the gay music of Offenbach. A new Carnival theme is intro duced, representing the masking festival; it is similar in nature to the other Carnival themes which have come before.

Fig. 131--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 1-5 137

As the people enter, still another merriment motive is introduced.

Fig. 132--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 18-21

Throughout the following conversation between Antonio,

Angelo, and Danielo these two themes are alternated, while each of the three sings a different melody above the orches tra. To the masking festival theme the people sing a festive chorus. They continue using only the rhythm of this theme, while the second of the new Carnival motives is heard in the orchestra.

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C661.%s V I


-W -W - Sol We1tb ~ ~ A

Fig. 133--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 141-144

The chorus is once more repeated; then Luzio enters to a modification of the masking festival motive. 138

Fig. 134--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 190-193

This theme is fragmented during his ensuing monologue. He promises the people a Carnival song. His song is introduced in the orchestra with a passage identical to the beginning of the overture except that it is in the key of D instead of C. Luzio's song is taken from the various Carnival themes.

Fig. 135--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 268-271

The exuberant melody, in which Luzio calls the people forward to be gay and carefree, may well have been influenced by a similar passage in Masaniello, where the sellers in the market place call to the people, "Come hither all who wish to buy, for here you'll find the best of fare. "

Fig. 136--Auber, Masaniello, Number 12, measures 39-42 139

Luzio's "tra la la" refrain takes up the melody of the

original Carnival motive. He is joined in this refrain by

the chorus. The Carnival song consists of three verses, with an orchestral interlude between each to provide for

dancing and general merrymaking on the stage.

Loud unison C's are suddenly heard, and Brighella enters

trying to break up the crowd. As he reminds them that the

Carnival is forbidden, the love-ban theme is heard in the

orchestra. On Luzio's recommendation the crowd disperses, while the orchestra plays the masking festival theme. This music continues as Brighella, left alone, puts on a costume

himself. At one point this theme is played by three bassoons

alone, which well depicts the comedy of Brighella costuming

himself. Each time he looks around for Dorella, the violins

interrupt the masking festival motive with the following

descriptive passage.


_ B~'. ______

Fig. 137--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 465-466

Once dressed, Brighella runs off, and the character of the music suddenly changes as Mariana and Isabella enter. 140

4u)% I t~r~ I %--IL b V%- I V lz

J 0 h-

Fig. 138--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 474-478

This pure cloister-like melody is interspersed with descending chromatic scale passages in the bassoon and flute; it serves much the same purpose as the tranquility motive did in the convent scene. Isabella and Mariana have a short dialogue, while the orchestra continues with music characteristic of the situation. Isabella leaves, and Mariana sings an aria similar in nature to the Countess's "Porgi, Amor," at the beginning of the second act of Marriage of Figaro.

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dL r EL I 9fts EA4 9 1 Aer - iv Fv- - (4e.

.v 0 7 Vb 1 Ltts+ tvAS&Wm ev O.

Fig. 139--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 538-544

In both instances the women are hoping to win back their straying husbands through love a d forgiveness. Mariana's 141 aria is self-contained, with little thematic reference to the rest of the opera. The music is simple and melodic, and, when well done, the aria can be quite effective.

Another sudden change in the music occurs as Mariana leaves and Friedrich enters.

:1 A

Fig. 140--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 600-601

This passage is scherzo-like and depicts the comedy of the

scene between Friedrich and Luzio. This theme, which sounds

like Friedrich's sneaking around, is combined with the Carni

val theme at the point when Luzio invites Friedrich to join the Carnival.

Fig. 141--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 614-615

Luzio then sings fragments of his Carnival song to Friedrich.

Luzio pretends to leave, and a descending sequence of 142

Friedrich's sneaking theme accompanies his exit. Friedrich's

thoughts turn to Isabella and a shortened form of the love

frenzy theme is heard. He thinks he sees her, and rushes off.

Dorella, accompanied by a pert grace-note theme, intercepts

Luzio as he tries to follow Friedrich.

Fig.142--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 658-661

Isabella and Brighella, observing from the side, also add to

the conversation, and a quartet follows in which each reacts

to the apparent situation. A new melody is introduced during

this quartet, heard first in the orchestra and then taken up by Dorella as she warns of her revenge on the faithless Luzio.

Fig. 143--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 673-677

There is a key change from Bb to Eb as Luzio finally gives

in to her demands, and with this is heard still another new melody. 143

Fig. 144--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 741-745

It might be noted here that this entire Finale is particularly rich in melodic material; new melodies are introduced and then almost immediately left to make way for still more melo dies.

The four characters finally confront each other, and their anger and excitement is depicted in the orchestra.

Pontio also arrives, and his confusion at seeing Brighella

in costume can be heard not only in his dialogue, but also

in the alternating sixteenth notes and triplets in the orches tra. His bewilderment is also shown as he repeats over and over "a mask" and "a scoundrel" to descending chromatic chords

in the orchestra. When Isabella reads Friedrich's decree which Pontio has intercepted, she realizes that Claudio is to

die after all and she cries out to the people to come and help her take revenge on Friedrich. Descending chromatic

sextuplets accentuate her agitation, and Wagner also indulged

in a bit of musical description of the text here. 144

Fig. 145--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 839-841

Isabella calls for revolt, thus expressing Wagner's idea of the solution to tyranny.

16)dr Apcr s c)-IAc-e^ T ran - ei

Fig. 146--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 853-855

The crowd also takes up her theme of revolt, but they are soon

interrupted by Pontio, who, to tremolo chords in the orchestra,

announces he has caught someone. The prisoner is unmasked and

the crowd expresses its amazement as the sixteenth notes from

Friedrich's sneaking theme are sequenced in the orchestra.

Fig. 147--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 899-902 145

Mariana, who has also been brought in, is unmasked, and announces herself as his wife.

Fig. 148--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 909-911

Here again is a passage which recalls Leonore revealing her self as Florestan's wife. The crowd laughs at Friedrich's

love-ban, and the love-ban theme is heard for the last time, this time in an almost scoffing manner.

Fig . 149--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 913-915

To solemn chords in the orchestra, Friedrich announces that he is prepared to die. The people answer in one of the most effective sections of the entire work. The continuity between

Friedrich's statement, the crowd's answer, and the following chorus is quite ingenious in its compactness. 146

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7u \


L. .. 0 n I

Pi o SOs - e v A\ Ic ne - 6e Ne. r% nas

-0 I u. a


4 -4


vU I W4.r



I I Iowa


P ( I

1: fd 6e4-v

Fig. 150--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 952-962 147

As the people say "No, the law is suspended," the music sounds like the flippant throwing away of the law. The new melody underneath "We are more merciful than you" is one of happiness and freedom, and could almost be considered the

"redemption" motive of this opera. The smoother chorus

above it is especially pleasing,as is Claudio's thanks for his freedom.

