Cheryl Podsiki, Conservator, AIC-PA, Health & Safety Committee, November 2008

The 35 capitalized Elements listed on the following chart are those regulated by OSHA as , including the italicized compounds [1]. Many of the compounds listed can be found in the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards and other databases including NIOSH [21], IDLHC [22], and ICSC [23]. Others can be found in numerous chemical [7, 24-29] and environmental [30] listings, as as conservation resources [31]. Although conservators may not typically be exposed to some of the OSHA chemicals listed their compounds may be components of complex objects including and textiles [8, 32-39], geological collections [36], herbariums [8], cultural property, building structures, or may be present in the environment [40]. The list includes commonly used [5, 41], preservatives and [5-7, 36, 42-43], sources [5, 6, 24, 31, 36, 43], industrial [45-47] and medically related compounds [5-6, 14-16, 21-23, 45]. The chart serves as a guide only and is not all-inclusive.

Acronyms used in this chart and in references: CAS: Chemical Abstract Service (chemical registry number) MSDS: Safety Data Sheets PEL: Permissible exposure limit - OSHA regulated concentrations TLV: Threshold limit value - ACGIH suggested concentration guidelines TWA: Time-weighted average - NIOSH recommended exposure limits (RELs) ppm: parts per million (conversion factors: parts of vapor or per million parts of contaminated air by volume at 25ºC and 1 atmosphere) mg/m3: milligrams per cubic meter (conversion factors: milligrams of vapor or gas per cubic meter of contaminated air at 25ºC and 1 atmosphere)

For comprehensive lists of acronyms, health agencies and governing bodies refer to the following websites: ACGIH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists www.acgih.org CDC: Center for Disease Control and Prevention www.cdc.gov DHHS: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services www.os.dhhs.gov EPA: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency www.epa.gov OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration www.osha.gov NIOSH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health www.cdc.gov/niosh


ALUMINUM (AL) 7429-90-5 A l u m inium; Aluminum ; Elemental aluminum; ; building structures; transportation OSHA PEL: TWA Silvery-, malleable, ductile, odorless metal; Aluminum powder (aluminum powder) structures; aerospace ; rocket fuels; 15 mg/m3 (total); TWA silvery-white to grey powder : ; ; ; ; electrical applications; electrical transmission lines; 5 mg/m3 (resp); clays ; pharmaceuticals; medications (e.g. TWA 2 mg/m3 (soluble , buffered aspirin); antiperspirants; medical salts). ; utensils; aluminum foil; packaging ; packaging; beverage cans; food * Human dementia additives; ; processed cheese; syndromes [6] ; “softened” ; ; ; production of and ; salts as textile mordents; aluminum powder used to make aluminum leaf for moisture and waterproof ; geological specimens alpha-Aluminum 1344-28-1 A l u m i n i u m o x i d e ; A luminum oxide; Alumina; Single transmitters; super conducting OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Al2O3 Aluminum trioxide; Emery powder (natural aluminum devices; hip replacements; and 15 mg/m (total); TWA 3 White odorless crystalline powder oxide) applications; ; manufacture of ; 5 mg/m (resp) (as Al) Mineral: Aloxite; retardant; suppressant; Gem: ( form of corundum); medium; vapor lamps; for compact fluorescent lamps; water filters; protective coatings on pre-finished floors; billiard ; ; jewelry; glass (); coatings; geological specimens

Aluminum 21645-51-2 Alumina ; Aluminum oxide trihydrate; Transparent White is used in preparation of TLV not established Al(OH)3 Trihydroxyaluminum; Transparent White t r a n s p a r e n t l a k e p i g m e nts; filler for paints Odorless white powder in various forms Mineral: Bauxite

Aluminum Indigo 12225-21-7 Trade names: C.I. Pigment 100; C.I. 19140 Azo complex; pigments TLV not established C16H9AlN4O9 Aluminum Lake; C.I. Food Yellow 4 Aluminum Lake; Yellow-greenish powder FD & C Yellow No. 5 Aluminum Lake; Food *Azo, Diazo, and Yellow 4 Aluminum Lake; Lakeolene B 3014; Pigment compounds can Yellow 100; Tartrazine Aluminum Lake; Yellow Lake T detonate

Aluminum , 1302-78-9 Colloidal clay; Soap clay; Mineral soap; Gumbrin bentonite: Absorbent clay; poultices TLV not established (Calcium or sodium bentonite) Mineral: Sodium bentonite: Water softener; emulsifier in Fine, natural clay, granules or powder in variable Trade names: Fuller’s ; American clay; Wilkinite Portland and ; increases in colors ( of glass particles in clay body; filler in , , paper ) and paints

Aluminum stearate 637-12-7 Stearic aluminum ; Aluminum (III) stearate; Soap made by of tallow and treatment OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Al (C18H35O2)3 Octadecanoic acid aluminum salt; Daiwax WA1; with alum; photographic emulsion; waterproofing 15 mg/m (total); TWA Hard thermoplastic white powder Metaspa XX; Rofob 3 agent for fabrics, ropes, paper, leather, concrete, and 5 mg/m3 (resp); stucco; flattening agent in and lacquers; TWA 2 mg/m3 (soluble forms colloidal or gels with , turpentine, salts) (as Al) mineral spirits; and drier, thickener, and emulsifier; artist’s pastes and prepared paints

Aluminum 10043-01-3 Aluminum sulphate; Aluminum trisulfate; Aluminum General uses of Alum compounds: Flocculating NIOSH REL: TLV: 3 Al2(SO4)3 ( I I I ) s u l f a t e ; A l u minum sesquisulfate; Fertosan; agent used to clarify water in gel precipitate of 2 mg/m (as Al soluble Odorless white or powder. Aluminum alum; Alum; Alumen; Filter alum; Cake aluminum hydroxide; ; salts) (ACGIH 1993- Note: Aluminum sulfate is the general alum; Cake aluminum; Cube alum; Alumstone; Alum treatments; medicinal as an astringent to prevent 1994) name used to refer to as alum. Alum compounds flour; Alum meal; ; Paper maker’s alum; Patent bleeding (e.g. styptic ), adjuvant to enhance include hydrated double salts usually consisting of alum; Pearl alum; Pickle alum; Aluminum immune response in human immunizations, aluminum sulfate, water, and a sulfate of another (3) salt (3:2); Tai-Ace S150; NALCO 7530 antibacterial agent, , emetic, home remedy element e.g. , sodium, , Mineral: Alunogenite for canker sores; make-up as a skin whitener; , selenate (the first three being the most aftershave; wax for hair removal; hair stiffener; common, respectively) natural () ; food (as a preservative); ; some playdough recipes; Potassium aluminum sulfate 7784-24-9 Alum (most common alum compound); Native alum; fire retardant; foamite used in fire extinguishers for K2SO4 · Al2(SO4)3 · 24H2O alum; Alumina; Alumnus; Alumnae; Alumni; chemical and oil ; leather hardener for White crystals or powder Bitter salt , , cement; filler in paper, cement, paints; Mineral: ; Acuminite paper sizing; in textile dying; preparation of Naturally occurring: Potash alum lake pigments; geological specimens

Aluminum alum; Ammonium aluminum sulfate Developing baths for black and white ; AlNH4(SO4)2·12H2O Mineral: Tschermigite baking powder; textile dying; leather tanning; White crystalline powder substrate for lake pigments Kaolin 1332-58-7 Hydrated silicate; clay; Argilla Commercial cleaning of fabrics, furs and carpets; NIOSH REL: TWA Mainly hydrous aluminosilicate Trade names: Kaolin; Kaolite production; filler in paints, pastels, , 10 mg/m3 (total); TWA 3 H2Al2Si2O8 H2O Mineral: rubbers, ; ; absorbent for oils and 5 mg/m (resp) White powder ; for Lake pigments

Sodium aluminum fluosilicate 53404-77-6 Silicate hexafluoro-aluminum sodium ; mothproofer (discontinued 1930’s); OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Na5Al(SiF6)4 Trade names: Larvex; Larvex mothproofing buffer in dye baths 2.5 mg/m . The PEL White powder Composition; Selig’s Fabriteks (W) applies to other solid (as F)

Sodium fluoroaluminate 15096-52-3 Sodium aluminum ; Sodium aluminofluoride; Used as a in for bauxite in electrolytic OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Na3AlF6 Sodium hexafluoroaluminate; Synthetic Cryolite production of aluminum; filler for bonded abrasive; 2.5 mg/m (as F) Natural Cryolite mineral: white solid or powder; Trade Names: Cryocide; Cryodust; Cryolite; Kriolit; enamel and ; insecticide Synthetic: or brown tinted granular powder Kryocide; Kryolith; Prokil Mineral: Cryolite

Sodium fluorosilicate 16893-85-9 Sodium silicofluoride; Disodium hexafluorosilicate; Fluoridation agent for ; glue; flotation; OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Na2Si F6 Sodium hexafluorosilicate gelling agent in production of molded latex foam; 2.5 mg/m (as F) White powder tinted ; white granular powder Trade Names: Larvex; Larvex mothproofing; Earwig production of enamels and enamel for china and bait porcelain; leather and wood preservative; insecticide, rodenticide; mothproofer (discontinued 1930’s)

All pesticidal products canceled by early 1990’s.

ANTIMONY (Sb) 7440-36-0 A n t i m o n y m e t a l ; A n t i m o n y p o w d e r ; A n t i m o n y b l a c k ; A i r p o l l u t i o n f r o m i n d u s t r i a l e m i s s i o n s ; m e d i c i n a l O S HA PEL*: TWA -white, lustrous, hard, brittle solid; scale-like regulus; Stibium; C.I. 77050 purposes; cosmetics; metal ; ; , 0.5 mg/m3 .*Note: The crystals; or a dark-gray, lustrous powder. Mineral: Boulangerite; Bournite; ; detectors; cable sheathing; small arms; tracer PEL also applies to *; semi-metal. Cerrantite; Cerrusite; Jamisonite; Kermasite; Livingston; ammunition; ; linotype ; other antimony Polybasite; Pyragyrite; Scorodite; Senarmonite; ware; ; safety ; compounds (as Sb) On contact with may emit toxic gas, Stephanite; Stibiconite; ; ; batteries; ; decorative metal; silver amalgams such as in early production; is similar to Often found in trace amounts in ancient and forensic residue on archival materials; toys; [5] alloys burners; jewelry coatings; ceramics; enamels; glassware; pigments; weighted silks; geological Minor toxic metal [6] specimens

Antimony oxide 1309-64-4 ; Antimony ; Flame retardant; composites; opacifying OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Sb2O3 Antimony (III) oxide; Diantimony trioxide; Flowers of agent for glass, ceramics, enamels; pigments; 0.5 mg/m (as Sb) White crystalline powder antimony geological specimens Trade names: Antimony bloom 100A; Atox B; Atox F; Bluestar RG; Bluestar Z; Fire Shield H; Thermoguard B. Antimony white: Minerals: Senarmonite, Valenitinite OSHA PEL: TWA Pigment: Antimony White pigment (synthetic: 0.5 mg/m3 (as Sb) (as antimony and sulfate); Trade name: Timonox Ba) (1919) *Carcinogenic [31]

Antimony 12627-52-0 Antimony sulphide; Sulfide of antimony; Antimonial Pigment used in rubber industry; colorant in ruby OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Sb2 S3 glass; Vitreous antimony glass; pigment is fugitive and unstable in paints 0.5 mg/m (as Sb) Odorless and red to black crystalline solid Mineral: Stibnite (Source of natural black pigment: Antimony Black; black powder also called ) Antimony black: Camouflage paints Pigment: Antimony (precipitate of antimony and sodium thiosulphate or sulfide to Kohl: Eye paint in (Amarna ); also used give orange-deep red globules) to blacken edges of books since late 17th century Antimony sulfide gives red ; gives orange hue Antimony oxide sulfide: red pigment

