The 2013 Annual Review

1 The Nobel Foundation 2013 Annual Review

EDITORS: Annika Pontikis, Public Relations Manager and Jonna Petterson, Public Relations Officer DESIGN/PRODUCTION: Martin Zetterquist, Formalix AB PRINTING: Göteborgstryckeriet AB PAPER: Galerie Art Matt

All images in the Annual Review are © The Nobel Foundation, © Nobel Media or © The Nobel Museum unless otherwise stated.

FRONT COVER: François Englert and James E. Rothman, photo: Alex Ljungdahl, Randy W. Schekman and Mario J Molina, photo: Niklas Elmehed, Nobel Week Dialogue sign, photo: Alexander Mahmoud, Toastmaster Emma Johansson, photo: Helena Paulin-Strömberg

Exhibitions, programmes and events can be subject to change during 2014. For enquiries, please contact: [email protected]

© The Nobel Foundation 2014 The ®, Nobelprize.org®, Nobel Media®, Nobel Museum®, Nobel Center®, Concert® Nobel Prize Concert® and the Nobel Prize® Medal design mark are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation, P.O. Box 5232, SE-102 45 , A word from the Executive Director

lfred Nobel’s vision was to reward from a financial perspective. This is gratifying, those who have conferred the greatest since the funds we manage go primarily to the Abenefit to mankind. That vision guides prize sum and to the work of the Nobel Com- both the work of the Nobel Prize awarding mittees in selecting Laureates – the very core in selecting Laureates and all of our of our operations. As for our public entities, efforts to spread knowledge about the Nobel their funding comes from other sources and in Prize and to inspire learning and engagement. these contexts our collaboration with external The Nobel Prize’s combination of disciplines partners is crucial. – , and peace – is entirely We are now looking forward to creating the unique. It gives us the opportunity to touch on Nobel Center on the Blasieholmen peninsula in many of the major issues of our age and of the central Stockholm. The center will be a platform future. The fantastic discoveries, contributions for a variety of interdisciplinary meetings and and stories of the Nobel Laureates run like a red activities with the Nobel Prize as their starting

Lars Heikensten, Executive thread through the activities carried out within point. An international architectural competition Director of the Nobel the framework of our public operations in is being decided in April 2014, and the winning Foundation since 2011 Stockholm, and around the world. proposal will provide the basis for a new local During the winter of 2013, the Nobel plan on which the City of Stockholm will hold Foundation initiated a process to examine the consultations this coming autumn. long-term, strategic focus of its operations. It is On International Women’s Day – March 8, a matter of deciding which ambitions and what 2014 – at the Nobel Museum in Stockholm, we basic values will guide our future operations, organised a public meeting with Nobel Peace but also how this work should be performed Prize Laureate . Before an in more concrete terms. This is necessary both enthusiastic audience, she delivered a speech in order to coordinate our operations in an about the situation of women around the efficient manner and to meet the challenges that world, with reference to the conflicts in , the Nobel sphere is facing. , and elsewhere. Making the Among the supporting documents for this point that “walking and talking” can lead to project are an international branding study genuine change, she presented to the Muse- about the Nobel Prize and long-term financial um’s collections her megaphone and a pair of assessments. The study clearly shows both how shoes, which she had worn out while marching well known the Nobel Prize is and what an through Yemen’s capital Sana during the Arab extremely strong position it has. At the same Spring. time, we see that there are differences in how The Nobel Center will give us excellent the Nobel Prize is perceived in different parts of opportunities to create more such meetings, the world and in different age groups, some- to build up collections around the Laureates’ thing we both should reflect on and learn from. stories and to address issues that are crucial As for its finances, one major question is to our world and our future. Here we will not what ambition the Nobel Foundation should only be able to invite more Nobel Laureates, have. Although the Nobel Prize, adjusted for but also to take advantage of the Nobel Prize’s inflation, has retained its value since 1901 it has huge untapped potential ability to attract the fallen in comparison with an average professor’s world’s foremost and thinkers in vari- salary. Another issue is how expenses can be ous disciplines. Our ambition is that the Nobel held down, while safeguarding and preferably Center shall be a unique place that offers broad strengthening the position of the Nobel Prize in public activities, scientific conferences, school an increasingly complex and integrated world. programmes, meetings and events – a place that Despite the long-term challenges, it may inspires, engages and encourages curiosity. perhaps be appropriate to mention that 2013 LARS HEIKENSTEN

PHOTO: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD was a good year for the Nobel Foundation EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

1 Students get to meet the Laureates on several occasions during the Nobel Week Thomas C. Südhof with family and friends after the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony Content

1 A word from the Executive Director

4 The 2013 Nobel Laureates

8 A Chairman rooted in the Research World

10 Nobel Center Takes Shape

12 Legendary maestro conducted the 2013 Nobel Prize Concert

14 Ideas Changing the World

16 The Power of Education


20 The Nobel Prize

The presentation speech for the prize was delivered by Juleen Zierath

Jenny Munro accepted the Nobel Week Dialogue 2013 Nobel Prize in literature on took place in behalf of her mother

2 caught on photo by students visiting the Nobel Foundation

22 The organisational structure of the Nobel Prize

24 Institutions selecting the Nobel Laureates

26 The Nobel Foundation

28 Nobel Media AB

30 Nobel Museum AB Robert J. Shiller at Aula Magna

32 Foundation

34 Nobel Peace Prize Research & Information AS

36 Nobelhuset AB

Artist: Susanne Jardeback Calligrapher: Annika Rücker, Book binder: Ingemar Dackéus

With this Annual Review we aim to provide a comprehensive picture of the Nobel Sphere as a whole. For additional information, please see the respective annual reports of the Nobel Foundation and related organisations.


3 The Medicine Laureates at the new Aula Medica at the Karolinska Institutet

Alice Munro received the diploma and medal at her home in

The Laureates in , and Economic4 Sciences at the Royal Ahmet Üzümcü represented the 2013 Swedish Academy of Sciences Nobel Peace Prize Laureate OPCW in Oslo The 2013 Nobel Laureates

THE THE NOBEL PRIZE IN WAS AWARDED TO CHEMISTRY François Englert and WAS AWARDED TO Peter W. Higgs Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt “for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that con- and tributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of “for the development of multiscale models for com- subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed plex chemical systems” through the discovery of the predicted fundamental par- PROFESSOR EMERITUS MARTIN KARPLUS, born 1930, ticle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Université de Strasbourg, and Harvard Large Hadron Collider” University, USA. PROFESSOR EMERITUS FRANÇOIS ENGLERT, born 1932, PROFESSOR MICHAEL LEVITT, born 1947, Stanford Université Libre de Bruxelles, . University School of Medicine, USA. PROFESSOR EMERITUS PETER W. HIGGS, born 1929, PROFESSOR ARIEH WARSHEL, born 1940, University of University of Edinburgh, . Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.

ACCORDING TO MODERN physics, matter consists of a set THE WORLD AROUND US is made up of atoms that are of particles that act as building blocks. Between these joined together to form molecules. During chemical particles lie forces that are mediated by another set of reactions atoms change places and new molecules particles. A fundamental property of the majority of are formed. To accurately predict the course of particles is that they have a mass. Independently of the reactions at the sites where the reaction occurs one another, in 1964 both and the team of advanced calculations based on quantum mechanics François Englert and Robert Brout proposed a theory are required. For other parts of the molecules, it is about the existence of a particle that explains why other possible to use the less complicated calculations of particles have a mass. In 2012, two experiments con- classical mechanics. In the 1970s, Martin Karplus, ducted at the CERN laboratory confirmed the existence Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel successfully devel- of the Higgs particle. oped methods that combined quantum and classical mechanics to calculate the courses of chemical reac- tions using computers.

François Englert with his family after the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony Arieh Warshel with his daughters

PHOTO FROM THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, PHOTO: MARCUS MARCETIC, © THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES , PHOTO: SHEILA MUNRO PHOTO OF THE MEDICINE LAUREATES: © THE FOR OR MEDICINE AHMET ÜZÜMCÜ, PHOTO: KEN OPPRANN 5 THE NOBEL PRIZE IN THE NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSIOLOGY OR MEDICINE LITERATURE WAS AWARDED TO WAS AWARDED TO James E. Rothman, Randy W. Alice Munro Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof “master of the contemporary ” “for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle AUTHOR ALICE MUNRO, born 1931, Canada. traffic, a major transport system in our cells” ALICE MUNRO HAS DEDICATED her literary career almost PROFESSOR JAMES E. ROTHMAN, born 1950, Yale exclusively to the short story genre. She grew up in a University, USA. small Canadian town; the kind of environment that PROFESSOR RANDY W. SCHEKMAN, born 1948, University often provides the backdrops for her stories. These of California, USA and Howard Hughes Medical often accommodate the entire epic complexity of the Institute, USA. novel in just a few short pages. The underlying themes PROFESSOR THOMAS C. SÜDHOF, born 1955, Stanford of her work are often relationship problems and University, USA and Howard Hughes Medical moral conflicts. The relationship between memory and Institute, USA. reality is another recurring theme she uses to create tension. With subtle means, she is able to demonstrate THE CELLS INSIDE OUR BODIES produce a host of differ- the impact that seemingly trivial events can have on a ent molecules that are sent to specific sites. During person’s life. transport, many of these molecules are grouped together in tiny sac-like structures called vesicles. These vesicles help transport substances to different places inside the cell and send molecules from the cell’s surface as signals to other cells in the body. During the 1970s, studied yeast cells with malfunctions in this transportation system. He demonstrated that that the malfunctions were due to genetic defects and explained how different genes regulate different aspects of the transports. During the 1980s and , showed how vesicles fuse with specific surfaces in the cell so that transports arrive at the correct destination. By studying brain cells from mice, in the 1990s Thomas Südhof demonstrated how vesicles are held in place, ready to release signal-bearing molecules at the right moment.

