Five Nobel Prizes in Curie’s family

JULIA SALAMON Nobel’s history

The originator and a founder of the is Alfred Bernhard Nobel. He was born in on the 21 October 1833 and died in San Remo (Italia), 10 December 1896. This scientist and industrialist became famous for inventing , fake silk, synthetic skin and rubber. For these inventions he was awarded the John Fritz Medal. Alfred Nobel’s testament The first Nobel Prize wasn’t awarded to anyone during Nobel’s lifetime as the organization didn’t yet exist. It was Nobel’s last will to award people who did something for human history. The founder gave all his big fortune to founding this prize – the Nobel Prize in , , physiology or medicine, literature and peace. Nobel’s Foundation came into existence on the 19 . It was created to award the prizes and dispose of Nobel’s fortune. Excerpt of Nobel’s testament

Ja niżej podpisany, Alfred Nobel, oświadczam niniejszym, po długiej rozwadze, iż moja ostatnia wola odnośnie majątku, jest następująca. Wszystkie pozostałe po mnie, możliwe do zrealizowania aktywa, mają być rozdysponowane w sposób następujący: kapitał zostanie przez egzekutorów ulokowany bezpiecznie w papierach, tworzących fundusz, którego procenty każdego roku mają być rozdzielone w formie nagród tym, którzy w roku poprzedzającym przynieśli ludzkości największe korzyści. [...] Offering the prize

The first event when the Nobel Prize was awarded took place in the Royal Academy of Music in Stockholm in 1901. The was received by Jean Henri Dunant – the founder of the Red Cross, and Frédéric Passy. Since 1902 the prizes have been given by the king of , and the Nobel Peace Prize is offered in Oslo by the President of the Swedish in the presence of the King and Queen of . The celebration always takes place on the 10 December, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death. Each laureate receives a gold medal, honorary diploma and money for continuing his/her work and research. Nobel Prizes in Curie’s family

The whole of Curie’s family were awarded five times a Nobel Prize: • 1903 r. – Maria Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre (Peter) Curie were awarded in field of physisc • 1911 r. –Maria Skłodowska-Curie was awarded again a prize in field of chemistry • 1935 r. – Irène Joliot-Curie and Frédéric Joliot-Curie were both awarded a prize in the field of chemistry Family tree

Józef Feliks Maria Salomea Skłodowska Skłodowski Boguski Zaruska

Władysław Skłodowski Bronisława Boguska

Maria Skłodowska- Zofia Bronisława Dłuska Józef Skłodowski Helena Szalay Curie

Ève Curie- Frédéric Joliot-Curie Irène Joliot-Curie Labouisse

Michel Langevin Hélène Langevin-Joliot

Yves Langevin Maria Skłodowska-Curie Maria Salomea Skłodowska-Curie Maria was born in Warsaw on the 7 of November 1867. In order to get a high degree of education and going to college she had to move to . She married there Pierre Curie and had two children - Irène i Ève Curie. The first time she and her husband were awarded a Nobel Prize in 1903 for a reaserch on the phenomenon of radioactivity. In 1911 Maria was awarded a Nobel Prize one more time for discovering chemical elements – polonium and radium. Maria died 4 of July 1934 in Passy () because of pernicious anemia and radiation. Biography

Maria Skłodowska- Curie was born on 7 of November 1867 in Łyszkiewicz Tanement. She was the fifth daughter Władysław Skłodowki and Bronisława Bogucka. At a very young age she experienced the death of her sister and mother because of which she lost her faith in God and became an atheist. When she was 10 she started to learn in a girls pansion, which earlier was directed by her mother. Later she was educated in III Female Government High School in Warsaw. She graduated from this school with a gold medal. After one year of living in the countryside she came home to Warsaw, where she started to help others with learning. Then she and her sisters decided to continue learning on Flying University. Biography

After ending studies at uniersity, both sisters – Bronia and Maria – got an agreement, thanks to which they could study abroad. The older sister went to a University in France while Maria was working to maintain her. Later Bronisława was going to find a job in France and invite Maria to live with her while she was studying. During her stay in Poland Maria gave private lessons and taught many languages. In 1980, Maria’s sister invited her to her apartment in Paris offering full maintance. After a year of hesitating whether to stay or leave, she finally decided to go to France and she emigated in 1981. Children in Skłodowska’s family

