POLLEN, & ! MORE PLANT SEX!! Are they at it again? ?????????????????????????????????



– where are made • – female part of flower • Anthers – male flower parts • Style – tube that leads to the ovary, female part • Pollen – small particles on the anthers that are needed to make seeds • Fertilization – pollen enters the ovary to make seeds. SPLAIN THEM FLOWER PARTS AGAIN!

STAMEN (Male) PISTOL (female) 1. Male reproductive organ 1. Female reproductive part of flower 2. Consists of 2 parts (anther & filament) 2. Consists of 3 parts (ovary, style, stigma) 3. Produces pollen grains 3. Bears number of in the ovary 4. Pollen grains germinate to produce male 4. Ovules possess the sac like structure – sac. ( – mature cell, ready to mate male / female) The sac possess the egg which represents the female gamete. 5. During pollination the pollen grains from the 5. During pollination the pollen grains, after are dispersed. dispersal, reaches the stigma where of the pollen grains occurs. ???? & Pollen ????


A powdery substance, typically yellow, produced in the anthers (male) of bearing consisting of microscopic grains containing the male gametes (sperm cells). Each grain contains a male gamete that can fertilize a female . Pollen is transported via , wind, other animals, etc. MORE ABOUT POLLEN

Study of pollen is called - TWO TYPES OF POLLEN • Entomophiles – pollen collected by insects (etc.) • Anemophilous – carried by wind OH COME ON! More about POLLEN

Scientists study pollen: • – study of extinct life. and data from of plants & animals. Fossilized pollen • – study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material from a culture. • Forensics – application of scientific information to criminal and civil law. Collection, preservation, and analysis of evidence.


An allergic reaction: is what happens when your immune system reacts to something that is usually harmless. Allergan: the trigger. Can be pollen, mold, dander, etc.


Itchy eyes Sneezing Itchy, runny nose Tickle in your throat Rash Hives Tired POLLEN COUNT


According to the American Academy of , , and Immunology 54% of Americans suffer from some sort of allergy! Double the amount since 1980! Cost to healthcare system: $18,000,000 per year.


? Better at diagnosing an allergic reaction ? ? Increase in amount of CO2 in the air ? ? Our obsession with cleanliness – has it increased our lack of exposure to microorganisms and parasites throwing our immune systems in to ‘overdrive’ ? ? Local ecology issues ? NECTAR – Flavor for the gods

Nectar is a sugary liquid formed by glands in a flower called nectaries, which are located at the base of flower in the carpel.

Nectar contains: sucrose, fructose, glucose, , amino acids, vitamins, minerals, flavonoids, organic acids, lipids, , alkaloids and oils. Amount varies per plant. WHERE’S THE NECTAR? COME ON OVER FOR A DRINK

Pedals of the flower attract the with the promise of nectar to be found inside the flower carpel. POLLINATION


POLLINATION IS: Process in which pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma (sex organs of seed plants). Thereby, enabling fertilization and reproduction through growth of the and eventual release of sperm. pollinate by smell, by sight.


The (etc.) gets covered in pollen, from the male part of the plant, and deposits the pollen rains on the female parts of the next flower it visits. Once the pollen is on the female part it moves to the ovary where it fertilizes and forms a seed. A LITTLE MORE SIMPLY PUT Meet THE Big EVEN MORE ABOUT POLLEN: TERMS

• SELF POLLINATION = when plants stamen (male) sheds pollen directly into its own stigma (female).

• CROSS POLLENATION = when pollen (boy stuff) travels to the pistil (girl stuff) of another plant via wind or when pollen sticks to an insect. Then, insect travels to another flower pollen is left behind – RESULT = fertilization! ABOUT POLLEN / POLLINATION CROSS POLLINATION vs. SELF POLLINATION


Insects: , grapes. Plums. Pears, raspberries, Orchids, peas, sunflowers, , oats, , barley, blackberries, , , daffodils, tomatoes, potatoes, apricots, lavender Wind: grasses, , dandelions. Transfer: wind, insects, water, animals, etc. Shed pollen directly into stigma

Plant differences: Brightly colored pedals, nectar and Smaller flowers scent, long & pistols Results: More variety and diversity. Relies on Uniform. Less resistant to disease. Does not expand pollinators that travel from plant to plant energy to attract pollinators Number of pollen grains: Large number Small number PLANTS THAT SELF POLLINATE

Most plants use cross pollination. Those that use insects tend to have brightly colored flowers. Those who are wind pollinated have long stamens and pistols with small or no petals. Self pollination: Smaller flowers Some cross pollinating flowers can self pollinate if cross pollination is not successful….peas & sunflowers


35% of our around the globe is highly dependent on animals for pollination. YIKESYIKES!!!!!! FOOD & POLLINATION POLLINATION POLLINATION PLANT FOR THE BEES FOR THE BEES MEET MORE POLLINATORS BEES

THE HARDEST WORKING CREATURE ON EARTH. 25,000 world wide 4,000 in United States 400 in Ohio Separated into just nine families Apidea family contains those bees we are most familiar with, The honeybee, , and . BEES

“To a bee, a flower is the fountain of life, and to the flower, the bee is the messenger of love”. Poet – Kahili Gabram BEES - $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ - BEES

More than 400 rely on bees for pollination.

Annual global pollination by bees is estimated to be worth $170,000,000,000 BEES

Beyond monetary value for maintaining our fragile food supply, bees make an invaluable contribution to around the world. Seeds, , and eaten by and small mammals are all from plants that are bee pollinated.

BEES = guardian of the food chain and the of our species.