After the , the Royal Family receives the Laureates at the Prince’s Gallery Artist: John Stenborg, Calligrapher: Annika Rücker, Book binder: Ingemar Dackéus, Photo: Lovisa Engblom NOBEL LAUREATES, PHOTO: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD ALICE MUNRO, PHOTO: JENNY MUNRO LAUREATES WITH FAMILY MEMBERS, PHOTO: ALEX LJUNGDAHL AND ALEXANDER MAHMOUD

6 THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE THE WAS AWARDED TO THE PRIZE IN ECONOMIC Organisation for the Prohibition of SCIENCES IN MEMORY OF Chemical Weapons (OPCW) ALFRED NOBEL WAS AWARDED TO “for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons” Eugene F. Fama, Lars Peter

THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE of chemical weapons first Hansen and Robert J. Shiller began during World War I. Even though the use of “for their empirical analysis of asset prices” chemical weapons were prohibited in 1925 chemical PROFESSOR EUGENE F. FAMA, born 1939, University of weapons have since been used a number of times by Chicago, USA. both nations and terrorists. An international conven- PROFESSOR , born 1952, University tion that also prohibited the manufacture and storage of Chicago, USA. of chemical weapons came into effect in 1997. That PROFESSOR ROBERT J. SHILLER, born 1946, Yale same year, the Organisation for the Prohibition of University, USA. Chemical Weapons (OPCW) was formed for inter- national cooperation to ensure that the convention is FOR MANY OF US, the rise and fall of stock prices honored through inspections and the destruction of symbolizes economic development. chemical weapons. demonstrated that stock price movements are impos- sible to predict in the short-term, while Robert Shiller discovered that stock prices can be predicted over a longer period. In 1982, Lars Peter Hansen developed a statistical method for testing this type of theory. Using this method, Hansen and other researchers have found that modifications of these theories go a long way toward explaining asset prices.

Artist: Jan Erik Willgohs, Calligrapher: Inger Magnus, Book binder: Julius Johansen, Lars Peter Hansen with family after the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony Photo: Thomas Widerberg

7 The Nobel Prize has a unique international position and I plan to do my utmost to contribute to the Nobel Foundation’s efforts to maintain its position and further develop its activities. CARL-HENRIK HELDIN The traditional entry at the Blue Hall on

Carl-Henrik8 Heldin with Staffan Normark, Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and Barbara Cannon, President of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences A Chairman rooted in the Research World

“The Nobel Prize has a unique international position and I plan to do my utmost to contribute to the Nobel Foundation’s efforts to maintain its position and further develop its activities,” Carl-Henrik Heldin explained when he assumed his position as chairman of the board of the Nobel Foundation in early 2013.

CARL-HENRIK HELDIN is a professor of molecular trustees. One of the Nobel Foundation’s central cell biology and director of the Ludwig Institute tasks is managing Alfred Nobel’s fortune. The for Cancer Research in Uppsala. Among other Foundation is to manage Nobel’s assets in such assignments, Heldin is vice-president of the a manner that ensures a secure financial stand- European Research Council, a commission that ing for the Nobel Prize in the long-term, as will conclude during 2014, as well as a member well as the independence of the prize-awarding of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. institutions in their work of selecting Laureates. Carl-Henrik Heldin is also chair of the expert The Nobel Foundation also manages intellectu- committee that reviews grant applications for al property assets. Ragnar Söderberg Fellows in Medicine, a pro- Heldin assumed the role of chairman at gramme that provides support for promising an exciting time when there is much activi- young researchers who are just beginning their ty within the Nobel sphere, including plans careers. for a Nobel Center in Stockholm that have Given his position as chairman of the Nobel progressed well and an architectural competi- Foundation and all his other obligations, one tion that will conclude in the spring of 2014. might wonder whether Heldin has any time for Additionally, informational activities connect- research. “Yes, it’s very important for me to ed to the Nobel Prize have been developed reserve time for research. If you’re going to do significantly in recent years and have resulted in competent work in evaluating other research and the formation of new entities, since the Nobel making decisions about grants and such, you Foundation’s funds are primarily reserved for have to have strong roots in the field,” he says. use in the Nobel Committees’ work of selecting Heldin was asked to serve as chairman Laureates and as prize money. of the Nobel Foundation in March 2013. He accepted the position almost immediately THE NOBEL FOUNDATION’S CHAIRMAN also because he considered the assignment to be delivers an opening address at the Nobel Prize both an honour and a challenge. “Friends and Award Ceremony held in the Stockholm Con- acquaintances thought I would be involved in cert Hall on 10 December. The 2013 address selecting Nobel Laureates, which isn’t the case. focused on the importance of , That process takes place at the prize-awarding an issue that Heldin feels strongly about: “(…) institutions,” explains Heldin, who is preceded it is important to support basic research which by 12 previous chairmen, the first of whom was has no other purpose than to answer questions, politician Gustaf Boström and the most recent, since experience has shown that such curios- director Marcus Storch. ity-driven research often leads to results that can be used within other, completely different PORTRAIT CARL-HENRIK HELDIN, PHOTO: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD THE ASSIGNMENT AS CHAIRMAN primarily and unexpected areas”. Later that evening, the THE NOBEL FOUNDATION SIGN, PHOTO: ORASIS involves leading the work of the board. The Nobel Foundation’s chairman also serves as RECEPTION AT THE NORDISKA MUSEET, PHOTO: ALEX LJUNGDAHL board consists of seven members and two host of the Nobel Banquet, held at the Stock- ENTRY AT THE BLUE HALL, PHOTO: HELENA PAULIN-STRÖMBERG deputy members elected by the Foundation’s holm City Hall.

9 A Room and a Half, Johan Celsing Arkitektkontor

Nobelhuset, David Chipperfield Architects

10 The Nobel Snowflake, Wingårdh Arkitektkontor Nobel Center Takes Shape In June 2013 an international architectural competition was opened to design the building that will become the Nobel Center – the new home of the Nobel Prize in Stockholm. Initially, eleven prominent architects participated. Three were chosen to the final stage and their revised proposals are being evaluated during the spring of 2014.

NOBEL CENTER on Blasieholmen will be an from David Chipperfield Architects engaging place that sparks curiosity. It will be () with the submission Nobelhuset, a place that focuses on the Nobel Prize and Gert Wingårdh from Wingårdh Arkitektkon- stories of the Nobel Laureates. The ambition tor (Sweden) with the submission The Nobel is for the Nobel Center to become one of Stock- Snowflake and Johan Celsing from Johan Cel- holm’s most attractive destinations, with public sing Arkitektkontor (Sweden) with the submis- spaces for exhibitions, activities and school sion A Room and a Half. programmes, events and scientific conferences. One of the revisions made to the competi- The building will also house a library, restau- tion programme prior to the second stage was a rant, café and shop. reduction of the programme area. This resulted An extensive architectural brief lays the in a size reduction to the proposed buildings. groundwork for the international architectural All three buildings are located in the site’s competition for a Nobel Center on Blasiehol- north-western corner, toward the street Hov- men. The competition is being conducted in slagargatan and the other existing buildings on two stages during 2013 and 2014. The jury’s Blasieholmen, which gives the opportunity for initial selection process placed great importance an attractive open area in a sunny position with on harmony with the surrounding buildings a vibrant harbour setting and plenty of space for and cultural environment at Blasieholmen and a quay promenade along the waterfront. The on that the external expression should corre- architects also revised their proposals based on spond with the Nobel Prize and the identity of the jury’s wishes for greater openness toward the operations of the Nobel sphere. the surrounding public areas and walkways. In agreement with the competition brief, these pro- THE JURY judging the competition submissions posals also include an auditorium where, among consists of eleven people with expertise in other events, the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony architecture, museum operations, building and can take place. facility issues and the Nobel sphere’s areas of operation. The jury’s original task was to choose THE INTENTION IS that the winning proposal, to two to five submissions from the original eleven. be chosen in April 2014, will serve as the basis These finalists moved on to the second stage of for a new local plan, which the City of Stock- the competition. Three architects were chosen to holm will hold consultations about during this further develop and refine their proposals. autumn. The preliminary date for inauguration The competitors in the second stage are is December 2018. David Chipperfield and Christoph Felger

ABOUT THE ARCHITECTURAL COMPETITION A process was begun in the autumn of 2012 to choose personally present themselves to the evaluation group the architects who would be invited to take part in before twelve architects were finally recommended as the competition. There was an ambition to include a participants by the evaluation group. Eleven architects broad range of architects, with both recognised names took part in a competition divided into two stages. The and smaller firms. Through Swedish and international competition jury then chose three submissions that were contacts, around 170 architects were proposed to have refined in the competition’s second stage. In connection the experience needed to design the planned Nobel with the second stage, the anonymous of the first Center. The competition received 142 expressions stage ended and the jury could then begin a dialogue of interest from architects from across 25 countries with the architects about their submissions and a ALL ILLUSTRATIONS: and four continents. Twenty architects were invited to communication with the general public. © NOBELHUSET AB

11 Joshua Bell, featured as soloist in 2010

We would like to thank the Laureates for their work and their sacrifice. They have tried, and they have succeeded to make our destiny better in this world. FROM RICCARDO MUTIS SPEECH TO THE 2013 NOBEL LAUREATES World renowned soloist soprano Renée Fleming during the 2006 concert

Riccardo Muti conducting the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra, 2013

The Nobel12 Laureates are the Tenor Joseph Calleja and Conductor Marcello guests of honour Mottadelli, 2011 Legendary maestro conducted the 2013 Nobel Prize Concert The annual Nobel Prize Concert is a project within the framework of Nobel Media’s activities and a collaborative endeavor with the Stockholm Concert Hall and the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra. Verdi and Respighi were two of the Italian composers whose works were performed during the 2013 concert under the direction of Riccardo Muti, one of the greatest conductors of our time.