Fig. 151--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 979-982

Isabella, accompanied by half-note "cloister music" in

the orchestra, announces that she must return to the cloister,

but she is soon overruled by Luzio and the Carnival music.

The people form a procession, as the orchestra breaks

into the masking festival theme. The music clearly indicates

the triumph of the Carnival and the people. A military band

onstage plays a fanfare announcing the arrival of the King. 148

The introduction of a military band on stage was a popular

Italian device of this time. Rossini had first used it in

1823 in , and he was later imitated by other

Italian composers. After the first performance of Das

Liebesverbot, Wagner received some well-meant advice from a conductor of a Prussian military band on the handling of the Turkish drum in future operas.1 9

The orchestra and band onstage join together in stating the final triumphant theme of the opera.

Fig. 152--Das Liebesverbot, Number 11, measures 1086 1089.

It is a combination of a fanfare and a Carnival theme, and with it the opera is brilliantly brought to an end.

Stylistic Conclusions

There were many reasons behind Wagner's choice of an

Italian style for his second opera. First of all, during this time in his career, he was struggling desperately to achieve some kind of success as an opera composer, and he

19 Ellis, Richard Wagner's Prose Works, VII, 10. 149 knew that an Italian opera had a much better chance of being accepted by the German public.

As this genre had, in effect, gained the upper hand on the German operatic stage, and figured in its repertoire almost exclusively, so was its influence inevitable upon one who found himself in a life-mood such as that I have referred to as mine at that period. 20

Thus, Wagner's attitudes toward life and his general feelings were also a deciding factor in his choice of the more sensuous

Italian musical language. The forces involved in the com position of Das Liebesverbot were interacting ones. Wagner's text was influenced by the music, and his decision to use the Italian musical style was influenced by his revolutionary and sensual ideas which he wanted to incorporate into the text.

The effect of the impressions produced on me by Life was still of general, and not of individual sort; therefore 'general' music as yet must dominate my individual powers of artistic fashioning. Even in the case of the Liebesverbot, the music had exercised a prior sway upon the fashioning and arranging of the subject-matter: and this music was nothing else than the reflex of the influence of modern French and (as concerns the melody) Italian Opera upon my physically-excited receptive faculties.21

The Italian style of writing in Das Liebesverbot also portrayed Wagner's contempt for the pedantic German music, as well as for German political and moral conservatism. The

20Ellis, Richard Wagner's Prose Works, I, 294.

2 1 Ibid., p. 296. 150 composer turned his back on his previous models of Beethoven and Weber, whom he had strongly imitated in his early sym phonic works, and in his first opera Die Feen. These great

German masters were replaced by such composers as Bellini,

Rossini, and Auber.

A strange confusion had been wrought in my taste by immediate contact with the German operatic stage, and so strongly did it stamp the cut and execution of my work, that the youthful enthusiast for Beet hoven and Weber would surely have been traced by no one in this score.2 2

Wagner's interest in the beauties and qualities of

Italian music was also indicated in his articles "On German

Opera" (1834), and "Pasticcio" (1834). In the first article, he criticized the German opera for lack of true human feeling, comparing it with the vocal beauty and sensuous warmness in

Italian opera. In the second, he praised the cantabile vocal writing of the Italian composers.

Our worthy opera-composers must take a course of lessons in the good Italian cantabile style, guarding themselves against its modern outgrowths, and, with their superior artistic faculty, turn out good work in a style as good. Then will Vocal art bear fruit anew: then a man will some-day come, who in this good style shall re-establish on the stage the shattered unity of Poetry and Song.2 3

Perhaps Wagner attempted this in Das Liebesverbot, but this true unity of Poetry and Song was not completely achieved until his later works, especially the Ring.

2 3 2,2Ib'id. VII1, 8., Ibid., VIII, 64. 151

One passage in the "Pasticcio" articles is rather

ironic, in view of what was later said by others about

Wagner's own writing for the voice.

. . . our German vocal composers, alas! too often are very sorry lords of Song.--Every sterling Instru mental composer must have studied the character of the various instruments, before he can produce true instrumental effects. Let a composer write for any instrument in the orchestra a passage against its nature . . . his condemnation is pronounced at once, and rightly. 'The man,' so the verdict goes, 'is a musical bungler; . . . . He writes things that no body could execute!' Hand on your heart, ye song composers of our latter days, have ye zealously studied the peculiarities of the human voice? Know ye what it is to write singably?2 4

Here Wagner is saying to others exactly what was later said by critics and singers about his works, "He writes things

that nobody could execute."

In the article "On German Opera," there is a passage which

calls to mind the contempt against out-worn rules, hypocrisy,

and pedantry expressed by Walther in Die Meistersinger. Like

Hans Sachs, Wagner here wanted to keep what was still good

and valid in the old, but be willing to accept the new.

And since the audience is bound to admit in the end that it hasn't understood a note of it, people have to find their consolation in dubbing it astoundingly learned, and therefore paying it a great respect--O this wretched erudition,--the source of every German ill! . . . This is an evil which, however ingrained in the character of our nation, must need be rooted out; in fact it will annul itself, as it is nothing but a self-deception. Not that I wish French or

2 4Ibid. p. 62. 152

Italian music to oust our own;--that would be a fresh evil to be on our guard against--but we ought to recognize the true in both, and keep ourselves from all self-satisfied hypocrisy. 25

In Das Liebesverbot Wagner was able to use his borrowed

idiom skillfully. He was well acquainted with all the

Italian "tricks of the trade" from his conducting experience

in Wurzburg and Magdeburg. In Das Liebesverbot Wagner used

such typical Italian devices as repetitions of text and

musical figures, Rossini crescendos, rising sequences of

half steps to create tension, and "oom pah" accompaniment.

The opera is in two acts, after the pattern of such

Italian operas as Norma and L'Elisir d'amore. It consists

of set numbers; within each number can be found set

in the cavatina-cabaletta format, duets, terzetts, other

ensembles and choruses. Each of the finales is a large

scene-complex, including arias, ensembles, and choruses.

There is also some spoken dialogue, and several passages of

accompanied recitative. Edgar Istel's opinion that only a musical-dramatic genius could have written Das Liebesverbot

refers mainly to the opera's construction.2 6 Perhaps this was stated a little strongly, since in this particular

article he was trying to convince the reader of the validity

of performing this opera. Notwithstanding, the scenes are organically constructed and the opera is on the whole very

25Ibid., pp. 56-58 2 6 Istel, op. cit., p. 46. 153

convincing. A spirit of liveliness and enthusiasm pervades

the entire work. The buffo scenes in the courtroom and in

the Carnival are especially well written.

