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The of Nova

J. H. CALDER Department of Natural Resources, PO Box 698, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3J 2T9

Abstract: Nova Scotia during the Carboniferous lay at the heart of palaeoequatorial Euramerica in a broadly intermontane palaeoequatorial setting, -West-European ; to the west rose the orographic barrier imposed by the , and to the south and east the Mauritanide-Hercynide belt. The geological affinity of Nova Scotia to , reflected in elements of the Carboniferous flora and fauna, was mirrored in the evolution of geological thought even before the epochal visits of Sir . The Maritimes Basin of , born of the Acadian-Caledonian that witnessed the suture of Iapetus in the , and shaped thereafter by the inexorable closing of and , comprises a near complete stratal sequence as great as 12 km thick which spans the Middle Devonian to the Lower . Across the southern Maritimes Basin, in northern Nova Scotia, deep depocentres developed en echelon adjacent to a transform platelet boundary between terranes of Avalon and Gondwanan affinity. The subsequent history of the basins can be summarized as distension and rifting attended by bimodal volcanism waning through the Dinantian, with marked transpression in the and subsequent persistence of transcurrent movement linking Variscan deformation with Mauritainide-Appalachian convergence and Alleghenian thrusting. This Mid- Carboniferous event is pivotal in the Carboniferous evolution of Nova Scotia. Rapid subsidence adjacent to transcurrent faults in the early was succeeded by thermal sag in the later Westphalian and ultimately by basin inversion and unroofing after the early Permian as equatorial finally assembled and subsequently rifted again in the . The component Carboniferous basins have provided Nova Scotia with its most important source of mineral and energy resources for three centuries. Their combined basin-fill sequence preserves an exceptional record of the Carboniferous terrestrial of palaeoequatorial Euramerica, interrupted only in the mid-late Visran by the widespread marine deposits of the hypersaline Windsor gulf; their record is here compiled for the first time. Stratal cycles in the marine Windsor, schizohaline Mabou and coastal plain to measures 'cyclothems' record Nova Scotia's palaeogeographic evolution and progressively waning marine influence. The semiarid palaeoclimate of the late Dinantian grew abruptly more seasonally humid after the Namurian and gradually recurred by the Lower Permian, mimicking a general Euramerican trend. Generally more continental and seasonal conditions prevailed than in contemporary basins to the west of the Appalachians and, until the mid-Westphalian, to the east in Europe. Palaeogeographic, paleoflow and faunal trends point to the existence of a Mid- Euramerican between the Maritimes and Europe which persisted through the Carboniferous. The faunal record suggests that cryptic expressions of its most landward transgressions can be recognized within the predominantly continental strata of Nova Scotia.

I never travelled in any country where my geological affinity of Nova Scotia to Europe, scientific pursuits seemed to be better under- recorded in elements of the Carboniferous flora and stood, or were more zealously forwarded, than in fauna, reflects its palaeogeographic position during Nova Scotia... (Lyell, 1845, pp. 229-230) the Carboniferous at the heart of palaeoequatorial Euramerica, in proximity to . If not The geological evolution of Nova Scotia during a Euramerican Rosetta Stone, Nova Scotia and the the Carboniferous and the evolution of geological Maritimes certainly from the keystone in the bridge thought about the Carboniferous strata in Nova to understanding the Carboniferous evolution of Scotia both record a strong affinity to western and Europe (Lyell 1843a, 1845; Europe. During the nineteenth century, the splendid Dawson 1888; Belt 1968a, 1969; Carroll et al. coastal exposures of Carboniferous strata (Fig. 1) 1972; Bless et al. 1987; Allen & Dineley 1988; were proving grounds for the geological principles Leeder 1988a; McKerrow 1988; Calder & Gibling and philosophy of Sir Charles Lyell, especially as 1994, among many others). they pertained to the Carboniferous Period. The In this paper, the Carboniferous evolution of

CALDER, J. H. 1998. The Carboniferous evolution of Nova Scotia. In: BLUNDELL,D. J. & Scor-r, A. C. (eds) 261 Lyell: the Past is the Key to the Present. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 143, 261-302. Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


Fig. 1. The Carboniferous section at , of which Lyell, in a discussion of in his The Student's Elements of Geology (1871), wrote, "But the finest example in the world of a natural exposure in a continuous section ten miles long, occurs in the sea-cliffs bordering a branch of the of Fundy in Nova Scotia." From a nineteenth- century block engraving in Dawson's Acadian Geology.

Nova Scotia is considered by linking its tectonic northeasterly trending intermontane basins, once history, basin fill sequence, fossil record and variously interconnected and now, as then, defined palaeoclimate with those of Carboniferous by intervening massifs of the Avalon, Grenville and Euramerica to the west in North America and to the Meguma terranes. The basin was born of the east in Europe. The aim of the paper is not only to Devonian () (Poole 1967), review, but also to relate the records of disparate contemporary of the latest stage of the Caledonian geological disciplines and to consider, from the orogeny, both of which record final closure of the author's perspective, implications that emerge for Iapetus (McKerrow 1988). The - long established views of the Carboniferous history iferous evolution of the Maritimes Basin of Nova Scotia. A detailed treatment of all witness to the nativity of Pangaea as Gondwana and stratigraphic units of the Maritimes Basin in Nova numerous platelets of suspect terrane collided with Scotia is neither intended nor possible in a paper of Laurasia and the Old Red , manifested in this length. The references in this paper, as well as the Hercynian and Alleghenian (Schenk the overview of Gibling (1995, in van de Poll et al. 1981; Rast 1988). The evolution of the Maritimes 1995) and the Lexicon of Williams et al. (1985) will Basin during the late Devonian and Dinantian provide the reader with access to further details of records extension (McCutcheon & Robinson 1987; the Carboniferous and geology of Bradley 1982; Hamblin & Rust 1989) most Nova Scotia. pronounced between the Lubec-Bellisle, Cobequid and Hollow faults, an that has been termed the Maritimes Rift (Belt 1969; van de Poll et al. 1995). Geological setting: the Maritimes Basin in This was suceeded in the by transpression and transtension in a renewed orogenic phase (Plint Euramerica & van de Poll 1984; Nance 1987; Waldron et al. The Carboniferous strata of Nova Scotia record 1989; Yeo & Ruixiang 1987) and broadly across the most of the history of the larger, Late Palaeozoic basin by thermal sag (Bradley 1982) and ultimately Maritimes Basin (Williams 1974) of New in the Permo-Triassic, by inversion (Ryan & Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Zentilli 1993). (Fig. 2). The Late Palaeozoic strata Nova Scotia and the Maritimes Basin in the of the Maritimes Basin span the Middle Devonian Carboniferous lay within palaeoequatorial (Dawson 1862; McGregor 1977; Forbes et al. Euramerica, drifting northwards from a palaeo- 1979) through early Permian (Dawson 1845, 1891; latitude of 12 degrees south to cross the equator by Barss et al. 1963) with remarkably few gaps. The the beginning of the Permian (Scotese & Maritimes Basin is a complex of predominantly McKerrow 1990). Generally considered a northern Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


/j /~--~/ " .~ /(.,'. ~..,,'# .... - " i

. ~ /

i/~i/m e s 4e~ ~ B a s i n ', il - [ r ,, ,..~. / ~,/ w.~ /1%~:) ,

< ~ ,0~ ~" , ~ "---,---~--2_~ .... ( + " 9 ~Im "~ o~ ~, ~ P.E.I.< ~ ', .- +

'' '" '" " ~a~ ~'f--'.: ' Basin !

8,~':r _~. ~_~ / ~ y.5 Outli~ I ,V

Fig. 2. Areas underlain by Middle Devonian - Permo-Carboniferous strata of the southern Maritimes Basin in Nova Scotia, and neighbouring , with component depositional basins and intrabasinal massifs; modified after Gibling et al. (1992) and Gibling (1995). part of the Appalachian orogenic belt, the The evolution of geological thought on the Maritimes Basin lay situated at the palaeosouth- Carboniferous of Nova Scotia eastern margin of the Appalachians in a palaeo- geographic distinct from the Appalachian The first comprehensive account of the Carbon- Basin to the west. The mountain range posed an iferous geology and mineral resources of Nova orographic climate barrier, drainage divide and Scotia is that of Richard Brown (Fig. 3) in 1829, phytogeographic barrier to biotic exchange although this contribution in the past, if not between these two areas. No such land barrier overlooked altogether, has been attributed to existed to the east, however, and Nova Scotia can Thomas Chandler Haliburton, in whose book it be included with Britain and western Europe in a appears. Brown was employed by the London- broadly intermontane palaeogeographic region of based General Mining Association as manager of tropical palaeolatitude lying to the east of the coal-mining operations in the Sydney coalfield, Appalachians, north of the Mauritanides and west Breton, from 1827 to 1864. 'This experienced of the Urals, and traversed by the Acadian- observer', as he was respectfully described by Lyell Hercynide upland belt, here called the (1845, p. 206), described most eloquently that Maritimes-West-European Province, modified Stigmariae are in fact the rootstock of lepido- after Leeder (1987), analagous to the Equatorial- dendrid (Brown 1846; 1848), which are so Low-Latitude- phytogeographic unit of splendidly exposed as fossil in the coastal Rowley et al. (1985) and long ago known to sections of Nova Scotia (Lyell ! 843b; Brown 1846, Dawson (1888). Dawson 1855, Calder et al. 1996; Scott & Calder Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


Fig. 3. Nineteenth century contemporaries of Lyell who contributed to the early understanding of the Carboniferous of Nova Scotia. (a) Richard Brown (I 805-1882); (b) Abraham Gesner (I 797-1864); (c) Sir William E. Logan (1798-1875); (d) Sir J. William Dawson (1820-1899).

1994; Scott this volume). Seemingly inocuous, this misled previous inquirers. Sir Charles also discovery had implications for the the origin of performed the valuable service of placing in coal, the recognition of cyclic and communication with each other, and with the for reconsideration of the Deluge. geologists of , the inquirers The stratigraphic nomenclature employed by already at work on the geology of the province, Brown and his contemporaries of the nineteenth and of stimulating their activity, and directing century immediately discloses two important facts: it into the most profitable channels. (Dawson first, that they were both inclined and able to 1868, p. 8) interpret the Carboniferous strata of Nova Scotia in In the following (1843), Sir William Logan terms of the geology of Europe, and in particular undertook the longstanding bed-by-bed description Britain, with which they were familiar; and second, of the Joggins section, the first field project of the the rock record permitted such a comparison to newly formed Geological Survey of Canada (Logan be drawn. Brown (1829) applied to the Carbon- 1845). iferous strata of Nova Scotia the then recently Lyell gained much in return through the mutual published stratigraphic nomenclature for Britain of respect between him and his collaborators Brown Coneybeare and Phillips (1822). In contrast, the and Dawson. Many of his observations on the early geological account of Jackson and Alger origin of the Joggins section (Fig. 4) clearly build (1829) was largely anecdotal and geographical in upon those of Brown (1829). The 1845 geology nature. The early stratigraphic interpretation of map that accompanied his Travels in North Brown is striking in its similarity to current America incorporated the stratigraphy of Dawson subdivisions (Table 1). Current stratigraphic nom- (1845) with respect to the age of the widespread enclature has been adopted largely from that Permo-Carboniferous of Prince Edward employed by Dawson (1878), who drew upon the Island and northern Nova Scotia, and is an admir- work in the coalfields of his contemporaries able to the current map of the Maritimes McOuat (1874) and Robb (1874) at the Geological Basin (Fig. 2). The problematic stratigraphic Survey of Canada, and from the subsequently position of gypsum was resolved by Lyell evolved nomenclature of Walter A. Bell (1929, (1843a, c) through discussions with Brown and 1944) and Edward Belt (1964). Dawson (Lyell 1845, p. 206; Dawson 1847). The words of Sir William Dawson in his opus Abraham Gesner, avid promoter of Nova Scotian Acadian Geology, which he dedicated to Lyell, are geology and resources (Gesner 1836, 1843) and testimony to the influence of Lyell and the esteem later inventor of a process to distil kerosene from in which he was held in Nova Scotia, especially by coal and oil , strongly disagreed with this Dawson: interpretation and sought from the Geological The year 1842 forms an in the history of Society Lyell's censure (Lyell 1845). In response to geology in Nova Scotia. In that year Sir Charles Gesner's criticism, Lyell systematically detailed his Lyell visited the province, and carefully case for the stratigraphic position of the Dinantian examined some of the more difficult features of gypsum and (1845, pp. 208-218), which its geological structure, which had baffled or has been accepted since that time. Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


Table 1. The evolution of stratigraphic nomenclature for the Carboniferous basin-fill of Nova Scotia, with special reference to the nineteenth centur),

Belt, 1964; c- B~own Gesner Lyell D~E~vson Bell Ryan et al r~ (1829) (I 836) (1843) (1843) 1855 1878 ++ (1944) (1991) ~ E Pemqo- o~ Carboniferous t3_ New Red of New Red New Red Upper r __ Series__ Saliferous Sandstone Carboniferous U•o• (& Gypsum) Sandstone (& Gypsum) DMsion + Upper or Formation Newer CoaJ Calcareous Formation Group or Marine Deposit Piclou, Middle Coal Morien, Coal Formation Middle Coal S'tellarton, Measures Formation Cu~and Cumberland Coal CoaJ 'Co~ (' -- Proper3 Measures Measures Measures' Riversdale Millstone 'Millstone Millstone ? hiatus ? hiatus z o Grit' Grit Grit Series (Formation) Canso Mabou Group " " ' Old Mountain Lower ~FDon-~f~~ -- - -- ~i~IUof" Carboniferous Umestone Series or Windsor Carboniferous or Old of (Lr. Carb. l_r,Carb. Windsor > o ~ Umestone Carboniferous Gypsiferous Umestone & Limestone & ._ L Umestone Red Series Marine Fm.) 9._G~=su~_ _B,~Js_ _ ? Sandstone Horton Coal Series or Od Red Lower Horton n Old Red or Measures Lower Horton Sandstone Sandstone Carboniferous Group Devonian Coal Measures ? / / 9

DIC c Fountain |~ ~ 'Greywacke' 'Slate' + after Dawson o_ o Group o_ > ++ also McOuat (1874) and Robb (1874) Equivalents o

Fig. Is. Section of the cliffs of the South Joggins, near Minudle, Nova Scotia.

North Minudle. Gypsum. Coal with upright trees. SandAtone and shale. South.

_ c d 9 ~ .q ~ i JMrdr Obs~re ~

Red sandstone, a, limestone. Iled sandstone and marl. c, 8rlndstone. f, 4 feet coal. A, i. Shale with Modiola. ....

Fig. 19. I', F~. 20. .Fig. 21.

~ $ttgmaria in mlcaceotts ~,~9, sandstone.