Antimony trisulfide 1345-04-6 Antimony (III) sulfide; Antimony sulfide; Antimony Fireworks; matches; colorant in ruby glass OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Sb2S3 (same formula as antimony sulfide) orange; Antimony red; Antimony vermilion; Antimony 0.5 mg/m (as Sb) Red-orange crystalline solid black; Hermus mineral Pigment: Antimony vermilion (orange hue)

Stibine 7803-52- 3 Antimony ; Antimony trihydride; Hydrogen Production of semi-conductors; fumigant Stibine: OSHA PEL: SbH3 antimonide TWA 0.1 ppm (0.5 Colorless toxic gas with a disagreeable like mg/m3) (rotten eggs); may be formed in ; ; or battery charging *Highly toxic gas; causes [6]

ARSENIC (As) 7440-38-2 A r s e n i c m e t a l : A r s e n i a ; G r e y arsenic Environmental emissions from industries; OSHA PEL: Metal: Silver-gray or -white, brittle, odorless Minerals: ; ; ; copper alloys; war ; homicidal and suicidal [1910.1018] TWA solid. Note: OSHA considers "Inorganic Arsenic" ; Caludetite; ; ; Enargite; ; semi-conductors for integrated circuits in 0.01 mg /m3 to mean copper acetoarsenite & all inorganic ; Finnemanite; Georgiadesite; ; supercomputers and phones; taxidermy; cell compounds containing arsenic except . Heliophyllite; Koettigite; Legrandite; ; tissue preservative and fixative; human embalming PEL limits are same for *Metalloid; semi-metal ; Miccolite; ; ; ; fluid (1850’s-1910); ; ; all As compounds Pharmacooite; Proustite; ; Schultenite; insecticides; pesticides; cosmetics; medicinal unless otherwise noted ; purposes; colorant in enamel and glass production (archaeological, contemporary imported glass beads); Major toxic metal [6]. old wall paper; mordant in textiles; weighted silks; *; suspect pigments; antifouling paints; geological specimens

Arsenic pentoxide 1303-28-2 Arsenic (V) oxide; Arsenic anhydride; Glass ; textile dyeing and printing; OSHA PEL: As2O5 anhydride ; insecticide [1910.1018] TWA White deliquescent crystals 0.01 mg /m3 (as As)

Arsenic sulfide 56320-22-0 S u l p h i d e o f a r s e n i c ; A rsenic Fireworks; leather tanning and de-hairing; OSHA PEL: AsS / As2S2 / As2S4 1303-32-8 Mineral and Pigment: Realgar paper (e.g. wallpaper, flypaper) used to print calico [1910.1018] TWA Translucent to transparent orange-red to yellow- Pigment: Realgar; Red arsenic sulfide; Arsenic red; Red textiles; pigments; geological specimen 0.01 mg /m3 (as As) orange crystals orpiment; Ruby ; Burnt orpiment; Arsenic orange Unstable: Realgar will transform into on exposure to light and turn yellow-orange in color; See for Orpiment (decomposition product of Realgar)

Arsenic trichloride 7784-34-1 Arsenic III chloride; Arsenous chloride; Arsenious Fumigant; insecticide OSHA PEL: AsCl3 chloride; Caustic arsenic chloride; Fuming liquid; Butter [1910.1018] TWA Colorless, oily, fuming liquid with pungent odor of arsenic 0.01 mg /m3 (as As)

Arsenic trioxide 1327-53-3 Arsenic (III) oxide; Arsenous oxide anhydride; White Tissue preservative in taxidermy and OSHA PEL: As2O3 arsenic; anhydride; Arsenic sesquioxide; specimens; human embalming fluid (1850’s-1910); [1910.1018] TWA White or transparent lumps or crystalline powder Arsenous trioxide; Arsenic glass; White alum (prior to arsenic compound most often used on collections in 0.01 mg /m3 (as As) 1800) various solutions, pastes, soap, sprays; colorant in enamels and paints

Arsenic trisulfide 1303-33-9 Arsenic (III) sulfide; Yellow arsenic sulfide; Arsenic Fireworks; manufacture of infrared transmitting glass; OSHA PEL: As2S3 yellow; Arsenous sulfide; Arsenious sulfide; arsenical paper (e.g. wallpaper, flypaper); leather [1910.1018] TWA Lemon yellow to orange-yellow crystals Auripigment tanning and de-hairing; used to print calico textiles; 0.01 mg /m3 (as As) Mineral: Orpiment (decomposition product of Realgar) pigments; geological specimens Pigment: Orpiment; King’s Yellow (synthetic 18th century pigment); Pigment yellow 39; C.I. 77085; C.I. 77086 Arsine 7784-42-1 A rsenic hydride; Arsenic trihydride; Arseniuretted By-product of of non metals and OSHA PEL: TWA 3 AsH3 hydrogen; Arsenous hydride; Hydrogen manufacture of when inorganic arsenic is 0.05 ppm (0.2 mg/m ) Colorless highly toxic gas with a mild, -like exposed to nascent (freshly formed) hydrogen; NIOSH REL: 0.002 odor occurs in an arsenic spot test; mg/m3, 15-minute produced by specific organometallic micro-organisms CEILING found in the environment *Highly toxic gas; causes hemolysis [6] arsenide 1303-00-0 Semi-conductor devices; integrated circuits; OSHA PEL: GaAs diodes; solar cells; mobile phones; field ; [1910.1018] TWA Grey cubic crystals satellite communication; microwave point to point 0.01 mg /m3 (as As) links; some radar systems; ; photo mixing

Iron arsenosulfide arsenopyrite; ; Arsenical pyrite; ; Geological specimens OSHA PEL: FeAsS Mispickel [1910.1018] TWA Silver-white crystals or masses Mineral: Arsenopyrite (ore of arsenic) 0.01 mg /m3 (as As)

Potassium 7784-41-0 Arseniate of potash; Macquer’s salt; Analytical ; insecticide; hide preservative; OSHA PEL: KH2AsO4 Potassium dihydrogen arsenate; Potassium arsenate, textile printing [1910.1018] TWA Colorless or white crystals or powder. monobasic; Potassium acid arsenate 0.01 mg /m3 (as As)

th 10124-50-2 Arsenious acid, potassium salt; Arsenenous acid, 19 century medicinal (coughs, emphysema, skin OSHA PEL: KAs2HO4 potassium salt; Potassium metaarsenite; Fowler’s diseases); pesticide [1910.1018] TWA White hygroscopic powder (in solution) 0.01 mg /m3 (as As)

Sodium arsenate 7631-89-2 Arsenic acid, disodium salt; Sodium arsenate dibasic; Insecticide OSHA PEL: AsH3O4 . xNa Disodium arsenate heptahydrate; sodium metaarsenate; [1910.1018] TWA Colorless to white crystals or powder Sodium orthoarsenate 0.01 mg /m3 (as As) Trade Name: Sweeny’s Ant-go; Fatsco Ant Arsenic acid disodium salt; Disodium arsenate; Disodium hydrogen arsenate

Sodium arsenate dibasic 7778-43-0 Trade Name: Jones Ant Killer Insecticide AsHNa2O4 Colorless to white crystals or powder 7784-46-5 A r s e n o u s acid, Sodium arsenite; Sodium metaarsenite; Antiseptic; preservative for hides; herbicides; OSHA PEL: NaAsO2 Arsenous acid sodium salt insecticide; dye making [1910.1018] TWA White granular crystals Trade names: Atlas A; Chem Pels C; Chem-Sen 56; 0.01 mg /m3 (as As) Kill-All; Penite; Prodalumnol; Prodalumnol Double; Siburizing refers to its use as a mothproofer Sibur; Sodanit

BARIUM (Ba) 7440-39-3 Metal alloys; superconductors; spark ; OSHA PEL: TWA Yellowish to white lustrous solid in various forms ammunition; analytical catalyst; radiopaque aid in x- 0.5 mg /m3 . *Note: The rays; infrared applications; fireworks; soap; paper; PEL also applies to plastic; rubber; ceramics; glass; pesticides; fillers; other soluble barium pigments; paints; geological specimens compounds (as Ba)

*Minor toxic metal [6]

Barium 543-80-6 Barium diacetate Mordant in textile dyeing; drier for paints and OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Ba(C2H3O2)2-H2O varnishes 0.5 mg /m (as Ba) White crystalline powder Barium 513-77-9 Barium monocarbonate; barium salt Pesticide; rodenticide; production of bricks; mortar; OSHA PEL: TWA 3 BaCO3 Mineral: synthetic marble; glassmaking; pigment in paints and 0.5 mg /m (as Ba) White powder Pigment: C.I. Pigment white 10; C.I. 77099 glazes; geological specimens

Barium carbonate is a precipitate from (alkalizing agent) and dioxide for use as alkaline reserves in paper

Barium chloride 10361-37-2 Barium dichloride Pesticide; leather tanning; mordant for acid OSHA PEL*: TWA 3 BaCl2 0.5 mg/m (as Ba) Odorless white crystals 10294-40-3 barium salt Metal primers; anti- pastes; colorant for OSHA PEL: TWA 3 BaCrO4 Pigments: Barium yellow; Lemon yellow; glass and ceramic glazes; pigments 0.5 mg /m (Ba); Yellow powder yellow; yellow; Lemon chrome; Permanent OSHA PEL: TWA (a (VI) compound [5]) yellow; Baryta yellow; Steinbuhl yellow; Pigment 0.5 mg /m3 (Cr) yellow 31

Barium copper silicate Han blue; Han ; Chinese blue; Chinese purple Pigment in paints and ceramics glazes from Han OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Blue crystals: BaCuSi4O10 dynasty (208 BCE-220 CE) 0.5 mg /m (as Ba) Purple crystals: BaCuC2O6

Barium hydroxide 17194-00-2 Barium hydrate; Caustic baryta ; used to remove in water; OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Ba(OH)2 fungicide; insecticide; rodenticide; manufacture of 0.5 mg /m (as Ba) White crystalline powder glass and ceramic glazes; aqueous and non-aqueous neutralization and alkalization in paper; Baynes-Cope process (in ); stabilizer

Barium hydroxide, monohydrate 22326-55-2 Production of other barium chemicals; production of OSHA PEL: TWA 3 BaH2O2 . H2O lubricating and oil additives; water purification 0.5 mg /m (as Ba) White powder

Barium 10022-31-8 ; rodenticide; fireworks; green OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Ba(NO3)2 signal lights; manufacture of glass and ceramic glazes 0.5 mg /m (as Ba) White crystals/fused 1304-28-5 Barium ; Barium protoxide; Calcined baryta; for of fluorescent lamps; OSHA PEL: TWA BaO Heavy earth dehydrating agent; glazes; pigments 0.5 mg /m3 (as Ba) Yellowish-white solid in various forms

Barium sulfate 7727-43-7 Barium sulphate; Artificial barite production; for x-ray OSHA PEL: TWA 3 BaSO4 Minerals: Barite; , Heavy spar. imaging; filler and extender in paper, wallpaper, 0.5 mg /m (as Ba) Odorless, white or yellowish crystals or powder Pigments: Barite; Barytes, Heavy spar Blanc fixe; linoleum, oil cloth, rubber, , flannel, shoddy Artificial barite; Barium white; Permanent white; Baryta cloth; production of pigments (with ZnS); white; Pigment white 21; C.I. 77120 (synthetic); pigments; geological specimens Bologna white; Permalba