The harmony in Das Liebesverbot is for the most part

traditional, but there is also some use of seventh and ninth

chords which foreshadows the later Wagner. There are no

bizarre or shocking harmonies of the type which later so

aroused Wagner's critics. When sudden modulations or un

usual harmonies do occur, they are always used to enhance

the drama at that particular moment. There is a great deal

of chromaticism in Das Liebesverbot but it is in general

melodically oriented instead of harmonically. The phrases

are regular, usually ending with a traditional cadence. At

the end of a few numbers Wagner, in a very classical tra

dition, extends the dominant-tonic cadence for several measures.

In Das Liebesverbot there is generally a supremacy of

melody and of the voice over the orchestra. Much of the

time the vocal line is merely a regularly phrased melody

above a subdued orchestral accompaniment. However, in the

more dramatic moments the orchestra tends to take over. The

vocal line does not follow the inflection of the text very

carefully, and there is also not so much relationship be

tween the melody line and the text as there is in the later

Wagner operas. The Italian trait of written-out vocal 154

is frequently employed. The opera is made up of

pleasing and catchy melodies, strung together to produce

an overall effect of melodic continuity and flow. In Das

Liebesverbot Wagner proved himself capable of writing melodies every bit as good as those in the popular Italian

and French operas of the day.

The drama is carried along mainly by the orchestra. In many places the orchestra succeeds in effectively conveying

the mood of that particular situation. Wagner still handled his orchestra somewhat immaturely in Das Liebesverbot. There

is not so much symphonic weaving of themes, fragmentation and

reworking of motives, or contrapuntal development as is found

in his later works. From time to time counter-melodies are

employed and the love-ban theme in particular is transformed

intervallically and rhythmically. Wagner sometimes uses ex

cessive doublings, making the orchestra too loud and heavy

for the singer to be heard.

One of the most important characteristics of Das Liebes

verbot is the introduction and use of . In Die

Feen leitmotives are of little importance, and in Rienzi,

after Das Liebesverbot, Wagner did not continue his develop ment of this technic begun in his second opera. In Das

Liebesverbot there are several main leitmotives which recur

throughout the opera, and which are also developed at times,

sometimes effectively enhancing the drama. Wagner's use of 155 leitmotives in Das Liebesverbot makes comparison with his later works possible, although in the later operas the leitmotif if of course much more developed.

Alfred Einstein named Das Liebesverbot the antipodal work to Parsifal. Out of the immorality of Das Liebesverbot developed the grandiose amorality of Tannhauser, Tristan, and the Ring. The revolutionary tendencies introduced in Das

Liebesverbot can be traced through all of Wagner's works, stopping only with Parsifal, which Einstein termed Wagner's old-age perversion.27

Das Liebesverbot can be considered the beginning of the group of all those operas of Wagner's in which chromaticism is predominant. His later complicated modulation and chro matic accentuation is used here as the language of personal, passion-inspired melody. In this way Das Liebesverbot can be linked to Tannhauser, Tristan, and the second act of

Parsifal. This cycle of expression using extreme chro maticism, especially in the melody, Bekker calls Wagner's second cycle. The first cycle would include Die Feen, Rienzi,

Lohengrin, the Ring, and the first and last acts of Parsifal.

In these works the harmony predominates and the melody is analyzed in relation to the chords.2 8

2 7Alfred Einstein, "Richard Wagners 'Das Liebesverbot,'" Zeitschrift fur Musikwissenschaft, Jahrg. V (Leipzig, 1923), p. 386.

2 6Bekker, op. cit., p. 81. CHAPTER IV


Various Performances before 1972

Between the ill-fated premiere of Das Liebesverbot and its reappearance on the stage lies a period of almost a hundred years. However, it was once attempted in Munich in

1891. After the successful production in 1888 of Wagner's first opera, Die Feen, it was naturally thought that perhaps

Wagner's other early opera could also be successfully revived.

The singers were selected for Das Liebesverbot and one five hour rehearsal did take place. Heinrich Vogl, Munich's

Wagnerian tenor at that time, described the rehearsal.

The arias and other numbers were such ludicrous and undisguised imitations of Donizetti and other popular composers of that time, that we all burst out laughing and kept up the merriment throughout the rehearsal. I was for giving the opera, in spite of this, as a curiosity, and because it could of course not injure Wagner's reputation; nor was the Intendant quite averse to giving it. Ultimately, however, we all agreed that it would be better to leave it alone less on account of the music than because of the licentious character of the libretto. So the manuscript was shelved again.1

Finck himself was similarly pessimistic over the proba bility of future performances of Das Liebesverbot. After quoting Wagner's own account of the inception of this opera,

Finck goes on to say:

1 Henry T. Finck, Wagner and His Works, 2 volumes (New York, 1901), I, 47.

156 157

To this brief sketch Wagner adds a long and detailed analysis of the plot, which it is hardly worth while to follow here, as the opera will in all probability never be revived.2

It was not until the publication of the opera by

Breitkopf and Hartel in 1922-23 that Das Liebesverbot was once more attempted. This time it was performed with con siderably more success than at the 1836 premiere. The

Munich premiere took place on March 24, 1923 in the National

Theater under the direction of Robert Heger, who was forty one years later to conduct the Vienna Radio Orchestra in a concert production of the same opera. Further performances were given on March 28, April 3, 12, May 15, and December

21.3 Alfred Einstein wrote the following about the premiere:

Only a few words about the Munich production. It is a meritorious accomplishment of Robert Heger, who has devoted an endless amount of care and love to the score, and has rightly sacrificed the his torical standpoint to a viable and effective result. The score as it lies before us is not suitable for performance; one must do away with its enormous length--and Heger has accomplished that not through large cuts, but through careful elimination of the mechanical repetitions in particular--and one must do away with the abundance of coloratura and cut down on the excessive dynamics. Wagner had not only fed many fortissimo passages with good Auberish or He'roldish brass, but had also used dynamics primitively without regard for the voice line. This resulted not merely from the haste of writing, but also from in experience.4

2 Ibid. p. 43.

3Letter from Holderbaum, Librarian, Bayerischer Staatsoper, November 16, 1972.

4Einstein, op. cit., translated by Danna Behne, p. 386. 158

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Fig. 1 5 3--'Program, Performance of Das Liebeernot, Nat iona theater, unich, March a24, 1923. 159

An interesting controversy in Munich in 1886 concerning the rights of Parsifal also came to involve Das Liebesverbot.