~-2.. - # h .... g.~. :

Fig. 4. Lyell's illlustrations of the Joggins section, from his Travels in North America (1845), reprinted in pan in The Student's Elements of Geology (1871 ). Illustrated are the stratigraphic relationship of gypsum and coal measures (1871, fig. 18) and the nature and occurrence of fossil lepidodendrid trees, including: the nature of their casting (1871, fig. 19); , yet to be shown conclusively to be a lepidodendrid rootstock (1871, fig. 20); and the disposition of erect trees within the inclined strata, which was taken as evidence that the strata had been tilted subsequent to their deposition. Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


In 1852 Dawson and Lyell discovered, either Group, for example, the impoverished flora has through serendipity (Dawson 1868) or a careful been ascribed to playa conditions (Neves & Belt search strategy (Lyell & Dawson 1853), the 1970). The exceptional thickness of the component remarkable occurrence of and land snails basin-fills diffuses the record of first and last within the casts of erect lepidodendrid trees at appearances of miospores and the introduction of Joggins. Dawson continued the search alone there- hinterland floras is problematic (Dolby, pers. after; in all, over 100 specimens comprising at least comm. 1997). The scarcity of recognized tonsteins 11 and five terrestrial taxa (Lyons et al. 1994) further stymies the use of (Appendix A) have been discovered in the trees absolute radiometric dates which otherwise could (Carroll et al. 1972), the great majority by Dawson be employed to assist in the resolution of (1878, 1894). Perhaps the most famous of these, chronostratigraphy. lyelli (Dawson 1860), for well over a century was the earliest known . The strange circumstance of the stump fauna long has been Evolution of the Carboniferous basin-fill favoured to have come about as the result of pitfall sequence in Nova Scotia (Dawson 1878; Carroll et al. 1972); however, the weight of evidence including current research by The major basinal depocentres of the southern the author and A. C. Scott (see Scott this volume) Maritimes Basin in Nova Scotia (Fig. 2), modified suggests otherwise; denning is seen by the author as from Gibling (1995), from west to east, are: (1) a more probable scenario. Cumberland Basin; (2) (including In the late nineteenth and early twentieth Windsor-Shubenacadie, Musquodoboit-Mahone- centuries, field relationships in the Carboniferous Bay and depocentres along the southern basins were mapped in precise detail across the Cobequids); (3) Gap and Basin; (4) Province of Nova Scotia by the Geological Survey Antigonish Basin; (5) Western Cape Breton, at the of Canada. The resulting maps, at the of one margin of the submarine Gulf of St. Lawrence; (6) inch to the mile, and accompanying reports are the Central Cape Breton, including Glengarry, Loch valued legacy of Hugh Fletcher (1875-1909). Lomond and the Salmon River: and (7) Sydney Bell (1929, 1940, 1944) erected series for the Basin. Each of these component basins in turn Carboniferous strata of Nova Scotia largely on the comprises smaller depocentres, in part reflecting basis of the macroflora (Appendix B) and bivalve the anastomosing fault configuration generated by fauna (see Appendix A), which he correlated with the transcurrent fault systems of the Maritimes equivalent European stages. The series of Bell, Basin. The accrued Carboniferous fill of these which established the age relationship of coal- component basins reach 12 km in thickness bearing strata within the disjunct Carboniferous (Belt 1968b). The reader is referred to Bell (1929, basins, subsequently were adopted as lithostrati- 1940, 1944, 1960), Belt (1965), Ryan et al. (1991), graphic groups (Table 1). The diachronous nature Williams et al. (1985) and Gibling (1995) for of the lithostratigraphic units of the Maritimes comprehensive details of their stratigraphy. The Basin was illustrated by the application of miospore component formations of the six main lithostrat- (Belt 1964; Hacquebard et al. 1960: igraphic groups are given in Table 2. Barss et al. 1963). The problems inherent in the adoption of a lithostratigraphy born of biostrati- Beginnings: Middle - Upper Devonian graphy have been acknowledged by virtually all subsequent stratigraphers. This inherent strati- The formation of depocentres within the Maritimes graphic problem has been accommodated in part by Basin (Williams 1974) during the Late Palaeozoic the growing practice of assigning diachronous coal was initiated at the close of the Acadian orogeny measures within the disjunct coal basins to the (Poole 1967), following the Caledonian orogeny in Cumberland Group and succeeding red beds to the western Europe, which together record the final , as proposed by Ryan and colleagues closure of the Iapetus Ocean (McKerrow 1988). (1991). The earliest basin-fill, recorded in the McAdam Because the biostratigraphy of the Carboniferous Lake Formation on , has been of the Maritimes Basin is rooted in the terrestrial assigned a Lower or Middle Devonian age on the fossil record except during the mid to late Visean basis of its Arthrostigma-Psilophyton macroflora (Fig. 5), the effects of provincialism and palaeo- (Bell & Goranson 1938) but is better constrained to geography can be particularly problematic in the latest Emsian to early age on the achieving precise correlations with stage bound- strength of palynomorphs (McGregor 1977). The aries based on marine fauna elsewhere in strata of the McAdam Lake Formation provide the Euramerica. Depauperate miospore floras attend earliest record of coal formation and sapropelic the red beds of Nova Scotia; in the lower Mabou lacustrine deposits ('oil ' according to Gilpin Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


1899, but unreplicated by Smith & Naylor 1990) in Ma; Barr et al. 1995). Extensive volcanism and the evolution of the Maritimes Basin in Nova related plutonism at the Devono-Carboniferous Scotia. The lacustrine deposits and basin margin boundary (362-356Ma) is recorded along the conglomerates co-occur with felsic volcanics (Bell Kirkhill-Rockland-Brook Fault of the & Goranson 1938). Within the Murphy Brook Cobequid Highlands and associated faults in Formation in the Cobequid Highlands, a flora has western Cape Breton, in association with been reported and provisionally identified as the transpression (Dunning et al. 1997). A subsequent primitive tracheophytes Taeniocrada and phase of Mid-Dinantian volcanism is discussed co-occuring with axes and below. sporangia 'probably referable to the Psilophyton' (Forbes et al. 1979), which has been taken to represent a similar age (Donohoe & Dinantian Wallace 1982). Latest Devonian to The subsequent Devonian basin-fill, which is assigned to the Fountain Lake Group and its In the latest Devonian and throughout the equivalent, reaches nearly 3 km in thickness Tournaisian (Martel et al. 1993), predominantly (Williams et al. 1985) and is consistent with continental alluvium was deposited across all continental rift facies: bimodal basalt-rhyolite tectono-stratigraphic terranes of both Avalonian volcanic suites, extensive basin margin and Meguma affinity, confirming the earlier conglomerates and basinal lacustrine deposits. assembly of the Northern Appalachian orogen Volcanics of this loosely defined group occur (Hamblin & Rust 1989). Half-grabens developed adjacent to major transform faults: the Cobequid adjacent to the Cobequid Fault system in northern and Hollow Faults of northern Nova Scotia and Nova Scotia (Martel & Gibling 1991, 1996), the correlative faults in southwest Newfoundland, and Hollow Fault in western Cape Breton (Hamblin & along the Lubec-Belleisle Fault in southern New Rust 1989) and its extension in southwest Brunswick (Blanchard et al. 1984) (Fig. 2). This Newfoundland (Miller et al. 1990) and probably facies assemblage historically has been interpreted within the Basin of southern New as Devono-Carboniferous on the basis of rather Brunswick as well. These half-graben segments limited and equivocal biostratigraphic data. The record an early distensional phase of Maritimes lacustrine strata have yielded late Devonian to early Basin development consistent with the rifting Carboniferous (Donohoe & Wallace 1982) and proposed by Belt (1968a). Similar half-graben Tournaisian miospores (Blanchard et al. 1984) and, basins developed contemporaneously in the on Cape Breton Island, compressions of the Dinantian of Britain (Leeder 1987, 1988a). This Devonian (Kasper suggests a prevalence of regional distension across et al. 1988). Recent U/Pb and biostratigraphic central and eastern Euramerica as plates reorga- dating increasingly constrain these rocks to the pre- nized between the Caledonian-Acadian and Carboniferous, from Middle to Late Devonian age Alleghenian-Hercynian orogenies (Hamblin & (Barr et al. 1995; Martel et al. 1993; Dunning et al. Rust 1989); in Nova Scotia, basins adjacent to the 1997). The suggestion of Martel and colleagues Cobequid Fault system may have developed as (1993) to assign this early basin-fill to an expanded collapse structures in response to thrusting that Horton Group (see below) as yet has not been attended forceful intrusion of Devono-Carbon- widely adopted. iferous granites (Piper 1994). Mafic intrusions and Volcanics of the Fountain Lake Group are basaltic flows of late Tournaisian to early Vis6an inferred to be extrusive equivalents of high-level age are scattered widely along the Cobequid Fault plutons emplaced along the Cobequid Fault (Pe- zone and from southern New Brunswick through Piper et al. 1989, 1991, 1996). They co-occur with Prince Edward Island to western Cape Breton dyke swarms and are consistent with reflect within- (Dunning et al. 1997) (Fig. 2). plate crustal extension (Pe-Piper et al. 1989). The basin-fill of the half grabens, assigned to the Uranium/lead dating of rhyolites best constrains Horton Group (Dawson 1873; Bell 1929) of latest Devono-Carboniferous volcanism in Nova Scotia Devonian () to latest Tournaisian (T3) to the Middle Devonian to late Tournaisian / early age (Utting et al. 1989; Martel et al. 1993), ranges Vis6an, wherein four main episodes are recognized from 600 m (Martel & Gibling 1996) or more (Dunning et al. 1997). Along the trend of the (l100-1500m; Bell 1960) in the type area of the Cobequid Fault system, volcanics were extruded Minas Basin to as much as 3000 m in western Cape during the Middle Devonian (385-389 Ma). In Breton (Hamblin & Rust 1989). Characteristically, western Cape Breton, bimodal basalt-rhyolite it comprises marginal thick extrabasinal conglom- suites of the Fisset Brook Formation in Cape erates (Murphy et al. 1994) and a tripartite basinal Breton terminated in the Late Devonian (373_+4 stratigraphy of alluvial strata above and below Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021

268 J.H. CALDER intervening lacustrine beds (Hamblin & Rust 1989; (see Appendix A) are represented in the aquatic Martel & Gibling 1996) (Fig. 5). The lacustrine realm by a restricted invertebrate record of ostra- component has been inferred by these authors to cods, conchostracans and xiphosurans, and by a represent a period of accelerated subsidence during more diverse fauna of palaeoniscid , which the basins were underfilled. - crossopterygians, dipnoi, gyracanthids and sym- starved organic-rich accumulated oil shales moriid and probable other . Recent re- (Smith & Naylor 1990). Coarsening upward sedi- evaluation of microfauna of the Horton Bluff mentary cycles have been ascribed to tectonism Formation, long held to be solely lacustrine, has (Martel & Gibling 1991), but the lacustrine rocks, revealed the presence of a marginal marine which record the effects of storm conditions fauna within profundal to lagoonal beds of (Martel & Gibling 1991) doubtless witness to the Member, including of climatic cyclicity, yet to be described. the western European genera Copelandella and The Lepidodendropsis corrugatum compression and the more cosmopolitan Shemonaella flora of the Horton Group (Bell 1960) was a (Tibert 1996). The elasmobranch cosmopolitan flora of the Tournaisian Old Red (Bell 1929, p. 35) is known from the Continent (Jongmans 1952; Chaloner & Lacey famous Carboniferous marine localities of Bear 1973). The Tournaisian fauna of the Horton Group Gulch, Montana and Bearsden, .

Table 2. Formations of the Carboniferous basin-fill of Nova Scotia a

~~ V;nas Ster artor" Ar't[go,~:Sh West C,8 ~.C 9os;n : 8csie ,8asn& GaP Bcs;n i 9asm

280 I

I iilii~ 300 ~1 11 ;Ill, I i:


d ,,--.--~. ? i 9Pt P" 520

..... %----- H ------4------H -_ _ _~---

i [oi < 540! b c s ~ r o t / g r o p h / o d o { o

r I " WBx ~ r . . ! , A . ? l CL -i i t N IRRv.] S : O /V] [ H9 --- I . C

!~ ~ v - v o i '7 i~i v v - j _< I~i .~_ v_ F: _ v_ E I i VcA~K j -- z ~ _ v -- v v : ,-- V __ V i o> ~ . v -- v v -- ,i i ? '~ uJ > ~ ~ ~ p.,~ :.~'~ i H / i )! ;':~ ill iI v i:l,! i[ , UcAL _o' I v ~ ____j w ..... ____L i

'~ Modified after Gibling (1995). Absolute age dates after Cowie & Bassett (1989). Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


The Tournaisian strata of Nova Scotia continuous record been documented between the nonetheless are prevailingly continental (Belt two groups (P. S. Giles, pers. comm. 1997). 1968b) in contrast to the widespread marine beds of During the mid-Vis6an, marine waters breached western Europe (Leeder 1988a) and afford an the Maritimes rift valley from the east, rapidly important locality for establishing the early transgressing as far as the New Brunswick Platform evolution of terrestrial , recorded in both (Fig. 2) (Bell 1929; Mamet 1970; Howie 1984). trackways and osteological remains. Skeletal The body of water known as the Windsor Sea was remains from Horton Bluffs include an anthraco- a restricted, hypersaline tropical gulf near the scale sauran reptiliomorph, comprising the earliest of the (Schenk et al. 1994). The sea tetrapod record in both western Euramerica and the opened to the northeast (Schenk 1969; pers. comm. exclusive of 1997) of present- Nova Scotia and east to (Carroll et al. 1972) and the only known southeast across the (Mamet 1970; Tournaisian tetrapod locality (Milner et al. 1986; Giles 1981a; Howie 1984). There, in the east, an Carroll 1992; Ahlberg & Milner 1994). equatorial Phoibic seaway (McKerrow & Ziegler 1972), inferred to have been westward circulating (Allen & Dinely 1988), existed between the Visdan continental margins of the Old Red Continent Whereas the uppermost Horton strata dated are (Laurussia) and Gondwana. At this time, marine latest Tournaisian and the oldest dated succeeding conditions prevailed across much of tropical strata of the Windsor Group (Lyell 1843a, c; Bell Euramerica (Bell 1929; Bless et al. 1987; Rast 1929) are of mid-Vis6an (V 2 to early V 3) age, the 1988), and the rapid incursion of the sea into the possibility exists of a hiatus during part of the early Maritimes rift valley may have occurred as the sea- (V 1) to middle (V2) Visfian (Utting et al. 1989) way became compressed by the convergence of (Fig. 5). Although the gap could be apparent given Gondwana and the Old Red Continent; alter- the paucity of age data from red beds of this natively, regional distension across the Maritimes- interval (Utting et al. 1989), the regional Western-European province may have ushered in stratigraphic relationship of the two groups the sea. The marine -sulphate strata suggests otherwise: the isochronous base of the intertongue towards basin margins locally with red Windsor overlies Horton rocks of variable conglomerates of the Grantmire Formation (Schenk Tournaisian age, and nowhere has an unequivocally 1969) and in New Brunswick with conglomerates

Table 2. Key.