Barium sulfide 21109-95-5 B a rium sulphide; Lapis solis; Barium monosulfide; Vulcanized rubber; de-hairing hides; the first OSHA PEL: TWA BaS Black ash; Bolognian ; Bologna stone synthetic ; pigment in luminous paints 0.5 mg /m3 (as Ba) Pale grey powder

Barium Barium sulfocyanide Photographic solutions; textile dyeing OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Ba(SCN)2·2H2O 0.5 mg /m (as Ba) White needle shaped crystals

Barium Barium hyposulfite; Barium thiosulphate Photographic solutions; textile dyeing; pigments OSHA PEL: TWA 3 BaS2O3·H2O 0.5 mg /m (as Ba) White crystalline powder

BERYLLIUM (Be) 7440-41-7 Glucinium Air emissions from of and oil, from OSHA PEL: 0.002 Grey to white powder Mineral: Behoite; Bertrandite; ; Bromellite; extraction , from industrial uses such mg/m3 TWA; 0.005 Crysoberyl; Euclase; Gadolinite; Milarite; Phenakite as ceramic production and beryllium alloy mg/m3 CEILING. Gems: Beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18); manufacture, and from smoke; metal alloys; Major toxic metal [6] (Be3Al2SiO6); free metal in nuclear reactions; nuclear ; missile fuels; space vehicles; space ; space *Probable carcinogen ; communication satellites; semi- [5] conductors; tweeter and loud-speaker construction; spot-welding electrodes; springs; x-ray detectors in analytical instruments; output windows for x-ray tubes; fluorescent light tubes; geological specimens;

Beryllium oxide 1304-56-9 Beryllia, Beryllium monoxide Electrical installation; abrasive for polishing hard TLV (as (TWA) ): ppm; BeO metals; manufacture of glass, ceramics, glazes 0.002 mg/m3 A1 white powder (ACGIH 1999)

BISMUTH (undoped) 1304-82-1 B i s m u t h s e squitelluride; telluride; Bismuth Semi-conductors; pharmaceuticals; medical therapy; OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Bi2Te3 tritelluride cosmetics 15 mg/m (total); TWA 3 Gray, crystalline solid. Minerals: ; ; Bismuthinite 5 mg/m (resp)

BORON (B) 7726-95-6 alloys; semi-conductors; aircraft and space OSHA PEL: TWA Amorphous brown powder; black crystals applications; rocket ; fibers and filaments in 15 mg/m3; varies *Metalloid; semi-metal composites; resins; ceramics; glass; metals; fabrics; tissue cell preservative; pesticide; scavenger; laundry soap

Borax 1303-96-4 Sodium , decahydrate; Disodium tetraborate extraction; anti-corrosion systems; adhesive TLV: 1-5 mg/m3 B4O7Na2• 10H2O decahydrate; Sodium tetraborate decahydrate; Sodium manufacture; water softener; ; germicides; (ACGIH 1996) White crystals or crystalline powder pyroborate decahydrate; salt of ; anti-fungal compound for fiberglass; insecticide; Trade Names: Jaikin, Pyrobor, Three Elephant, V-Bor tissue cell preservative; absorbent for natural history Mineral: specimens; detergents; cosmetics; fire retardant; enamel glazes; buffering agent; curing agent; flux; drying agent; food additive (outside U.S.)

Boric acid 10043-35-3 Boracic acid; Orthoboric acid; Acidum boricum Controls fissure rate of in nuclear power TLV not established B(OH)3 Trade Names: Borid; Drax Ant Killer; It Works; plants; flat panel displays; component in original Silly Odorless, colorless crystals or white powder Mop-up Putty®; flame retardant; textile fiberglass; antiseptic; Mineral: anti-bacterial; eye drops; cell tissue preservative; curing agent for hides and skins; insecticide (roaches, silverfish); wood preservative; ceramic production; jewelry manufacture

Decaborane 17702-41-9 hydride; Decaboron tetradecahydride Boron containing ; rocket fuel OSHA PEL:TWA 3 B10H14 0.3 mg/m (0.05 ppm) Colorless to white crystals; strong musty or bitter skin odor or characteristics sweet odor of 17702-41-9 Boron hydride; Decaboron tetradecahydride Boron containing thin film; rocket fuel OSHA PEL:TWA 3 B10H14 0.3 mg/m (0.05 ppm) Colorless to white crystals; strong musty or bitter skin odor or characteristics sweet chocolate odor of Note: with 19287-45-7 Borane; Boroethane; Boron hydride; Borane hydride; ; agent for production of semi- OSHA PEL: TWA 3 B2H6 Diboron hexahydride; Hydrogen boride conductors; ; flame speed accelerant 0.1 ppm (0.1 mg/m ) Colorless compressed gas; characteristics sweet vulcanized rubber chocolate odor of Boranes

Pentaborane 19624-22-7 Pentaboron nonahydride Initial experiments for rocket and jet fuel but was OSHA PEL: TWA B5H9 unsuccessful due to high toxicity* and spontaneous 0.005 ppm (0.01 Colorless liquid with pungent odor similar to combustion mg/m3) garlic, or sour *Similar to nerve agents

CADMIUM (Cd) 7440-43-9 metal, dust, powder Emissions released into environment from ore OSHA PEL: TWA Soft blue-white metal lumps or grey powder. Minerals: Hawleyite; Monteponite smelting operations, from mist from cadmium- 0.005 mg/m3 Malleable; turns brittle on exposure to 80°c and containing baths, from on exposure to moist air (drying) of , and from handling of The PEL applies to all powdered in production of cadmium Cadmium compounds Cadmium fume (as Cd) 1306-19-0 soaps (used to stabilize plastics); cadmium electrodes; (as Cd) unless noted. CdO/Cd Cadmium monoxide; Cadmium oxide fume; Cadmium; electroplating; -cadmium batteries; bearings; Odorless, yellow-brown, finely divided particulate Cadmium (II) oxide ; metal coatings; metal alloys; silver Major toxic metal [6]. dispersed in air alloys; PVC stabilizers; television tubes; semi- *Known/Probable conductors; ; cigarette ; Carcinogen ; ; incandescent light filaments; former veterinarian treatment for worms and parasites; colorant in ceramic glazes and glass; pigment in phosphors

Cadmium acetate 543-90-8 , cadmium salt; Bis(acetoxy) cadmium; Fungicides for turf and bark (discontinued) TLV: 0.01 mg/m³ (as Cd(CH3CO2)2 dihydrate Cd) A2 (ACGIH 2001) Colorless crystals with characteristic odor

Cadmium chloride 10108-64-2 Cadmium Dichloride; Dichlorocadmium Analytical agent; photography; fungicides for turf and TLV: ppm; 0.01 mg/m3 CdCl2 Trade Name: Caddy; Vi-CAD tree bark; fabric printing (as TWA) (as Cd); total White crystalline solid dust A2 (ACGIH 1993- 1994). TLV (as TWA): ppm; 0.002 mg/m3 (as Cd); respirable dust A2 (ACGIH 1993-1994) 10124-36-4 Cadmium sulphate Fungicides for turf and tree bark TLV (as TWA): ppm; 3 CdSO4 Trade Names: Cad-Trete; CragTurf Fungicide; 0.01 mg/m (as Cd), A2 Odorless white solid Kromad; Miller 531 (ACGIH 1998)

Cadmium sulfide 1306-23-6 Cadmium monosulfide Coatings on photovoltaic cells; pigments TLV: 0.01 mg/m3 (as CdS Mineral: ; Hawleyite Cd), A2 (ACGIH 1996) Light yellow or orange crystals/ Pigment Trade names: Cadmium yellow; C.I. Pigment yellow to brown powder yellow 37; Cadmium golden 366; Cadmium lemon yellow; Cadmium orange; Cadmium primrose 819; Cadmium yellow 10 G conc.; Cadmium yellow conc. Primrose; Cadmopur golden yellow N; Cadmopur yellow; Capsebon; Ferro lemon yellow

Cadmium sulpho- Pigment: Cadmium red Pigment OSHA PEL: TWA Cd S(Se) 0.005 mg/m3 (Cd)

Cadmium sulpho-selenide co-precipitated with Cadmium Red or Yellow Lithopone Barium sulphate

CALCIUM (Ca) 7440-70-2 E l e m e n t a l calcium Reducing agent; alloying agent; tissue cell TLV not established; Lustrous silver white metal (when freshly cut); preservative; absorbent in natural history specimens; varies with compounds turns bluish grey on exposure to moist air. component in , shells; filler/flux in ceramic and glass manufacture

Calcium acetate 62-54-4 ; liming ; curing and tanning skins; TLV not established C4H6CaO4 used to re-introduce calcium into weathered White powder (acetic acid with glass; mordant in textile dyeing and printing; used as or ) neutralization and alkalization agent for aqueous and non aqueous treatments in paper conservation

Calcium arsenate 7778-44-1 Tricalcium arsenate; Tricalcium ortho-arsenate; Calcium ; insecticide; weed killer OSHA PEL: As2Ca3O8 ortho-arsenate; Calcium salt (2:3) of arsenic Acid; [1910.1018] TWA Colorless to white, amorphous powder Arsenic acid, calcium salt 0.01 mg/m3 (as As) Trade Names: Spra-cal; Turf-Cal; Cucumber dust

Calcium Calcium hydrogen carbonate Formation of , , and caves; used TLV not established Ca(HCO3)2 as neutralization and alkalization agent in paper of calcium carbonate in carbonic conservation acid

Calcium : Flux for ceramic glazes, glass and metallurgy TLV not established CaB4O7 White powder

Calcium carbonate 471-34-1 Calcium salt of carbonic acid; Paris white; Precipitated Cement; mortar; ; marble construction; glass OSHA PEL: TWA 3 CaCO3 chalk; Vienna lime industry; chalkboard chalk; ; component in 15 mg/m (total); TWA White, odorless powder or colorless crystals. collections; in conservation as alkaline reserve in 5 mg/m3 (resp) Occurs in as: ; ; Chalk; paper; geological specimens ; Limestone; Marble; shells; shells;

Calcium chloride 10043-52-4 Calcium (II) chloride; Calcium dichloride; E 509 solution; melting agent; fire TLV not established CaCl2 extinguishers; fireproofing solutions; wood White hygroscopic powder preservatives; medicinal uses; additive in plastic; fabric softener; beverage ; pickeling; production of Brie; gelling agent for starch sizing; desiccant. Until 1973, was used to speed up curing rate in mortar, shotcrete (gunite) and dry mix concrete but was replaced due to corrosion of reinforcements

Calcium chloride hypochlorite Chlorinated lime; bleaching powder Strong oxidizing TLV not established CaCl(OCl) Fine white powder

Calcium fluoride 7789-75-5 Calcium difluoride; Fluorspar; Derbyshire spar Metal surface treatments; agents; welding TLV: 2.5 mg/m3 (as F) CaF2 Mineral: agents; abrasives; pyrotechnics; ceramic glazes; White powder enamels; glass

Calcium fluorosilicate Calcium fluorite; Calcium hexafluorosilicate; Calcium Insecticides; ceramics; enamels; glass TLV: 2.5 mg/m3 (as F) CaSiF6 silicofluoride White powder

Calcium hydroxide 1305-62-0 Calcium dihydroxide; Calcium hydrate; Hydrated lime; Used for detection of ; water softener; OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Ca(OH)2 Slaked lime; Caustic lime; Milk of lime; Lime water mortar; cement; stucco; glass; white wash; putty; 15 mg/m (total) 5 White, odorless powde. (aqueous solution) leather tanning; papermaking; in conservation for mg/m3 (resp) washing and prep for alkaline deposits and buffering of paper