THE ITALIAN REPERTOIRE has been and remains members of the Swedish Royal Family. About central to Muti’s career, with Verdi and his half of the tickets are offered to the general operas at its heart. When Muti conducted the public. Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra for The event is a classical concert of the the first time at the Nobel Prize Concert 2013, highest international standard. Soloists as well he did so in a programme comprising of Verdi’s as conductors are chosen from the top strata “Le Quattro stagioni” from Act III of I vespri of the world’s most prominent performers. The siciliani (the Sicilian Vespers), Martucci’s Not- Nobel Prize Concert has featured such stars as turno Op. 70:1 and Respighi’s Pines of Rome. cellist Yo-Yo Ma, soprano Renée Fleming, vio- The encore was Verdi’s Overture to Forces of linist Joshua Bell, pianist together Nature. with conductor Vladimir Ashkenazy, Sir John The Nobel Prize Concert was established as Eliot Gardiner and the Monteverdi Choir, a part of the official Nobel Week Programme in pianist Martha Argerich and conductor Yuri 2005. The aim is to offer an international musi- Temirkanov, tenor Joseph Calleja, as well as cal event of the highest quality and to create a conductor Christoph Eschenbach. TV-production that is suitable for international The Nobel Prize Concert is usually broad- distribution. cast on Swedish and international television, streamed live online and is currently available THE EVENT is annually produced by Nobel as video-on-demand at www.konserthusetplay.se. Media and hosted by the Stockholm Concert Hall on December 8. Guests of honour are NOBEL PRIZE CONCERT is externally financed via the current year’s Nobel Laureates and their sponsors and collaboration partners. The main parties, guests of the Nobel Foundation and sponsor is DNB.


13 Future energy resources was discussed at Nobel Prize Dialogue

The Exhibition Nobel Prize: Ideas Changing the World shows how Nobel Prize-awarded work has shaped our world and continues to change it.

David Gross gave a lecture in São Paulo

The travelling exhibition The Nobel Prize: Ideas Changing the World

More than14 150 students attended the lecture by Ideas Changing the World

In November 2013 the newly produced exhibition The Nobel Prize: Ideas Changing the World opened in São Paulo. In connection with the opening, the seminar Nobel Prize Dialogue and a lecture in the series Nobel Prize Inspiration Initiative were held. A dinner was also held with both Swedish and Brazilian guests in the presence of Sweden’s King Carl XVI Gustaf.

THE EVENTS IN BRAZIL were made possible by The Nobel Prize in Our Daily Lives demon- the Nobel Museum and Nobel Media begin- strates the link between Nobel Prize-awarded ning cooperation in 2013 with five Swedish efforts and our everyday lives within such fields companies: Saab, Sandvik, Scania, Volvo and as mobile telephony, vaccines and new materials. Ericsson. The project consists of an exhibition, The Nobel Prize and the Future invites a seminar and a lecture in São Paulo and Rio de visitors to discuss how Nobel Prize-awarded Janeiro, respectively. In both cities, the exhibi- discoveries can influence the future and what tion and activities around it serve as a platform kind of achievements future Nobel Prizes might for the companies supporting the project. Their recognise. shared values concerning innovation, creativity and internationalism are present in both the THE EXHIBITION WAS OPENED by Sweden’s King exhibition and seminar. The project as a whole Carl XVI Gustaf on 11 November 2013 at is aimed at a broad public including students at FIESP’s (Federação das Indústrias do Estado) all levels. offices in São Paulo. Among the guests were delegates from IVA, representatives from Brazil- THE EXHIBITION The Nobel Prize: Ideas Chang- ian and Swedish industry and diplomats. ing the World is a new, international travelling The opening of the exhibition was preceded exhibition produced by the Nobel Museum. by the seminar Nobel Prize Dialogue – Exploring The exhibition focuses on Alfred Nobel, the the Future of Energy with Nobel Laureate and Nobel Prize, Nobel Laureates and on how particle physicist David Gross. The seminar was Nobel Prize-awarded work has shaped our organised by Nobel Media and examined future world and continues to change it. The exhibi- energy resources, a highly-relevant issue for the tion includes unique objects and documents, audience. The panel consisted of Nobel Laure- artistic interpretations and advanced exhibition ate and professor David Gross (Physics, 2004), technology. The exhibit clearly shows, like all Sérgio Rezende (Brazilian Minister of Nobel Museum exhibitions, that ideas really and Technology, 2005-2010), Bernardo Gradin can change the world. The exhibition consists (CEO, GranBio Investimentos) and Professor of five pavilions with five different themes: Semida Silveira (KTH, Stockholm). Approxi- The Nobel Prize provides an introduction to mately 250 specially-invited guests took part. the Nobel Prize and its categories. It showcases On 12 November a lecture entitled Nobel original objects that reflect the ground-breaking Prize Inspiration Initiative – the Frontiers of work done by Nobel Laureates. Fundamental Physics was held at the University Alfred Nobel introduces the entrepreneur of São Paulo. About 150 students from various Alfred Nobel, his inventions and industrial oper- faculties attended the lecture, which was held ations and the background to his famous will. by Nobel Laureate David Gross. The Nobel Prize over the Decades provides On 12 March 2014 the same touring an overview of the history of the Nobel Prize exhibition was opened in Rio de Janeiro, and of the Nobel Laureates and their work. It at the Getúlio Vargas Foundation (FGV). shows the Nobel Prize’s interaction with world A seminar and lecture programme was held events, social development, economic cycles with Economic Sciences Laureate Erik Maskin

PHOTO: MÁRIO HENRIQUE PINTO and currents of ideas. as the main guest.

15 Experience combined with interaction provides a good starting point for learning

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.

There is a magic book in Nobelkammaren which tell the story about Alfred Nobel’s life though advanced projection technology

There were many interesting objects in the exhibition Eye on Gandhi

16 Dalai Lama interacts with students at the Nobel Peace Center The Power of Education

The Nobel Peace Center emphasises dialogue and interaction with young visitors participating in their educational programme. Questions that students find relevant and meaningful are used as a catalyst for a discussion about peace. Practical exercises also play a key role in the teaching which focuses particularly on the mechanisms that cause conflicts and how to resolve them.

CAN PEACE BE TAUGHT? The Nobel Peace Center’s the desire for peace, and create a safe envi- Educational Manager Toril Rokseth believes ronment necessary to give young people the it can. She leads a team of three peace educa- courage to share their views and attitudes in tors, in addition to herself. Three of them are interaction with each other”. qualified teachers, with a strong educational background, while one is a social worker, THE MAIN FOCUS of the educational programme with international experience. The team is is to encourage the participants to become reinforced by some of the centre’s guides, who responsible, socially aware citizens by using the have received special training to be able to Nobel Peace Laureates’ work as a starting point participate in the educational programme. The for an exploration of democracy and human objective of these educational visits is that the rights. During the past year, many students par- students should obtain some new ideas and ticipated in the programme called Talk, don’t new insights, not necessarily to get answers shoot! which was based around the exhibition to complex questions. During 2013 alone, the presenting the Laureate team held sessions for 970 school groups. the . The interest for the various educational THE NOBEL PEACE CENTER develops and customis- programmes is growing even though marketing es two to three brand new educational pro- activities are modest, comprising no more than grammes each year. The programmes are based an electronic newsletter sent out to schools on the exhibitions being staged at the centre, as when a new programme has been developed. well as on the Norwegian national curriculum. The success is depending on high quality “For many children and young people, programmes, focused communication and the peace and is not something that word of mouth between teachers and school affects them. War and human rights violations administrators who much appreciated their vis- happen far away,” says Toril Rokseth. “By it to the Nobel Peace Center and recommends focusing on the pupils’ own experiences as our other to do the same. starting point, we illustrate the universality of




17 If I have 300 ideas in a year and only one turns out to be of use, I’ll be pleased. ALFRED NOBEL

18 The and the detonating cap – A painting of Alfred’s mother Andriette Alfred Nobel’s most famous inventions Nobel by Anders Zorn Alfred Nobel

Alfred Nobel was an inventor and entrepreneur and also a very successful businessman, continually travelling between his factories. To many people’s surprise, he left a large part of his fortune to the establishment of a prize that would reward outstanding efforts within the different fields that interested him most during his life.