Place of birth Maria’s Skłodowska-Curie Biography

Maria started to learn in Sorbonne (University of Paris) choosing as teaching subjects physics and maths. In her free time she was performing on a stage in an amateur theatre where she met a pianist – Ignacy Jan Paderewski. In 1893 she obtained a bachelor’s degree in physics and in 1894 in maths. After graduating college she received a science scholarship in order to explore the magnetic properties of different metals. Meanwhile she met Pierre Curie who with his brother were doing research on the pizeelectronic effect. In 1885 Maria and Pierre got married. Biography After discovering the Becquerel rays which was connected to the radioactivity of uranium, Maria decided to broaden her knowledge by writing a doctoral thesis about it. The effect of this work was discovering a new – polonium. The evidence of its existance was shown 18 of July 1898 in her thesis. Another discovery – radium – was presented 26 of December 1898. Pierre and Maria continued to explore the radiation phenomenon and they determined that p.e. the radioactive compounds were glowing, radium salts are producing heat and the radiation is going through the air and some solid- state materials. Pierre also decided to submit to a radium and Part of Becquerel’s cliche created a wound which was observed and described. Maria (it shows radioactivity of presented her thesis of the doctoral dissertation called uranium) „Reaserch on radioactive bodies”. In 1903 Maria and Pierre were awarded a Nobel prize at physisc. Biography

Maria’s husband died on the 19 April 1906. The widow has wrote „Mourning Diary for a year, where she described her feelings after had lost her beloved. In 1906 Maria started to lecture on Sorbonne and became first woman-professor who taught there. In 1911 Maria attempted to get into Trench Science Academy, but she lost during voting. Soon after, Maria had an affair with . Paul was married and he was forced to leave his family. As a result Maria Skłodowska- Curie had lost her reputation and people thaught that she broke Langevin’s family. Biography

On the 7th November 1911 Maria was awarded with a second Nobel Prize, but this time in the field of chemistry. She became the first woman awarded in this field. Financial resources from the award, she used for building a private Radium Institute. It was built in 1914 and it’s used for research on radioactivity and radioisotopes. Biography When the First World War started, Maria’s children were on holidays away fram their mother. Maria stayed in Paris, to guard her Radium Institute and radium samples, because the government announced that radium is a national treasure and it should be protected. Maria decided to help soldiers by collecting X-ray machines from the wokshops and organized apecial cars (so-called „little Curie’s) carrying machines to the battlefield. In 1916 Maria got a driving license and she was one of the first women who got it. Biography

Maria and her daughters went on a trip to United States where she organised the fundraising. Thanks to that she was able to collect money for buying 1 gram od radium for Radium Institute and the equipement to laboratories. In 20’s Maria started to get sick. She started loosing her sight and hearing. Despite this fact she decided to go to United States one more time and for another collected money she bought 1 ram of radium for Radium Institute in Warsaw (nowadays Center of Oncology- Maria Maria Skłodowska-Curie i prezydent Skłodowska-Curie Institut). The hospital in the USA Warren G. Harding place of institute was created in 1932. Biography

In 1934 Maria started to have problems with lungs and her general health conditio started to getting worse. She was diognosed with a flu, then tuberculosis and she had to go to sanitarium in Passy. Duriung her stay, she was dignosed with a real problem of weakness – a radiant disease and malignant anemia.

Maria died on the 4 of July and she was buried on Sceaux cemetery with her husband. In 1995 the grave of Maria and Pierre was transfered to Pantheon in Paris.


Maria Skłodowska-Curie expected a baby three times, unfortunately the second child died just after labour. First Maria’s daugher - Irène was born 12 of August 1897. In her future she followed Maria’s lead and shared her mothers passion for chemistry and physics. Second (and actually third) daughter was born 6 of December 1904. She became a writer, journalist and peace activist and was involved in pe. in UNICEF works. She is also an autor of her mothers biography „Maria Curie”. Discovers Maria during her lifetime achieved amazing things. She developped a radioactive theory – the techniques of radioactive isotopes separation and discovered two new chemical elements – radium and polonium. For her achievements she was recognised many times – she got two Nobel Prizes, Davy Medal, Benjamin Franklin Medal, Williard Gibbs Award and many others. In what achivements Maria was first?