Calcium oxide 1305-78-8 Burned lime; Burnt lime; Calcia; Caustic lime; Hot lime; Used for detection of carbon dioxide; water softener; OSHA PEL: TWA CaO Hydrated lime; ; Lime; Pebble lime; mortar; cement; stucco; glass; white wash; putty; 15 mg/m3 (total); 5 White or gray, odorless lumps or granular powder Quick lime; Unslaked lime leather tanning; insecticide; ; papermaking; in mg/m3 (resp) conservation for washing and prep for alkaline deposits and buffering of paper

Calcium sulfate 7778-18-9 Anhydrous ; Anhydrous ; structures; composition and fills in ceramics, OSHA PEL: TWA 3 CaSO4 Anhydrous sulfate of lime; Blue marble; Calcium salt of figurines; filler in polychrome ; filler in 15 mg/m (total); 5.0 Odorless white powder or colorless crystals; may sulfuric acid grosso ground layer; filler in paper, paints and mg/m3 (resp) have a blue, gray or reddish tinge; can be brick red plastic; chalkboard chalk Note: Gypsum is the dihydrate form; Plaster of Paris is Calcium sulfate dehydrate 13397-24-5 the hemihydrate form. CaSO4• 2H2O Mineral: Odorless, white powder or colorless, crystalline solid; may have blue, gray, or reddish tinge

CHROMIUM (Cd) 7440-47-3 Chrome; Chrome plate Cr (VI) compounds are principle substance of all OSHA PEL: TWA Steel grey lustrous brittle, hard, odorless solid Minerals: ; Crocoite; Eskolaite; chromium chemicals used in production of stainless 1.0 mg/m3; TLV: 0.05 metal. Phoenicochoroite; Uvarovite steel and magnetic tapes; anti-corrosive in cooking mg/m3 (Cr VI systems; boilers; oil-drilling muds; hip replacements; compounds); TLV: 0.5 Trivalent chromium Cr (III) is an essential metal additive; electrical conductors; catalyst; glass mg/m3 (Cr III [6] production; chrome salts for tanning leather; fixative compounds) in specimen preparation; weighted silks; textile Major toxic metal; Cr Cr (VI) compounds are mordents; wood preservatives; varnishes; artificial (III) is essential metal considered to be the most toxic [6] ; ; pigments; geological specimens; with potential for synthetic toxicity [6] Chromium metal is a Cr (VI) compound [5] *Known/Probable carcinogen; possible mutagen [5]

Chromic acetate 1066-30-4 Chromium acetate Catalyst; hardener for photographic emulsions; leather OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Cr(C2H3O2)3·H2O tanning; mordant in dyeing and printing textiles 1.0 mg/m ; TLV: 0.05 Grayish granular powder mg/m3 (Cr VI compounds) 2.0 Chromic chloride 10025-73-7 Chromium chloride; Chromium trichloride; Chromium Vapor chromium; corrosion inhibitor; leather TLV (as TWA) 3 CrCl3 sesquichloride tanning; mordant for textile dyes 0.5 mg/m (as Cr), A4 Shiny, plate-like crystals (ACGIH 1998)

Chromic fluoride 7788-97-8 Chromium (III) fluoride; Chromium trifluoride Mothproofing; metal polish; marble hardener; OSHA PEL: TWA 3 CrF3 printing and dyeing wool fabrics 0.5 mg/m (as Cr); Dark green needle-like crystals TWA 2.5 mg/m3 (as F)

Chromic sulfate 10101-53-8 Chromium sulfate Metal plating solutions; hardener in photographic OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Cr2(SO4)3 emulsions; leather tanning; ceramic glazes; mordents 0.5 mg/m for Cr (III) Several hydrated forms: in dyeing and printing textiles; varnishes; inks compounds (as Cr) Anhydrous: Violet-red powder

Hydrated: green powder

Chromium dioxide 12018-01-8 Semi conductors; active material in recording tapes; TLV not established CrO2 magnetic strips on credit cards Black powder

Chromium III oxide 1308-38-9 Chromium oxide; Chromic oxide; Chromium Molds for firing of bricks (chromite); abrasives; green OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Cr2O3 sesquioxide rouge metal polish; leather tanning; camouflage 0.5 mg/m for Cr (III) Mineral: Chromite; Eskolaite coatings for military; deck paints; pigments; compounds (as Cr) Anhydrous oxide of chromium geological specimens Dull, opaque green crystals Pigment: Chromium oxide green, opaque; Chrome green; Institutional green Pigment; printing Hydrous oxide of chromium Cr2O3 · 2H2O Chromium hydroxide Transparent bright green crystals Pigments: ; vert emeraude (also see Emerald green for same name but different compound; Emerald chromium oxide is the old name for Viridian); Guignet’s green; Chromium oxide green, transparent; Pigment green 17

Chromium 10141-00-1 ; Chrome potash alum; Potassium chrome Hardener in solutions; OSHA PEL: TWA 3 CrK(SO4)2·12H2O alum; Potassium chromium sulfate leather tanning; mordant for textile dyeing 0.5 mg/m for Cr (III) Dark violet crystals compounds (as Cr)

Chromium trioxide 1333-82-0 Chromic acid; Chromic anhydride; Chromium (VI) baths; engraving ; leather TLV: 0.05 mg/m3 (as CrO3 oxide tanning; colorant in ceramics and glass Cr) (ACGIH 1993- Dark, violet-red deliquescent crystals 1994)

Strontium chromate 7789-06-2 C h r o m ic Acid Strontium Salt; Green ; Citron Pyrotechnics; anti-corrosive coating; pigments TLV: ppm; 0.0005 3 SrCrO4 yellow mg/m (as Cr), A2: Yellow crystalline powder Pigments: Deep lemon yellow; Strontium Yellow; C.I. (ACGIH 1998) (a Cr (VI) compound [5]) pigment Yellow 32; C.I. 77839

COBALT (Co) 7440-48-4 Metal dust and fume High- alloys; permanent ; drying OSHA PEL: TWA Odorless, silver-gray powder Trade names: Aquacat; Super ; cobalt-59; agent for paints, varnishes, inks; catalyst for 0.1 mg/m3; TLV: 0.05 C.I.77320; NCI-C60311 ; catalyst in manufacture of many mg/m3 Minerals: ; Chloanthite; Cobaltite; Erythrite; pigments; colorant in glass production; ground coats Glaucodot; Linnaetile; Skutterudite; ; for porcelain enamels; pigments ( and Essential metal with Spherococbaltite cobalt green); geological specimens potential for toxicity [6]

*Probable Carcinogen

Anhydrous cobalt Pigment: Cobalt violet Pigment TLV: 0.02 mg/m3 (as Co3(PO4)2 or TWA) (as Co), A3 Anhydrous cobalt arsenate (ACGIH 1997); Co3(AsO4)2 or a of the two. OSHA PEL: Transparent red-violet crystals [1910.1018] TWA 0.01 mg /m3 (as As)

Cobalt Cobalt (II) oxide-aluminum oxide Cobalt blue filter in ophthalmoscopes; ceramic glazes; OSHA PEL: TWA 3 CoO · Al2O3 Pigments: Azure blue; C.I. 77346; Cobalt blue; Cobalt colorant for glass, enamels; pigments; 0.1 mg/m ; TLV: 0.05 Blue crystals ultramarine; Dresden blue; blue; King’s blue; 19th century replacement pigment for smalt and mg/m3 Leyden blue; Olympia blue; Pigment blue 28; Thénard’s ultramarine (as Co) blue (also made with cobalt phosphate and aluminum); Vienna blue; Vienna ultramarine

Cobalt (II) chloride 7646-79-9 Cobalt dichloride; Cobalt muriate; Cobaltous chloride; Pale blue leaflets that turn pink upon exposure to OSHA PEL: TWA 3 CoCl2 Cobaltous Dihydrate; Cobaltous Hexahydrate moist air; added to as an indicator of 0.1 mg/m ; TLV: 0.05 Pale-blue, hygroscopic powder, turns pink on effectiveness as a desiccant due to color change mg/m3 exposure to moist air (as Co)

Cobalt (III) oxide 1308-04-9 Dicobalt trioxide; Cobalt sesquioxide; Cobalt trioxide; Glass; background for gold lettering on signs; TLV: 0.02 mg/m3 (as Co2O3 Cobaltic oxide; Cobaltous oxide pigment (frequently found on old paintings) TWA) (as Co), A3 Black-gray crystalline powder Pigment: Smalt (early pigment in glass) (ACGIH 1997) Trade name: C.I. 77323

Cobalt oxide (CoO) and oxide (ZnO) Pigment: Cobalt green (Zinc green, Rinmann’s green) Colorant in ceramic glazes and (cobalt) glass, TLV: 0.02 mg/m3 (as Semi-transparent blue-green crystals enamels; pigments TWA) (as Co), A3 (ACGIH 1997)

OSHA PEL: TWA 5.0 mg/m3 (fume); TWA 15 mg/m3 (total dust); TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp dust) (as Zn)

Cobaltous ammonium sulfate Cobalt plating; colorant in enamels, ceramic glazes TLV: 0.02 mg/m3 (as CoSO4-(NH4)SO4-6H2O and glass TWA) (as Co), A3 Ruby red crystals (ACGIH 1997

Cobaltous stannate 12019-07-7 Cobalt (II) stannate; Cobalt stannate; Cobalt tin oxide; Drier for oil paints; pigments TLV: 0.02 mg/m3 (as CoO · nSnO2 Pigment blue 35 TWA) (as Co), A3 Blue-green crystals Pigment: Cerulean Blue; C.I. 77346; C.I. 77368; (ACGIH 1997) Coeruleum

Potassium cobaltinitrite 13782-01-9 Cobalt Oil-based glazes; colorant in glass; watercolor and TLV: 0.02 mg/m3 (as K3Co(NO2)6 · H2O Pigment: Cobalt yellow; Aureolin; Fisher’s salt tempera paints; pigments TWA) (as Co), A3 Yellow crystals (ACGIH 1997)

COPPER (Cu) 7440-50-8 M i n e r a l : C h alcopyrite (primary ore); Metal alloys; solder; ammunition; construction; OSHA PEL: TWA: Metal; Red powder, turns green on exposure to ; roofing; plumbing pipes; water pipes; 1.0 mg/m3. The PEL moist air. household fixtures; metal nails; ; heat applies to other ; electromagnetic motors; ; compounds (as Cu) Cu/CuO fume 1317-38-0 Cu fume: Copper fume generators, and ; electrical relays and except copper fume. CuO: Copper monoxide fume; Copper (III) oxide fume; ; integrated circuits; vacuum tubes; Fume: TWA 0.1 mg/m3 COPPER (Cu) 7440-50-8 M i n e r a l : C h alcopyrite (primary ore); Native copper Metal alloys; solder; ammunition; construction; OSHA PEL: TWA: Metal; Red powder, turns green on exposure to shipbuilding; roofing; plumbing pipes; water pipes; 1.0 mg/m3. The PEL moist air. household fixtures; metal nails; electrical wiring; heat applies to other copper conductor; electromagnetic motors; electromagnets; compounds (as Cu) Cu/CuO fume 1317-38-0 Cu fume: Copper fume generators, and transformers; electrical relays and except copper fume. CuO: Copper monoxide fume; Copper (III) oxide fume; switches; integrated circuits; vacuum tubes; cathode Fume: TWA 0.1 mg/m3 Cupric oxide fume; Black copper oxide fume; ray tubes; extinguishing powder in Class D fire Copper oxide, Red extinguishers; magnetrons in microwave ; Essential metal with cooking utensils; medical purposes; germicidal; potential for toxicity Copper oxide, Black: Black copper oxide fume musical instruments; jewelry; ornaments; sculpture; [6]. Inhalation of fume Copper oxide, Red: Cuprous oxide; Cuprite bronze and powders used for imitation gold; may cause metal fume copper leaf; colorant in glass production; pigments; fever. geological specimens