P,ctou Croup'~ Mobou Group. B - Bclfron CD - Cope Dauphir MRd - Meodows Rood BC - Brood Cove - C cremort* ~M - Pugwcsh Mi~e CJ - Cc;oe John H - Hostlngs Sw -StewiocKe T - Tatamogouche l - Londoncer~y SR - Sydney R;ver M - Middleborougq - bTst Cumber/ond Oroup: [~ McKL - McKe;gcn Loke WQ - White Quorry PQ - :~omcuet WRd - Woodbine Roaa BB - Big Barren PiE - Point Edwc.d WW - Wentwortm BPt - Boss Point Sh - She3ocy D - Deloney WB - West Boy EBk - Emery Brook Horton Oroup. GV - Olengor.y Volley A - Ainslie HY:~s -- Henry IsIcnd W~ndsor Croup. C - Crelgnisn [ - :nverness A3 - Addngton Ch - Cheve, e J - Jogg;rs BV - Br'dgevl e CS - Co dstreom Mg - Mc!ogosh CC Cc'roi's Co,Per DBk - Diomonc Brook MM - Mobou Mines CV - C~u,-c~ville F - FO[!s NGC - New Glcsgow E - E,'on C -- OronttT~ire Corglomerote CO - C,ee" OCKS HB - Horror Bluff P -- Porrsboro" OR - Gays River S - Strothorne PH - Hood -ak - I-omes Brook W~k - W[Ikle ~ RR - Rogged Ree{ HH -- -~o-tsno r,~ SHM - Spr;nghil M;nes H[S - -tOOd tslGno St - Stetlcrton KH -- Ke,~pt Heod Founto~89Lok8 et o4 [~ SV - Scotch Vii:age I KB,< - L;me Kiln Brook SVM - Silver Mine BBk Byers Brook LL - Lomond FBk - Fisset Brook Mc - Mccumbe- FL - Fountain Lake MCk - M;ller Creek MBk - Murphy Brook McD - MacDoned Road McAB.< - McArras B'ook MbR - Murphy Rood McAL - McAdo~ Lake Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021

270 J.H. CALDER of the Hopewell Cape Formation during the Mid water Macumber limestone of the B subzone (Bell Vis6an (McCutcheon 1981). In southwestern Cape 1929, pp. 66-68), which also contains an undes- Breton, small gabbroic plutons and possible sills cribed fish fauna (R. G. Moore pers. comm. 1997). are coeval with the Windsor Group (U/Pb: 339 + 2 The subsequent faunal record derives primarily Ma) and are inferred to reflect continued extension from carbonate units (Moore 1967), where the low (Barr et al. 1994). diversity of bottom dwellers reflects adverse biotic The Windsor Sea in its early history subsequent conditions imposed by the shallow muddy carbon- to its breach of the Maritimes Rift has been called ate sea bottom. The resulting meagre and Loch Macumber (Schenk et al. 1994); the wide- fauna contrasts with that of interior spread, basal Macumber Formation records rela- North America (Bell 1929). Suspension feeders tively deep water with profundal laminated such as the articulate productids and carbonate and mudrock associated with turbidite dominated, which together with pele- and debris flow deposits. The deeper basinal waters cypods and gastropods, comprised a mollusc- shoaled laterally, where formed lime mud reefs or brachiopod fauna (Bell 1929). The abundant hydrothermal tufa mounds of the Gays River pelecypod fauna is akin to that of northern Britain, Formation. Subsequent to the accumulation of where similar substrate conditions to those in Nova evaporite deposits hundreds of metres in thickness, Scotia are inferred. The fauna, primarily the Windsor seafloor became exposed subaerially and , is strikingly less abundant, (Schenk et al. 1994) with playa flats and sub- albeit with notable exceptions such as in the sequent karstification (Boehner 1986). This trans- Musquoboboit sub-basin (Boehner 1977), than in gressive-regressive cycle (Subzone B of Bell 1929; coeval sandy shelf areas of southern Britain. Taken Cycle 1 of Giles 1981a) defines a stratigraphic together, these faunal elements suggest unstable sequence (Schenk et al. 1994). Four subsequent substrate and and restricted circulation sequences in the upper Windsor Group record within the Windsor gulf (Bell 1929; McKerrow repeated rapid transgression and protracted with- 1978). drawal from the Maritimes rift valley during the Restricted circulation is recorded as well in the mid and late Vis6an (Bell 1929; Schenk 1969) (Fig. increasing fractionation of evaporitic brines from 5). They comprise cyclic stratal successions of through calcium sulphate to salts carbonate, thin red claystone, sulphate and thick red northwestward across the Maritimes Basin (Howie claystone that have been interpreted as algal 1984). This fractionation suggests a palaeogeo- carbonate strandlines shoaling to supratidal, graphic restriction of the Windsor Sea, either by dolomitizing salt flats with saline lakes and lagoons shoaling or by straits, from deeper waters in (Schenk 1969). Upon these sequences are super- western Europe, where carbonates prevail. The imposed numerous parasequence cycles recording existence of straits above a basement low on the lesser regressions (Giles 1981a; Schenk et al. Grand Banks east of Newfoundland has been 1994). The total thickness of Windsor strata is suggested (Geldsetzer 1978). The faunal record has difficult to determine in areas of diapirism, but in been interpreted to indicate that normal marine the Minas Basin area is in the order of 800-900 m conditions were approached only by the upper (Boehner 1986). Vis6an (Bell 1929). overlain by thick The transgressive-regressive sequences of the sulphate and deposits in the upper Windsor Windsor correlate approximately with the mid- Group, however, indicate that unstable Arundian to Brigantian of Britain and Belgium prevailed throughout the history of Windsor Group (Giles 1981b), represented by mid-mesothem 3-6 regressions (P. S. Giles, pers. comm. 1997). of Ramsbottom (1977). The driving mehanism of The mollusc-brachiopod fauna of Nova Scotia these sequences has been inferred to have been show strong affinity with that of northwestern glacioeustacy (Giles 198 lb), possibly caused by the Europe, and therefore were interpreted by Bell waxing and waning of the developing Gondwanan (1929) before the theory of continental drift as ice cap (Crowell 1978; Veevers & Powell 1987; common residents of a 'proto-North ', Gonzalez-Bonorino & Eyles 1995). The Windsor whereas in contrast, the marine fauna transgressive-regressive cycles mimic the strong of interior North America show but scant evidence asymmetry of glacial ice-cap meltout and growth of 'distant migratory connexions'. Benthonic fora- evidenced by the isotope record from minifers of the upper Vis6an of the Maritimes Basin ice (Chappell & Shackleton 1986). The and eastern Newfoundland shelf, however, have accumulation of thick evaporite deposits must also affinity to North American fauna rather than the have contributed to progressive shoaling (Schenk et Tethyan fauna of western Europe, which suggests al. 1994). that a deep ocean barrier between Tethys and the The Vis6an marine macrofauna record in Nova Windsor Sea existed at this time (Jansa et al. 1978; Scotia (Appendix A) is most prolific in the deeper- Jansa & Mamet 1984). Evidence in support of the Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021

CARBONIFEROUS EVOLUTION OF NOVA SCOTIA 271 persistence of such a Mid-Euramerican Sea in the the evolution of Euramerica. The Mabou Group Silesian is discussed subsequently in this paper. (Belt 1964, superseding the Canso Group of Bell The ultimate withdrawal of the Windsor Sea 1944, with revisions below) succeeds the Windsor from the Maritimes Basin by the late Vis6an may Group in the late Vis6an and persists through the have been a consequence of a major phase of Namurian A/B (Neves & Belt 1970). The age of the Gondwanan glaciation and a consequent fall in uppermost Mabou strata has proved to be especially global . (Gibling 1995; Veevers & Powell problematic (see below); similar uncertainties in 1987). The withdrawal pre-dates, however, the age attend red-bed-dominated strata within the Namurian maxima inferred for the Gondwanan ice Carboniferous basin-fill (Fig. 6; see also Neves & cap (Gonzalez-Bonorino & Eyles 1995) and is Belt 1970). The group attains a thickness of at least inconsistent with documented major global regres- 3000 m in Nova Scotia (Belt 1965; Lynch & Giles sions (Veevers & Powell 1987), including the 1995), where typically it is fine grained (Belt 1965; Mississippian- boundary event 1968b). Widespread grey beds of the Hastings and (Saunders & Ramsbottom 1986). At the same time equivalent formations first were deposited across Euramerica, the converging circumequa- throughout most basinal depocentres in Nova torial heralded a Mid-Carboniferous Scotia, and persisted adjacent to the Cobequid Fault episode of thrusting, transpression and inversion, in the Minas Basin, succeeded regionally by red discussed below, which had potential to effect a mudrock-dominated strata of the similar result. Formation (Belt, 1965, fig. 5). The younger grey Following withdrawal of the Windsor Sea, a strata of the Formation are assigned semiarid climate persisted through the late Visdan herein to the Cumberland Group as redefined by as lake margins of the Hastings Formation, basal Ryan et al. (1991), as similarly advocated for the Mabou Group, contracted and desiccated, deposit- Emery Brook Formation (Giles 1995), formerly of ing cyclic 'cementstone' carbonate and red beds the Mabou Group (Belt 1965). (Belt 1968b) in a schizohaline, inland mimic of the The early to mid-Namurian aquatic fauna is marine cycles of the earlier Vis6an (Crawford 1995, typified by eocarid and conchostracan cf. Leeder 1992). The predominance of grey beds and by sarcopterygian , ctenacanth sharks and and growth lines of the pelecypod , acanthodians represented by Gvracanthus (Fig. 6a) which span up to 10 (E. S. Belt, pers. comm. which has a sparse record elsewhere in North 1997) has been cited as evidence in support of the American Euramerica (Baird 1978). The absence of persistence of deeper parts of the Mabou lakes; the open marine fauna, however, underscores the ecology of Carbonicola, oft stated as 'brackish', is relatively landward or inland position of the Mabou key to this argument. beds. The eocarid Pseudotealliocaris (Fig. 6c) and Halokinesis, with flow into kilometre-scale Anthracophausia fauna of the lower Mabou Group diapirs and salt adjacent to basement (Copeland 1957) have been interpreted elsewhere fault blocks, deformed much of the Windsor Group to be representatives of a nearshore marine and locally, the subsequent Permo-Carboniferous community (Schram 1981). Within the lower basin-fill (Bell 1944, 1958; Howie 1988; Boehner Mabou occur also the Shernonaella 1992; Brown et al. 1996). Extensional detachment (Paraparchites) scotoburdigalensis and faulting of possible basin-wide extent within the Beyrichiopsis sp., which are indicative of a near- Windsor Group (Lynch & Giles 1995) and major shore environment and which are found also in the salt movements (Bell 1944; Boehner 1992) were Dinantian of Scotland (Copeland 1957; Tibert initiated early in the subsequent depositional 1996). It is possible, therefore, that maximum history of the basins, possibly as early as the late transgressions from the retreating Windsor Sea Namurian, subsequent to deposition of the Mabou continued for some time to influence the basinal Group (Lynch & Giles 1995) and the Mid waters of the Maritimes during deposition of the Carboniferous event discussed below. The halo- succeeding strata, the Mabou Group. The basal kinetic history of the Maritimes Basin fill as a Hastings Formation may be the best candidate for whole stands in marked contrast to the Carbon- recording a change from marine to lacustrine iferous of North America and western Europe. deposition (Crawford 1995). Continental deposition to which the Mabou Group historically has been ascribed (Belt 1968b), probably Silesian predominated, especially in the upper strata (Copeland 1957), but the ecology of the aqautic Namurian fauna should be studied further in order to ascertain The Namurian set the stage for the most profound whether transgressions still were still experienced changes in basin evolution during the Carbon- from the withdrawing sea. The terrestrial vertebrate iferous in Nova Scotia, events that can be linked to fauna of the late Vis6an-Namurian is best recorded Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


in the exceptional trackway record of the West Bay Group (Fig. 5). Namurian (K/Ar: 329 __. 11 Ma) Formation of the Minas Basin (Carroll et al. 1972; deformation and overthrusting of plutons emplaced Sarjeant & Mossman 1978). adjacent to the terrane-bounding Cobequid Fault in the early Dinantian have been interpreted to be a consequence of transpression or convergence of the The Mid-Carboniferous break~event in Nova Meguma and Avalon terranes along the Cobequid Fault (Waldron et al. 1989; Pe-Piper et al. 1991). Scotia: Mabou-Cumberland contact Dextral transpression is inferred to have inverted The most profound changes in basin evolution and the Cobequid and Caledonia massifs adjacent to the palaeoclimate during the Carboniferous evolution Cumberland Basin (Fig. 2), and strata of Namurian of Nova Scotia occurred during the mid-Namurian B age were later cannibalized by early Westphalian between the deposition of the Mabou Group and the deposystems of the basin, as witnessed by disconformable to unconformable Cumberland reworked spores in the Westphalian strata (Dolby in

relotive f 0 u n 0 p O I I 0 C I i m o t 9 leo evil

orld humid mor;ne contlnentol (wet season---><---~ dry season) 9 >


C.l'flbirlond ~)

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,., ~, M ,' d - C o r b :~ :li~~ r e o k z 7* ~,o ,,T~_ l io ii1


0,- ) no age data \ z ,Oo\ "~ ( v z oc~ ",,: o \ _"_~ ! 0_ "_ _~ -i /

o (Fou nloin / o o~ L o&k e~ v v o thers) v

o v o \ v J

Fig. 5. The stratigraphic column for the Carboniferous basin-fill of the southern Maritimes Basin in Nova Scotia, with representative faunal groups and inferred palaeoclimate and sea-level curves. Sea-level curve for the mid to late Vis6an modified after Giles (198 l b); absolute age dates after Cowie and Bassett (1989). and Hess and Lippolt (1986) (in parentheses). Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021

CARBONIFEROUS EVOLUTION OF NOVA SCOTIA 273 press). An intra-Namurian disconformity may be deformed to varying degree the entire Dinantian recorded in the miospore palynostratigraphy basin-fill of the Maritimes (Hamblin & Rust 1989) (Utting, pers. comm. 1997), but its placement and defines a change in basin evolution from remains equivocal at present. extensional to transtensional and transpressive This regional Namurian event in Nova Scotia (Gibling 1995). Supporting evidence of both the

Fig. 6. Selected from the aquatic realm of the Carboniferous basin-fill of Nova Scotia. (a) cf duplicatus, NSMNH No. FGM.998.GF. l, Joggins Formation, Cumberland Group (Westphalian A); (b) Pygocephalus (Anthrapalaemon) dubius, dorsal view of carapace, Hypotype, GSC No. 12821, Joggins Formation, Cumberland Group (Westphalian A); (c) Pseudotealliocaris (Tealliocaris) belli, dorsal view of type specimen, Holotype, GSC No. 10381, West Bay Formation, Mabou Group (late Vis6an - Namurian); (d) EuproOps amiae, ventral view of abdominal segments, Hypotype, GSC No. 12808a, Formation, Cumberland Group sensu latu (Westphalian D). Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


Fig. 7. Selected fossils from the terrestrial realm of the Permo-Carboniferous basin-fill of Nova Scotia. (a) Hylonomus lyelli, Holotype, NHM R4168, Joggins Formation (Westphalian A); (b) erect cast of a lycopsid tree, Joggins Formation, Cumberland Group (Westphalian A); (c) sp., ichnogenus ascribed to , Joggins Formation, Cumberland Group (Wetphalian A); (d) Amphisauropus latus trackway, ascribed to a seymouriamorph cotylosaur, impressed in dessication-cracked redbeds adjacent walchian stump casts, Cape John Formation, Cumberland Group (Carboniferous-Permian boundary beds). Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021