In this year the city of Munich filed a suit claiming it had rights to Parsifal. Munich lost the case, and Parsifal re mained Bayreuth's exclusive right. It was also decided that the rights of performance of operas from Rienzi onward would be left to the decision of the Wagner heirs. Adolf von Gross, a Bayreuth banker who handled the Bayreuth institution's business affairs, gave Munich complete rights to Die Feen and Das Liebesverbot as a compensation. This is probably why both operas were first produced in Munich (excluding the

Magdeburg performance of Das Liebesverbot) .5

In the next few years after the Munich production, Das

Liebesverbot was given, mainly for curiosity's sake, in two smaller opera houses, Gotha (1923) and Rostock (date unknown) .6

The Landestheater Gotha was completely destroyed in the second World War, so all the records of this 1923 performance are lost. However, it is known that Das Liebesverbot was chosen to be performed at this theater because the director

Curt Strickrodt wanted to produce all of the operas of Wagner.

Die Feen was also given there. 7

5 Geoffrey Skelton, Wagner at Bayreuth, (New York, 1965), p. 46. 6 Heinrich Schmidt, "Wagner's 'Liebesverbot,'" Musica, XI (June, 1957), p. 349.

7 Letter from Max Sachse, Librarian, Landestheater Eisenach, November 16, 1972. 160

On January 20, 1933, Das Liebesverbot was seen for the first time in Berlin.8 Between this premiere date and May 4,

1933 a total of ten performances of the work were given

(January 20, 22, 26, 31, February 4, 16, 21, March 7, 27,

May 4). The reviving in Berlin of this seldom performed opera was in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the death of

Wagner (February 13, 1883). The conductor made a musical arrangement of the work (probably a shortening and orchestral thinning). The production was by Franz Hoerth.

Principal singers in this Berliner Staatsoper production were

Theodore Scheidl (Friedrich), Marcell Wittrich (Luzio), Karl

Joeken (Claudio), Martin Abendroth (Brighella), Karl Lauf koetter (Pontio Pilato), Kate Heidersbach (Isabella), Vera

Mansinger (Mariana), and Tilly de Garmo (Dorella).9

For the occasion of Wagner's 120th birthday Das Liebes verbot was performed in the Neuen Theater of Leipzig on May

21, 1933. Fourteen performances of the work then took place in the following 1933-1934 season.10

In 1938 a large scale Wagner Festival took place in

Leipzig in honor of the composer's 125th birthday. This festival was extended over the months from January to June.

8 Julius Kapp, 'Das Liebesverbot' von Richard Wagner, zur Erstauffahrung an der Berliner Staatsoper, (Berlin, 1933), p. 1. 9 Letter from Erdmann H. Treitschke, Archive Keeper, Deutsche Staatsoper Berlin, November 10, 1972. (The former Berliner Staatsoper is now the Deutsche Staatsoper in East Berlin).

1 0 Letter from Christoph Hamm, Leipziger Theater, January 12, 1972. 161

It distinguished itself by being one of the few Wagner festi

vals at which all of the composer's operas were performed.

The first work of the festival was Die Hochzeit. Die Feen was also given on the same evening.

On January 24 Das Liebesverbot was performed under the direction of Oscar Braun. The major roles were sung by Ellen

Winter (Isabella), Theodore Horand (Friedrich), Alfred

Bartolitius (Claudio), and Maria Lenz (Mariana). The Leipzig performance must have had much the same spirit and purpose as the recent production of the opera at the Bayreuth Youth Festi val. Irving Schwerke included these observations in his re port on the Leipzig production.

Naturally, no one will maintain that Die Feen, Das Liebesverbot, and Rienzi are operas that tower anywhere near the sublime, but when given as Wagner conceived them--'wie ich's mir gedacht habe,' he wrote to his friend Heine, in 1852--their effective ness is considerable . . . . The Leipsic producers apparently know all these things, and many more, I should venture, better than even the writers of books on Wagner. If they do not, there is no explanation of their superb surmounting of the many shortcomings that inevitably surrounded them. They certainly realized that a show is a show, and that in a Wagner show, be it one of the first or one of the last, every detail of the composer's expressional archi tecture is important, that every one of his episodes is its own little or big universe, that his super natural world, however enchanted it may be, is always imbued with deep humanity, and that Wagner's supreme demand is that eyes, ears, emotions, and intellect, be held in an equal state of interest.1 1

On the occasion of the annual Wagner Association's Board of Directors meeting, Das Liebesverbot was given in Dortmund

llIrving Schwerke, "Leipzig Restores Wagner's Lost Stage Works," Musical Courier, CXVII (May 15, 1938), pp. 9, 40. 162 in May of 1957. The opera was "cautiously and reverently" shortened, "tightened and polished," supposedly to its ad vantage, by the Dortmund General Director P. Walter Jacob, and the opera's conductor Rolf Agop. A stage setting with bright colors and architectural characteristics of Southern Italy was created by Adolf Mahnke. Dr. Hans Wedig was in charge of the chorus, Mariana Candael, the choreography. The main soprano roles were sung by Herta Fischer (Isabella) and Margrit Chytil (Mariana). This performance was also honored with the presence of , the composer's grandson who admitted that he had seen the opera only once before, in

Leipzig when he 2 was twelve years old.1 Since no production took place there in 1929, it is quite possible that he saw the Leipzig production in 1933 when he was sixteen, or in 1938 when he was twenty-one years old, and that Schmidt was in error. Possibly the only public performance in America of any part of the opera was the programming of the Overture to Das Liebesverbot by the San Francisco Symphony on a series of concerts on January 21-22-23, 1959. The performances were conducted by Enrique Jorda, who chose the work because he liked to program unknown works of well-known composers. The work was of particular interest to San Francisco concertgoers because of the major opera company also in that city.1 3

1 2 Schmidt, op. cit., pp. 349-350. 1 3Letter from Ruth Johnson, Secretary, San Francisco Symphony Association, November 8, 1972. 163

Das Liebesverbot received a concert performance in

Vienna in 1964. It was once more under the direction of

Robert Heger and took place in the large hall of the

Austrian Radio Studio. The performance was broadcast, and

a commercial tape was also made. Again, the score was to

a great extent shortened, and one whole number was com

pletely omitted (No. 9--Terzett). Heger also took the

liberty of "thinning out" the orchestral scoring a bit. The

opera was enthusiastically received by the audience, and at

the end the performance was given "an ovation that one

usually only sees for star conductors and 'helden' tenors."

The chorus of the Austrian Radio Studio was directed by

Gottfried Preinfalk; the producer was Hans Sachs. Some of

the soloists and their roles were: (Friedrich),

Hilde Zadek (Isabella), Christiane Sorell (Dorella), and

Hanny Steffek (Claudio).14

Four performances of Das Liebesverbot took place in

London on February 16, 17, 19 and 20, 1965. The opera was this time done by an amateur group, students from the Uni versity College of London. The conductor, George Badacsonyi, also felt it necessary to cut the opera severely; however, he evidently went about it with some forethought and judgement, as he stated in his article, published before the performance took place.