Copper acetate 142-71-2 Cupric acetate; Crystals of ; Verdet; Verdiris Fungicide; pesticide; textile dye; pigment for OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Cu(C2H3O2)2·H2O ceramics, inks and paints 1.0 mg/m as copper Dark green crystalline powder dusts and mists

Copper acetate, dibasic 52503-64-7 Basic copper acetate; Copper subacetate; Cupric acetate, Pigment used in early oil paintings was fugitive and OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Cu(C2H3O2)2 · 2Cu (OH)2 basic can turn dark brown; used on parchment to illuminate 1.0 mg/m as copper Blue-green crystals or powder Pigment: Blue ; Common Verdigris; French books between 15th and 19th century; fungicide; dusts and mists Verdigris; Green Verdigris; Van Eyck green; vert de pesticide; textile dye; pigment for ceramics and paints Grece

Copper acetoarsenite 12002-03-8 Copper acetate arsenite; Copper aceto-arsenite Cupric Insecticide for agricultural, horticultural use; imitation OSHA PEL: C4H6As6Cu4O16 acetoarenite; (Aceto) Trimetaarsenitodicopper; bronze ; antifouling agent in marine paints; [1910.1018] TWA White solid tinted bright green Trade names (insecticides): Ortho P-G Bait; Sowbug pigments 0.01 mg /m3 (as As) Cutworm Control; other Pigments:: Emerald green; French green; ; *Potential carcinogen Schweinfurt green; Mitis green; C.I.Pigment Green 21; [28] Imperial green; King’s green; Meadow green; Mineral green; green; Parrot green; other

Copper arsenate 10103-61-4 Copper (II) orthoarsenate; Arsenic acid, copper salt I n s e c t icide; wood preservative TLV: ppm; 0.2 mg/m3 As2Cu3H8O12/Cu3(AsO4)2· 4H2O (as As), ACGIH 1992- Blue or bluish-green powder 1993)

Copper (II) arsenite 10290-12-7 Copper orthoarsenite; Acid copper arsenite; Cupric Fungicide; insecticide; rodenticide; wood TLV: ppm; 0.01 mg/m3 CuAsHO3 arsenite; Arsenious acid, copper (II) salt preservative; pigments (as As), A1 (ACGIH Yellowish-green powder Trade names: Copper Orthoarsenite; Air-Flo Green 1998) Pigment: Scheele's green; Swedish green; Cupric green

Copper (II) carbonate 1184-64-1 B a sic copper carbonate; Cupric carbonate Corrosion product of copper, copper alloys; OSHA PEL: TWA 3 CuCO3- Cu(OH)2 12069-69-1 Mineral and Pigment: ; Mountain green fungicide; fireworks; pigments; occasionally found in 1.0 mg/m as copper Green crystals Artificial: Green Verditer tempera paints prior to and after 16th century; used in dusts and mists distemper and oil based paints in 19th century; geological specimens; gemstones

Copper (II) carbonate 1184-64-1 B a sic copper carbonate; Cupric carbonate Corrosion product of copper, copper alloys; OSHA PEL: TWA 3 2CuCO3-Cu(OH)2 12069-69-1 Mineral and Pigment: (Mountain blue) fungicide; fireworks; pigments; geological specimens; 1.0 mg/m as copper Blue crystals Pigments: Artificial pigment: Blue Verditer; Ashes gemstones dusts and mists blue; Blue bice (greenish-blue color); Bremen blue

Copper chloride 7447-39-4 Copper (II) chloride; Cupric chloride Used to recover from ore; refine gold and OSHA PEL: TWA 3 CuCl2 silver; electroplating copper on aluminum; fixer in 1.0 mg/m as copper Dark yellow crystals; turn to green deliquescent photography; fungicide; wood preservative; dusts and mists crystals when absorbed by water ; mordant in dyeing textiles; component in indelible inks; ceramic and glass pigment

Copper chromated arsenate CCA; Chromated copper arsenate Wood preservative for pressure treated wood (certain OSHA PEL: TWA: Formula varies Trade name: Tanalith products canceled 2003) 1.0 mg/m3; TLV: 0.05 Green tint mg/m3 (Cr VI compounds); TLV: 0.5 mg/m3 (Cr III compounds);

OSHA PEL: [1910.1018] TWA 0.01 mg /m3 (as As)

OSHA PEL: TWA: 1.0 mg/m3. The PEL applies to other copper compounds (as Cu) except copper fume. Fume: TWA 0.1 mg/m3

Copper naphthenate 1338-02-9 Copper salt of naphthenic acid; Paint drier Used in solution with mineral spirits or oils; OSHA PEL: TWA: Green liquid with petroleum-like odor Trade names: Cuprinol; Cuprinol Green; Redycoat; fungicide; insecticide; wood preservative; antifouling 1.0 mg/m3 (as Cu) Shakelast; Wittox-C paints

Copper nitrate 3521-23-8 Cupric nitrate Fungicide; wood preservative; mordant and oxidizing OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Ca(NO3)2 agent for textile dyeing; colorant for metals; pigment 1.0 mg/m as copper Green-blue deliquescent crystals for ceramic, enamels, and glass dusts and mists

Copper sulfate (anhydrous) 7758-98-7 Cupric sulphate, Sulfuric acid, copper(2+) salt(11); Analytical agent in certain chemical tests including OSHA PEL: TWA 3 CuSO4 Copper (II) sulfate; Blue vitriol; Bluestone Fehling’s solution, Benedict’s solution, and Biuret 1.0 mg/m as copper White hygroscopic or pale green crystals Anhydrous Mineral: Chalcocyanite reagent; hardener for cattle hooves; used to grow dusts and mists Pentahydrate Mineral: crystal (laboratory); hair dyes; agent in certain Pentahydrate form is bright blue crystals fungicides, herbicides and pesticides; colorant for glass

HAFNIUM (POWDER) (Hf) 7440-58-6 C e l t i u m ; Elemental ; Hafnium metal absorbing material in nuclear reactors; OSHA PEL: TWA Gray powder Minerals: Found in Zircon, Cyrtolite, Alvite, Malacon filament in light bulbs; cathode in x-ray tubes; oxygen 0.5 mg/m3. The PEL Metal is highly lustrous, ductile, grayish solid; and scavenger; glass; geological specimens applies to other hafnium Often associated with Uranium, , and compounds (as Hf). in natural minerals

IRON (OXIDE dust and fume) 1309-37-1 Ferric oxide; Iron(III) oxide; Crocus powder Construction; machinery; ; weapons; corrosion OSHA PEL: TWA 3 3 Fe2O3 Mineral: in many varieties (red or black); product (); jeweler’s rouge; magnets; colorant in 10 mg/m ; 5 mg/m Reddish-brown solid ; and (iron-nickel glass production; pigments; geological specimens (resp); TLV: 1 mg/m3 ) (soluble salts) Pigments: red; Hematite; Red ; English red; Indian red (from ); Light Red; Pozzuoli red Fe metal is an essential (volcanic origin from Pozzuoli near Naples); Venetian metal with potential red for toxicity [6].

Ferric ammonium sulfate 10045-89-3 Ferric alum; Iron ammonium sulfate; Ammonium Metallurgy; chemical analysis; medicine; toning TLV: 1.0 mg/m3 TWA FeNH4(SO4)2·12H2O ferrous sulfate; Ammonium iron sulfate; Diammonium solutions for black and white photography; mordant as soluble iron salt (as Pale lilac crystals; effloresce in air iron disulfate in textile dying Fe) (ACGIH) Also light green crystalline solid Trade Name: Mohr’s Salt

Ferric arsenite 63989-69-5 Iron (iii)-o-arsenite, pentahydrate Antidote for arsenical poisoning; co-precipitate of OSHA PEL: As2Fe2O6•Fe2O3• 5H2O arsenic reduction/removal from water and mines [1910.1018] TWA Brown powder 0.01 mg /m3 (as As)

*Carcinogen [23]

LEAD (Pb) 7439-92-1 L e a d m e t a l ; P lumbum Environmental excess exposure due to vehicle OSHA PEL: 1910.1025 Bluish-white or silvery-grey solid in various Minerals: ; ; Boulangerite; Bournite; exhaust and industrial uses; metal alloys; solder; TWA 0.05 mg/m3 . The forms. turns tarnished on exposure to air Bournonite; ; Curite; ; Finnemanite; construction; brass fittings; bearings; tools; metal PEL applies to other Pb Fiedlerite; ; Georgiadesite; Heliophyllite; chain ; gaskets gasoline additives; pesticides; compounds. ; Kasolite; ; Mimetite; Pentfieldite; lead labels on specimens; ear liners on taxidermy Major toxic metal [6]. ; ; ; Schultenite; mounts; sculptures; older toys (paint and major ; component e.g. lead figurines); ceramic clay bodies *Human mutagen; and glazes; glass production; enamel in cloisonné birth defects; materials; metal coatings; foil; lead-acid batteries; retardation; some battery clamps; cables; radiation shields; ammunition; compounds are fireworks; counter-weights; sash weights; plastics; probable glass (including beads); cames for stain glass panels; linotype printing blocks; lead inlay such as on Asian lacquer pieces; microchemical tests; Oddy test; mordant in textiles; weighted silks; salts used to speed curing time of drying oils; old house paint; paints; pigments; geological specimens

Lead acetate 301-04-2 Acetic acid lead salt; Lead (II) acetate; Lead diacetate; Insecticides; hair dyes; sweetener for food and OSHA PEL: 1910.1025 3 C4H6O4Pb Lead dibasic acetate; Neutral lead acetate; Plumbous (imported); dyes; antifouling paints; manufacture of TWA 0.05 mg/m (as Colorless crystals or white powder acetate, Salt of ; of lead black colors for japanning Pb)

Lead antimonite 13510-89-9 Antimonite of lead Colorant for ceramic ; glass; glazes; OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Pb2Sb2O7 Pigment (synthetic): Naples yellow; Antimony yellow; paints; pigments 0.05 mg/m (as Pb) Lemon yellow with variants of greenish, pinkish Pigment yellow 41 orange, or reddish tinged powder OSHA PEL: TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (as Sb) Lead arsenate 7784-40-9 Arsenic acid, lead salt; Acid lead arsenate; Dibasic lead Hardener in lead-antimony alloys; cable sheathing; TLV (as TWA) 3 PbHAsO4 arsenate; Plumbous arsenate; ; insecticide; taxidermy; pigment; geological specimen 0.15 mg/m as 3 Odorless white heavy powder A c i d Orthoarsenate Pb (AsO4)2 (ACGIH Trade name: Lead arsenate; Gypsine; Soprabel; NU 1997) Rexform; Security; Talbot Mineral: Schultenite

Lead arsenite 10031-13-7 L e a d ( I I ) a r s e nite; Lead metaarsenite; Arsenious acid Insecticide TLV (as Pb): ppm; 0.05 3 As2O4Pb lead (2) salt mg/m , A3, (ACGIH White powder 1999). TLV (as As): ppm; 0.01 mg/m^3, A1, (ACGIH 1999)

*Carcinogen; Reproductive toxicity [23]

Lead carbonate 598-63-0 Carbonic acid, lead(2+) salt; Lead(2+) carbonate Synthetic mother of pearl; pigments; geological OSHA PEL: 1910.1025 3 PbCO3 Mineral: Cerussite specimens TWA 0.05 mg/m (as Colorless to grayish-white crystals Pigment: Basic carbonate of lead: ; Cremnitz Pb) white; Kremnitz white; Flake white

Lead carbonate, basic 1319-46-6 Basic white lead; Lead subcarbonate; Hydrocerussite; Ceramic glazes; used in drying oils; primary white OSHA PEL: 1910.1025 th 3 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2 Lead flake pigment for oil paint and ceramic glazes prior to 20 TWA 0.05 mg/m (as White amorphous powder Mineral: Hydrocerussite century; found in egg tempera, glue tempera, gum Pb) Pigments: Lead white; cremnitz white; Krems white; tempera; exterior paints; interior paints until restricted Silver white; Dutch white lead; French white; Vienna in 1950’s and prohibited since 1978 white; Flemish white; white; Roman white; Pigment white No. 1

Lead chromate (VI) 7758-97-6 Plumbous Chromate; Chromic Acid, Lead (II) Salt (11); Pyrotechnics; pigments; geological specimens TLV: 0.05 mg/m3 (as 3 PbCrO4 Minerals: Crocoite, Phoenicochroite. Pb); 0.012 mg/m (as Yellow to orange-yellow crystalline powder Pigments: ; Cologne yellow; King’s Cr); NIOSH REL: yellow (also see Orpiment for same name but different 0.001 012 mg/m3 (as Cr compound); Leipzig yellow; Paris yellow; C.I. Pigment VI) yellow 34’ C.I. 77600. Note: Chrome green ( mixed lead chromate and ; also called Cinnabar *Carcinogen [5] green or Zinnober green).