CARBONIFEROUS EVOLUTION OF NOVA SCOTIA 275 timing and locus of deformation is found in the nineteenth century and their assignment to the structural deformation (Hamblin & Rust 1989) and (Brown 1829). elevated thermal maturity of the Horton (Utting & The establishment of these widespread fiver Hamblin 1991) and Mabou Groups adjacent to the systems was preceded by deposition in north- Cobequid Fault zone in the northern Minas Basin western Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick and in the Stellarton Gap, relative to Westphalian of red extrabasinal conglomerate and grit with strata above, which generally are unaffected by the reduction haloes, assigned to the Claremont and thermal event. A Mid-Carboniferous event, the equivalent Enrag6 formations, which bespeak 'Maritimes Disturbance' (Poole 1967), has long locally sourced deposition before the palaeoclimate been recognized although poorly constrained and changeover. Although currently included in the loosely defined. Its timing and significance as Cumberland Group (Ryan et al. 1991), their described herein are now becoming more fully lithology, fossil record and the possibility of an understood. intervening mid-Namurian hiatus point to their This late Namurian event in Nova Scotia links affinity with the Mabou Group. The sandy Boss the Variscan and Alleghanian orogenies (Nance Point river systems incorporated pedogenic 1987; Gibling 1995), with dextral transpression calcrete, inferred to have been eroded from accomodating Alleghanian thrusting in the central vertisols and aridosols (Browne & Plint 1994), and southern Appalachians (Quinlan & Beaumont although in some cases these may represent 1984). The event coincides approximately with the truncated soils (F. W. Chandler, pers. comm. 1997). Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary of conti- Great cordaite trees, characteristically found in a nental North America (see Rehill 1996, fig. 4.3), permineralized state (Dadoxylon acadianum; which is marked by a widespread and pronounced Dawson 1868), were consumed from the inverted across the Appalachian Basin (White hinterland or from riparian sites and are found from 1891; Ettensohn & Chesnut 1989), and in shelf the type section north of Joggins in the Cumberland areas globally (Saunders & Ramsbottom 1986). Basin to the Port Hood section of the Western Cape This unconformity has been ascribed to a global Breton Basin. A simultaneous, marked introduction eustatic event (Donaldson et aI. 1985), which of the saccate cordaite Florinites accom- resulted in in the marine realm and panies these macroflora (Dolby 1991; in press). A marked evolutionary changes (Saunders & permineralized cordaite flora occurs above the Ramsbottom 1986). In the Appalachian Basin, the Cumberland-Mabou unconformity in the Sydney unconformity coincides with early stages of the Basin in strata as young as the mid-Westphalian and has been ascribed to South Bar Formation (R. Chisholm, pers. comm. continental flexure (peripheral bulge according to 1997). Quinlan & Beaumont 1984) caused by continental Bell (1944, p. 24) concluded that in the convergence; foreland areas of greater subsidence continental record of Nova Scotia, 'The top of the cratonward of continental promontories do not Canso [Mabou] group marks the most pronounced record the unconformity (Ettensohn & Chesnut palaeontological break in the sequence of Canadian 1989). Evidence for a Mid to Late Namurian hiatus maritime Carboniferous floras.' This break is is found as far west as the Porcupine Basin of the mirrored in the miospore record (Dolby pers. western Irish shelf, which represents the comm. 1997), but Copeland (1957) observed no westernmost edge of Carboniferous Europe (Tate & such abrupt change in the record. Dobson 1989). The late Namurian and early Westphalian response to the events of the Namurian is recorded Westphalian in a change in dominant depositional system from lacustrine to fluvial, the 'Coarse Fluvial Facies' of A period of rapid basinal subsidence unsurpassed Belt (1964, 1965), now referred to the Cumberland in Euramerica, wherein 1000 m of strata may Group (Ryan et al. 1991; redefined after Bell 1944). represent as little as one million years (Calder Across the Maritimes Basin an unparalleled 1994), was generated in the southern and central cosmopolitan alluvial facies north of the Cobequid Maritimes Basin by transcurrent wrench faulting, Fault dominantly comprising multistorey sand- from the Late Namurian through Duckmantian/ stones up to 90 m thick, the Boss Point Formation Westphalian B persisting locally through the and equivalents, records response to seasonal Bolsovian/Westphalian C to early D. The dextral rainfall and erosion of inverted and uplifted source transpression of the Meguma against the Avalon areas southwest of the Maritimes Basin (Browne & terrane to the north (Fig. 2) resulted in inversion of Plint 1994). The distinctive composition of these the Caledonia massif in New Brunswick and the mature Boss Point favoured both their Cobequid massif north of the Cobequid Fault use as grindstones and building stones during the (Waldron et al. 1989). In southeastern New Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


Brunswick (Fig. 2), this dextral movement gener- Hollow and Cobequid Faults in the Stellarton Gap ated west-directed thrusting during the early to between the Cobequid and Antigonish massifs mid-Westphalian (Plint & van de Poll 1984), and initiated an equally rapidly subsiding pull-apart consequent reworking of Devono-Carboniferous basin (Yeo & Ruixiang 1987). Lacustrine sedi- sediment in alluvial fans of the Cumberland Group. mention predominated in the pull-apart through the Concurrent with both these changes in palaeo- Westphalian C/Bolsovian and early D (Bell 1940; climate and basin tectonics, coal measures of Late Naylor et al. 1989; Yeo & Ruixiang 1987), with Namurian to Cantabrian age were deposited thick, rheotrophic peat accumulation resulting in diachronously in virtually all depocentres. The bituminous coal beds up to 13.4m thick Cumberland Group coal measures range in (Hacquebard & Donaldson 1969; Calder 1979) and thickness from less than 2 km in the organic-rich cannel shales in deeper water during (Bell 1938) to 2.7 km in the Stellarton Basin periods of underfilling (Smith & Naylor 1990; (Hacquebard 1972) and 4 km in the Cumberland Smith et al. 1991). Elsewhere, red beds with Basin, where they are associated with extensive calcrete-bearing vertisols (Chandler 1997) deposits (Calder 1994). developed widely. Subsequent to the widespread deposition of the By the Westphalian D, diminished subsidence Boss Point and equivalent sandstones, rapidly rates attended the thermal sag experienced earlier in subsiding depocentres bordered by alluvial fans the Pennine and neighbouring basins of the British developed in the latest Namurian and early Isles, although sporadic thermal events continued Westphalian in basins adjacent the Cobequid and along the Avalon-Meguma terrane boundary at Hollow Faults. The early fine-grained fill of these least until the late Westphalian (K/Ar: 303 _+ basins, exposed at Joggins in the Cumberland 11 Ma; Waldron et al. 1989). Widespread peat Basin, the Parrsboro shore of the Minas Basin and accumulated across the Sydney Basin (Hacquebard along the Port Hood section of western Cape & Donaldson 1969; Marchioni et al. 1994) and Breton Island, shows a remarkably similar lith- beneath the Gulf of St Lawrence (Hacquebard ology and fauna, dominated by mudrock alternating 1986; Grant 1994; Rehill 1996) on near coastal with metre-scale sheet sandsone bodies, with thin plains where the effects of glacioeustacy were felt humic to sapropelic , some of which are in the cyclothemic alternation of peat formation and overlain by basin-wide persistent black, organic- palaeovalley incision of red beds (Gibling & rich and bivalve-bearing shale or limestone. These 1994). Fauna of the coal roof strata include the fossiliferous beds yield a pelecypod-ostracod xiphosuran EuproOps amiae (Fig. 6d), which is bivalve, eocarid pygocephalomorph and syncarid exclusive to the strata of the eastern Sydney Basin and varied, disarticulated fish fauna (Copeland 1957) and agglutinated , (Appendix A). The Emery Brook Formation bears which show an easterly gradient from upper to biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic affinity to lower estuarine environments (Wightman et al. these strata as well, which supports its reassign- 1993). The oppportune 'coal window' for peat ment from the Mabou to the Cumberland Group accumulation (Calder 1994; Calder & Gibling (Giles 1995). 1994) and succeeding changeover to red beds was During the early Westphalian, regional basin broadly diachronous from west to east across the inversion (Waldron et al. 1989) led to a widespread Maritimes Basin in Nova Scotia, with the exception diastem in the Duckmantian/Westphalian B of the of widespread early fluviolacustrine deposits Maritimes Basin (Bell 1944), but in the coeval with the basal Joggins coals. By the Cumberland Basin transpression along the , the last vestiges of mires and hydro- Cobequid Fault created positive uplift of the morphic gleysols had all but given way to the neighbouring massifs and transtension of the Athol deposition of red beds across the Maritimes Syncline, which consequently became the main Basin. depocentre of this time in the Maritimes Basin. Before continuing their preferred northeastward Stephanian to Lower Permian course (Gibling et al. 1992), through-flowing rivers were diverted southward into the Cumberland In the Westphalian D to Lower Permian (Barss & Basin (Browne & Plint 1994; S. J. Davies & M. R. Hacquebard 1967), continental red beds of the Gibling pers. comm. 1997). Rheotrophic mires Pictou Group (Bell 1944; redefined by Ryan et al. developed in distributary settings and in areas of 1991) were deposited widely across the Maritimes groundwater recharge along the northern Cobequid Basin during a period of regional thermal sag and alluvial fan piedmont, under a humid climate growing aridity. The Pictou red beds reach 1650 m prohibitively seasonal for the widespread in thickness in the Cumberland Basin (Ryan et al. development of raised mires (Calder 1994). 1991) and 3000 m northward in the Gulf of St At this time, dextral strike-slip of the parallel Lawrence (van de Poll et al. 1995). By the end of Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021

CARBONIFEROUS EVOLUTION OF NOVA SCOTIA 277 the Cantabrian (Zodrow & Cleal 1985), lepido- The final assembly of Pangaea brought about dendrid-based wetland ecosystems, last witnessed basin inversion regionally both in the Maritimes in Nova Scotia by the fossil at Cranberrry Basin (Ryan & Zentilli 1993) and in basins of Head, Sydney Basin, collapsed and were replaced western Europe (Leeder 1988a). Fission track data by a mesic to xeric flora, recorded in the compres- suggest unroofing of 1500-4000 m of strata from sion flora by taxa such as arborescens, the Maritimes Basin during the time interval sp. and sp. 280-200 Ma (Ryan & Zentilli 1993), and a pro- The paucity of fossil fauna and flora from the nounced unconformity exists between Carbon- latest Carboniferous basin-fill of the Maritimes can iferous and Triassic strata of the Fundy be ascribed to loss of , particularly for wet- Rift along the Minas Basin. land and aquatic biota, and also for environments conducive to the preservation of fossils. This has proved troublesome in defining the chrono- stratigraphy of the Stephanian to Permian red beds; The Carboniferous fossil record of Nova indeed Bell (1944), who defined the age relation- Scotia ships of the Carboniferous of Nova Scotia primarily on the basis of macroflora, considered the basin-fill One of the most notable aspects of the in Nova Scotia to be no younger than Westphalian Carboniferous palaeontology of Nova Scotia is its D. The miospore record (Barss & Hacquebard affinity to western Europe (Bell 1929, 1944; Baird 1967) indicates that the youngest red beds of the 1978; Zodrow & Vasey 1986), at least since the Maritimes Basin reach into the Permian. Abundant Acadian orogeny and closing of the Iapetus Ocean Vittitina from the Cape John Formation lend (Nowlan & Neuman 1991). The faunal record of support to an Early Permian age for the uppermost the Carboniferous basin-fill in Nova Scotia red beds in Nova Scotia (Dolby 1991). The possi- (Appendix A) is compiled herein, in part from bility of a mid-Stephanian hiatus within the red unpublished data, for the first time since the beds of Euramerica, although suggested in Nova pioneering work of Lyell's contemporary of the Scotia (Wagner & Lyons 1997), has yet to be nineteenth century, Sir William Dawson. The recognized definitively here and will be chal- faunal list will provide the reader with details of the lenging to ascertain because of the dearth of taxonomic groups discussed in the paper and biostratigraphic data for the red beds of this time hopefully will induce subsequent researchers to interval. Paraconformities between late Silesian make further comparisons with the palaeonto- formations in the Syncline of the logical record of Euramerica in North America and eastern Cumberland Basin (Ryan et al. 1991) Europe. The chronostratigraphy of the Carbon- warrant closer inspection in search of an intra- iferous of Nova Scotia was developed foremost on Stephanian hiatus. the basis of floral biostratigraphy, but with notable Eloquent testimony to the age and environment exceptions (Zodrow & Cleal 1985; Zodrow & of the uppermost red beds of the Maritimes Basin Vasey 1986) has been underutilized in recent fill in Nova Scotia has recently been discovered in decades. The macroflora , although in red beds of the Cape John Formation of the Pictou need of revision, similarly is compiled here for the Group, Cumberland Basin (Calder et al. in press). first time in recognition of its fundamental import- At Brule, on the Strait, the only ance to the chronostratigraphy of the Nova Scotian known walchian conifer forest is preserved within Carboniferous (Appendix B). Systematic study of thinly bedded, mud-draped silty sandstones with the revised macrofloral taxonomy, such as that pervasive desiccation cracks, infilling a monsoon- undertaken for the later Westphalian and fed dryland river bed. Impressed within the red Stephanian by Zodrow & Cleal (1985) is required beds (Fig. 7d) is a prolific record of vertebrate to realize their potential contribution to Maritimes trackways that bear close affinity to the lower Basin and Euramerican correlation (Wagner & ichnofauna of western Europe, Lyons 1997). including Arnphisauropus latus, A. imminutus, The terrestrial environments that attended the Batrachichnus delicatulus aft. B. (Anthichnium) lower sea levels of the Maritimes Basin favoured salamandroides, Varanopus microdactylus and the evolution and migration of early tetrapods. The Dimetropus nicolasi (Calder et aI. in press). Nova Scotia record is particularly significant Included are ichnotaxa that are rare or excluded during the Tournaisian, when tetrapods are virtually west of the Appalachian Mountains, suggesting that unknown elsewhere in the world (Carroll 1992; the Appalachians continued to pose a barrier to Ahlberg & Milner 1994). Seasonality and fluctu- terrestrial species exchange between North ating water levels may have contributed to the America and the Maritime-West-European pro- evolution of terrestrial vertebrates, and early vince until the end of the Carboniferous. in particular. The record in Nova Scotia of Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021