ALFRED NOBEL WAS BORN in Stockholm in 1833. ALFRED NOBEL QUICKLY EXPLOITED his inventions His father, Immanuel, was an inventor and commercially and built factories and laborato- and his mother, Andriette, came from ries around the world – Vinterviken in Sweden, a wealthy family. When Immanuel’s company Krümmel in Germany and Ardeer in went bankrupt, he moved to and found were some of the first. He eventually built just success within the war industry. In 1842 the over 90 factories in 20 countries. At his death, rest of the family followed and Alfred and his Nobel held a total of 355 patents and left brothers received a first-class education there behind an enormous fortune. from private tutors. At 17 years of age, Alfred Alfred Nobel was a man of his time, spoke five languages: Swedish, Russian, Eng- embodying many of the Enlightenment’s central lish, French and German. ideas, both in his practical work and in his phi- At the time he was interested in poetry, and losophy. He interwove his religious doubt with also wrote his own works. His father disliked a belief in the natural sciences; he was a true Alfred’s interest in literature and sent him abroad optimist about technology and an entrepreneur for studies focusing on the natural sciences. who actively took part in the industrialisation process. ALFRED VISITED a number of countries and finally ended up in , where he studied ALFRED NOBEL DIED on 10 December 1896 in his chemistry under Professor T. J. Pelouze. It was home in San Remo, , and his will attracted there that Alfred first came in contact with significant attention when it was published. nitroglycerine, which was invented by the Ital- He had left most of his fortune for the use of ian Ascanio Sobrero. It was a highly explosive awarding outstanding efforts within physics, liquid that was considered too dangerous to chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature use. Alfred Nobel returned to Sweden and and peace. His will was challenged by relatives, soon began experimenting with nitroglycerine. authorities in several countries and by Sweden’s These experiments were dangerous and led to King Oscar II. several fatal accidents. In one of these, Alfred’s Subsequently, a long process to realise younger brother Emil was killed. Nobel finally Alfred Nobel’s vision began. After a few years solved the problem of handling this highly of complicated processes led by the executors volatile liquid by mixing it with a type of sand, of the will, and Rudolf Lilljeq- kieselguhr. The result was a formable mass that uist, the Nobel Foundation was formed in 1900 was easy to package and that could be shipped and the first Nobel Prizes were awarded the and handled safely. The substance was patent- following year. ed in 1867 under the name dynamite. With Alfred Nobel is buried at Norra the patenting of different forms of dynamite, Begravningsplatsen, just outside of Stockholm. together with the detonator that he had invent- ed previously, Alfred Nobel achieved his major PHOTO OF ALFRED NOBEL BUST: HANS MEHLIN technical and industrial breakthrough.

19 The Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony at the

… to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit to mankind … whether he be a Scandinavian or not.

Chemistry Laureate Arieh Warshel with his Nobel Prize Medal

The Nobel20 Prize Award Ceremony at the Stockholm Concert Hall The Nobel Prize

When Alfred Nobel’s will was read, it caused something of a sensation and was widely reported on in international media and debated extensively. It stated that his fortune was to be used as an endowment, the interest on which would be awarded “… to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit to mankind … whether he be a Scandinavian or not”.

IN ACCORDANCE with Alfred Nobel’s wishes, document. Nobel may have taken into consider- five Nobel Prizes were established: in physics, ation the fact that Sweden was unified with Nor- chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and way at the time and that one of the prize-award- peace. These five categories are a unique mix ing institutions should therefore be based there. of disciplines. They make the Nobel Prize an He may also have believed that was interdisciplinary prize and reflect both better positioned to nominate Nobel Laureates. Alfred Nobel as a person and the interests and Norway did not have their own foreign policy, activities that engaged him during his lifetime. nor the same military traditions and strong links His will clearly stated that no regard should to the Royal Court as Sweden. And at the close be given to the recipient’s nationality, a condi- of the 19th century, the Norwegian Parliament tion that was widely debated in Sweden, which () was also strongly committed to the at the time was strongly marked by national- Inter-parliamentary Union and its work in sup- ist sentiment. Nobel’s will also specified the port of . prize-awarding institutions: the Royal Academy of Sciences would select the Laureates in Phys- OVER THE YEARS, the Nobel Prize has acquired a ics and Chemistry, Karolinska Institutet would unique standing for a number of reasons. One is be responsible for the prize in Physiology or that it is considered to be the first ever interna- Medicine, the Swedish Academy would oversee tional prize, in as much as Nobel’s will directs the prize in Literature and a committee selected that no regard be given to nationality in the by the Norwegian Parliament (Storting) in Oslo selection of Laureates. Another is that the prize would select Peace Prize Laureates. money awarded has often been substantial. But most important is probably the prize-award- THE SVERIGES RIKSBANK PRIZE in Economic ing institutions’ independent work of selecting Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was estab- Laureates – a task which isperformed with the lished in 1968, on the occasion of the Riks- highest level of expertise and integrity. bank’s (Sweden’s central bank) 300th At most, three Laureates may share any anniversary. The first prize was awarded the one Nobel Prize and each receives their share following year. The Royal Academy of of the prize money, a diploma and a medal. Sciences is responsible for selecting Econom- The Nobel Prize Medals for physics, chemistry, ic Sciences Laureates according to the same physiology or medicine and literature were principle as the prize in Physics and Chemistry. created by engraver Erik Lindberg. Norwegian The prize in Economic Sciences differs from sculptor Gustav Vigeland fashioned the Peace the other prizes mainly in the that it is Prize Medal, while the Prize Medal financed by Riksbanken. was designed by Gunvor Svensson-Lundqvist.

THE REASON WHY Alfred Nobel decided that the ALL LAUREATES are invited to Stockholm or Oslo, THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE CEREMONY, PHOTO: KEN OPPRANN Peace Prize should be awarded in Norway and to give a Nobel Lecture and to receive the prize. THE NOBEL PRIZE AWARD CEREMONY, that the committee should be elected by the Since 1901, 876 Laureates have been selected, PHOTO: ALEX LJUNGDAHL ARIEH WARSHEL, Norwegian Parliament (Storting) is not speci- of which 847 are individuals and 22 are organ- PHOTO: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD NOBEL PRIZE MEDAL® fied in his will, nor is it mentioned in any other isations.

21 THE ORGANISATION SURROUNDING THE NOBEL PRIZE The Nobel Prize is surrounded by several organisations and institutions with different tasks related to the prize. Over the past decade, the organisational structure has grown, particularly in areas aimed at spreading information and knowledge about the Nobel Prize.

WHO FINANCES THE NOBEL WHO SELECTS THE NOBEL INFORMATIONAL ACTIVITIES PRIZE? LAUREATES? RELATED TO THE NOBEL PRIZE The Nobel Prize is financed by the The process of independently and expertly The Nobel sphere also includes a number NOBEL FOUNDATION, a private selecting the Nobel Laureates, in accord- of externally financed entities with the established in 1900 based on the will of ance with Alfred Nobel’s intentions, primary task of disseminating information Alfred Nobel. is exclusively handled by the Nobel about the Nobel Prize and inspiring peo- The main task of the Nobel Founda- Prize-awarding institutions named in ple around the world through the stories tion is to manage the assets made avail- his will. of the Nobel Laureates. The non-profit

able through the will and the intellectual THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF Nobel Foundation Rights Association property related to the Nobel Prize that SCIENCES – the Nobel Prizes in Physics serves as an umbrella organisation for the has developed over the years. The and Chemistry and Sveriges Riksbank following six entities: Foundation finances both the work of the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of NOBEL GROUP INTERESTS AB, Stockholm prize-awarding institutions in selecting Alfred Nobel the Nobel Laureates and the prize mon- NOBEL MEDIA AB, Stockholm THE NOBEL ASSEMBLY AT KAROLINSKA ey. The Nobel Foundation is not involved NOBEL MUSEUM AB, Stockholm INSTITUTET – the Nobel Prize in Physiol- in the nomination or selection of the ogy or Medicine NOBELHUSET AB, Stockholm Nobel Laureates. THE SWEDISH ACADEMY – the Nobel Prize NOBEL PEACE PRIZE RESEARCH & in Literature INFORMATION AS, Oslo

THE NORWEGIAN NOBEL COMMITTEE NOBEL PEACE CENTER FOUNDATION, Oslo – a committee of five persons appointed by the Norwegian Parliament (Storting) – The above entities are all externally the Nobel Peace Prize financed, e.g. through contributions from state or local authorities, educational Read more about the prize-awarding organisations or philanthropic organi- institutions and how they select Nobel sations or through collaborations with Laureates on page 24. companies. The companies within the Nobel ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE, MARCH 2014 sphere have no influence over or access to the nomination or selection procedures The Nobel Foundation approves the of the Nobel Prize. Only after the public NOBEL­ FOUNDATION composition of the boards of the Nobel Foundation Rights Association and the Nobel announcement of the Nobel Laureates Peace Prize Center Foundation can these organisations begin spreading information about each year’s Laureates.