Basic lead chromate Pigment: Chrome red; Chinese red Pigment PbCrO4 · Pb(OH)2 Brick-red crystalline powder

Lead 10101-63-0 Lead (II) iodide Cloud seeding; photography; bronzing; gold ; OSHA PEL: 1910.1025 3 PbI2 ; printing TWA 0.05 mg/m (as Bright yellow powder (from reaction of lead Pb) acetate and )

Lead Mineral: Wulfenite Geological specimens OSHA PEL: 1910.1025 3 Pb (MoO4) TWA 0.05 mg/m (as Yellow, orange, brown, gray, whitish crystalline Pb) solid

Lead naphthenate 61790-14-5 N a p h thenic acid, lead salt; Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, Insecticide; wood preservative; drier in oil paints and TLV not established; C7 H12O2 - xPb lead salt varnishes to speed polymerization and oxidation Yellow semi-transparent paste Trade name: Nuodex processes OSHA PEL: 1910.1025 TWA 0.05 mg/m3 (as Pb)

Lead nitrate 10099-74-8 Lead (II) nitrate; Lead dinitrate; Plumbous nitrate Oxidizing agent; engraving and lithographic OSHA PEL: 1910.1025 3 Pb(NO3)2 processes; photography; stain for mother-of-pearl; TWA 0.05 mg/m (as White or colorless crystals mordant in dyeing and printing calico Pb)

Lead (II) oxide 1317-36-8 L e a d m onoxide; Plumbous oxide; Lead protoxide Batteries; lead crystal; ; rubber vulcanizer; TLV: ppm; 0.15 mg/m3 PbO Mineral: ceramics; dryer in paints and varnishes; important as as TWA (as Pb) Odorless grey to yellow-green to red-brown Pigment: Massicot, yellow (made by gentle of intermediate step in preparation of red lead; pigments; (ACGIH 1992-1993) crystalline solid white lead); lead oxide yellow geological specimens : Flake litharge, yellow-orange (formed from direct oxidation of molten metallic lead)

Lead sulfide 1314-87-0 Galena; Leaded bisilicate ash; Plumbous sulfide Semi-conductors; infrared detectors as OSHA PEL: 1910.1025 PbS Mineral: Galena (main source of lead) detectors; ceramic glazes; Medieval pottery; 17th TWA 0.05 mg/m3 (as Black to silvery powder or crystalline solid century slipware; geological specimens Pb) Lead sulfide 1314-87-0 Galena; Leaded bisilicate ash; Plumbous sulfide Semi-conductors; infrared detectors as photon OSHA PEL: 1910.1025 PbS Mineral: Galena (main source of lead) detectors; ceramic glazes; Medieval pottery; 17th TWA 0.05 mg/m3 (as Black to silvery powder or crystalline solid century slipware; geological specimens Pb)

*Suspect carcinogen [31]

Lead tetroxide 1314-41-6 T r i p l u m b ic tetroxide; Lead orthoplumbate Older plumbing fixtures; batteries; amateur OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Pb3O4 Mineral: pyrotechnics; manufacture; enamels; 0.05 mg/m (as Pb) Red or orange crystals or powder Pigments: C.I. Pigment Red 105; Lead oxide; Mineral ceramic glazes; flux in porcelain paints; rust proof red; Minium; Orange mineral; Paris red; Red lead; paint; pigments; illuminated manuscripts Saturn red

Tetraethyl lead 78-00-2 Motor fuel antiknock compound OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Pb(C2H5)4 0.075 mg/m skin Colorless liquid with characteristic odor

Tetramethyl lead 75-74-1 Motor fuel antiknock compound OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Pb(CH3)4 / C4H12Pb 0.075 mg/m skin Colorless liquid with characteristic odor

MAGNESIUM (Mg) 7439-95-4 M a g n e s i a ; M agnesia fume; Calcined brucite; Calcined Light-weight metallic alloys; production of carbon OSHA PEL: TWA magnesia; earth dioxide; magnesia cement; medicinal purposes; 15 mg/m3; TLV: 10 Magnesium (Oxide fume) 1309-48-4 Minerals: ; Dolomite; Epsomite; Kieserite; fireworks; flashbulbs; optical mirrors; fillers in paper, mg/m3 (fumes) MgO ; ceramics, glass, and paint; ceramic glazes; glass Hygroscopic, fine, white powder Trade Names: Bookkeeper; Magcal, Maglite, Magox, production; non-alkalization agent for paper in Inhalation may cause Akro-Mag, Animag, Granmag, Magchem 100, Marmag conservation . Mg metal is an essential metal with potential for toxicity [6]

Chrysotile 12001-29-5 ; White asbestos; Serpentine Building construction (in U.S. chrysotile accounts for TLV: 0.1 fibers/cc (as Mg3Si2H4O6 / Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4 chrysotile 95% of asbestos use) e.g. corrugated cement TWA) A1 (ACGIH White, grey, green or yellowish curly fibrous solid Mineral: Chrysotile (from serpentine rocks) sheets, flat sheets for ceilings, floors, walls; floor 1998. For fibers longer tiles; pipe insulation; than 5 um with an joint compound; fireproof spun fabric; fire-protective aspect ratio equal to or cloth behind fuses; rope seals to boilers greater than: 3:1 as determined by the membrane filter method at 400-450X magnification (4-mm objective) contrast elimination)

Magnesium carbonate 546-93-0 Carbonic acid, magnesium salt Production of carbon dioxide; absorbent for natural OSHA PEL: TWA 3 MgCO3 Mineral: Magnesite history specimens; paper washing; alkaline reserve for 15 mg/m (total); TWA White powder Trade names: Gold ; Hydromagnesite; Kimboshi; paper 5 mg/m3 (resp) (as Mg) Magnesia Mg(HCO3)2

Magnesium hydroxide 1309-42-8 Magnesium hydrate; Magnesia Manufacture of paper ; production of aqueous OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Mg(OH)2 Mineral: Brucite slurry solution with pH of 10; ; laxative 15 mg/m (total); TWA White amorphous powder Trade name: Milk of Magnesia 5 mg/m3 (resp) (as Mg)

Magnesium silicate hydrous 14807-96-6 Hydrated magnesium silicate; ; Asbestine; French Abrasives; fireproofing agent; fillers in paints, paper TLV: 2 mg/m3 (resp, no Mg3(OH)2Si4O10 chalk; Steatite; Soapstone and crayons asbestos) (as Mg) White powder

Magnesium sulfate 7487-88-9 Magnesium sulphate additive for plants; maintains magnesium balance TLV not established MgSO4 Trade names: Epsom salts (as heptahydrate form) in marine aquaria; medicinal uses including treatment White crystals or powder Minerals: Epsomite of asthma, first aid for barium poisoning, anti- inflammatory, as a laxative; bath salts; flotation therapy; additive in some ; coagulant in production; desiccant in ; lamp repairs; geological specimens

Methoxy magnesium methyl carbonate Methyl ; MMC; MMMC Paper deacidification Not available 3CH3OMgOCO2CH3·CO2 Trade name: Wei T’o™ #2 Non-aqueous solution

MANGANESE (Mn) 7439-96-5 M a n g a n e se metal: Colloidal ; Manganese-55 Metal alloy; welding alloys; deoxidizing agent; OSHA PEL*: Gray-white powder; lustrous, brittle, silvery solid. Minerals: ; ; ; Eosphorite; colorant in glass to produce pink tones; ceramic 5.0 mg/m3 CEILING; ; Franklinite; ; ; glazes NIOSH REL: Heubnerite; Johanssenite; ; ; 1.0 mg/m3. Phosphophyllite; ; ; ; Essential metal with ; Romanechite; ; nodules on potential for toxicity ocean floor [6]. Pigments: Manganese Blue (barium manganese-barium Mn dust is pyrophoric; sulphate); Manganese Violet (manganese ammonium ignites in phosphate)

Manganese dioxide 1313-13-9 Manganese (IV) oxide; Manganese ; Black Dry cell batteries (alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries); TLV: 5.0 (dust) or 1.0 3 MnO2 oxide of manganese; C.I. 77728; Battery manganese oxidizing agent; analytical catalyst; water treatments; (fume) mg/m ; RET as Black to brown powder Mineral: Pyrolusite glass production; colorant in mortar; drier for oil STEL: 3 mg/m3 (fume) Pigment: Manganese Black; Manganese brown paints; pigments; geological specimens (as Mn) (ACGIH 1994- (synthetic); Pigment black 14 1995)

3 1317-35-7 T r i m a n g a n e se tetraoxide; Manganese tetroxide; Analytical catalyst in several chemical reactions; TLV: 0.2 mg/m (as Mn3O4 Manganomanganic oxide batteries; geological specimens Mn) (ACGIH 2001) Brown to black crystalline powder Mineral: Hausmannite

MERCURY (Hg) 7439-97-6 Q u i c k s ilver; Liquid silver; Colloidal mercury; Metallic Mercury vapor is natural in atmosphere from OSHA PEL: 0.1 mg/m3 Odorless, heavy and mobile silvery mercury degassing of earth’s ; extraction of gold; coal; CEILING; TLV: 0.05 Mineral: ; Cinnabar ore; ; manufacture of industrial chemicals; scientific mg/m3 (skin; inorganic) Hg0 found in metallic or vapor form. instruments; thermometers; barometers; Major toxic metal; pressure monitors; light bulbs; mercury vapor lamps; vapor is most toxic some neon signs; contemporary compact fluorescent form [6] bulbs; electrical relay systems; silent light; switches; medicinal purposes (e.g. Mercurochrome, Calomel); *Central Nervous ; laxatives; antidepressants; additive in System damage inoculations; antisyphilitics; preservative in vaccines (Thimerosal); inks; early manufacture of felt, *Probable fur and wool; fungicides; herbicides; pesticides; developmental photography; metal amalgams e.g gold , silver; [5] silvered mirrors; dental amalgam fillings; fixative in specimen preparation; blue neon gas; toys and toy paint; interior wall paint; pigments; geological specimens Mercuric arsenate 7784-37-4 C.I. 77762 Anti- and waterproof paints OSHA PEL: HgHAsO4 [1910.1018] TWA: Yellow powder 0.01 mg /m3 (as As); OSHA PEL: 0.1 mg/m3 (as Hg) CEILING; TLV: 0.05 mg/m3 (skin; inorganic) (as Hg)