278 J.H. CALDER terrestrial vertebrate evolution during the Carbon- Groups, however, the taxa found in Nova Scotia iferous, both osteological (Carroll et al. 1972) and historically have been designated restrictively as ichnological (Sarjeant & Mossman 1978: Calder et 'nonmarine'. The apparent contradiction that al. submitted), may be the most complete of certain of these are associated with near-marine equatorial Euramerica. The fossil record in Nova environments in western Europe has been accomo- Scotia of tetrapods spans the earliest Carboniferous dated by invoking ecological adaptation to the to earliest Permian, interrupted only by the marine lower-salinity waters inferred for Nova Scotia (Bell conditions of the mid to late Visran, and here too 1944: Vasey 1984). An exception is the study of the the regressive shorelines may yet prove to be Joggins section by Duff & Walton (1973), who productive. Conspicuously absent from this concluded that 'in the light of European studies, predominantly terrestrial record, however, are the CuJa,irimula and Naiadites could suggest a salinity aquatic lepospondyls (Carroll et al. 1972). nearer the "marine" rather than the "fresh" end of To the vertebrate record can be added a fuller the spectrum'. A similar expression of marine account of invertebrate and life during this influence in associated beds has been suggested for formative period in the evolution of terrestrial a -Cochlichnus- inverte- ecosystems. Fossil forests exposed on the sea brate assemblage (Archer et al. 1995). coast range from earliest Carboniferous The pseudoplanktonic, hence widespread, pele- Lepidodendropsis stands of the Horton Group to a cypod Curvirimula of the early Silesian (Vasey, late North American example of a lepidodendrid 1984) is associated with near-marine faunas in forest of the Cumberland Group coal measures in transgressive sequences of the Appalachian Basin the Cantabrian and the only known example in the and (Rogers 1985), and Anthraconaia world of the succeeding xeric conifer Walchia, at similarily may record marine inluence in the the Permo-Carboniferous boundary. Westphalian D (Vasey 1984). The of aragonitic Naiadites shells from the Joggins Formation, which shows both high Sr/Ca and Mg and a 87Sr/S6Sr signature of >0.7093, led Brand Aquatic fauna: how 'nonmarine' ? (1994) to conclude a freshwater habitat although Apart fom the marine fauna of the Vis~an, virtually aspects of the geochemistry are equivocal. Within all other aquatic fauna of the Carboniferous in the Maritimes-Western-European province, the Nova Scotia historically have been described as nearshore to nonmarine pelecypod taxa exhibit nonmarine, which, as asserted in this paper, is a too striking similarities (Eagar 1961), with restrictive generalization. The term 'nonmarine' Carbonicola and Naiadites being endemic genera fails to describe the spectrum from marine to inland (Vasey 1984). aquatic communities. Aquatic invertebrate taxa of The fish fauna of Nova Scotia (see Appendix equivocal affinity are found among the agglutinated A) - comprising acanthodians, , foraminifera, spirorbids, limulids, ostracods, and sarcopterygians - is inferred eocarid crustaceans and pelecypods. The crus- to represent a restricted freshwater habitat and is tacean fauna, including the eocarid Pseudo- similarly represented in western Europe (Allen & tealliocaris-Anthracophausia and ostracod Dineley 1988). The fauna includes the palaeo- Shemonaella-Beyrichiopsis communities of the niscids Rhadinichthys and Elonichthys from the lower Mabou Group, belie the consistency of Tournaisian, the acanthodian Gyracanthus (Fig. 6a) 'nonmarine' conditions. The pygocephalomorph- and the dipnoid , common in Europe but syncarid fauna of the Cumberland Group coal rare in North America (Baird 1978; Allen & Dinely measures, typified by the widely occurring ibid.): in Nova Scotia. Sagenodus scales Pygocephal.us dubius, (Fig. 6b) which occurs also are more common than the literature would in the coal measures of Britain (Copeland 1957), suggest, however, preserved most often within may represent specialization of a more inland bivalve-bearing organic-rich . crustacean community relative to the nearshore Similar comments about nearshore marine to Pseudotealliocaris-Anthracophausia (Fig. 6c) inland palaeoenvironments apply to the fish fauna. community of the Mabou Group (Schram 1981). Rhabdoderma, for example, has been shown to It has beeen suggested (Brooks 1962) that have spawned in estuaries (Schultze 1985). Pygocephalus was anadramous, migrating from Preliminary isotope data from fish fossils derived marine to estuarine and inland environments to from bivalve-beating organic-rich limestones of the spawn. Cumberland Group (H. Falcon-Lang pers. comm. Similar comments apply to the 'nonmarine" 1997) show 87Sr/S6Sr signatures consistent with bivalve taxa, wherein an ecological gradient from estuarine salinities. These range from 0.7097772 - near marine to inland freshwater is likely. Apart 300 (palaeoniscid ) to 0.710338_+83 from Carbonicola of the Windsor and Mabou (xenacanth , Diplodus). Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


It can be generally stated that the palaeoecology semiarid palaeoclimate (Bell 1929; Schenk 1967a, of the faunal groups has been underutilized in b) in which strandline algal stromatolite carbonates, modern times in interpretations of the basin-fill. playa salt flats, halite, anhydrite and potash formed. The search for the inland expression of trans- Laminated carbonate of the Macumber Formation, gressive events in stratal groups historically basal Windsor Group, has been ascribed to semiarid deemed perennially 'nonmarine', in particular, will seasonality (Schenk et al. 1994). Considerable benefit from closer scrutiny of the faunal record. evidence exists for the persistence of semiaridity Ultimately, the faunal and floral records bear during the late Vis~an following retreat of the witness to the palaeogeographic and phytogeo- Windsor Sea: playa lakes, deep desiccation cracks, graphic evolution of Euramerica and the relation- gypsum casts, calcareous 'cementstone' beds (Belt ship between Europe and North America during the et al. 1967: Neves & Belt 1970; McCabe & Schenk Carboniferous. 1982; Crawford 1995) and a conchostracan fauna (Copeland 1957). The palaeoclimate may have moderated by the early Namurian (Crawford 1995), The Carboniferous palaeoclimate of Nova during which time the developing monsoon is said Scotia to have been recorded in vertisols of the Hastings Formation (Chandler 1995). The arid-humid-arid cycle of Late Palaeozoic The dramatic floral changeover across the Mid- Euramerican palaeoclimate (Bless et al. 1987, fig. Namurian divide reflects a marked 4.2) is recorded in the basin-fill of the Maritimes from semiarid to subhumid or seasonal humid (Fig. Basin (Fig. 5). The semiaridity of the Dinantian and 5), similarly recorded in the palaeoclimate of the early Namurian was approached once again by the Central Appalachian Basin (Cecil et al. 1985). This early Permian. Maximum humidity is recorded changeover in macroflora (Bell 1944) similarly is during the Westphalian, followed by a sharp decline recorded in the miospore record by the entry of in the Stephanian, a trend that mimics broadly that saccate Florinites prepollen and Lycospora (G. deduced for Euramerica on the basis of the floral Dolby, pers. comm. 1997; J. Utting pers. comm. record (Phillips & Peppers 1984). The most 1997). Care must be excercised in the interpretation significant departure from the palaeoclimate of the basin-fill record across this time interval, inferred for Euramerica west of the Appalachians given its coincidence with the marked change in and east of the Mid-Euramerican Sea is the greater tectonic regime from distensional to transpressional seasonal distribution of rainfall inferred for the at the Mid-Carboniferous event, which may cor- Maritimes Basin during the early Silesian. The relate with the Mississippian-Pennnsylvanian preliminary Carboniferous palaeoclimate curve for unconformity. The attendant inversion of massifs the Maritimes Basin, here published for the first and neighbouring basinal areas has potential to time (Fig. 5), is intended to serve as a model to be introduce to the basin elements of hinterland flora tested and refined in the course of future research. (cf. Chaloner 1958), such as the saccate Florinites, During the Tournaisian, grey lacustrine beds are which accompanied the abundant permineralized widespread. The lakes are inferred to have ranged cordaite logs of the Boss Point Formation. Indeed, in water depth from relatively deep in the type the hinterland flora includes bisaccate of Horton Bluffs Formation, where hummocky cross- Gondwanan affinity (Dolby in press), and sand stratification indicates water depths below wave grain microtextures have even been cited as base (Martel & Gibling 1991 ), to shallow where on, evidence of local mountain glaciation (D'Orsay & Cape Breton Island for example, playa lake beds van de Poll 1985). The increase in 1;vcospora, exhibit calcrete and desiccation cracks (Hamblin & however, reflects the widespread development of Rust 1989); algal stromatolites are developed lepidodendrid peat-forming wetland ecosystems in locally. Oil shales of the Horton Bluff and neigh- the lowlands. Densopores sensu latu are relatively bouring Albert Mines formations occur within the rare in the Carboniferous of the Maritimes Basin in Vallatisporites vallutus spore zone (Utting 1987), a Nova Scotia (Neves & Belt 1970; Dolby in press, flora representative of the subtropical arid belt of pers. comm. 1997), in marked contrast to their southern Euramerica (Van der Zwan 1981). The abundance in coal-bearing strata in the Appalachian conchostracan fauna that occurs in strata of Basin (Eble 1996) and in Europe (Butterworth Tournaisian, early Namurian and Stephanian to 1966). Smith (1962) and Butterworth (1966) early Permian age is similar to extant ' shrimp' attributed the paucity of densospores to a precipi- fauna that can withstand prolonged periods of tation deficit, which is consistent with their relative desiccation, opportunistically inhabiting water- scarcity in the Maritimes Basin. stressed environments where ephemeral ponds Seasonality prevailed even during the most develop in prevailing dryland settings (Tasch humid periods when mires persisted, represented 1969). The Vis6an has long been held to represent a by rheotrophic to mesotrophic coal beds (Calder Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


1994; Calder et al. 1996), and climate shifts The Stephanian to early Permian trend of were experienced in the range of the Crowell- increasing aridity is mirrored across Euramerica, Milankovitch band at which time seasonality was with notable wetland refugia persisting in the more pronounced (Calder 1994), to the point that Hercynides and Cantabrians of western Europe and calcrete was developed (Tandon & Gibling 1994). in China (DiMichele & Phillips 1994). The Late The trophic status of coal can be used to infer the Carboniferous palaeoclimate change in Euramerica relative degree of dry seasonality within a humid to more arid conditions has been ascribed to climate: solely rain-fed, ombrotrophic, raised mires northward continental drift from an equatorial rainy require year-round distribution of precipitation, belt into a tropical climate belt (Rowley et al. 1985; whereas rheotrophic peats can be sustained through Bless et al. 1987, Cecil 1990, Calder & Gibling a short dry season by groundwater. The develop- 1994), and locally to development of orographic ment of calcrete during the Westphalian D, when rainshadows (Besly 1988). The assembly of the climate and glacioeustatic cycles also favoured Pangaea into a cross-equatorial landmass and the development of mesotrophic coals (Tandon & closure of latitudinal seaways may have had even Gibling 1994), inferred to tolerate only moderate greater palaeoclimatic impact (Rowley et al. 1985; dry seasons, serves to illustrate the point that Parrish 1992). Orographic effects of the rising palaeoclimate history should always be considered assembly of the Pangaean plates and consequent in terms of climate maxima and minima (see Cecil basin inversion and subsequent unroofing in the 1990; Perlmutter & Matthews 1989). Calcrete Maritimes-West-European province and global fall occurs in red beds coeval with coals from the in world ocean levels during the Permian also Langsettian/Westphalian A (Chandler 1995) to D contributed to the trend. The latest vestiges of peat (Tandon & Gibling 1994; Chandler 1995, 1997). accumulation and hydromorphic gleysols are found Evidence of Westphalian seasonality (Calder in the Cantabrian (Zodrow & Cleal 1985) fossil 1979; 1994; Calder et al. 1996; Chandler 1995, lepidodendrid forest atop the Point Aconi seam of 1997) perhaps is recorded most eloquently in the the Sydney Basin. Succeeding calcrete-bearing rhythmic alternation of siliciclastic and organic- vertisols (Chandler pers. comm. 1997), monso- rich laminae in lacustrine mudrocks (Kalkreuth et onally fed dryland river systems and xeric walchian al. 1990) and in the ubiquitous fusain clasts flora of the Cape John Formation, Pictou Group at throughout the 13.4 m thick Foord seam and other the Permo-Carboniferous boundary (Fig. 7d; coal beds, all of the Stellarton Basin. The fossil Calder et al. in press) serve to frame the end charcoal bears witness to a humid palaeoclimate Carboniferous palaeoclimate of Nova Scotia and with a pronounced dry season with recurring wild- the Maritimes Basin. fires ignited by lightning strikes, as in modern continental of the tropics (Lottes & Ziegler 1994). Vertisols with calcrete in coeval red beds of the Malagash Formation (Chandler 1997) bear Carboniferous mineral and energy similar palaeoclimatic testimony in areas of better deposits drainage (Naylor et al. 1989). This record of seasonality contrasts with inferences of a non- For more than two centuries, and since the first seasonal humid climate drawn from the palaeo- recorded export of minerals from Canada, from the botanical record elsewhere in Euramerica coal mines of Cape Breton to the Boston colonies in (Chaloner & Creber 1975; Phillips et al. 1985). 1720 (Brown 1871), the Carboniferous strata have Seasonality notwithstanding, across the Mid- proved to be the most important source of metallic, Namurian divide, the Westphalian clearly records industrial and energy minerals in Nova Scotia. The an abrupt shift to a more humid palaeoclimate (Fig. mineral resources of the Carboniferous strata can 4), suggesting a marked change in oceanic or be linked directly or indirectly to the genesis of the orographically influenced circulation patterns. The Carboniferous basin-fill. They can be categorized humid seasonal palaeoclimate of the Westphalian by their mode of occurrence within the basin-fill: Maritimes Basin was a harbinger of the developing (1) primary sedimentary (stratal) deposits Pangaean monsoon (Rowley et al. 1985; (Dinantian salt, limestone and rehydrated gypsum; Broadhurst 1988; Parrish 1992). The timing of Silesian rheotrophic to mesotrophic coal and oil monsoonal circulation in the Maritimes in com- shale; Carboniferous marine to terrestrial hydro- parison with other regions of Euramerica has carbon source rocks), which have proved to be the implications for modelling the effects of the most productive of the province's resources; (2) equatorial Appalachian-Caledonian, Mauritanide strata-bound deposits (lead, zinc, copper, silver; and Hercynide mountain belts on climate circu- liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons, including coal lation models for Euramerica (Parrish 1992; bed methane); (3) infracontact and intracontact Rowley et al. 1985). deposits, commonly at redox boundaries (copper, Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021

CARBONIFEROUS EVOLUTION OF NOVA SCOTIA 281 silver, uranium); (4) fracture-fill deposits (barium, reconsideration in light of the possible cryptic lead, zinc, silver, iron); and (5) physically derived inland signatures of marine transgressions sug- (palaeoplacer) deposits (gold). The disposition and gested here. Continental red bed copper- types of mineral deposits in the basin-fill are shown silver-uranium deposits in late Westphalian- in Fig. 8. Stephanian strata of the Cumberland Basin have The thermal evolution and burial history of the been ascribed to epigenetic reddening associated Maritimes Basin have determined the generation of with unroofing and aridity in the Permo-Triassic and base metal deposits. The source of (Ryan & Boehner 1994). As asserted earlier, heat flow has variously been ascribed to underlying however, the red beds of the Pictou Group are plutons, depth of burial or elevated heat flow inferred to record increasing aridity in the latest inherent within the Maritimes Basin (see Sangster Carboniferous and early Permian, which et al. 1998). Lead-zinc-barium deposits, which alternatively raises the possibility of earlier occur as strata-bound, replacement and fracture diagenetic processes, for example in rheotrophic fillings, are inferred to have been sourced from 'copper bogs' (Chandler 1997). basinal brine expulsion during the Carboniferous; Bituminous coal deposits of the Cumberland apatite fission track analysis places the expulsion as Group of Westphalian A-C age developed as earlier than 280Ma (Ryan & Zentilli 1993). areally restricted rheotrophic mires nourished Transpression and inversion associated with the through the dry season by supplemental ground- Mid-Carboniferous event in Nova Scotia may have water flow (Calder 1994) generated at piedmont initiated the movement of basinal brine. The source margins (Springhill coalfield: Calder 1994), in of these brines remains contentious. Geochemical distributary (Joggins coalfield: Calder 1994) and analysis of mine waters in the collieries of the lacustrine (Stellarton Basin: Calder 1979; Naylor et Sydney Basin provides evidence that marine al. 1989; Waldron 1996) settings during regional evaporative brines of probable Windsor Group transpression and transtension. Subsequent mire affinity are present at depth in Carboniferous strata development in the Westphalian D to Cantabrian (Martel et al. 1997). Metallogenic models for the may have attained a mesotrophic status if only continental formations of the Maritimes Basin through the increased, hence insular, area of the which were developed on the strength of peatlands on coastal plains during thermal sag consistently terrestrial conditions (van de Poll (Hacquebard & Donaldson 1969; Gibling & Bird 1978; Sangster & Vaillancourt 1990) may warrant 1994; Marchioni et al. 1994; Calder et al. 1996).