1 4 H. A. Fiechtner, "Wagner's 'Liebesverbot,'" Musica, XVIII (1964), p. 70. 164

While the smaller forms are all nicely rounded and have a satisfying effect, in the crowd scenes, Wagner keeps on repeating words and music in sequences, and finds it difficult to stop. As a result of this the whole score is vastly overgrown. In my estimate an uncut performance of Das Liebesverbot would last about six hours--and all this in two acts, the first one lasting nearly four hours! In the performance I am going to conduct at University College, London, the opera has been re duced to manageable proportions. The cutting was not easy because the musically valuable pages often did not coincide with what was essential to make the opera dramatically intelligible. However, I have tried to make clear the structure of the scenes by eliminating mainly both musical and textual repeats and big sections, restricting myself to as few small cuts as possible. At the same time no theme of the plot has been eliminated. The original first act has been divided into two for practical purposes . . . .15

For many years it has been the policy of the University

College London Music Society to choose unknown or minor

pieces of a well-known composer for its annual opera pro

duction. For example, Verdi's opera Stiffelio was given its

British premiere there in February, 1973.16 Badacsonyi felt

that the justification for a production of Das Liebesverbot

in particular lay in its real musical value and interest.1 7

Das Liebesverbot was again heard in Britain three years

later, on February 6-10, 1968, this time performed by the

1 5 George Badacsonyi, "Wagner's Shakespearean Opera," Opera, XVI (February, 1965).

6 1 Letter from Ann Rossiter, Secretary, University College London Music Society, November 22, 1972.

1 7 Badacsonyi, op. cit., p. 90. 16 5


The Ban on Love

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Gentiemewn: Chris Blow, Rodney Clark, Phiiip Dean, Pichard East, Malcolm Horer David Lee, RichardLa LPie, Antony Rawelife, Roger Tuson, Charles V icary.

Fig. 154--Program, Performance of Das Liebesverbot, University College of Londono, February 16, 1965. 166

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Fig . 15--Program of Das Liebesverbot, Nottingham Uni varsity Opera Group, Febrtary , I9CS 167 Nottingham University Opera Group. A complete recording

was made, taking the best sections from each of the per

formances. This recording is not commercially available.18

Both the Nottingham and the University College London groups

sang Das Liebesverbot in English, which is not too sur

prising since in England even the late Wagner operas are

often performed in English.

Das Liebesverbot at the Bayreuth Youth Festival

Every year, since 1950, a youth festival has been held

in Bayreuth at the same time as the regular Richard Wagner

Bayreuth Festival. The philosophy of this International

Youth Festival Meeting, its aims and methods, might be summed up in Jim Ford's description of the festival.

Every year some hundreds of students go to Bayreuth to visit the Richard Wagner Festival and to study at the same time. There are working groups for all branches of music and theatre: One says 'working groups' instead of 'courses' because there are no lessons taken. The pedagogical method applied at the Festival is that the students rehearse for three weeks and perform what has been rehearsed at the end of the Festival. Thus one learns through practice. The 'teacher' is the producer, the con ductor and the choreographer, with the students working independently under their general artistic supervision. Taking part at the festival are students and young people from 30 countries. As a result a most suitable atmosphere is created for the international event: They all live in the same

1 8 Letter from Pat Andrew, Secretary, University of Nottingham, Department of Music, November 2, 1972. 168

building, eat and visit the Festival performances together, and dance and talk with each other. What is more they all work together, which is the most important point in respect of international under standing.19

The high point of the 1972 International Youth Festival

Meeting (July 31-August 20) was the production of Das

Liebesverbot. It was the first time the opera had ever been

seen in Bayreuth, and its appearance followed the precedent

set in 1967 with the production of Die Feen, that is, to

make it possible for the regular Wagner Festival public to

also become acquainted with Wagner's early operas. It is

possible that Rienzi will in the next few years also be

attempted by the Youth Festival. By doing this the Youth

Festival is going against the composer's decree that these

three youth operas never be staged in Bayreuth. However,

when Wagner said this he was probably thinking only about

the Festspielhaus, where they will certainly never be seen.

And, too, the merits of these works can today be more ob

jectively seen than they could then by Wagner, who was very

much prejudiced against them in his later years.

The production of Das Liebesverbot was, for the most

part, put together in the three weeks of the meeting. The

chorus was directed by Wolfgang Schubert, from the Munich

Music Conservatory. It was somewhat of an honor even to be

1 9 Dietrich Mack, editor, Youth at Bayreuth, Inter national Youth Festival Meeting 1950-1970 (Bayreuth, 1971) pp. 91-92. 169 in the chorus. Of the over one hundred singers who auditioned, only about forty-five were used. A large part of the chorus was made up of the University of

Maryland Chamber Singers, who had been invited to the festival to participate in the opening concert, and also to participate in the Upper Franconia tours. The remainder of the chorus included singers from France, England, Ireland,

Finland, Austria, Hungary, and Denmark.

The orchestra for Das Liebesverbot was actually the

"second" orchestra of the Youth Festival, the "first" orches tra being used for the contemporary music course. John Bell, music director of the Krefeld Opera, had charge of the orchestra. He and Schubert were also respectively orchestra and chorus directors of the 1967 Die Feen production. Musi cians from the "East Block"--Poland, Rumania, Hungary, and

Bulgaria--made up a large portion of the orchestra. The festival is proud of its relationship with Eastern Europe and of its large representation from the Communist countries.

It encourages their continuing participation every year by inviting a number of small instrumental groups from these countries to perform on the opening concert and take part in the tours. As with the University of Maryland chorus, these invited groups are also used in the other festival activities. Other countries represented in the opera orchestra were France, Germany, Finland, Turkey and Sweden. 170

Unlike the chorus and orchestra, the soloists for

the opera were chosen in March and April. Most of the

soloists were either from England or Germany. The singers

from England were all students at the London Opera Center,

a two-year school to prepare singers for a professional operatic career. The remainder of the soloists were chosen

from auditions in Munich, and most of these singers were

students at the Munich Conservatory. The soloists ranged

in age from twenty-four to thirty. Many of them had done very little professional singing. The singers from England were by far the most experienced, and this was evident in their individual performances. Outside of the English

singers, two of the students from the Munich Conservatory had contracts for the 1972-1973 season with the Bayrischer

Staatsoper Opernstudio. The rest of the soloists were still primarily students with little experience.

The rehearsals for the opera were held every day, morning and afternoon. The first week, the chorus, orches tra and soloists rehearsed separately, but beginning with the second week, everything was put together. Throughout the rehearsal period a number of languages were used, and when the staging began, the director, Horst Reday, conducted the stage rehearsals with an English and French translator standing on either side of him, repeating everything he said. 171 It was exciting to see rehearsals so conducted, with such an international flavor.