3 Mercuric chloride 7487-94-7 M e r c u ry dichloride; Mercury (II) chloride; Bichloride of Antiseptic; disinfectant; tissue cell preservative; TLV: 0.025 mg/m HgCl2 mercury; Corrosive sublimate taxidermy; fungicide; herbicide; insecticide; pesticide; (skin, A4) (as Hg) White crystals or powder Trade names: Calochlor; Abavit B; Fungchex; Sulem; beetles, roaches, ; on herbaria collections (still (ACGIH 1999). TL898; NCI-C60173 used in third world countries); photography; leather tanning; used to separate gold from lead; paint *Most toxic Hg preservative compound; ingestion of 0.5 grams can be fatal [5]

Mercuric nitrate 10045-94-0 M e r c u r y ( I I ) nitrate; Mercury Dinitrate; Mercury nitrate Analytical chemical; medicinal purposes; used in TLV: 0.025 mg/m3 Hg(NO3)2 monohydrate former carroting process in manufacture of felt, fur, (skin) A4 (as Hg) White crystalline powder; colorless deliquescent Trade names: Citrine ointment; Millon’s Reagent wool until 1941 in U.S. (may still be present in (ACGIH 1999) crystals objects made from recycled material); used in aqueous solutions for gilding

Mercuric oxide 21908-53-2 Mercury (II) oxide; Red mercuric oxide; Yellow Analytical reagent; chemical intermediate for mercury TLV: 0.025 mg/m3 A4 HgO mercuric oxide; mercury monoxide salts, organic mercury compounds, and chlorine (skin) (as Hg) (ACGIH Yellow or orange-yellow, or red heavy crystalline Trade names: Santar; Santar M; Natural Montroydite monoxide; dry cell batteries; abrasives; glass 2000) powder; yellow when finely powdered modifier; preservative in cosmetics; antiseptic; fungicide; pigment modifier; pigment; formerly used in antifouling/marine paints

Mercuric sulfate 7783-35-9 M e r c u r y ( I I) sulfate; Mercuric bisulfate Gold and silver extraction; analytical chemical used to TLV: ppm; 0.025 3 HgSO4 make other mercury compounds; medicinal purposes mg/m (skin, A4) (as Odorless, white crystalline powder Hg) (ACGIH 1999)

Mercuric sulfide 1344-48-5 ; Mercury (II) sulfide; Pigments; red ink as used by early (at least Hans) OSHA PEL: 0.1 mg/m3 HgS sulfide; mercuric sulfide, black; mercuric sulfide, red; Chinese on cartouches, and stamp seals; geological CEILING; TLV: 0.05 Odorless red-orange or black powder Ethiops mineral, black specimens mg/m3 (skin; inorganic) Pigment: Cinnabar (natural); Artificial cinnabar; (as Hg) English vermilion; Chinese vermilion; Chinese red; Minium (as used by early and Romans; modern term refers to artificial red lead); Orange vermilion; vermilion; Vermilion; C.I. Pigment Red 106 Mineral: Cinnabar

3 Mercurous chloride 10112-91-1 Dimercury dichloride; Calomel; Mercury subchloride; Medicinal purposes; teething powder; pesticide TLV: 0.025 mg/m Hg2Cl2 mild mercury chloride (skin) A4 (as Hg) White crystalline powder Trade names: Cyclosan, M-C Turf fungicide (ACGIH 1999)

Mercury 7789-47-1 Mercury (II) bromide; mercuric bromide; mercuric Chemical reagent in Koenigs-Knorr reaction with OSHA PEL: 0.1 mg/m3 HgBr2 dibromide; mercury dibromide; Dibromomercury carbohydrates; reagent in a chemical test for presence CEILING; TLV: 0.05 White crystalline powder of arsenic mg/m3 (skin; inorganic) (as Hg)

MOLYBDENUM (Mo) 7439-98-7 M o l y b d e n um metal Found naturally in the soil; fertilizers; production of OSHA PEL: TWA 15 3 Dark gray or black powder with a metallic luster; Mineral: (MoS2); Wulfenite certain catalysts; high-temperature resistant steel mg/m for insoluble Mo silvery-white solid Pigment: orange alloys used in gas turbines and jet aircraft engines; compounds. OSHA propeller shafts; tools; boiler plates; rifle barrels; x- PEL: TWA 5 mg/m3 ray tubes; ; filaments; glass to metal for soluble Mo seals; , dyes; pigments; geological compounds. specimens Essential metal with potential for toxicity [6]

Molybdate orange (mixed compound of lead Pigment TLV: 0.05 mg/m3 (as chromate, lead sulphate, lead molybdate Pb); 0.012 mg/m3 (as Cr); NIOSH REL: 0.001 mg/m3 (as Cr VI)

NICKEL (Ni) 7440-02-0 N i c k e l m e t a l: Elemental nickel; Nickel catalyst; White Metal alloys; stainless ; magnets; electroplating; OSHA PEL: TWA 1.0 Silvery metallic solid in various forms; magnetic copper ; chemical apparatus; analytical catalyst; cooking mg/m3. The PEL does Mineral: Bunsenite; Garnierite; Niccolite (NiAs), also utensils; substitute for decorative silver; clothing not apply to Nickel called Kupfernickel; Nickeline; Nitrobarite; ; fasteners; jewelry; green colorant in glass production; carbonyl; NIOSH REL: ; Retgersite; Kamacite and Taenite (iron- geological specimens 0.015 mg/m3 nickel meteorites) Major toxic metal [6]


Combustible Solid

OSMIUM (Os) 7440-04-2 Mineral: Osmiridium; Iridosmine; trace element in all Manufacture of alloys; analytical catalyst; Not available Bluish-white solid platinum filaments. As an alloy with : points; surgical needles; needles; points; instrument pivots

Osmium tetroxide 20816-12-0 Osmium (IV) oxide; Osmic ; Osmium alloy; oxidizing agent; agent OSHA PEL: TWA 3 OsO4 oxide; Tetraoxosmium in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and 0.002 mg/m Colorless, crystalline solid or pale-yellow mass Trade name: Milas’ Reagent Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); staining agent with an unpleasant, acrid, chlorine-like odor; turns for fatty tissue; intermediate in osmium ore refining; *Extremely toxic to liquid above 105°F surgical implants such as pacemaker and replacement pulmonary ; filament in Oslamp; forensic residue on archival material (osmium/ tetoxide); fingerprint detection

PLATINUM (Pt) 7440-06-4 P l a t i n u m b l a c k ; Platinum metal; Platinum sponge Laboratory equipment; electrical contacts; catalytic OSHA PEL: TWA Silvery, whitish-gray, malleable, ductile metal. converter; catalyst in fuel cells; bullion; ; 0.002 mg/m3; TLV * Platinum group metals include ruthenium, photography; -making; jewelry; medical 0.002 mg/m3 (soluble , , osmium, and iridium [6] purposes; chemotherapeutic drugs; dentistry; surgical salts); TLV: 1.0 mg/m3 instruments; resistance thermometers; pen points; (metal) silvery color leaf; metal inlay in Egyptian boxes; used as simulated silver for decorative purposes

RHODIUM (Rh) 7440-16-6 R h o d i u m m e tal: Elemental rhodium Alloying agent; electrodes for aircraft spark plugs; lab OSHA PEL: TWA Metal: white with bluish-grey luster; hard, ductile. Minerals: Rhodite; ; Iridosmine; all Platinum ; optical instruments; coating on sterling 0.1 mg/m3 for insoluble Powder: grey to black ores silver; catalyst in systems; filter in Rh compounds. OSHA ; pen surfaces; target element in some PEL: TWA 0.001 hand-held XRF instruments; high-reflectivity mirror mg/m3 for soluble Rh surfaces on searchlights, optical instruments and compounds cinema projectors; jewelry

SELENIUM (Se) 7782-49-2 E l e m e n t a l s e l enium, Selenium alloy; occurs as an Metal alloys; replacement (with bismuth) in to OSHA PEL: TWA 0.2 Odorless solid in various forms. dark red-brown to in most sulfide ores replace lead rubber compounds; electronics; television mg/m3. The PEL bluish-black or red transparent Mineral: Selenolite screens; photocopiers; photocells; light meters; applies to other crystals or metallic grey to black crystals cameras; toners in photography; industrial selenium compounds *Metalloid; semi-metal ; solar cells; medical purposes; xero- (as Se) except Selenium radiography; red and pink colorant for ceramic glazes hexafluoride. and glass; pigment manufacture Essential metal with potential for toxicity [6]

*Mutagen [5]

Hydrogen selenide 7783-07-5 Selenium hydride; Dihydrogen monoselenide Production of semi-conductors; synthesis of Se OSHA PEL: C: 20 ppm, H2Se Trade name: Selane compounds 50 ppm, 10-minute Colorless compressed liquefied gas with maximum peak characteristic odor

SILVER (Ag) 7440-22-4 A r g e n t i u m Metal alloys; amalgams; mirrors; electrical contacts; OSHA PEL: TWA White metal, turns dark on exposure to , Pigment/gilding: Silver leaf; Silver powder, C.I. 77820 medical purposes; photographic plates; jewelry; 0.01 mg/m3 hydrogen sulfide or sulfur coins; eating utensils; food and drink containers; silver foil; gilding; paint; pigment; geological Minor toxic metal [6]. specimens Can cause permanent blue-black stain on skin [5]

Silver nitrate 7761-88-8 N i t r i c a c i d , silver (I) salt; Silver (I) nitrate; Organic synthesis; reagent in chemical spot test for OSHA PEL: TWA 3 AgNO3 Silver mononitrate; Lunar caustic; Lapis infernalis ; for and nucleic 0.01 mg/m Odorless, colorless transparent or white crystals acids; stain in SEM; photography; high glass for camera lenses; antiseptic; cauterizing agent; treatment of oral ulcers; silver mirrors; silver plating; hair dyeing; indelible inks; colorant for glass and porcelain

TANTALUM (Ta) 7440-25-7 T a n t a l u m m e t al; -181; Tantalum oxide; Alloys especially for tools and jet engines; OSHA PEL: TWA Steel-blue to gray solid or black, odorless powder ; Tantalum acid anhydride chemical process equipment; nuclear reactors; missile 5.0 mg/m3 Minerals: Found with in , , parts; electronic and ; pen nibs; Powder ignites , others surgical instruments; surgical implants; sutures and SPONTANEOUSLY in pins (bones); glass for and camera lenses; air fine ; filament

TELLURIUM (Te) 13494-80-9 A u r u m p a r a d o x um; Metallum problematum Produced as a by-product of metal ; used in OSHA PEL: TWA Dark gray to brown amorphous powder, with Minerals: Avicennite; Paratellurite; occurs as Telluride refining of copper; manufacture of rubber; vapor is 0.1 mg/m3. The PEL metal characteristics or silvery-white, lustrous in gold, silver, copper, lead, and nickel ores used in “daylight” lamps; a catalyst in certain metal applies to other Te crystalline solid. alloys; used as a semi-conductor; production of solar compounds except *Metalloid; semi-metal cells; infrared detectors; thermoelectric generators; hexafluoride Part of sulfur and selenium family [6] food packaging found in condiments, dairy products, and nuts, ; some plants such as garlic; colorant in ceramic glazes and glass Minor toxic metal [6]