Fig. 8. Schematic representation of the occurrence of mineral and energy deposits in the Carboniferous basin-fill of Nova Scotia. Base metals disposition modified from Ryan and Boehner (1994). Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


The latter coal deposits constitute the main 9); the same observation can be made for Europe economic seams of Nova Scotia, mined in collieries and for North America, and in these cases, the story of the Sydney Basin. as recorded in Nova Scotia is significant. Salient With few exceptions (Utting & Hamblin 1991), points of the palaeogeography and evolution of the strata of the Maritimes Basin at surface lie Euramerica arising from this study of the everywhere within the oil or gas windows, with R 0 Carboniferous evolution of Nova Scotia are (vitrinite reflectance) at surface ranging from 0.4 discussed below. where suppressed by liquid hydrocarbons (Mukhophadyay et al. 1991) to >2 (Hacquebard & Donaldson 1970; Ryan & Boehner 1994). Oil seeps Implications for the tectonic histo~ of occur at present (Bell 1958; Short 1986), even though the apatite fission track record indicates that circum-Atlantic Euramerica the oil window was attained early in the basin's The Carboniferous evolution of Nova Scotia serves history, before 250 Ma (Grist et al. 1995). to corroborate or weigh against tectonic interpre- Kinematic research into coal bed methane tations for the Appalachians of the generation indicates that gas desorption in coal and for western Europe. The Namurian transpres- beds of R 0 <0.9 may be impeded by micropore sive event and subsequent changeover to a trans- blockage by earlier generated oil, but enhanced current regime in the Maritimes records the above that maturity by cracking of the oil Variscan orogeny in the west of the Maritimes- (Mukhopadhyay et al. 1993). In all basins, rank West-European province and is consistent with increases with depth of burial (Hacquebard & Alleghenian thrusting in the Appalachians (Nance Donaldson 1970). Hydrocarbon source rocks 1987; Gibling 1995; Rehill 1996). This Mid- include sapropelic shales of the MacAdam Lake Carboniferous event in Nova Scotia is coeval with Formation and Horton Group, widespread organic- the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity rich carbonate laminites of the Windsor Group, and west of the Appalachian Mountains. The trans- sapropelic shales, sapropelic and humic coals, and pression in Nova Scotia at this time lends support to basin-wide, organic-rich bivalve-bearing lime- the role of tectonic inversion in the development of stones and shales, all of the Cumberland Group. the unconformity (Ettensohn & Chesnut 1989) New models of hydrocarbon generation in Nova rather than to eustasy alone (Saunders & Scotia should incorporate the different thermal and Ramsbottom 1986). These events in Euramerica structural histories of Horton, Windsor and Mabou and coincident inversion and volcanism in strata before the Mid-Carboniferous event, and Gondwana (Gonzalez-Bonorino & Eyles 1995) Cumberland and Pictou strata thereafter, and should mark the global convergence of plates and consider possible cryptic marine transgressions assembly of Pangaea. within groups traditionally described as In Nova Scotia, the distensional period of rifting 'nonmarine'. had ended by the Westphalian and so does not Gypsum, as rehydrated anhydrite (Bell 1929; D. accord with widespread extension and rifting Shearman pers. comm. 1997), forms thick, areally across the Maritimes-West-European province extensive deposits across much of the Maritimes subsequently in the Silesian (Hazeldine 1984). Basin. The open-pit operations are the largest in the Rather, it lends credence to continued linkage of world (Adams 1991). Halite, which together with transcurrent tectonism in western Europe with that potash is unrepresented in outcrop due to solubility in the Maritimes (Matte 1986; Leeder 1988a) as in the present humid climate, was discovered in plates continued to reorganize in eastern Nova Scotia only in 1917, at Malagash, Euramerica to accommodate Gondwana. Cumberland Basin (Bell 1929). This deposit in the Cumberland Basin subsequently became the location of Canada's first underground salt mine Silesian Appalachian drainage divide (Bell 1929 1944); mining continues in the basin from salt-cored halokinetic anticlines that parallel Palaeoflow compilations from the Appalachian basement faults (Boehner 1986). Basin (Archer & Greb 1995) and from the Maritimes Basin (Gibling et al. 1992) have determined that prevailing drainage was to the east The Carboniferous : across the Maritimes Basin during the Silesian and to the west through the Appalachian Basin. The implications for Euramerican studies Appalachian Basin study, however, infers that The Carboniferous history of Nova Scotia can be drainage was sourced in part in the Maritimes understood fully only by considering it in the basinal area, which clearly could not have been the context of the regional history of Euramerica (Fig. case, with the possible exception of during the Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


<~, '~'~'J,,;, 7-4 ... "-. ~ ~\.._i -~ v.3 j) o 'X"'-

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Fig. 9. Nova Scotia in the context of equatorial Euramerica during the Carboniferous (Silesian). Base map is that used by Hazeldine (1984) and Williams (1984). Palaeoflow after Archer and Greb (1995) for the Appalcahian Basin, Gibling et al. (1992) for the Maritimes Basin, and Leeder (1988b, 1992) for western Europe. Western European Carboniferous Basin outline after Maynard et aL (1997). Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021

284 J.H. CALDER period of inversion attending the Mid-Carbon- been inferred to have fed into the Rheo-Hercynian iferous event. The Maritimes Basin lay to the Ocean (Gibling et al. 1992); however, the Rheic palaeosoutheast of the orogen, whereas the purportedly had closed by that time (Leeder 1988a; Appalachian Basin lay to the palaeonorthwest (Fig. Maynard et al. 1997). A thick succession of 9). Opposing palaeoflow directions suggest the Dinantian and Silesian strata in the Porcupine Basin existence of an Appalchian Divide during the west of at the westernmost remnant of Silesian (Gibling et al. 1992; Rehill 1996) with the European plate contains marine strata of reversed polarity of basins about the position of the Westphalian A age and a record of marine trans- New York Promontory / Pennsylvania Embayment. gressions through the Stephanian (Tate & Dobson 1989). This evidence of a Mid-Euramerican Sea is supported by recurring marine transgressions from the southwest across the British Isles until the The Mid-Euramerican Sea Westphalian C (Ramsbottom 1977), and by Circumstantial evidence points to the existence of a westerly derived marine influence across the Mid-Euramerican Sea between the Maritimes Basin Western European Carboniferous Basin, from and western Europe during the Carboniferous (Fig. Poland and Germany to the British Isles (Maynard 9). The presence of an intervening deep oceanic et al. 1997). realm which acted as a barrier to benthonic species exchange in the Visran was hypothesized by Jansa et al. (1978) and Jansa & Mamet (1984). The Phytogeographic implications for invertebrate macrofauna (Bell 1929) and ostracode Euramerican correlations fauna (Dewey 1989), however, show affinity to western European fauna of similar environ- Although the stage boundaries of the Carbon- ments, and such as iferous, with the notable exception of the transatlanticus permit cross Maritimes-West- Westphalian D, have been established largely on European correlation (Von Bitter & Austin 1984). the strength of faunal zones, these seldom The Silesian pelecypod fauna of Nova Scotia coincide with major floral breaks (Wagner 1984). demonstrates a close affinity to western Europe, In the Maritimes Basin where are absent, suggesting a palaeooceanic link between the two this situation is exacerbated by phytogeogeographic areas and an Appalachian barrier to the west (Vasey differences from other Euramerican regions. The 1984). It has been proposed that the Mid- recognition of the Namurian-Westphalian bound- Euramerican Sea persisted through the Dinantian ary in Nova Scotia is a case in point. Few floral and Silesian and may have been one of the last extinctions or appearances occur across this bound- remaining between the closing continents of ary, which is defined by the basal Westphalian Gondwana and the Old Red Continent, representing subcrenatum goniatite band in Europe either a part of the Phoibic Ocean (McKerrow & (Ramsbottom et al. 1978). Index miospores used to Ziegler 1972) or Proto-Tethys (Leeder 1988b) or recognize the base of the Westphalian elsewhere in their vestige (W. S. McKerrow, pers. comm. 1997). Euramerica (Clayton et aL 1977; Maynard et al. Marine connections with the Boreal Sea may have 1997) include densospores sensu Iatu (including the been possible via rifted basins in the area of related crassicingulate genera Densosporites, Svalbard and Greenland (Stemmerik et al. 1991; Cristatisporites and Radiizonites; DiMichele & Rehill 1996), although faunal and palaeogeo- Phillips 1994) produced by the subarboreous graphic trends favour a cross-Maritimes-West lycopsid Bodeodendron (Sporangiostrobus) European connection. Less certain is whether the (Wagner 1989), and Endosporites produced by the ocean was connected with the southern diminutive lycopsid Chaloneria (Polysporia). The Appalachian Basin by a seaway between the subarboreous lycopsids, and densospores and their converging African and North American cratons, parent plant in particular, are rare in the fossil which would have become increasingly restricted if record of Nova Scotia and may have been not closed during Alleghenian-Mauritainide environmentally excluded, as discussed earlier. The orogenesis. biostratigraphy of the prevailingly continental River drainage through the Maritimes Basin Maritimes Basin in Nova Scotia, perhaps more so during the Silesian period of transcurrent move- than elsewhere in Euramerica, must be interpreted ment followed the northeast structural grain of in the light of its regional palaeoenvironment and intervening basins and massifs to a common provincialism. The faunal record, even with its destination with the system draining southwest- affinity to western Europe, nonetheless requires ward across the Pennine Basin (Leeder 1988b)- similar interpretation, specifically with respect to inferred to have been the Mid-Euramerican Sea. the aquatic spectrum from open marine to Palaeoflow from the Maritimes Basin earlier had nearshore and inland communities. Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


Condusions existence of such a sea during the Carboniferous has attendant implications for cross-Maritimes- Doubtless, we are biased in our perceptions of West-European correlations of sea-level change. Carboniferous Euramerica by the configuration of Although open marine conditions occurred only the modern world and by geopolitical boundaries. during the mid to late Vis6an, the signature of The Carboniferous of Nova Scotia, though adjacent transgression and regression should be variably to the northern Appalachian orogen, nonetheless discernible throughout much of the Carboniferous represents part of the Maritime-West-European basin-fill. Traditional interpretation of the basin-fill palaeogeographic province of tropical Euramerica, simply in terms of marine or 'nonmarine' is too albeit with an intervening Carboniferous sea. It restrictive. It is better to consider the palaeogeo- shares many attributes with Europe, including graphic gradient from open marine to nearshore and elements of its tectonic history and fossil fauna and inland, which may be identified through careful flora, as described more than a century ago by Lyell reconsideration of the faunal record, even within (1845 and others) and by Dawson (1888 and earlier the prevailingly continental, inland strata of Nova works). The Carboniferous history in Nova Scotia Scotia. A particular challenge, however, will be to of distension, transpression, thermal sag and discern brackish water caused by evaporation and inversion links the tectonic history of the contraction of lakes from the most inland Alleghanian orogeny in North America and the expressions of a transgressing sea. This approach Variscan-Hercynian orogeny in western Europe. will have implications for modelling not only the The Mid-Carboniferous Break marks the most basin-fill of the Maritimes but also its mineral and profound period of change in the evolution of the energy deposits. Strata-bound base metal and Carboniferous of Nova Scotia; the tectonic and hydrocarbon models that have had to assume palaeoclimatic changes experienced across this consistently continental conditions for groups other equivocally dated interval are linked to global plate than the Windsor in particular stand to profit from tectonics, and in particular, to Appalachian such a re-examination of basin modelling. The orogenesis. Mid-Carboniferous Break, which links the tectonic The palaeoclimate record of the Silesian stands evolution of Euramerica to the west and east in the Nova Scotia apart from the nonseasonal humid Namurian, must also be considered in the develop- palaeoclimate inferred for Euramerica and suggests ment of hydrocarbon and base metal models for that Nova Scotia may have experienced seasonal Nova Scotia. rainshadow effects, presumably as a consequence To achieve these ends, the collaboration of of its intermontane palaeogeography. The record of European and North American geologists with cycles of duration, largely within the Crowell- those of Nova Scotia, so profitable during the time Milankovitch band, is superimposed on the longer- of Sir Charles Lyell, is required. In so doing, we term evolution from marine to continental strata will continue to loosen Lyell's 'Gordian knot' as it (Fig. 6). Carbonate-sulfate cycles of the Vis6an pertains to Euramerican Carboniferous geology. probably represent semiarid marine equivalents of seasonally humid continental coal-bearing The concepts of this paper draw on the distillation of cyclothemic stratal successions of Westphalian published research by many Carboniferous workers, and coastal plains (Gibling & Bird 1994) and alluvial discussions during the past 20 years with my colleagues in valley piedmonts (Calder 1994), as hypothesized Nova Scotia and abroad. The research for this paper has by Schenk (1969 p. 1060). Intermediate between been supported by the Nova Scotia Department of Natural these end members are the predominantly Resources. Graham Dolby and John Utting were most open in sharing their wealth of experience in the palyno- continental, schizohaline late Vis6an to mid- stratigraphy of Nova Scotia. The faunal compilation Namurian cycles of the Mabou Group (Belt 1968b; would not have been possible without the generous and Crawford 1995), in which the marine record may open collaboration of Andrew Milner and Reg Moore. yet be discerned. All are primarily allocyclic, Jean Dougherty and David Lewis are thanked for driven most probably by orbitally induced climate graciously supplying photographs of specimens in the change as it affected global glacioeustacy (Veevers collections of the GSC and NHM, respectively. The & Powell 1987) and local climate change (Calder Gyracanthus spine (Fig. 6a) was discovered in 1997 by 1994), although tectonic causes have long been Brian Hebert. The incisive reviews by E. S. Belt and M. proposed for the 'nonmarine' strata. R. Gibling and generous insightful discussions with Bob Boehner, Fred Chandler, Sarah Davies, Howard Falcon- Of the great river systems that drained the Lang, Peter Giles, David Piper, Paul Schenk, John Maritimes-West-European province during the Waldron and Erwin Zodrow provided welcome Silesian, two drained eastwards through the improvement to the breadth of the paper. Many thanks to interconnected Maritimes basins and southwest- Patricia Fraser and Janet Webster for drafting the figures, ward across the Pennine Basin towards a common and to Tracey Lenfesty for her literature searches. I am destination, the Mid-Euramerican Sea. The grateful for the invitation and financial support of the Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021

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Appendix A. The Carboniferous fauna of Nova Scotia Systematic taxonomy for many of these groups in the fossil record is problematic and many variations exist on the structure of the compilation presented here. Stratigraphic occurrence: Horton Group [HI; Windsor group [W]; Mabou Group [M], with formations: Point Edward [Mpe], Grand Etang [Mge], West Bay [Mwb]; Cumberland Group, sensu Ryan et al. (1991) [C], with formations: Joggins [Cj], Parrsboro [Cp], Port Hood [Cph], Springhill Mines [Csp], Stellarton [Cs], Mabou Mines [Cmm], Sydney Mines [Csm]; Pictou Group red beds [P], with formation: Cape John [Pcj]. Primary sources: Baird (1978); Bell (1929, 1944, 1960); Carroll et al. (1972); Copeland (1957); Dawson (1855 and others); Gardiner (1966); J. Kukulova-Peck (pers. comm. 1994); Mamet (1970); Masson & Rust (1984); A. Milner (pers. comm. 1994, 1995); R.G. Moore (unpublished data, pers. comm. 1997); Moore & Ryan (1976); A. C. Scott (pers. comm. 1996); Tibert (1996); Von Bitter (1976); Wightman et aL (1993); Zodrow & Hitchcock (unpublished, 1995); and Calder (this study).