Two casts of soloists were used, mainly for the purpose

of giving more people a chance to perform a solo role. Al though this demanded more rehearsal time for the company, no

one really minded, for at the end of the three weeks everyone

having anything to do with the production was quite surprised

and convinced that there was a lot of good music in Das

Liebesverbot, and that it was actually very enjoyable and

rewarding to perform. During the three-week period, it was

amusing to observe that often in the cafeteria, in the dormi

tory area, etc., there was someone unconsciously whistling

or singing something from Das Liebesverbot--a phenomenon which certainly would not so often occur when working with

the other "less whistlable" Wagner operas.

During the last week of rehearsals, crew members from

the Cologne Radio Company were also present, getting every thing ready for the recording which was to be put together

from tapes of the dress rehearsals and the two performances.

Besides the recording which was made on the Mixtur label the Cologne Radio broadcasted the performance in the fall of 1972. The two performances of Das Liebesverbot took place on August 18 and 20 in the Bayreuth Stadthalle. For both per formances the house was filled. Each cast did an equally 172

received excellent job, and the performances were very well by the audience.

The production itself was handled intentionally in a light manner, the mood of the people of Palermo being ever foremost. This could be seen in the musical interpretation as well as in the various stage settings, especially the the comical picture of the Madonna in the convent scene, and bust of Pope Paul in the courtroom scene.

The tempos taken throughout were quite lively, which also maintained this carefree approach. The entire attitude taken by the performers and directors was very much in keeping with the spirit of both the music and the text. Mr. Bell was utilized responsible for the cuts which were made, and he over good judgement in making very few. Every note of the

ture was played, and the only major cuts in the performance

were in the chorus numbers where sections of the same text

and music are repeated three or four times. In the finales

to both the first and second acts, a better climax was

achieved by cutting some of the final sections of the chorus.

After these few cuts were made, the performance lasted almost

exactly three hours.

For the Friday premiere, press members from all major

newspapers of Europe had been invited. The reviews which

followed were overwhelmingly favorable, both for the per

formance and also for the work itself. 173

Nordbayerischer Kurier, Bayreuth August 21, 1972

"Hanky Panky with Opera Buffa"

Anyone hearing this opera without knowing who composed it, would never guess that it was by Wagner. They would more likely think of the young Verdi or even Offenbach. This comic opera, with its ingenious inspiration throughout, is good enough to take its place among the Italian operas in the repertoire today. Its fatal destiny was that, with the sig nature of Wagner, it had to thrive in the shadow of the giant operas which he composed subsequently. Naturally, in view of the circumstances, this Bayreuth premiere had in no way the perfection of a thoroughly pre pared staging. At the same time, the improvisatory nature of this festival production added to its charm. The con ductor John Bell showed a successful and sure hand in his compact presentation of the musical substance; besides a temperament which this vital music demands. Another favor able point: the large chorus, with the fullness of youthful voices, sang with an enthusiasm as if they were competing with the Festival chorus. Therefore the director Horst Reday placed the emphasis of his staging on his crowd scenes, which appeared very effective in the stage settings (simple, movable white curved-forms with ironically intended symbolic figures and religious pictures in the background). The young soloist group . . . offered a partly surprising, partly amusing panorama of enthusiastic involvement combined with inefficient preparation. Hesitant beginnings in singing and acting alternated with blatant sloppiness. The English Anne Conoley in the part of Isabella, as an actress still excessively self-conscious and given to exaggeration, im pressed one with her strong soprano voice. Her colleague, Elaine Watts, as Mariana was also pleasing, though slightly less impressive. The charming frivolous contrasting character to the two deeply sorrowful women Anna Bernardin, with her pretty soubrette voice, played the part of Dorella. Among the male singers the powerful baritone of Horst Lorig deserves special attention, as does Istvan Gati, who unfortunately had only the small role of Danieli, and also the vocally and theatrically impressive Peter Maus (from Bayreuth). The voices of Steven Henrikson, Marvin Peters, and Bernd Gericke had an effect of being not yet so completely cultivated and smooth . . . 174

The public enjoyed this production, with all its merits and imperfections, as an operatic curiosity, and honored the immense achievement with much hearty applause.

Erich Rappl

Nordbayerischer Kurier, Bayreuth August 23, 1972

"The Second 'Liebesverbot'"

What must have amazed every listener was the musical quality of the production, especially when one considers the short, three-week rehearsal period, and also the circum stances that here only students were performing, and what is more students from many countries . . . . The orchestra and chorus astonished one with their quality of sound, their spontaneous freshness and verve. This time we heard the opera with another, but in general equally good, cast of soloists. The most outstanding per sonality was Doris Stoffel from Munich as Isabella. This young soprano, what with the power and expressive capacity of her voice and her acting ability, has the substance to mature in a few years into a Wagner singer worthy of Bayreuth. Also Philip Gelling as Friedrich attracted attention; his voice is not yet very powerful, but he has at his disposal a good-sounding shaded, expressive timbre, even if he did not do justice to the qualities of this questionable charac ter. Doris Linser, vocally and dramatically, was a warm hearted and teasing Dorella. The lack of tenors must really be severe, if they could find no other singer for the role of Luzio besides Reinhold Krassel, whose voice, in contrast to his figure, is deplorably thin. He was the only deficiency in the cast.

M. Eger

Opern Welt October 10, 1972

"Redemption of a Sin of Youth"

A musically characteristic profile (except for the Tannhauser excerpt) is completely missing in Das Liebes verbot. During its conception Wagner found himself in the middle of a "revolutionary uprising," to which even the idol Beethoven fell victim. Instead of Beethoven, he felt closer 175

at this time to the French and Italians, in short: the contemporary "establishment," Auber, Meyerbeer, Spontini, Donizetti, and Bellini. Verdi, just the same age as Wagner, and also and are already casting their shadows. Whoever hears such things (from Wagner's pen) for the first time cannot believe his ears; cheap, mass-produced wares, full of cliches, polished off and bundled up crowd themselves into the classical arrange ment of recitative, aria, ensemble, and large, dominating chorus scenes. No buffa effect, no stretto, and also no thrilling, resounding soloistic belcanto at the front of the stage, kindled with glowing southern brio, is neglected in Liebesverbot, in order to give it an Italian atmosphere . . . . A Happy End ala Schnulz or sentimental drama ends the work dream-like and appealingly, as the zealous and endeavering Bayreuth young people--daredevilishly naive and carefree--performed the work after intensive rehearsing. The fondness and congeniality (also from this critic-devoted observation) is to them certain. There was never before more consistantly human and mutual participation as this year--so it was learned. That carries more weight as any fault-finding. So observed is Wagner' s "sin of youth" (finally) redeemed.