Photo: Orasis. >

22 To continue developing our international information efforts, it is necessary to safeguard the Nobel Prize’s position and spread its message to a global audience. There are good reasons for promoting different efforts in the spirit of the Nobel Prize that encourage creativity and innovation, and thus contributing to solutions to current and future challenges. The support these companies receive through their respective sponsors is essential for conducting and expanding these efforts. LARS HEIKENSTEN, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE NOBEL FOUNDATION

23 Göran K. Hansson, Secretary of the Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine, being interviewed at the announcement of the 2013 medicine prize INSTITUTIONS SELECTING THE NOBEL LAUREATES

IN HIS WILL, Alfred Nobel stipulated Swedish Academy of Sciences also selects ing a selection of these nominees. which institutions should select Nobel the recipient(s) of the Sveriges Riksbank The Nobel Committees subsequently Laureates in each prize category. He Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory present their proposals for Nobel Lau- probably chose the academic institutions of Alfred Nobel, established in 1968 on reates to their respective prize-awarding that he considered to be best suited to the occasion of the Riksbank’s (Sweden’s institutions. As such, the actual decision the task. Alfred Nobel was less specific central bank) 300th anniversary. The as to who will be awarded a Nobel Prize regarding the organization that was to Academy has approximately 440 Swedish is not made by the respective Nobel manage his assets. What would eventu- and 175 foreign members. Committee, but by all members of the ally become the Nobel Foundation was The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska prize-awarding institution. only mentioned in his will as “a fund”. Institutet selects the Nobel Laureates in Concerning the Peace Prize, The Nobel Prize’s unique interna- Physiology or Medicine. The Assem- Alfred Nobel assigned the Storting tional standing depends largely on the bly has 50 members. (national parliament) in Norway as the century-long, independent work of the The Swedish Academy selects Nobel prize-awarding institution. The Storting prize-awarding institutions in selecting Laureates in Literature. The Academy has appoints the five members of the Norwe- Nobel Laureates. The fact that these 18 members. gian Nobel Committee. The Norwegian organisations have engaged knowledgea- All of these institutions appoint spe- Nobel Committee differs from the other ble individuals within their own organi- cial Nobel Committees of three to five prize-awarding institutions in as much sations, as well as extensive international members, a secretary and (in some cases) as it is responsible both for assessing expertise has played a vital role in achiev- also deputies. Members are elected for the nominees and selecting the final ing this standing. a term of three years and may sit for a recipient(s). maximum of three consecutive terms. THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF The Nobel Committees evaluate nomina- IN SEPTEMBER OF EACH YEAR the SCIENCES selects the Nobel Laureates tions for the respective Nobel Prizes and respective Nobel Committees send out in Physics and Chemistry. The Royal conduct extensive evaluations concern- individual invitations to thousands of

24 There is a great interest from media at the announcements at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences



SEPTEMBER 31 JANUARY FEBRUARY–AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 10 DECEMBER members of academies, university pro- nomination is only valid for the current The final selection of Nobel Laureates fessors and other scientists in numerous year, it is common for some candidates is conducted by a vote. The final deci- countries, previous Laureates, members to be nominated several times. Some sions are announced by the respective of parliamentary assemblies and others. candidates may also be nominated by prize-awarding institutions immediately The recipients are chosen in such a way more than one person in the same year. after voting, usually during the first half of so as to ensure that as many countries Nominations are recorded and compiled October. According to the Nobel Foun- and universities as possible are represent- in a list. This list is processed in a series dation’s statutes, prizes can be equally ed over time. Those who receive an invi- of phases during the spring. Initially, it shared between two works, though by no tation have the opportunity to nominate consists of a large selection of names, more than three individuals. All docu- Nobel Prize candidates for the coming which is then gradually narrowed down ments related to the nomination process year. Nominations, which are confiden- to a smaller number of candidates. These and evaluations are kept confidential for tial, must be received by the Committees candidates are then evaluated in depth 50 years. no later than 31 January of the year in with the assistance of domestic and which the prize will be awarded. foreign experts. During the summer the The procedures may vary somewhat Nobel Committee members produce MORE INFORMATION about the between the Nobel Committees, but a comprehensive report detailing the prize-awarding institutions is available on their respective websites: the selection process is largely similar candidate or candidates proposed as www.kva.se for all prize categories. The Commit- Laureates for the year’s Nobel Prizes. www.nobelprizemedicine.org tees first confirm that the nominations Proposals are presented to the members www.svenskaakademien.se have been submitted by individuals of the prize-awarding institutions in www.nobelpeaceprize.org who have the right to nominate. Since a September. GÖRAN K HANSSON, PHOTO: JINGCHENG ZHAO, ©MEDICOR PRESS CONFERENCE AT THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, PHOTO: VICTORIA HENRIKSSON, © THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 25 THE NOBEL FOUNDATION

THE NOBEL FOUNDATION is a private Large Hadron Collider, NS 154, which was The Academy of Sciences also appoints institution established in 1900 based on organised by Professor Tord Ekelöf. four deputies and the other institutions the will of Alfred Nobel and the founding two deputies each. The trustees elect statutes promulgated in connection with THE NORWEGIAN NOBEL INSTITUTE was a Chairman from their own number. the will. One central task of the Founda- established in 1904 and serves as the The trustees’ most important task is to tion is to protect the common interests of Norwegian Nobel Committee’s Secretari- appoint the Nobel Foundation’s Board the prize-awarding institutions and repre- at and the Nobel Foundation’s represent- and to audit the Nobel Foundation’s sent all the Nobel institutions externally. ative in Oslo. The institute administers accounts. At its annual meeting, held in This includes, for instance, broad infor- the activities related to the awarding of late April, the trustees approve the pre- mational activities aimed at disseminating the Nobel Peace Prize, such as the prize vious year’s accounts and discharge the knowledge about the Nobel Prize and ceremony and the banquet. Nobel Foundation’s preserving the trademarks that have been from personal liability. established during more than a century THE MARKET VALUE of the Nobel Foun- The Nobel Foundation’s administra- in conjunction with the awarding of the dation’s invested capital amounted to SEK tion and its accounts are audited annually Nobel Prize. 3.437 billion at the end of 2013. Invest- by six auditors, who work together in the The Foundation also manages the ment capital is distributed as 56 per cent so-called “auditing team”. The trustees elect assets made available for awarding equities, 15 per cent fixed-income assets one of the Foundation’s auditors, who must the Nobel Prizes in such a way as to and 29 per cent alternative assets. This year, be an authorised public accountant. Other safeguard the economic base and guar- returns on invested capital were 16.4%. auditors are elected by the prize-awarding antee the independence of the Nobel The overall sum of all Nobel Prizes institutions, except for the chairman, who is Prize-awarding institutions in their work and operating expenses was SEK 99.6 appointed by the government. All auditors of selecting Laureates. million. This was divided among three are elected for a term of one year. The Nobel Foundation’s work inten- main categories: the prizes and compen- sifies during the autumn in connection sation to the prize-awarding institutions THE NOBEL FOUNDATION’S BOARD is with the Nobel Week that takes place in (SEK 66 million); the Nobel Week in based in Stockholm and consists of seven Stockholm in December. This is a week Stockholm and Oslo (SEK 16.4 million); members and two deputy members that includes a busy schedule for Nobel and administration, the Nobel Sympo- elected by the Trustees of the Nobel Laureates and that culminates in the sia, etc. (SEK 17.2 million). Additional Foundation. Board members and depu- Nobel Prize Award Ceremony and the information on the Nobel Foundation’s ties are appointed for a term of two years Nobel Banquet held on December 10. financial management is available in the each. From among its own members, Both of these events are planned and Foundation’s annual report for 2013, the Board chooses a Chairman, a Vice organized by the Foundation. which is available at Nobelprize.org. Chairman and an Executive Director. The Nobel Foundation is also Mr Marcus Storch, MD h.c., regular responsible for the publication of the THE NOBEL PRIZE awarding institutions member of the Nobel Foundation’s Nobel Lectures on Nobelprize.org, the elect, for two calendar years, fifteen trus- Board since 1996 and Chairman since official website of the Nobel Prize, and tees to the Nobel Foundation. Six rep- 2005, resigned on 1 May 2013 as his administering and funding the Nobel resentatives are chosen by the Academy term expired upon turning 70. Professor Symposia within each prize category. In of Sciences and the other three by each Carl-Henrik Heldin was elected as the 2013 one Nobel Symposium was held, of the other prize-awarding institutions. new Chairman from 1 May, 2013.