Phylum Protista (single-celled organisms) N. parvus regularis [W] Sarcodina Palaeotextularia consobrina [W] Order Foraminifera P aft. P longiseptata [W] Suborder Textularidae (agglutinated) P asper [W] Trochammina sp. [H, Cc, Csm] P dagmarae [W] Ammobaculites sp. [H, Cc, Csm] Parathurammina sp. [W] Ammodiscus sp. [H,W] Pseudoendothyra aff. P ornata [W] Ammotium sp. [H, Cc, Csm] Pseudoglomospira spp. [W] Suborder Miliolina P infinitesima [W] Cornuspira sp. [W] ?Saccaminopsis sp. [W] Suborder Textulariina Tetrataxis aft. T. angusta [W] Ammovertella sp. [W] T. aft. T. conica [W] Pseudoammodiscus volgensis [W] T. aft. T. eominima [W] Trepeilopsis sp. [W] T. aft. T. maxima [W] Suborder Fusulinina Tuberitina sp. [W] Archaediscus sp. [W] Incertae sedis A. krestovnikovi [W] Calcisphaera sp. [W] A. koktjubensis [W] C. laevis [W] A. infantis [W] C. pachysphaerica [W] A. aft. A. moelleri [W] Diplosphaerina sp. [W] A. aft. A. chernoussovensis [W] Koskinobigerina spp. [W] Archaesphaera (Vicinesphaera) sp. [W] Koskinotextularia sp. [W] Asteroarchaediscus baschkiricus [W] Planospirodiscus gregorii [W] Biseriammina ? windsorensis [W] P minimus [W] Brunsia sp. [W] Radiosphaera sp. [W] Climacammina aft. C. patula [W] Zellerina spp. [W] C. aft. C. prisca [W] Zellerina discoidea [W] Cribostomum sp. [W] Class Arcellinida (thecamoebians) aft. E. clavatula [W] Order Arcellinida E. aft. E. elegans [W] cfCentropxsis sp. [H, Csm] E. aft. E. vulgaris [W] ?Diffiugia sp. [H] Endothyra bowmani [W] cf Nebela sp. [Csm] E. obsoleta [W] E. excentralis [W] Phylum Conodonta E. aft. E. prisca [W] Apatognathus ? spp. [W] E. af. E. similis [W] Bispathodus spp. [W] EndothyraneIla sp. [W] windsorensis [W] Endothyranopsis compressa [W] C. aft. C. regularis - C. unicornis [W] E. crassa [W] Ellisonia spp. [W] E. sphaerica [W] bilineatus [W] Eoendothyranopsis aft. E. pressa - E. tara [W] G. girtyi intermedius [W] E. aft. E. ermakiensis [W] G. scotiaensis [W] Eostaffela ? discoidea [W] cristulus [W] E. [W] H. parva [W] Globoendothyra globulus [W] Kladognathus tenuis [W] ?Haplophragmella sp. [W] Mestognathus spp. [W] ?Haplophragmina sp. [W] Spathognathus campbelli [W] lrregularina sp. [W] S. cristatus [W] Mikhailovella sp. [W] S. scitulus [W] Neoarchaediscus grandis [W] S. sp. [W] Neoarchaediscus sp. [W] Taphrognathus sp. [W] N. incertus [W] T. transatlanticus [W] Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


Vogelgnathus campbelli [W] Fenestrellina () yelli [W] V. pesaquidi [W] Polypora schucherti [W] V. dhindsai [W] Septopora primitiva [W] V. postcampbelli [W] Order Trepostomata Anisoto'pa sp. [W] Phylum Annelida (segmented worms) Tabulipora acadica [W] Class Polychaeta Stenopora sp. [W] Serpula annulata [W] Order Halloprina S. caperatus [W] Batostomaella abrupta [W] S. hartii [W] B. exilis [W] avonensis [H] Order Ctenostomata S. carbonarius [C] Eliasopora spp. [W] ?S. arietina [C] Scolecodonts Phylum Echinodermata Anisocerasites spp. [W] Class Echinoidea (sea urchins) Arabellites spp. [W] Cravenechinus spp. [W] Diopatraites spp. [W] Proterocidaris spp. [W] Eunicites spp. [W] ? spp. [W] Lumbriconcereites spp. [W] Class Crinoidea () Staurocephalites spp. [W] indet, columnals, plates [W] Stauronereisites spp. [W] Class Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) Ungulites spp. [W] 2 genera, 3 species [W]

Phylum Porifera Phylum Brachiopoda Belemnospongia sp. [W] Class Inarticulata Order Phylum Orbiculoidea limata [W] Class (corals) [W] Chaetetes spp. [W] C. brookfieldensis [W] Order Rugosa Class Bothrophyllum sp. [W] Order juddi [W] Beecheria davidsoni [W] Corwenia sp. [W] B. v. latum [W] Clisiophyllum (Dibunophyllum) billingsi [W] B. v. mesaplanum [W] Dibunophyllum lambii [W] B. v. milviformis [W] Diphyphyllum sp. [W] B. (Dielasma) sp. [W] Enniskillenia enniskilleni Cranaena tumida [W] (=Zaphrenitis minas) [W] Hartella dielasmoidea [W] Lonsdaleia floriformis [W] H. parva [W] L. pictoense [W] Romingerina anna [W] Koninckophyllum (Lophophylum) avonensis [W] Tornquistia polita ( = politus ) [W] K. (Lophophyllum) interruptum [W] Order K. cf. OO-[W] Avonia spinocardinata [W] Lithostrotion pauciradiale [W] Buxtonia cogmagunensis [W] L. proliferum [W] Diaphragmus ( Productus ) avonensis [W] L. aft. scoticum [W] D. tenuicostiformis [W] Thysanophyllum cf. orientale [W] Dictyoclostus ( Productus ) subfasciculatus [W] Order Tabulata Echinoconchus exigunus Cladochonus sp. [W] (=Pustula ) [W] Pseudoromingeria sp. [W] Ovatia (Productus) dawsoni [W] sp. [W] O. (Productus) lyelli [W] O. (Productus) semicubicula [W] ?Phylum Protoniella baddeckensis [W] Paraconularia (Conularia) planicostata [W] P. beedii [W] P. sorrocula [W] Rugosochonetes aft. hindi [W] Schellwienella kennetcookensis [W] Phylum Schuchertella pictoense [W] Class Gymnolaemata Semiplanus aft. latissimus [W] Incertae sedis Spinulicosta ( Productella ) baddeckensis [W] Paleocrisidia (Nodosinella) priscilla [W] Order Order Allorhyncus hartti [W] sp. [W] a. macra [W] Streblot~pa biformata [W] A. ramosum [W] Order acadiansis [W] Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


C. [W] Bucanopsis beedii [W] Pugnax dawsonianus [W] Subclass Prosobranchia P. dawsonianus v. magdalena [W] Order Pugnoides sp. [W] Aclisi(n?)a acutula [W] Streptorhyncus cf. minutum [W] Anematina () cf. proutana [W] Order Cyclonema ?subangulatu [W] Ambocoelia acadica [W] Euphemites cf. urei [W] Composita dawsoni [W] Euomaphalus exortivus [W] C. obligata [W] Mourlonia sp. [W] C. strigata [W] Murchisonia gypsea [W] C. windsorensis [W] hartii [W] Gigantoproductus giganteus [W] N. howi [W] Martinia galatea [W] Plaryschisma ?dubium [W] M. thetis [W] Pseudophorus (Flemingia) dispersa [W] Punctospirifer ( ) octoplicata [W] P minuta [W] P (Spiriferina) verneuli [W] Stegocoelia abrupta [W] adonis [W] S. compactoidea [W] S. nox [W] Straparollus minutus [W] longi [W] Phylum Moilusca Order '' Class Pelecypoda (bivalves: ) Bulimorpha maxneri [W] ?Carbonicola angulata [Mpe, wb] Pseudozygopleura () ?cara [W] ??Carbonicola bradorica [W, Mh, pq] Subclass () (land snails) Carbonita sp. [Csm] Order Order Paleoconcha Dendropupa vetusta [Cj] Edmondia hartti [W] Pupa bigsbii [Cj] E. rudis [W] Incertae sedis Sanguinolites [W] Zonites priscus [Cj] S. parvus [W] Class Cephalopoda S. striatogranulatus [W] Subclass Nautiloidea Order Taxodonta Order Grammatodon (P arallelidon ) dawsoni [W] Diodoceras avonensis [W] G. (Parallelidon) hartingi [W] Stroboceras hartti [W] Order Schizodonta Order Michelinoceroidea/ chevierensis [W] Campyloceras cf. C. unguis [W] S. depressus [W] Hemidolorthoceras belli [W] Order Dysodonta (Mytilacea) H. windsorensis [W] Anthraconauta phillipsii [Csm] Kionoceras spp. [W] lyelli [W] ( ) vindobonense [W] A. lyelliformis [W] Mitorthoceras sp. [W] A. subquadratus [W] Mooreoceras aft. M. hindei [W] Bakewellia shubenacadiensis [W] Pseudorthoceras knoxense [W] Curvirimula ?ovalis [Cp] Order C. sp [C] Poterioceras sp. [W] Leptodesma acadica [W] L. borealis [W] Phylum Arthropoda (jointed-leg ) L. dawsoni [W] SuperClass Trilobitomorpha (Lithophagus ) poolii [W] Class Trilobita Modiolus dawsoni [W] Order Opisthoparia/Polymerida M. hartti [W] Paladin (Phillipsia) eichwaldi [W] Naiadites carbonarius [Cp] Superclass Crustacea N. longus [C] Class Ostracoda Pteronites gayensis [W] Order Palaeocopida Spathella insecta [W] Amphisites sp. aft. A. centronotus [W] Streblopteria (Pseudamusium ) debertianum [W] Beryichiopsis cornuta [W] S. (Pseudamusium) simplex [W] B. ophota [W, M] Order Heterodonta Copelandella (Hollinella) novascotica [H,W] Cypricardella acadica [W] Glyptopleura parvacostata [W] Scaldia fletcheri [W] G. elephanta [W] S. fundiensis [W] 'Gortanella' sp. [W] Class (snails) Kirkbya novascotica [W] Subclass Amphigastropoda Paraparchites gibbus [W] Order Bellerophontida P. inornatus [W] sp. [W] P okeni [W] Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


P. scotoburdigalensis [W] C. (Euestheria) dawsoni [M] Pseudoparaparchites ensigner [W] C. (Euestheria) lirella [HI Sansabella carbonaria [C] C. (Euestheria) raymondi [?M] S. reversa [C] ?C. (Lioestheria) simoni [?M] Youngiella sp. [H] C. (Lioestheria) striata [M,Cs] Order Cycletherioides blackstonensis [M] Acrat(a) acuta [W] Palaeolimnadiopsis pruvoti [?C] Bairdia brevis [W] ?Order B. pruniseminata [HI Lynceites cansoensis [M] Bairdiacypris quartziana [W] Class (soft-shelled: etc.) B. striatiformis [H] Superorder Eocarida Bythocypris aequalis [W] Order Carbonita agnes [C] Pygocephalus (Anthrapalaemon ) dubius (hillianus) C. altilis [C] (=Diploso'lus dawsoni) [Cj, p, spm, , mm] C. elongata [C] P. cooperi [?Mwb, Cp] C. fabulina [M, C, c, s, m, sm, P?] Pseudotealliocaris caudafimbriata [Mm] C. inflata [Cm, sm, Ppei] P. belli (=Tealliocaris barathrota) [Mm, wb] C. pungens [C] Order Eocaridacea Carbonita rankiniana Anthracophausia sp. cf. dunsiana [M] (= salteriana) [H,C] ?Superorder Syncarida C. scalpellus (=C. cf. subula ) [H, Csm, P] Paleocaris cf. t3'pus [Cs] C. secans [C] Incertae sedis Chamisella suborbiculata [W] Dithyrocaris glabradoides [M] Chamishaella sp. [H] Superclass (pincer-bearing) Gutschickia ninevehensis [ C] Class Merostomata G. bretonensis [C] Order Xiphosurida (sword-tailed: horseshoe etc.) Healdianella sp. [W] Belinurus reginae [Mwb, Cp, rv] Hilboldtina evelinae [C] B. grandaevus [Mwb, C] H rugulosa [C] Euproops cf. danae [Mmar, ?C] Monoceratina youngiana [W] E. amiae [C?s,sm] ?Paraparchites okeni [M] E. sp. [HI P. sp. aft. P. kelletae [W] Subclass Eurypterida (wing-like legs) Paraparchites sp. [HI Eur?,,pterus brsadorensis [Csm] Shemonaella (P araparchites ) scotoburdi galensis indet, cuticle, cf Hibbertopterus/Mycterops [Cj] ( =Limnoprimitia hortenensis ) [H,W] Dunsopterus sp. [Mge] S. tatei [H] Class Arachnida (, ) Sishaella moreyi [W] Order Anthracomartida Sulcella levisulcata [W] Coryphomartus triangularis [?Cj] Order Platycopida Order Phrynichida (whip spiders) Cavellina ?lovatica [H] Graeophonus carbonarius Geisina sp. [H] (=Libellula carbonaria) [Cj, c, sm] Order Myodocopida Order Scorpionida ?Cypridina acadica [W] Eoscorpius sp. [?Cs] Polycope spinula [W] indet, cuticle [Cj] Class Branchiopoda Superclass Order Conchostraca (clam shrimps) Class Diplopoda () Paraleaia leidyi (=Leaia leidyi) [M] Order Eurysterna/ Leaia baentschiana [M, ?C] Xyloiulus (Xylobius) sigillariae [Cj] L. tricarinata [M,C] Incertae sedis L silurica [M,CI,p] Archiulus xylobioides [Cj] L (Eoleaia) laevicostata [HI Order Amynilyspedida L (Eoloeaia) leaiaformis [HI Amynilyspes springhillensis [Cj, sp] L. laevis [C-P] lncertae sedis L. acutangularis [M] Arthropleurida 1 L. acutilirata [M] Arthropleura sp. [Cj, Pcj] L. magnacostata [Cp] Superclass L. elongata [C] Class Insecta L. sp. [HI Subclass (winged ) L. sp. [P] Infraclass Monoliolophus ( conemaughensis ) Order unicostatus [C] Megasecoptera incertae familiae [C] Asmussia alta [H, C1, s] Brodioptera cumberlandensis [C] A. tenalla [C, P] B. amiae [?M] Cyzicus (Euestheria) belli [H] Order Protodonata Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