Peter Fuhrmann

Suddeutsche Zeitung, Munich August 21, 1972

"When Wagner Was Not Yet Wagner"

In Das Liebesverbot the twenty-two year old Wagner went through anacute attack of "Italianitis," placed Bellini above the Weber of Euryanthe, and was inspired by Heinse's Ardinghello, which is nothing more than a manifestation of sensuousness. He celebrated, like so many other young Germans of his time, the renaissance of sensuous human beings, like Dorado, full bloomed spirits and daredevils of free love. The glorification of the carefree southern people, vitality to the point of trivial music, and especially the stormy text against hypocracy, peevish abstinance and hypocritical moral lawmakers, are all early stages of the revolutionary Wagner; as if to point a finger, Roland Aeschlimann's structured scenery of white architectural forms framed the controversial picture by Max Ernst, in which the Madonna turns the naked child over her knee. The bust exhibited in the courtroom had features suspiciously similar to those of the present head of the Catholic church, and this was probably intended 176 to suggest a parallel between love and the pill-ban . . . Das Liebesverbot hardly ever approaches that which makes the Italian opera catchy, mellow arias and lively buffo scenes; instead there are leitmotives, signal themes, strong choruses, an overture which suggests Berlioz, many sticky melodies a la Rienzi, hints of Daland and the spinning chorus, and note for note the Rome motive from Tannhauser. The impetuous dash and the instrumentation are exciting. Wagner appeared out of the blue as the genius of effect. He preaches free love in the music of an early "old hand." Das Liebesverbot was brought to the stage as mutinous, intenseand coarse as it was meant to be. With the exception of the chorus, a little too much was demanded of the young people, and they resorted to forcing their voices, which were, for the most part, quite impressive. The experienced director, Horst Reday, had everyone so precisely positioned that there was no room for awkwardness. The orchestra was directed with commanding resonance and unrestraint.

Karl Schumann

Frankfurter Allgemeine, Frankfurt August 24, 1972

"The First 'Liebesverbot'"

Already with the overture, heavy with percussion, the opposition between the Carnival's sensuous joys and the puritanical love-ban is effectively (if not a little long winded) played out. In the carefree style, which has hardly anything in common with the language of the later music drama, a dramatic and musical significance which foreshadows Wagner's future works is however strongly noticeable. The singers, from Germany and England, honorably mastered their parts, which were at times quite pretentious, and they often sang as if they were using their voices to the fullest potential. It is not just coincidence that various attempts to re vive Das Liebesverbot were without lasting effect; to the initiated Wagnerite, being reminded of the "sin of youth" of the master is certainly an annoyance. On the other hand it should not be overlooked for the work is an important stage on Wagner's way to an individual musical language, and thus has an influence on the overall viewing of Wagner.

Gerhard Schroth 177

Munchner Merker, Munich August 21, 1972

"Great Revolt Against the Love-Ban"

For musicians and singers who are not yet professionals, Das Liebesverbot is exactly the right opera. Hardly any discriminating artistry will be demanded of them. They are able to get by on Wagner's bold musical daredevilishness, his often straightforward dash, which he throws around here as he did in Die Feen. That is what the members of the company did, with real and fiery zeal. Das Liebesverbot, celebrated with loud applause; Die Feen, oriented toward Meyerbeer; Rienzi, inspired by grand opera--the young Wagner slipped from one skin into another. That he suddenly found his own idiom in Hollander, is really a miracle. Hans Gohl

N~rnberber Nachrichten, Nuremberg August 21, 1972

"A Breath of Wotan"

The most impressive thing--besides the powerful chorus -- is the later style in the execution of the vocal lines. The part of Isabella is the masterful sketch of a dramatic soprano range, and approaches the role of Brunnhilde. And when Wagner maneuvers his powerful governor into the snare of his own laws and allows him to meditate over it in a lyrical and powerful monologue, a breath of the Wotan tragedy in the Palermo panorama is already felt--something that the gaity doesn't really promote and which doesn't fit in with the upcoming Happy End. The Festival public, who used their free day from the Green Hill, greeted the historic undertaking with stormy applause. It revealed after all interesting aspects of the development of an opera style.

Fritz Schleicher 178

The Sun, Baltimore September 3, 1972

"A Sin of Wagner's Youth is Resurrected"

The second act finale . . . is a melange of complications and intrigue, lifted out of Mozart's "Figaro" with a "Fidelio"-like denouement, and the buffo scene at the end of Act 1--the only one that is em barrassingly bad music--is pure Rossini, diddly violins, oom-pah-pah, and all. Among all this derivation shines one Wagnerian leitmotif, his first--the trombone figure that signified the cold German Friedrich's ban on love in giddy Palermo during the carnival. But let there be no mistake. An almost frightening young vitality surges out of every note of the score with its virtuoso parts for castanets, triangles and tambourines, instinctively effective orchestral coloring and Italian buffo vigor. It points up Wagner's astoundingly rapid development as a composer, for with his first three operas he got the German Biedermeier, Italian, and French grand opera styles out of his system, a process that took Meyerbeer ten operas and fifteen years. It was this vigor which the Bayreuth performances communicated, with choral singing of pro fessional precision and unprofessional enthusiasm.

James Helme Sutcliffe 179


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Fig. I6 ~-2rogra , Performance of Das Liebesverbot, nternationa Youth Festivzal Meeting, Bayreuth, August 18, 19 '12.* 180

Fig. 157 (Figure 1)--Das Liebesverbot, International Youth Festival Meeting, Bayreuth, Act I, Scene 1.

Fig. 158 (Figure 2)--Das Liebesverbot, International Youth Festival Meeting, Bayreuth, Act I, Scene 2.

Fig. 159 (Figure 3)--Das Liebesverbot, International Youth Festival Meeting, Bayreuth, Act I, Scene 3.

Fig. 160 (Figure 4)--Das Liebesverbot, International Youth Festival Meeting, Bayreuth, Act II, Scene 6.

Fig. 161 (Figure 5)--Das Liebesverbot, International Youth Festival Meeting, Bayreuth, Act II, Scene 6.

Fig. 162 (Figure 6)--Das Liebesverbot, International Youth Festival Meeting, Bayreuth, Act II, Scene 6. sou

* x C46APTER V


Of great poets we know that their youthful works at once proclaim the whole main theme of their pro ductive life; we find it otherwise with the musician. Who would expect to recognise in their youthful works the true Mozart, the genuine Beethoven, with the same distinctness as he detects the total Goethe, and in his striking works of youth the veritable Schiller?l Richard Wagner

This could perhaps be said of Wagner and his Das Liebes verbot, and it is certainly what the composer wanted people to believe about his early works. In fact he practically disowned his three youth operas in his later years.

It is true that Das Liebesverbot forshadows hardly at all what Wagner later became. Hearing this opera at the time it was written, one would never have guessed that its composer would one day become Germany's greatest musical dramatic genius.