26 The Nobel Week concludes with a reception at the Nobel Foundation

No. of employees: 11 Executive Director: Lars Heikensten Established: 1900 Corporate ID: 802002-4462 Address: Sturegatan 14, Stockholm, Sweden Contact: [email protected],; +46 (0)8-663 09 20 Website: www.nobelprize.org/ nobel_organizations/nobelfoundation/

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 2013 Marcus Storch, MD h.c., Chairman Randy W. Schekman and James E. Rothman (until 30 April 2013) Carl-Henrik Heldin, Professor, Chairman (from 1 May 2013) Göran K. Hansson, Professor, Vice Chairman, Secretary of the Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive Director of the Nobel Foundation Peter Englund, Professor, Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy Tomas Nicolin, MSc , Adviser, Deputy Chair of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Staffan Normark, Professor, Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Lars Bergström, Professor, Secretary of the Nobel Committee for Physics, Deputy Member Astrid Gräslund, Professor, Secretary of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry, Deputy Member Peter W. Higgs inspects his medal



THE TASK OF NOBEL MEDIA is to spread some 50 interactive knowledge-based Nobel Media held its second Nobel knowledge about Nobel Prize-awarded games, primarily aimed at secondary Week Dialogue. This free to attend, all achievements and to stimulate interest school students. day seminar seeks to give the wider in science, literature and peace in line As part of Nobel Media’s ambition to public the chance to meet with scientists with Alfred Nobel’s vision and legacy. To make its content widely accessible across and engage in discussion of global issues safeguard the long-term position of the a range of digital platforms, a brand new that concern us all. The 2013 edition Nobel Prize, the company develops a podcast series entitled Nobel Prize Talks themed Exploring the Future of Energy range of media rights and productions: was launched in late 2013. The interviews featured a truly unique constellation Nobelprize.org, the Nobel Prize Concert, provide the listener with a unique insight of six Nobel Laureates, world-leading and a series of international lecture into the Nobel Laureates’ drive and scientists, policy makers and thought events and conferences. The company creativity. The episodes, freely available leaders coming together with the also manages a portfolio of publishing on Nobelprize.org and iTunes, have since interested general ­public to discuss licenses, footage sales, and live broadcast reached the top ten charts under the global energy ­challenges. The event was rights to the Nobel Prize Award Ceremo- category of Science and Medicine in the live-streamed to global audiences via nies. iTunes Stores of Canada, , , www.nobelweekdialogue.org. USA and the UK. NOBELPRIZE.ORG is the official website of OTHER ANNUAL lecture events include the the Nobel Prize. In 2013, the site record- TO PRODUCE THE ANNUAL live broad- Nobel Prize Inspiration Initiative, through ed 23 million visitors and underwent a casts from the Nobel Prize ceremonies which Nobel Laureates get to share their major redesign to improve accessibility, in Stockholm and Oslo, Nobel Media experiences and inspiring stories with navigation and responsiveness to smart- commissioned the Swedish public students and fellow scientists. In 2013, phones and tablet browsers. A greater broadcaster Sveriges Television (SVT) and three such events were held Russia, USA focus on social media has furthermore the Norwegian Broadcasting Corpora- and Brazil. Nobel Media’s presence in yielded up to a 500% increase in the tion (NRK). Copyright and international Brazil also included a specially pro- number of followers. distribution rights to these programmes duced Nobel Prize Dialogue seminar The website presents all Nobel Prizes are managed by Nobel Media and that preceded the opening of the Nobel since 1901. Visitors can explore the made accessible to global broadcasters Museum’s travelling exhibition The Nobel Laureates’ achievements and life stories via international news agencies and the Prize: Ideas Changing the World. You can through a collection of Nobel Lectures, European Broadcasting Union. For the read more about the Brazil events on biographies, interviews, photographs, ninth consecutive year, Nobel Media also pages 14–15. articles and video clips. Each year, organised the Nobel Prize Concert, to Nobelprize.org features live streams from which a special section of this review is NOBEL MEDIA’S main sponsors and the prize announcements in October devoted (pages 12–13). partners are Akamai, AstraZeneca, Carl and the award ceremonies in Stockholm Bennet AB, the City of Gothenburg, DNB, and Oslo on December 10. The site also IN 2013, the official Nobel Week Ericsson, Västra Gotaland, SAAB, serves as a platform for Nobel-related programme in Sweden was extended Sandvik, the Stockholm Concert Hall news. The educational section includes from Stockholm to Gothenburg where Foundation and Volvo.

The second edition of Nobel Week Dialogue took place in Gothenburg

28 Swedish Minister for Information Technology and Energy Nobel Laureate Mario J. Molina visited Anna-Karin Hatt speaking at the Nobel Week Dialogue Universeum as part of the Nobel Week Dialogue

Interviews with the Laureates are published on Nobelprize.org On the set of Nobel Minds, produced by the BBC

PROGRAM 2014 MARCH 10 DECEMBER Editions of Nobel Prize Dialogue Live broadcasts from the Nobel No. of Employees: 11 in Stockholm and 3 in London and Nobel Prize Inspiration Initiative Prize Award Ceremonies in Turnover: SEK 40,579K are held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Stockholm and Oslo with the participation of Economic CEO: Mattias Fyrenius (from February 2013) Sciences Laureate 11 DECEMBER Established: 2004 Taping of the discussion program Corporate ID No.: 556667-5194 OKTOBER Nobel Minds produced by the BBC Address: Sturegatan 14, Stockholm, Sweden Nobelprize.org broadcasts the 2014 Contact: [email protected], +46 8 663 17 22 Nobel Prize Announcements live As part of the Nobel Prize Website: www.nobelprize.org/nobel_ Inspiration Initiative several organizations/nobelmedia DECEMBER Nobel Laureates participate in an Nobelprize.org interviews the 2014 international seminar programme BOARD OF DIRECTORS 2013 Nobel Laureates at different universities and Lars Heikensten, AstraZeneca research centers Dr, Executive Director of the Nobel Nobelprize.org broadcasts the around the world. During 2014 Foundation, Chairman Nobel Lectures live several lecture series will take place Patrik Hadenius, Editor-in-Chief and Managing Director of in Brazil, , China, Great Forskning & Framsteg 8 DECEMBER Britain and Sweden. Ove Joanson, CEO of Media Conglomerate Nobel Prize Concert at the Lisa Lindström, CEO of Doberman Stockholm Concert Hall , Professor, Director of the Norwegian 9 DECEMBER Nobel Institute The open science seminar Marie Nilsson, CEO of Mediavision Nobel Week Dialogue Eva Swartz Grimaldi, Chairman of Norstedts Publishing at the Stockholm City Group (until April 2013) Conference Center Gunnar von Heijne, Professor, former Chairman of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry Barbro Jonsson, Head of Administration, Nobel The podcast Nobel Prize Talks Foundation, Deputy Member


THE MISSION OF THE NOBEL MUSEUM is a talk at the museum about her work to INTERNATIONALLY, the museum has to safeguard the Nobel Prize’s standing in combat landmines. The exhibition was conducted several activities. The Sketches the long-term through museum, educa- also visited by Mairead Corrigan (1976 of Science exhibition has been shown in tional and research efforts related to the Nobel Peace Prize). Germany, Singapore and Malaysia. In Nobel Prize. The museum aims to spread At the end of September, the Nobel November, The Nobel Prize: Ideas Chang- knowledge about the fields that Alfred Museum, together with the IPCC (2007 ing the World exhibition opened in São Nobel mention in his will. The Museum is Nobel Peace Prize), organised a public Paulo, Brazil. More about this on page also intended to be a cultutal center and programme on the new climate report 14. A number of talks and seminars were mulifaceted meeting place where visitors that was presented in Stockholm. Because organised in China and in India, with a can attend lectures, family programmes of great interest, the event was moved particular focus on Alfred Nobel and the and much more. The operations are to Kulturhuset where a full auditorium, Nobel Prize, but also on the creativity currently run in temporary premises at together with thousands of online view- programme Spark of Creativity. In Stock- the Old Stock Exchange at Gamla Stan in ers, was updated on the latest research. holm about 60 programmes were organ- Stockholm. The Nobel Museum wants to serve as a ised for the general public in the form of platform for these types of activities, but Science Café, Literature Talks, Research ONE OF THE MUSEUM’S LARGEST events this requires much larger facilities. in Focus, Afternoon Tea, film screenings, in 2013 was an exhibition about Tomas From 3 October the Nobel Museum family days, theatre performances, tours Tranströmer’s works, To Go into Reality exhibited the architectural proposals for for the visually impaired and more. The Itself, which was displayed between the new Nobel Center at Blasieholmen. 183,000 visitors to the Nobel Museum 16 February and 2 June. The exhibi- The drawings and models attracted a in Stockholm during 2013 enjoyed a rich tion, which was produced against the large number of visitors, both architects and multifaceted programme. This is backdrop of the 2011 Nobel Prize in as well as the general public. The exhibi- the museum’s highest annual number of Literature, as awarded to the Swedish tion will continue until the competition is visitors ever. Unfortunately, the museum author, was developed through close concluded. must once again note that many school collaboration with the Tranströmer family classes were unable to visit the museum and with Tomas in particular. A large FOR THE THIRD CONSECUTIVE YEAR, the due to lack of space. number of personal photos and objects Nobel Museum has collaborated with never before shown to the public were Beckmans College of Design in Fash- THIS DYNAMIC RANGE of activities would displayed and these contributed to a ion Innovation 3. The college’s fashion not be possible without the support of unique, comprehensive presentation of students were invited to create items the City of Stockholm and the ministries Tranströmer’s writing. Central to the exhi- of clothing inspired by the 2013 Nobel of culture and education. Handelsbanken bition were also one hundred bindings, Prize. The Nobel Museum also initiated and Samsung Electronics were the Nobel beautifully bound by bookbinders from a collaboration with students from the Museum’s main sponsors during 2013. about 20 countries. Royal College of Music, who composed Akzo Nobel, Bonnier AB, Postkodlotter- On 15 June the Making Peace exhi- music with the same theme. iet and Svenskt Näringsliv were project bition was opened. This exhibition was There were also several small exhibi- sponsors and the Swedish Research produced in celebration of the 100th tions opened during the year, including Council and the Swedish Foundation for anniversary of the International Peace presentations of this year’s Nobel Prize Strategic Research also contributed funds Bureau (1910 Nobel Peace Prize) and Diplomas, a photo exhibit with molecu- to the museum’s research efforts. remained on display until 19 November. lar structures, and others. Major invest- In connection with the exhibition, Jody ments have also been made to update Williams (1997 Nobel Peace Prize) gave the permanent exhibition.