Meganeura sp. [?Csm] Rhizodus hardingi [H, Cs] Order R. lancifer [H, Cs] Palaeodictyoptera incertae sedis [?Csm] Suborder Coelacanthini Infraclass Coelacanthus sp. [?Cm] Order Blattaria ?Rhabdoderma sp. [Csm] Archimylacris ?acadica [Cs] (indet. scales) [Cj] Archimylacris moriensis [Csm] Superfamily Dipnoi (lungfish) A. sp. [Cs] sp. [?HI Hemimylacris sp. [Cs] Ctenodus cristatus [Mge] 'Blattoidea' carri [Csm] C. murchisoni [Csm] 'Blattoidea' schchertiana [Csm] Monongahela stenodonta [Csm] ?Phylloblatta sp. [Cs] Sagenodus cristatus [Cj] ?Order Mixotermitoidea S. sp [Mpe, ge, Csm] Geroneura wilsoni [CI] S. plicatus nomen vanum [Cj] Superclass Tetrapoda Phylum Chordata lncertae sedis, nomen vanum Subphylum Vertebrata Novascoticus (Itylonomus ) multidens [Cj] Superclass Pisces Hvlonomus ociedentatus Class Acanthodii (= Smilerpeton aciedentatum) [Cj] Incertae sedis Hvlonomus wymani [Cj] Gyracanthidae Class Amphibia Gyracanthus duplicatus [H, M, Cj, p, ph] Subclass Batrachomorpha (true ) G, magnificus [M] Order Class Chondrichtyes (cartilaginous fishes) Temnospondyli incertae sedis [Cp] (sharks) Dendrerpeton acadianum Order Symmoriida (--D. oweni, Pla~stegos loricatum, Stethacanthus sp. [H] Dendryazousa dikella) [Cj] Order Dendrepeton helogenes acinaces [Cs] (=Dendo,sekos helogenes) [Cj] X. penetrans [Cs] Denderpeton sp. nov. [Cj] X. sp. [Cj, s, sm] Spathicephalus pereger [Mpe] Oracanthus sp. [W] Cochleosauridae incertae sedis [Cj, Csm] sp. [Csm] Order (Lysoropha) Order Archerpeton anthracos [Cj] Ctenacanthus sp. [?H, M, C] Asaphestera (14ylerpeton) intermedium [Cj] Order Petatodontiformes (?ray-like fishes) Hylerpeton dawsoni Ctenoptychius cristatus [Cj] (= Amblydon problematicum) [Cj] Incertae sedis Leiocephalikon problematicum ( Callopristodus ) pectinatus [Cj] (?=Trachystegos ) [Cj] Class Osteichthyes (bony fishes) ?Ricnodon sp. [Cj] Subclass (ray-finned fishes) Subclass Reptiliomorpha Order Palaeonisciformes Order (Embolomeri) ' hortonensis' [H] Baphetes planiceps [Cs] Amblypterus sp. [Csm] 'B'. [Cj] modulus [HI Caltigenethlon watsoni [Cj] Elonichthys sp. [H] Carbonoherpeton sp. [Csm] ?Gyrolepsis sp.[Csm] ' ' bretonense [Mpe] Haplolepis cf. corrugata [C] Seymouriamorpha incertae sedis [H] H. (Parahaplolepis) canadensis [Cp] ('Eosaurus acadiensis'= exotic ?) Palaeoniscus sp. [Csm] Class Reptilia indet, palaeoniscid [W, Csm] Subclass Anapsida Subclass (lobe fins) Order Captorhinomorpha (protorothyrids and [Order Actinistia] captorhinids) Order Crossopterygii Romeriscus periallus [Cph] Megaliehthys hibberti Itylonomus lyelli ( =Psammodus bretonensis) [?Cph] (=Fritschia curtidentata) [Cj] Megalichthys sp. [Mpe, Cj, p, sm] [Csm] Rhadinichthys sp. [H, Cj] Subclass Synapsida Rhizodopsis/Strepsodus sp. [H, Mpe, ge, Cj, sm] Order Pelycosauria Rhizodopsis (Strepsodus) dawsoni [Cj] Protoclepsvdrops haplous [Cj] Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


Appendix B. Carboniferous fossil flora of Nova Scotia Principal sources: Bell (1929, 1940, 1944), Calder et al. (1996), W. G. Chaloner (pers. comm. 1995), Lyons et al. (1997), A. C. Scott (pers. comm. 1994-1996), Zodrow & Gao (1991), Zodrow & Cleal (1985), Zodrow & McCandlish (1980); and Calder (this study). Stratigraphic occurrence: H = Horton Group; W = Windsor Group; M = Mabou Group; C = Cumberland Group sensu stricto; CR = Riversdale Series of Cumberland Group; CS = Stellarton Series of Cumberland Group; CM = Morien Series of Pictou Group. 'r' denotes rare occurrence.

Kingdom Piantae L. lanceolatum [CR, C, CS, CM] L. majus [C] Division Bryophyta L. cf. mintoensis [CM] Class Hepaticaea (liverworts) L. moyseyi [CM] Marchenites sp. [CM] L. triangulare [CM] Division Tracheophyta Lepidostrobus variabilis [CR, CM] Class Lycopsida (club and relatives) L. hydei [M] Order Protolepidodendrales L. olryi [CR, C] Lepidodendropsis corrugatum [H] Sellaginites gutbieri [CM] Order (trees with stigmarian rootstock) Sigillariostrobus ? crdpini [CM] Stem genera Class Sphenopsida Asolanus camptolaenia [CM] Order *Bothrodendron cf. minutifolium [CM] Foliar genera *B. cf. punctatum [C] Leeites oblongifolis [CM] Diaphorodendron (Lepidodendron ) cuneifolium [CR, C, CM] scleroticum [CM] S. emarginatum [CM] Lepidocarpon lomaxii [CS] S. majus [CM] Lepidodendron aculeatum [C, CM] S. myriophyllum [rCM] L. bretonense [CM] *S. oblongifolium forma trizygia [CM] L. dawsoni [CM] S. trichomatosum [CM] L. dichotomum var. bretonensis [C, CS, CM] Order L. jaraczewskii [C] Stem genera L. lanceolatum [CR, C, CM] Asterocalamites scrobiculatus [H, M] L. lycopodioides [CM] carinatus [CM] L. obovatum [C] C. cisti [C] L. ophiurus [CS, CM] C. (Mesocalamites) cistiiformis [M] L. praelanceolatum [M] C. discifer [CM] L. pictoense [CR, CM] C. extensus [CR] L. rimosum [C] C, multiramis [CM] L. wortheni [C, CM] C, paniculata [C] Lepidophloios laricinus [CR, CM] C, ramosus [CR, C, CM] Paralycopodites brevifolius [CS] C, suckowi [CR, C, CM] (=Ulodendron majus [C, CM]) C. undulatus [CR, CM] boblayi [CM] C. of varians group [C] S. cf. brardi [CM] C. waldenburgensis [CM] S. elegans [C] Calamostachys germanica [C, CM] S. cf. elegans [CM] C. of varians group [C] S. fundiensis [C] C. paniculata [C] S. laevigata [C, CM] Nematophyllum sp. [H] S. lorwayana [CM] Root genera S. mammillaris [C] *Pinnularia sp. [CR, C, CM] S. ovata [CS] Foliar genera S. reticulata? [C] acicularis [CR, C] S. scutellata [C] A. aculeata [CR, C] S. tessellata [CM] A. asteris [C] S. tessellata var. eminens [CM] A. latifolia [C] Root genera A. mucronata [CM] S tigmariaficoides [CR, C, CS, CM] A. radiata [C, CM] Foliar genera A. sphenophylloides [CM] Cyperites sp. A. stellata [rC, CM] (=LepidophylIoides sp.) [C, CM] A. stellata forma longifolia [C] Reproductive organ genera Asterophyllites charaeformis [CR, C, CS, ?CM] Lepidophyllum (Lepidostrobophyllum ) A. equisetiformis [?M, CR, C, CM] fimbriatum [H] A. grandis [CR, C] Lepidostrobophyllum acuminatum [CS] A. longifolius forma striata [C] L. fletcheri [C] Reproductive organ genera L. cf. jenneyi [CM] Calamostachys of. A. aculeta [CR, C] Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


Calamostachys of A. charaeformis [CR, C] Scolecopteris sp. [CS] Calamostachys of A. grandis [CR, C] Order C. germanica [C] Alloiopteris ( Coo, nepteris) almaensis [CR] C. superba [CM] A. (Corynepteris) coralloides [CR] C. paniculata [C] A. ( Coo'nepteris) major [CM] C. tuberculata [CM] A. (Co~nepteris) sternbergi [M?, C, CM] Macrostachya hauchecorni [CM] Class Progymnospermopsida M. ifundibuliformis [CM] Order incertae Palaeostachya elongata [C, CM] Rhacopteris robusta [W] P. striata? [C] Class Gymnospermopsida (plants with naked ) Class Filicopsida ( and relatives) Order Pteridospermales ( ferns) Order Filicales Stem genus Foliar genera *Medullosa sp. [C] Adiantites adiantoides [C] Foliar genera A. bondi [CM] davreuxi [CM] A. oblongifolius [CR] A. decurrens [CR, C] A. obtusus [C] a. friedeli [CM] A. pooli [CS] A. grandini [CS, CM] A. tenuifolius [H] A. hartti [CR] Botryopteris tridentata [CS] A. lonchitica [CR, C, CM] Corynepteris sternbergi [CM] a. scalariformis [CM] C. winslovii [CM] A. serli [CM] C. sp. [CR] A. (Megalethopteris) hartii [CR] Oligocarpia brongniarti [C, CM] A. valida [CM] O. missouriensis [CM] Aneimites acadica [HI O. sp. cf gutbieri [CM] sullivanti [CM] Renaultia gracilis [C] Dicksonites pluckeneti [CM] R. hydei [CR] Eusphenopteris neuropteroides ( Oli gocarpia ?) crenatodentata [CM] (= Sphenopteris squamosa) [CM] S. (Renaultia) rotundifolia [C] E. (Sphenopteris) nummularia forma dilatata [C] S, (Zeilleria) hymenophylloides [C] E.(Sphenopteris) obtusiloba [CR, C] S. (Zeilleria) sp. [C] E. (Sphenopteris) striata [CM] Zeilleria avoldensis [CM] E. (Sphenopteris) trifoliolata [CR] Z. delicatula [CM] Eremopteris artemisiaefolia [CS, CM] Z. frenzli [C, rCM] Fortopteris (Mariopteris ) latifolia [CM] Z. schaumburg-lippeana [C] Karinopteris (Mariopteris ) acuta [CR] Senftenbergia sp. [CM] K. ? (Mariopteris) grandepinnata [C] Order Marattiales (tree ferns) K. (M.) soubeirani [CM] Stem genus Linopteris bunburii [CM] Caulopteris sp. [C, CM] L. rnuensteri [CM] Foliar genera L. neuropteroides var. major [CM] Eupecopteris () cyathea [CM] L. obliqua [CM] E. (Senfienbergia) obtusa [CM] L. obliqua var. bunburii [CM] Lobatopteris (Asterotheca) miltoni [CM] Lonchopteris eschweileriana [eCM] L. (Pecopteris) vestita [jc: CM] Mariopteris comata [C] Pecopteris (Asterotheca) acadica [CM] M. disjuncta [C] P. clarkii [CM] M. hirsuta [CM] P. cf. densifolia [CM] M. nervosa [rC, CM] P. (Asterotheca) hemitelioides [CM] M. sphenopteroides [CM] P. herdii [CMb] M. tenuifolia [C, CM] P. (Asterotheca) miltoni [CM] M. tenuis [CM] P. (Senftenbergia ) pennaeformis [CM] M. sp. [C] P. [C] Megalopteris kellyi [Cng] P. plumosa forma crenata [C] Neuralethopteris kosmanni? [CR] P. plumosa forma dentata [CM] N. schlehani forma rectinervis [CR, C] P. sterzeliformis [CM] N. smithsii [CR] R sp [c] N. sp. [C] P. (Ptychocarpus) unitus [CM] Neurocardiopteris barlowi [CR] Pecopteridium sullivantii [CM] aculeata [CM] Reproductive organ genera N. crenulata [CM] Asterotheca cf. abbreviata [CM] N. (Mixoneura) flexuosa [CM] A. daubreei [CM] N. gigantea [C] A. herdi [CM] N. heterophylla [CM] A. oreopteridia [CM] N. macrophylla [CM] A. robbi [CM] N. (Mixoneura) obliqua [C] Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on October 6, 2021


N. (Mixoneura) ovata [CM] S. spiniformis [CM] N. pseudogigantea [C, CM] S. spinulosa [CM] N. rarinervis [CM] S. spp. [C] N. scheuchzeri [CM] S. stipulataeformis [C] N. tenuifolia [C, CM] S. sulcata [CR] Odontopteris cantabrica [CM] S. cf. suspecta [CM] O. minor [CM] S. strigosa [H] O. schlotheimii [CM] S. valida [C] O. subcuneata [CM] S. (Diplotmema) whitii [rCM] Paripteris spp. [CM] S. (Rhodea) wilsoni [C] Pseudomariopteris (M.) ribeyroni [CM] Reproductive organ genera Rhodea laqueata [CR] Crossotheca boulayi [CS] R. cf. sparsa [CR] C. communis [CM] R. wilsoni [C] C. compacta [CM] Sphenopteridium crassum? [M] C. denticulata [CM] S. dawsoni [M] Incertae sedis S. macconochei? [H] Hymenophyllites quadridactylites [CM] S. sp. [H] Hymenotheca broadheadi [CM] Sphenopteris (Diplotmema)furcatum [CR, C, CM] H. bronni [CM] S. (D.) geniculatum var. erectum [CM] H. dathei [CM] S. (D.) patentissimum [H] Sphenopteris (Hymenophyllites ) bronni [CM] S. (D.) zobeli? [CM] (?= Boweria schatzlerensis [C, CM]) Telangium cf. affine [M] Order T. bretonensis [W] Stem genus (pith cast) T. ? potieri [CM] Artisia transversa [CR, C, CM] Triphyllopteris minor [HI Stem genus (permineralized) Triphyllopteris virginiana [HI Cordaixylon sp. [CR, C, CM] Incertae sedis Foliar genera Reticulopteris muensteri [CM] Cordaites principalis [CR, C, CM] Reproductive organ genera Reproductive organ genera Heterangium sp. [CS] Cardiocarpon carinatum [CM] *Holcospermum sp. [C] Cordaianthus devonicus [C] Polypterocarpus sp. [C] C. pitcairniae [CS] *Trigonocarpus parkinsoni [C] C. spinosus [CM] T. praetextus [CR] dawsoni [C, CM] Whittleseya brevifolia [CR, C] ampullacea [CM] W. desiderata [CR] S. baileyi [C, (Cng)] Filicales or Pteridospermales incertae sedis S. cornuta [CR, C, CM] Foliar genera S. crampii [C] Sphenopteris aculeata [CM] S. ingens [C] S. amoenaeformis ? [CR] S. wilsoni [C] S. brittsii [CM] Order S. cantiana [CM] Form genus S. cuneoliformis [CR] Walchia sp.[P] S. deltiformis [CR, C] Gymnopermopsida incertae sedis S. dixoni [C] Gymnocladus salisburyi [C] S. fletcheri [C] Seeds incertae sedis S. goniopteroides [CM] Carpolithus tenellus [H] S. (Renaultia) gracilis [C] Rhabdocarpus sp. [C] S. haliburtoni [CS] Radiospermum sp.[CM] S. cf. hoeninghausi? [CM] Order Dicranophyllales S. licens [CR] Dicranophyllum glabrum [C*] S. lineata [CR] ?Dicranophyllum sp. [P] S. missouriensis? [CM] Incertae sedis S. moriensis [CM] Nematophyllum sp. [H] S. mixta [C] Incertae sedis S. moyseyi [C] Acitheca polymorpha [CM] S. oxfordensis [CR] Dactylotheca plumosa [CM] S. philipensis [CR] Desmopteris elongata (cf D. longifolia) [CM] S. polyphylla [CR] Sporangites acuminata [C] S. pseudo-furcata [CR] Tetrameridium caducum [CM] S. rhomboidea [CR, C] Volkmannia? sp. [CR] S. (Renaultia?) schatzlarensis [CR, C]

* First report of taxon.