• Maria was the first woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize in the field of chemistry • Maria was a first person with Polish roots to be awarded a Nobel Prize (even before Sienkiewicz, Raymont or Miłosz) • Maria was the first person to be awarded two times a Nobel Prize (and is till today the only woman who achieved that) • Maria was the first woman who lectured in Sorbonne • Maria was one of the first woman to get a driving license in the times of war The use od discoveries • Polonium is used in satellites as a source of heat and electisity. It is also used in medicine – for destroying the cancer cells – and in engineering – to produce a permanently luminous phosphors. • Radium was formerly used for curing cancers and it was added to paint, which glowed because of its presence. Radium helps as an assistant with a DNA mutations. Pierre Curie Pierre Curie

Pierre Curie was born 0n the 15 May 1859 in Paris. He studied crystals, discovered the piezoelectric effect and the atrophy of the magnetization together with temperature increases. He defined the threshold temperatures of different materials and he developed the electrometer. After the discovery of radium and using it to cure cancer, Pierre conducted the first survey on himself. In 1903 together with his wife and brother he was awarded the Nobel Prize for radioactivity research. He died a tragic death 19 April 1906, hit by a cart. Biography

Pierre together with his older brother Jacques studied physics in the University of Paris. At age 18 he gained a level of education which corresponds to Master’s Degree. A year after of gaining his bachelors degree he got a position as an assistant in Faculty of and Natural Sciences, University of Paris. Since 1880 Pierre and Jacques did reaserch and discovered the pizoelectricity effect. Biography Since 1882 Pierre was an adiunkt in the School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry of the City of Paris. Two years later he became a professor in a School of Physisc and Chemistry. After getting marry to Maria, on 25 July 1885, they started to work together in the laboratory, which ended with a great discovery – the chemical elements radium and polonium. Biography

Few years later the marriage of the scientists together with Henri Becquerel were awarded a Nobel Prize for their research on radioactivity. But first just Pierre Curie was going to be awarded with this prize, bacause in those days women credits weren’t noticed by the government. Only when he stood out and refused to be awarded without his wife, they decided to bring her into the prize. The resistance of Pierre caused that the both Pierre and Maria being awarded with a Nobel Prize. Biografhy

Pierre Curie got his position as a professor only in 1904. Then specially for him the government created The Department of Physics at the Sorbonne. On the 19th of April Pierre Curie went home after a meeting in The Professors’ Association. Crossing the street he slipped on the wet subsoil and fell under a heavy horse cart and died. He was just 47 years old. Discover and its use The biggest discovery of Pierre Curie was of course the discovery of radium and polonium which was the beginning of many other important discovers like describing a radioactivity effect by Wilhelm Röntgena, and next a radioactivity of uranium by Henry Becquerel. Pierre and Maria detected the presence of strongly radioactive chemical elements in pitchblendes or chalcolithic. This discovery is used in medicine – radiotheraphy of cancer. Irène i Frédéric Joliot-Curie Irène Joliot-Curie

The daughter of Maria Curie was born 12 of September 1897 in Paris. The Irène’s and her husband’s main achievement was discovering od artificial radioactivity. For her discovery she was awarded a Nobel Prize in the field of chemistry in 1935. She was also awarded the title of doctor honoris causa – a title which awards people greatly deserved in the development of culture and science by the universities. She died in Paris 17th of March 1956 because of leukemia. Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie

Jean was born in Paris 19 of March 1900. After his graduation from collage he started to work as a Maria Skłodowska-Curie’s assistant in the Radium Institute. A year after he marriedthe daughter of Maria - Irène Curie, with whom he was conducting research in physics. For his discovery he was awarded, together with Irène, with a Nobel Prize in 1935. In the times of war he participated in anty Hitler resistance movements and he was awarded a lot of prizes pe. he became the president of the World Peace Council. He died 14 of August 1958 in Paris. Discover and its use