An examination of Das Liebesverbot and the other early operas gives an interesting insight into Wagner's artistic development. As Michael Balling says in the introduction to the score of Das Liebesverbot, Wagner had to write Das

Liebesverbot, representing his unrestrained sensua lity at that time, in order to get it out of his system and find

1 Ellis, Life of; Wager1, I, 134,.

184 185 the way to further development. Balling feels that the first three operas--Die Feen, Das Liebesverbot, Rienzi- belong in a group together, just as do the next three-

Der Fliegende Hollander, Tannhauser, Lohengrin--and that each opera was a necessary step in the ultimate develop ment of the composer.2

However, Wagner's musical development was not a gradual and continuous maturity of one certain style, as was for example Verdi's. It involved instead a period of trial and error. He experimented and learned to write in various established styles before finally going on to a completely new form of his own, and in so doing greatly expanded the existing possibilities of musical expression. This method of beginning in the older styles and imitating other com posers, and then turning to and developing a musical style heretofore unknown, Wagner had in common with many great composers, from Beethoven to Schoenberg.

When examining Das Liebesverbot today, looking back through Wagner's later works, it is possible to perceive hints of the mature Wagner, and to recognize specific characteristics which he used and developed further in the later operas. One of the most notable of these traits is the use of the leitmotif. This technic, the development of

2 Michael Balling, editor, The Works of Richard Wagner (New York, 1971) V, vi. 186 which is today almost wholly associated with Wagner, had its beginnings for him in Das Liebesverbot. The compact construction of Das Liebesverbot also foreshadows the later dramatic genius of Wagner. His ability to reduce the complicated Shakespeare play to workable operatic proportions later comes to its fullest maturity in his reworking of the various myths and legends on which the Ring is based.

These and other qualities of Das Liebesverbot con tribute to making it a good opera in its own right, and not, as is usually thought today, merely a bad opera of

Wagner's. It is definitely better than most of the works after which it was patterned, many of which are still in the operatic repertoire today. The production of Das

Liebesverbot this summer at Bayreuth proved that the opera can be very effective when staged. The music is quite pleasing, hardly ever trite, and the story is dramatically valid and interesting. This writer feels that Das Liebes verbot is definitely worthy of more attention and consider ation than has been given it up to now. BIBLIOGRAPHY


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Burk, John N., editor and translator, Letters of Richard Wagner, The Burrell Collection, New York, MacMillan Co., 1950.

Chamberlain, Houston Stewart, Richard Wagner, translated by G. Ainslie Hight, London, J. M. Dent, 1897.

Ellis, William Ashton, Life of Richard Wagner, 6 volumes, London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., Ltd., 1900-1908.

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Grout, Donald Jay, A Short History of Opera, 2nd ed., New York, Columbia~University Press, 1965.

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Jullien, Adolphe, Richard Wagner: His Life and Works, trans lated by Florence Percival Hall, Boston, J. B. Millet Co., 1892.

187 188

Kapp, Julius, 'Das Liebesverbot' von Richard Wagner zur Erstauffuhrung an der Berliner Staatsoper, Berlin, M. Hesse, 1933.

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Newman, Ernest, The Wagner Operas, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1949.

Pinson, Koppel Smith, Modern Germany, New York, MacMillan, 1954.

Raphael, Robert, Richard Wagner, New York, Twayne Publishers, 1969.

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Badacsonyi, George, "Wagner's 'Shakespearean' Opera," Opera, XV (February, 1965), 89-92.

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Eger, M.,, "Das Zweite 'Liebesverbot'", Nordbayerisher Kurier, August 23, 1972.

Einstein, Alfred, "Richard Wagners 'Liebesverbot,'" Zeitschrift f{r Musikwissenschaft, Jahrg. V. (1923), 382-386.

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Fuhrmann, Peter, "Tilgung einer Jugendsunde?" Opern Welt (October 10, 1972) , 25-26.

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Schmidt, Heinrich, "Wagners 'Liebesverbot,'" Musica, XI (June, 1957) , 349-350.

Schmidt, Heinrich, "Wagners 'Liebesverbot' in Dortmund," Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik, CXVIII (November, 1957), 639-640.

Schroth, Gerhard, "Das erste 'Liebesverbot'", Frankfurter Allgemeine, August 24, 1972.

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Das Liebesverbot, University College of London, February 16-20, 1965.

Das Liebesverbot, Nottingham-University Opera Group, February 6-10, 1968.

Das Liebesverbot, Bayreuth International Youth Festival, August 19, 21, 1972.


Andrew, Pat, Secretary, University of Nottingham, Depart ment of Music, November 2, 1972.

Hamm, Christoph, Leipziger Theater, January 12, 1973.

Holderbaum, Librarian, Bayerischen Staatsoper, Munich, November 16, 1972.

Johnson, Ruth, Secretary, San Francisco Symphony Associ ation, November 8, 1972.

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Auber, Daniel, Masaniello, full score, Paris, Chez E. Troupenes, n. d. 191

Balling, Michael, editor, The Works of Richard Wagner, 7 volumes, New York, Da Capo Press, 1971.

Beethoven, Ludwig van, Fidelio, full score, New York, Edition Adler, Inc., n. d.

Beethoven, Ludwig van, for Piano, 2 volumes, New York, Kalmus, n. d.

Bellini, Vincenzo, Norma, piano-vocal score, New York, Boosey and Hawks, n. d.

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Rossini, Gioacchino, Barber of Seville, full score, Milan, Ricordi, 1969.

Wagner, Richard, Der Fliegende Hollander, full score, London, Eulenburg, 1962.

, Die Meistersinger, full score, Mainz, B. Schotts Sbhne,n. d.

, Parsifal, full score, Mainz, B. Schotts Sonne, n. d.

Rienzi, full score, Berlin A. Furstner, 1868.

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Weber, Carl Maria von, Der Freischuitz, full score, Leipzig, C. F. Peters, n. d.

Recordings and Tapes

Wagner, Richard, Die Feen, phonograph record, 1967 perform ance of the Bayreuth International Youth Festival, conductor, John Bell. COLOSSEUM/StM4002

Das Liebesverbot, tape, 1964 performance of the Austrian Radio, conductor, Robert Heger.

Das Liebesverbot, tape, 1965 performance of the University College London, conductor, George Badacsonyi. 192

, Das Liebesverbot, phonograph record, 1968 performance of Nottingham University, conductor, Alistair Dawes.

Das Liebesverbot, phonograph record, 1972 performance of the Bayreuth International Youth Festival, conductor, John Bell. MIXTUR MXT 3001/3 stereo.

Rienzi, tape, 1950 radio broadcast of the Chorus and Orchestra of the , con ductor, Robert Heger.

, Rienzi, phonograph record, Max Lorenz, Hilde Scheppan, Robert von der Linde, Margarete Klose, Jaro Prohaska, Chorus and Orchestra of the Berlin State Opera, conductor, Johannes Schiler. HISTORIA 657-658.