Jody Williams visited the Nobel Museum when Tawakkol Karman spoke at the Nobel Museum the exhibition Making Peace was on display on the International Women’s Day 2014

30 Eugene F. Fama signs a chair at the Nobel Museum as many Laureates before him

Tomas Tranströmer was active in the production of the exhibition To Go Into Reality Itself

2014 PROGRAMME & EXHIBITIONS 18 FEBRUARY 15 MAY – 19 OCTOBER Research in Focus – The discovery of No. of employees: 41 the Higgs Particle Author Erik Axel Karlfeldt is presented Turnover: SEK 53,816 K is in a small exhibition on the Museum Director: Olov Amelin, Ph.D. 8 MARCH occasion of the 150-year jubilee of Established: 2004. Prior to this, activities were Full day in connection with the his birth conducted within the Nobel Foundation Rights International Women’s Day with talks Association by, among others, Tawakkol Karman 16 OCTOBER Corporate ID No.: 556667-5210 (), tours and Presentation of the 2014 Nobel Prizes Address: Stortorget 2, Stockholm, Sweden discussions Contact: [email protected], +46(0)8-534 818 00 21 OCTOBER Website: www.nobelmuseum.se 25 MARCH The birthday of Alfred Nobel in focus Science Café BOARD OF DIRECTORS 2013 Creativity, a Path to Success? 2 DECEMBER – MARCH 2015 Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive Director of the Nobel Fashion Innovation – an exhibition in Foundation, Chairman 6 APRIL which Beckmans College of Design Jim Bennett, Professor and former Director of the Family Day about crystallography and the Royal College of Music will Museum of the History of Science in Oxford The year of crystallography in focus interpret the 2014 Nobel Prizes Peje Emilsson, Chairman, Kreab Gavin Anderson with family activities 10 DECEMBER Barbro Osher, Honorary Consul General of Sweden in 9 MAY – NOVEMBER , Sparkles and Champagne San Francisco Ideas Changing the World Celebrate the Nobel Day at the Nobel Nina Wormbs, Associate Professor, Royal Institute of An exhibition about the Technology (KTH) in our everyday lives and in the future. Per Molander, Director General, Swedish Social Programme in connection to the Insurance Inspectorate exhibition Selection of events. For a complete calendar, visit www.nobelmuseum.se Klas Kärre, Professor, Deputy Chairman for the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet Barbro Jonsson, Head of Administration at the Nobel Foundation, Deputy Member



EXHIBITIONS, guided tours, events and consisted of two parts: The self-produced the globe, taking portraits of ordinary family activities make the Nobel Peace ABC of Gandhi, on his life and work, and families and making a photographic Center an arena for learning, reflection the photo series In India by legendary record of their weekly food consumption. and debate about war, peace and conflict photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson. A In connection with the death of Nel- resolution. The permanent exhibitions tell number of activities were linked to this son Mandela on 5 December, the Nobel the story of Alfred Nobel, and present the exhibition with a particular extensive pro- Peace Center created a wall, Nobel Peace Laureates and their ground- gramme during the opening weekend. and opened a digital book of condolence breaking work. The temporary exhibitions The exhibition Cartoons in Conflict for those who wished to pay their last showcase aspects of the Nobel Peace took a different look at the Middle East respects. Laureates’ lives and highlight topical conflict. The exhibition comprised 40 issues of the day. caricatures by 29 artists from 23 coun- IN THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE EXHIBITION For nine years the Nobel Peace tries, and was a collaboration with The 2013, Magnum photographer Paolo Center has been an internationally Parents Circle Families Forum. The 2012 ­Pellegrin was commissioned to doc- renowned museum, and an important Peace Prize Exhibition, entitled Europe ument the OPCW inspectors’ work in Norwegian tourist attraction. The center from War to Peace, was also showed at Libya, and Belgium. The exhi- is a vibrant and active house, and provide the Center during 2013. bition Combating Chemical Weapons a unique setting for a wide range of activ- From 7 March until 15 September, was opened on 11 December by the ities, like seminars, debates and children’s visitors could explore ’European identity’, Secretary General of the OPCW, Ambas- activities. through the camera lenses of 12 young sador Ahmet Uzümcü. Together with the European photographers in the exhibi- series of photographs, the Peace Center IN 2013 the Nobel Peace Center staged tion European Photo Exhibition Award 01 also show the equipment the inspectors eight exhibitions, a number of individual – European Identities. The exhibition was use as they go about the difficult and events and an extensive educational also shown in Hamburg, Lucca, and Paris. dangerous task of finding and eliminating programme. This resulted in a record The initiative for the exhibition came chemical weapons. 225,466 visitors. Most of the events were from four European charitable founda- On the 100th anniversary of the birth also streamed live online. Several of the tions, including Fritt Ord Foundation. of , 18 December 2013, the Nobel Peace Center’s exhibitions were A photo competition on Instagram for Nobel Peace Center opened a small exhi- also shown abroad. The exhibitions and young people, called #hvemerjeg, was bition featuring documentary photos and events staged in 2013 were very well arranged in connection to the exhibition. caricatures to honour the Nobel Peace received in both the Norwegian and The photo exhibition What the World Laureate from 1971. international media. Eats opened On 27 September. In this The Nobel Peace Center’s main Until 17 February, the public were exhibition visitors were invited into the sponsors and partners are Hydro, Telenor able to learn more about Mahatma kitchens of families from around the Group, ABB and the Football Association Gandhi and his philosophy of non-vi- world, including Norway. Over a period of Norway. olent activism in the exhibition Eye on of 13 years, photographer Peter Menzel Gandhi. The comprehensive exhibition and writer Faith D’Aluisio have travelled

PROGRAMME 2014 FREE ENTRANCE DURING SEVERAL LOCAL 3 MARCH 4 JUNE EVENTS, INCLUDING The European Photo Exhibition Award 02 2010 – a small exhibition on / The New Social – with Eyes on Europe the 2010 Nobel Laureate 27 APRIL 17 AUGUST twelve selected photographers interpret Tourist in your own city Mela – World Performing social, cultural and political changes in 22 SEPTEMBER Art Festival Europe Martin Luther King Jr. – a small exhibition 27 JUNE on the 1964 Nobel Laureate Celebrating EuroPride 12 MAY Festival Oslo Culture Night Be Democracy – An exhibition on how 12 DECEMBER social media are affecting society and The Exhibition Programme selection, for the calender in full, please visit shifting the balance of power Free entrance 12 – 30 December www.nobelpeacecenter.org

32 All Nobel Peace Prize Laureates are presented in the Nobel Field

Photographer Peter Menzel’s documentation of global eating habits is displayed in the exhibition What the World Eats

No. of employees: 27,6 Adress: Brynjulf Bulls Plass 1, Turnover: NOK 50,800K Rådhusplassen, Oslo, Norway CEO: Bente Erichsen Contact: [email protected], Established: 2005 +47 48 30 10 00 Corporate ID No.: 985226237 Website: www.nobelpeacecenter.org

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 2013 Geir Lundestad, Professor, Director of the Norwegian Nobel Institute, Chairman Kaci Kullmann Five, Deputy Chair of the Norwegian Nobel Institute Siri Hatlen, Civil Engineer and MBA, self-employed Olav Aaraas, Historian, Museum Director, Norsk Folkemuseum

Inspectors from OPCW wearing protective equipment Olov Amelin, Museum Director, Nobel Museum



2013 WAS AN EVENTFUL YEAR for Nobel THE VISITING FELLOWS PROGRAMME was ON 11 DECEMBER the organisation pro- Peace Prize Research & Information, revived in the early 1990s as an exten- duced the Nobel Peace Prize Concert in the research division of the Norwegian sion of the Institute’s original ambition co-operation with IMG at Nobel Institute. The company’s work to be a meeting place in direct contact arena; a musical tribute to this year’s is financed through revenue from the with the latest developments in inter- Nobel Peace Prize Laureate the Organ- Nobel Peace Prize Concert and through national relations. The theme for the isation for the Prohibition of Chemical a licensing agreement with the Mint of 2013 programme was A World Renewed: Weapons (OPCW). The concert was Norway. Its activities revolve around Examining the Post-Cold War Legacy. Its co-hosted by actors Claire Danes and research into peace and conflicts that researchers focused on the legacy of Aaron Eckhart and featured performers complements the work of the Nobel the two decades that have passed since Mary J. Blige, James Blunt, Jake Bugg, Committee. In addition, the company the fall of the , which aspects Timbuktu, Morrissey, Omar Souleyman, also organises an annual visiting fellows of the international post-Cold War Zara Larsson and Envy, among others. programme, lectures and seminars. community have proved enduring and The concert’s Global Sponsors were The unit also hosts the Nobel Institute’s which philosophies and frameworks have Thomas L. Pearson and the Pearson annual teachers’ seminar, a tradition proven less enduring. Twelve leading Family Members Fund. that dates back to 1949. At the 2013 economists, political scientists, histori- teachers’ seminar, 28 selected primary ans, policy makers and journalists from school teachers from throughout Norway , Europe and America were invited participated in an intensive three-day to discuss these issues and to conduct seminar on a multipolar world, led by the research at the Nobel Institute in Oslo. country’s most respected historians and Their work culminated in a series of pop- political scientists. ular seminars held at the Institute in the spring of 2013. The seminars were open to the public.