THALLIUM (Tl) 7440-28-0 R a m o r ; T h a l l i u m (metal) A by-product of refining cadmium, iron, zinc; catalyst OSHA PEL: TWA Bluish-white, very soft metal. turns grey on Minerals: Carlinite; Crookesite; ; in certain alloys and chemicals; nuclear medicine; 0.1 mg/m3 skin exposure to air Lorandite; Pierrotite; Routherite optical lenses; glass windows; jewelry; infrared detectors; relays; switches; production of photo cells; Minor toxic metal; low-temperature thermometers; ; some compounds are scintillation counters; green pyrotechnics dyes; rat highly toxic [6] poison; ant killer; insecticides; production of artificial ; pigments *Possible toxicity to human reproduction or development

Thallium sulfate 7446-18-6 Trade Name: Ratox Rodenticide, ants TLV (as Tl): 0.1 mg/m3 O4STl2 (as TWA) (skin) White powder tinted green (ACGIH 1999)

TIN (Sn) 7440-31-5 B r i g h t t i n ; M e t a l l i c t in; Tin flake; Tin metal; Tin plate; Manufacture of tin-plate; roof construction; solder; OSHA PEL:TWA Gray to almost silver-white, ductile, malleable, Tin powder; Silver mat powder alloy in bronze and brass; pewter; decorative items; 2.0 mg/m3. Note: The lustrous solid Mineral: toys; plating for iron toys; glass production; medical PEL applies to other Trade names: C.I. Metal 5; Tin paste 62-1177; Wang purposes; food packaging; bactericides; fungicides; inorganic Sn except tin slimicides; stabilizers in plastics; textile mordents; . OSHA PEL: gilding as tin leaf TWA 0.1 mg/m3 for organic Sn compounds

Minor toxic metal; some organic compounds are highly toxic [6]

Stannic oxide 18282-10-5 Tin (IV) oxide; Stannic anhydride; Tin dioxide; Polishing abrasive OSHA PEL:TWA 3 SnO2 Flowers of tin; Polishing powder; Putty powder; Tin ash 2.0 mg/m (as Sn) White or slightly gray powder Mineral: Cassiterite

Stannic sulfide 1315-01-1 Tin IV sulfide; Tin disulfide; Artificial tin; gold Previous medical treatment for nervousness; pigment OSHA PEL: TWA 3 SnS2 (also Purpurino); Bronze powder in bronzing and gilding 0.1 mg/m for organic Bronze yellow scaly crystalline powder Trade name: Suvarnavanga (Indian Ayurvedic Sn compounds medicine)

TITANIUM (dioxide) 13463-67-7 oxide; Titanium peroxide; Titania; Titanic Whitener in cosmetics, food, paper, plastics, OSHA PEL: TWA 3 TiO2 anhydride; Titanic acid anhydride toothpastes, gessoes; cement; textiles; leather ink; 15 mg/m Colorless to white crystalline powder; dense white Minerals: Anatase; ; (menachanite); ceramic glazes; pigment; geological specimens; opaque powder gemstones; imitation diamonds in paste jewelry Ti metal is a Minor Pigment: Titanium white; Pigment white 6 toxic metal [6] Trade names: Titanox (for pigment); C.I. 77891 *Potential Carcinogen

URANIUM (U) 7440-61-1 U r a n i u m I Uranium: Fuel in nuclear reactors; nuclear weapons; OSHA PEL: TWA Silver-white, malleable, ductile, lustrous solid; Minerals: Autunite; Bequerelite; Betafite; ; armor plating; stains in TEM; radiometric dating of 0.25 mg/m3 (insoluble weakly radioactive Curite; Descloizite; Kasolite; Pitchblende; Samarskite; earth; radioactive specimens; fossils; x-ray compounds); Thorianite; ; ; Uranite targets; toners in photography; lamp filaments; 0.05 mg/m3 (soluble Often associated with Hafnium and Yttrium eyeglass lenses; dentures; smoke detectors cloisonné compounds) jewelry; colorant in (Vaseline glass), Pigment: Kawai’s yellow ( ware); textile mordents; stains Minor toxic metal [6]. URANIUM (U) 7440-61-1 U r a n i u m I Uranium: Fuel in nuclear reactors; nuclear weapons; OSHA PEL: TWA Silver-white, malleable, ductile, lustrous solid; Minerals: Autunite; Bequerelite; Betafite; Carnotite; armor plating; stains in TEM; radiometric dating of 0.25 mg/m3 (insoluble weakly radioactive Curite; Descloizite; Kasolite; Pitchblende; Samarskite; earth; radioactive specimens; vertebrate fossils; x-ray compounds); Thorianite; Torbernite; Uraninite; Uranite targets; toners in photography; lamp filaments; 0.05 mg/m3 (soluble Often associated with Hafnium and Yttrium eyeglass lenses; dentures; smoke detectors cloisonné compounds) jewelry; colorant in uranium glass (Vaseline glass), Pigment: Kawai’s yellow ceramic glaze (Fiesta ware); textile mordents; stains Minor toxic metal [6]. is derived from the of and dyes for leather and wood; pigments in paints. uranium to (226) then to radon gas : ammunition; shielding material; *Probable carcinogen inertial guidance devices; gyroscopic . Radium 7440-14-4 Radium 226: glow-in-the-dark, luminous objects may Uranium is considered Ra still be radioactive even if no longer fluoresce: paints, mildly radioactive; clock and watch hands, compasses, doorknobs, Radium is considered altimeter, instrument panels, light switches, religious extremely radioactive. Radon gas 10043-92-2 statuary, chamber pot lids; specific spa ; bottles Rn of health medicines or health cures with RAD or Rn: TLV not RADI in title [32, 34] . established Radon gas: emitted from fossil and specimens; house foundations (e.g. basements) [32]; treatment

VANADIUM (V) 7440-62-2 Mineral: Anadinite; Carnotite; Karelianite; is a by-product of petroleum refining; OSHA PEL: 0.5 mg 3 Metallic gray rod /chunks Shcherbinaite; Vanadinite; Volborthite nuclear applications; hardener for steel; surgical V2O5/m (resp dust) instruments; tools; axles; crankshifts; gears; CEILING Vanadium dust 1314-62-1 Divanadium pentoxide dust or fume; Vanadic anhydride photography; insecticides; target material for x-rays; V2O5 dust or fume; Vanadium oxide dust or fume; Vanadium UV absorbers; increases rust- resistance in steel; OSHA PEL: C: 0.1 mg 3 Yellow-orange powder or dark-grey, odorless pentaoxide dust or fume; Vanadium(V)oxide lacrosse shafts; food additive e.g. milk, seafood, V2O5/m fume flakes dispersed in air. cereals, vegetables; medical implants; simulated alexandrite jewelry; yellow and red colorants in Minor toxic metal [6]. Vanadium fume ceramic glazes and glass; colorant for red phosphor in V2O5 color television tubes; textile mordant Finely divided particulate dispersed in air Vanadium pentoxide is used as a catalyst in various chemicals including sulfuric acid

YTTRIUM (Y) 7440-65-5 Y t t r i um metal Component in cathode ray tube display of television OSHA PEL: TWA Dark-grey to black, odorless solid Minerals: ; Gadolinite; Yttrialite; ; or LED; production of electrodes, , 1.0 mg/m3. The PEL found in almost all rare earth minerals. electronic filters, , superconductors; medical applies to other Y Often associated with hafnium, uranium and zirconium applications; analytical catalyst; gas mantle for compounds. propane lanterns; production of magnets; geological specimens

ZINC (Zn) as powder or dust 7440-66-6 Z i n c metal, fume or dust; Zinc powder; Blue powder Nuclear ; coating on high temperature TLV: 5.0 mg/m3 Odorless grey to blue powder Trade name: Merrillite; Ascarco L 15; ECKA 4; alloys; metal alloys; plating; solder; batteries; (fumes) Rheinzink contemporary pipe organs; microwave band pass Minerals: ; Smithonite – both previously filters in communication networks; lasers; production Essential metal with referred to as Calamine of artificial diamonds; medicinal purposes; skin rash potential for toxicity treatments (e.g. Calamine); deodorant; anti-corrosion [6] product; glass production; pesticide; wood preservative; plastic ; reagent in chemical *Metal fume fever is a spot tests (e.g. arsenic spot test); pigments including concern. in luminescent pigments; geological specimens Zinc arsenate 13464-44-3 Arsenic acid, zinc salt; Zinc orthoarsenate Herbicide; insecticide; rodenticide OSHA PEL: Zn3 (AsO4)2 [1910.1018] TWA White powder 0.01 mg /m3 (as As)

Zinc bromide 7699-45-8 Zinc dibromide; Zinc (II) bromide Medicinal purposes; used as a lewis acid; radiation OSHA PEL: TWA 3 Zinc chromate 13530-65-9 C h romium ; Zinc Chromate (VI) hydroxide; Pigments. TLV: 0.01 mg/m ZnCrO4 Zinc tetraoxychromate; Chromic acid, zinc salt (11); (as Cr) Yellow crystalline powder. zinc chromate is also used to refer to a wide range of (a Cr (VI) compound [5]) commercial zinc and zinc potassium chromates Pigments: Zinc yellow; Pigment Yellow 36; Buttercup Yellow

Zinc hexafluorosilicate 16871-71-9 Zinc fluorosilicate; Zinc silicofluoride Insecticide; mothproofer; hardener for concrete; TLV: 2.5 mg/m3 (as F) Zn(SiF6) Trade Names: Berlou; Arko Moth Proof fixative for acid dyes White crystalline solid Zinc oxide 1314-13-2 Z i n c w h i t e ; Z i n c monoxide; Zinc peroxide Rubber industry; semi-conductors; light emitting OSHA PEL: TWA ZnO Pigments: C.I. Pigment white 4; Chinese white; Zinc diodes; sunburn and windburn skin protection 5.0 mg/m3 (fume); Odorless white powder or crystals white ointment; diaper rash ointment; Calamine lotion; TWA 15 mg/m3 (total throat lozenges; cosmetics; dentistry; food additive; dust); TWA 5 mg/m3 pharmaceuticals; UV absorber; ceramic glazes; (resp dust) (as Zn) printing inks; colorant for glass; pigments *Metal fume fever is a concern

Zinc 1314-84-7 Trizinc diphosphide Pesticide; rodenticide TLV not established P2Zn3 Trade Name: Arrex; Phosvin; Ridall-Zinc; Ridall-Z; Black to gray powder or paste Zinc-Tox

Zinc sulfate heptahydrate 7446-20-0 Mineral: ; White vitriol Medicinal purposes; astringent; emetic; coagulation TLV not established ZnSO4• 7H2O baths for rayon; electrolytes; skin and leather Granules or crystalline powder preservative; textile mordant

Zirconium (Zr) 7440-67-7 Zirconium element; Zirconium metal (liquid, Nuclear reactors; weapons; space vehicles; explosive OSHA PEL: TWA Lustrous grey-white metal suspension); Zirconium suspended in flammable liquid primers; ; surgical appliances; 5.0 mg/m3 (as Zr Mineral: Baddeleyite; ; Malacon; Zircon (Zr filaments; light bulbs; abrasives; grinding ; compounds) silicate); Zirkelite; some rare earth minerals sandpaper; modern pigments; geological specimens; gem stones

Zirconium oxide 1314-23-4 Zirconia; ; Zirconium (IV) oxide; Thermal barrier coating in jet turbine and diesel OSHA PEL: TWA 3 ZrO2 Zirconic anhydride engines; refractory material; insulation; fiber 5.0 mg/m (as Zr) White powder Trade names: C.I. Pigment white 12; Zirconium white; insulation; oxygen sensors; fuel cell membranes; Zirox 180 elctroceramics; limelight; casing in some mobile Mineral: Baddeleyite devices; radio transparency; abrasives; enamels; ceramic glazes; pigments; simulated diamonds; geological specimens; gemstones