Artificial radioactivity is a one of three kind of radioactivity and it’s produced by humans. It is used in medicine for sterilization and is a treatment for different diseasses pe. hyperthyroidism. It helps to diagnose technical conditions and detect defects in technical devices. By its help we can also determine the age of trees or excavations. Places and events related with Maria Skłodowska-Curie and her family Warsaw University M. Skłodowskia-Curie University Maria Curie-Skłodowska in Lublin Born in Warsaw - mural Radium Girl Performance

On the 28 January 2018 in the theatre „Warsawa” there took place the spectacle called „Radium Girl”. It was inspired by the history of Maria Skłodowska-Curie and it showed a new point of view of her life. First of all the spectacle showed how the life of Maria couldhave been if the parents of Kazimierz (her first love) had agreed to their wedding. She would stay in Poland without any chance to further her education or career as a scientist. Then it was shown how she married Pierre Curie and developed new chemical elements. The audience could also see how she sacrificed herself and her family for science. Radium Girls history

The name of the spectacle comes from the history of factory workers (mostly women) in France who produced clocks, painted with fluorescent paint. But to increase the number of clocks produced the women licked the tips of the brushes without knowing that the paint contained radioactive radium. When the chemists informed their boss about it, he still didn’t correct the problem, because it was more economically worthwhile for the company. When the women started to get sick, the company still hid and denied the facts. Meanwhile, women who worked in the factory started to feel sick and complain about different afflictions. The first woman who died because of radioactivity was Frances Splettstocher (pictured). She died in 1925, and four more workers died not long after that. Then, Grace Fryer (another worker in n Orange factory) started to complain about the toothache. It turned out that her jawbone was full of holes. Many other women started to be sick with the same disease, but the company paid the doctors to cover up the facts. Grace died a few months later, but she is still is the symbol of a normal person fighting with the country’s system. In 1927, lawyer Raymond Berry decided to help workers by filing a suit against the company. Unfortunately the lawsuit was postponed for a long time and when in 1928 the women were able to give evidence, none of them were able to move. In the end, the workers accepted the offer from the company – 10 000 dollars indemnification and 600 dollars a year for the end of their lives. In 1933 the last women who worked in the factory died. The Year of Maria Skłodowska-Curie