PROGRAMME 2014 NOBEL SYMPOSIA 157 JUNE 20 JUNE 21 Does the rise and fall of great powers lead to What Role for China in the Global Order? China’s internal contradictions – bound for conflict and war? David Shambaugh, George Washington greatness? University, Zhang Ruizhuang, Nankai Johan Lagerkvist, utrikespolitiska institutet, University Minxin Pei, Claremont McKenna College Rise and fall of great powers – the liberal and US Foreign Policy: What role do the Norms and rules: dividing or unifying the realist case Americans and Europeans see for China? established and emerging powers? Stephen Walt, Harvard University, and G. John Aaron Friedberg, , and William Wohlforth, , Ikenberry, Princeton University Zaki Laidi, Sciences Po, Paris Martha Finnemore, George Washington Rise and fall of great powers – the uses of history How well can China and the University Geir Lundestad, the Norwegian Nobel cooperate on global issues? How to avoid the past? Patterns of conflict and Institute, Michael Cox, London School of Rosemary Foot, Oxford University, and cooperation in the 2000s Economics Liselotte Odgaard, University of Odd Arne Westad, London School of The ’peaceful rise’ of China and views from its Economics and Christopher Layne, Texas A&M neighbors Jonathan Holslag, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, and Akihiko Tanaka, Japan International The Nobel Peace Prize Concert at Oslo Cooperation Agency Spektrum Arena

34 Ahmet Üzümcü represented OPCW in Oslo and was the guest of honor at the Nobel Peace Prize Concert The sold-out Oslo Spektrum celebrated OPCW at the Nobel Peace Prize Concert

“I image that many of you BOARD OF DIRECTORS 2013 Geir Lundestad, Chairman, Director of the had not heard of the OPCW, Norwegian Nobel Institute very few people knew about Kaci Kullmann Five, Deputy Chair of the Number of employees: 1 Norwegian Nobel Committee us before” Turnover: NOK 3,247K Odd Arvid Strømstad, CEO of Eyeworks OPCW DIRECTOR-GENERAL, Established: 2010 (formerly called Nobel Dinamo Peace Prize Concert Limited Liability Company) AHMET ÜZÜMCÜ Asle Toje, Political , Research Corporate ID no.: 996179397 Director Address: Henrik Ibsens gate 51, Oslo, Norway Contact: +47 22 12 93 00, [email protected] Annika Pontikis, Public Relations Manager, Website: www.nppri.org Nobel Foundation



SINCE ITS FOUNDING in 1900 the Nobel discoveries and achievements, have con- and 2014. Read more about this on page Foundation has had plans to build ferred the greatest benefit to mankind. 10. Once the winning proposal has been a home for the Nobel Prize where By encouraging creativity and innovation, chosen and its costs have been specified, Nobel Laureates and their efforts can the Nobel Center aims to work in the preparatory technical work will begin. be presented to the general public. In same spirit. The goal is to begin construction during December 2011 an agreement was The Nobel Prize, the Nobel Laure- 2015. Based on this preliminary schedule, reached between the City of Stockholm ates’ works and their life stories are the the Nobel Center could be ready for and the Nobel Foundation to construct rich source around which the Center will inauguration in December 2018. a Nobel Center on a plot owned by the build its exhibitions, media productions Since the start of the project in City on the north side of the peninsula and activities. With the Nobel Prize as its December 2011, the ambition has been Blasie­holmen. The construction pro- starting point, the Center will stimulate to finance the new building for the Nobel ject is being carried out by Nobelhuset curiosity and learning among young peo- Center through donations. The future AB, a company formed at the initiative ple and complement primary, secondary operation of the center will be conduct- of the Nobel Foundation. In February and higher education. Some of its activ- ed with already confirmed long-term 2014 Susanne Lindh was appointed ities will be geared to suit the Swedish support from the Swedish state and CEO. Nobelhuset AB’s mission is to plan, and international scientific communities, the City of Stockholm. Since the Nobel construct, own and administer as well more specifically. Foundation’s capital may not be used, the as develop the Nobel Center, a building The new building will create oppor- external financing of the building and its designed for cultural and scientific activ- tunities to organise conferences and operations is a requirement. ities on Blasieholmen in Stockholm, and symposiums, whether independently or The cost for establishing the Nobel to conduct related activities. in collaboration with scientific institutions Center is estimated to total SEK 1.2 The building’s design is being and organisations. The center’s activities billion at 2012 prices. Thanks to generous determined through an architectural will also include research related to the donations by the Erling-Persson Fam- competition in two stages. Its location at Nobel Prize and its fields. In addition to ily Foundation and the Knut and Alice Blasieholmen requires careful considera- space for exhibitions, scientific confer- Wallenberg Foundation in June 2013, tion of, and sensitivity towards, surround- ences, meetings and events, the building the majority of financing for the Nobel ing institutions and the urban and marine will also contain a library, restaurant, Center has been secured. Together, these setting. A prerequisite for the success of café and shop. The ambition is to make donors have contributed SEK 800 million, the project is that the buildings on the the Nobel Center one of Stockholm’s which makes this one of the larger pri- one hand, and the urban and marine première tourist attractions. vate donations to this type of project in setting on the other, work well together. Sweden. Bernard and Barbro Osher have AN EXTENSIVE COMPETITION brief also donated USD 1.2 million to help in ON THE BASIS of Alfred Nobel’s last serves as the basis for the international the completion of the project. , the Nobel Prize is architectural competition that is being awarded to those who, through their conducted in two stages during 2013

“Now more than ever we all need to come together and support the sciences so that we can improve the future and improve on the human condition going forward. We have a lot of work to do. This is such an important tribute that you pay to science and to the human Craig C. Mello is one of many Laureates expressing spirit of discovery”. support for the Nobel Center CRAIG C. MELLO (PHYSIOLOGY OR MEDICINE 2006)

36 Blasieholmen in Stockholm

NOBELHUSET AB No. of employees: 2 Turnover: SEK 11,169K CEO: Susanne Lindh (since February 2014) Established: 2012 Corporate ID No.: 556884-6421 Address: Sturegatan 14, Stockholm, Sweden Contact: [email protected] STYRELSE Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive Director of the Nobel Foundation, Chairman Olov Amelin, Dr, Museum Director, Nobel Museum Lars Anell, Chairman of the Swedish Research Council Staffan Normark, Professor, Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Anders Nylander, Former Managing Director, Atrium Ljungberg Hans Dalborg, Dr, former Executive During a Press Conference on July 4 the donation Director and Chairman of Nordea from Familjen Erling-Perssons Stiftelse and Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse was announced. The Nobel Barbro Jonsson, Head of Administration at Museum CEO Olov Amelin was one of the participants the Nobel Foundation, Deputy Member


37 AFTER THE NOBEL PRIZE AWARD CEREMONY at the Stockholm Concert Hall, the Nobel Banquet begins at the City Hall. It opens with the pro- cession of royalty and other guests of honour into the Blue Hall. From the original 113 guests at the first banquet in the Hall of Mirrors at the Grand Hôtel in 1901, the 2013 Nobel Banquet hosted about 1,250 guests at . The evening’s dinner required 43 chefs and about 260 waiters and waitresses. The carefully laid tables with the Nobel tableware set needed 470 metres of linen tablecloths, 7,000 pieces of porcelain, 5,400 glasses and 10,000 pieces of cutlery. The evening’s entertainment was provided by Divine – The Opera Trio, who performed colourful divertissement including both old and newly-composed music. The three acts centred around Jenny Lind, Christina Nilsson and Signe Hebbe; three highly successful Swedish opera singers who performed around the world. The Blue Hall was decorated with flower arrangements by Gunnar Kaj, who was responsible for designing the arrangements for the four- teenth consecutive year. During the latter half of the dinner a Laureate from each prize category gave a banquet speech while students held aloft their student banners. After dinner, dancing commenced in the Golden Hall, where the Laureates’ Nobel Prize Medals and Nobel Prize Diplomas were displayed for the evening.


38 The power for change has pushed all science ahead. It propelled the field we pioneered to the point where it was recognized by the 2013 Chemistry Committee. I thank them, not for the obvious reason that they selected me and my fellow Laureates, Martin Karplus and Arieh Warshel. No, it is because they were brave and daring enough to recognize a new field. MICHAEL LEVITT

39 40 The choir Studentsångare participated in the evening’s divertissement at the Blue Hall Photo: Helena Paulin-Strömberg

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