The year 2017 was the year of Maria Skłodowska-Curie. It was the 150th anniversary of her birth. On this occasion, in Poland there were a lot of events organized. Projekt pt. „Five Nobel Prizes in Curie’s family” realizowany jest w ramach Mazowieckiego projektu stypendialnego dla uczniów szczególnie uzdolnionych – najlepsza inwestycja w człowieka w roku szkolnym 2017/2018 Źródła • https://www.google.pl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiN07LLx_DYAhVKsxQKHe5uAHwQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwarszawa.fotopolska.eu%2F904046%2C foto.html&psig=AOvVaw3NOEIq3mGcUP6b0i8ylWUy&ust=1516881901063592 • https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Skłodowska-Curie#Dzieci%C5%84stwo_i_m%C5%82odo%C5%9B%C4%87_w_Polsce • https://www.google.pl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiP9OH2x_DYAhXIaxQKHV8gDeUQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fnowahistoria.interia.pl%2Fdrogi-do- wolnosci%2Fnews-maria-sklodowska-curie-uczona-wszech-czasow%2CnId%2C2280040&psig=AOvVaw1oDu1QFFWw7LKMR3CMc8ws&ust=1516881997287274 • https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Nobel • https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irène_Joliot-Curie • https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frédéric_Joliot-Curie • https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ève_Curie • https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Curie • https://www.google.pl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwi06fnZyfDYAhXIXBQKHV3nBtEQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.paryz.freehost.pl%2Fsorbona.html& psig=AOvVaw0NKazwtZCkKoNDKhNqe9bW&ust=1516882468830553 • https://www.google.pl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjzq8P2yfDYAhVCnRQKHfURAYgQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ipsb.nina.gov.pl%2Fa%2Ffoto%2Fp ierre-curie-i-maria-sklodowska-curie&psig=AOvVaw3FiUDAQQCUSOgLj74hC3ej&ust=1516882439142909 • https://www.google.pl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwj0sdfl0_DYAhVD6xQKHWjSDZQQjRwIBw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fpl.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FHenri_Bec querel&psig=AOvVaw2c4RS1kwxthPXbj9LOFn4G&ust=1516885155107175 • https://www.google.pl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjOpuD51PDYAhVHPBQKHQzWB3AQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fe- learning.uczelniawarszawska.pl%2F&psig=AOvVaw0oDKNLjv3LzHD6ZxSRxTnl&ust=1516885475901731 • https://www.google.pl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjWyZeO1fDYAhXDvBQKHeX6CpsQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fe- learning.uczelniawarszawska.pl%2Fmod%2Fpage%2Fview.php%3Fid%3D136%26lang%3Duk&psig=AOvVaw0oDKNLjv3LzHD6ZxSRxTnl&ust=1516885475901731 • https://www.google.pl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiXjZaq1fDYAhUMwBQKHZF7CLMQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.rmf24.pl%2Ffoto%2Ftylko-w- rmf24%2Fzdjecie%2CiId%2C406992%2CiAId%2C25072&psig=AOvVaw2aJSE_maumC_nodB99zZtE&ust=1516885584409524 • https://www.google.pl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwj7q4S-1fDYAhVMOhQKHdcUCJ0QjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.umcs.pl%2Fpl%2Fud- patronat.htm&psig=AOvVaw0wzRE3V8sJuZm3UqqnCvJg&ust=1516885629512387 • https://www.google.pl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwio0pz8gPPYAhUJ2KQKHWf1CPcQjRwIBw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.crazynauka.pl%2Fnie-ogarniasz- rzeczywistosci-maria-sklodowska-curie-tez-sobie-nie-radzila%2F&psig=AOvVaw1L7ce4PeKHXpF53z6gnf3e&ust=1516966026188895 • https://www.google.pl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiYzem9gfPYAhWE16QKHZQNC_wQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hko.gov.hk%2Fm%2Farticle_e.ht m%3Ftitle%3Dele_00292&psig=AOvVaw1L7ce4PeKHXpF53z6gnf3e&ust=1516966026188895 • https://www.google.pl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiDpYz1hPPYAhUSJVAKHTSfB7oQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmariasklodowska- curie.blog.pl%2F2014%2F11%2F23%2F5%2F&psig=AOvVaw2jRj0oefjIEKZRMu5OIC4S&ust=1516967084326525 • https://www.google.pl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjc9NSVhfPYAhXPblAKHcptC6kQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fprojekt- maria.blogspot.com%2F2011%2F&psig=AOvVaw20TxIjsyVhqsKt3Fmj5jI7&ust=1516967138361923 • http://static.messynessychic.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/gracefryer.jpg • https://michalstraczek.fotoblogia.pl/7100,radium-girls • https://www.pinterest.com/pin/37365871891502221/ • https://www.biebrza.org.pl/824,maria-sklodowska-w-dworze-kepa-nad-biebrza • http://nowahistoria.interia.pl/drogi-do-wolnosci/news-maria-sklodowska-curie-uczona-wszech-czasow,nId,2280040 • http://www.wysokieobcasy.pl/wysokie-obcasy/1,96856,9543890,7_listopada___urodziny_Marii_Sklodowskiej_Curie.html • http://www.if.pw.edu.pl/~pluta/pl/dyd/mtj/zal1/pz03/budzilo/4c.html • https://kierul.wordpress.com/tag/sklodowska-curie/ • http://docplayer.pl/59976560-Maria-sklodowska-curie-urodzila-sie-7-listopada-1867r-w-warszawie-byla-najmlodsza-sposrod-pieciorga-dzieci-panstwa-sklodowskich.html • https://biografia24.pl/pierre-curie/ • http://eszkola.pl/fizyka/pierre-curie-3917.html?strona=2 • https://www.polskieradio.pl/39/156/Artykul/1124411,Piotr-Curie-%E2%80%93-w-cieniu-zony • https://ygogirl.wordpress.com/tag/curie/