Bees are industrious pollinators because they have co- evolved with flowering plants over millions of years. Bees need flowers for food, the flower needs the bee to reproduce. Unlike other insects, nectar and pollen from flowering plants are bees’ only source of food source; the sweet nectar drink gives adult bees energy. Pollen is protein rich baby food.


Think of an tree: it blossoms, is visited by bees, produces apples later in the summer containing seeds, which if planted slowly grows into a new apple tree. ?????????????????

Albert Einstein is attributed to have said: “If the bee disappeared off the face off the globe then man would only have four years left to live”.


Cave drawings dating back 20,000 years depict images of hunting. The ancient Egyptians transported their hives along the Nile to pollinate crops and buried their pharaohs with containers of honey, to sweeten the afterlife.


Are not native to the United States. The came from Europe with the settlers. LIFE CYCLE

Egg, Larvae, Pupa, Adult Eggs hatch in 3 days into workers. Larvae feed over 1000 times a day, feed by ‘brood nurses’, food made by pollen, honey, and bee secretions (bee bread). In 6 days egg cells are capped and each larvae spins itself a cocoon, becoming a pupa. In 10 days workers emerge (females), drones emerge in 12 days A QUEEN emerges (she has been fed ‘royal jelly’ (much richer) emerges in 6 days.


• IS larger, with a pointed abdomen • Lays 1500 eggs a day – lives 3-4 years • Has thousands of sex partners • Stores up to 6,000,000 sperm cells • Controls the workers behaviors with pheromones, but in the reduction or loss of that pheromone the workers decide a new queen is needed. • Pheromones also determine when a new hive is needed – the queen and ½ of the hive will swarm, looking for a new home. THE WORKERS – the girls

• GIRLS RULE! • Make all of the decisions about the hive. • Changes tasks as she ages • Clean the cells • Cap the cells • Tend the brood and the QUEEN • Are neat freaks, clean the hive • Pack the pollen • Build the comb A GAL’S WORK IS NEVER DONE!

• She ventilates the hive (flaps her wings) • She guards the hive • She may up to 8 miles to find pollen & nectar • Only lives about 5 weeks • Works herself to death – lives 6-7 weeks • When death is near she will fly away from the hive to die alone THE DRONES – the boys

• Spend their lives drinking nectar and • Do little to maintain the hive • Live up to four months - BUT- • Are only reared when it suits the queen • Not all even get to mate – rarely get to mate with a virgin queen • Die just after mating • At end of summer get kicked out of the colony – so not to deplete resources of the hive. MORE ON HONEY BEES

A colony consists of 20- 60,000 or more bees.

The colony over winters, common in US to lose up to 40% of a hive per year. Honeybees cluster in the hive and keep the hive at a constant temperature during the winter.


It is said that the honeybee are our most important pollinator, while that may be true, it really depends on the crop being pollinated. There are “hive” farmers who transport honeybee hives on flatbed trucks all over the country for pollination. The crop in is almost all pollinated by bees that have been trucked in. Yes, they return to the hive, and are then driven to another location. CALIFORNIA ALMOND HONEY BEES

• Are social, most bees are solitary. • Have their own ‘health care system’ and it WORKS! • Have pollen baskets on their legs. • Are very ‘hairy’, even their eyes! • When they swarm, they are looking for a new home. • Few ‘native’ hives remain in United States.


• Several diseases that have affected hive health. Most prominent now is the parasitic varroa , that literally suck the blood from the bee • and Herbicides. • ?? GMO’s ??? Lots of research, showing different conclusions. • Decline of large patches of wild flowers. • Decline of fence rows. • Hybridizing of so many plants = pollen free plants!! • Bee Keepers BUMBLE BEES

Good Pollinators Are also social bees Only the (mated) QUEEN will winter over. Make an annual nest in the ground or old . QUEEN is seen early in the spring gathering pollen and nectar. Only can be pollinated by bumble bees.


Produce only one brood a year. Fairly solitary Males fight each other to get females Females are black, males are black with white spots. Males are more aggressive, but only females can sting. Hibernate through winter, females make the nest, males do not live long enough to need a nest. Like unpainted softwood, bite the wood, end up with a circular hole that is actually more of an “L: shape.


Very effective pollinators, especially in . 3 mason bees can pollinate an apple tree. Difficult to ‘hive’ because the are roamers. Lifespan is about 5 weeks.


Attracted to the salt in human perspiration. Are ground nesters. Are small, usually metallic green or black CUTTER BEES

DO NOT HURT THE PLANT! You might think you have a chewing insect on your plant – but no, just a little leafcutter. Looks like someone took a hole puncher to your flower . Love leaves! CUCKOO BEE

• Are not fuzzy or hairy, more wasp like in appearance. • Decent pollinators, do not collect pollen, it sticks to their bodies. • Are kleptoparasite • Are called cuckoo bees because like the cuckoo lays its eggs in other burrows or nests of other birds. MINER BEES / WOOL CARTER BEE

MINER BEES Also know as digger bees Dig tunnels in sandy . Are not aggressive. WOOL CARTER BEES Scrape the ‘wool’ off leaves like the Lambs Ears plant and use it in lining their nests. Seem to dart or hover around plants Look more like a wasp.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BEES & WASPS • WASPS were here first, BEES are thought to have descended from wasps. • WASPS are . • WASPS are not hairy. • WASPS are aggressive. • Wings down when flying. • Wasps eat human food.


• Know what to do IF you are allergic! • Honey bees do not want to sting. If the sting they die a horrible death! • Bee keepers seldom get stung. • can sting over and over. • Teach children not to fear bees. • Don’t ‘swat’ at a bee who is buzzing near you.


BUTTERFLIES are diurnal, meaning they visit a wide variety of flowers during the day. Sense some smell, but like big, beautiful, bright blooms and choose flowers by sight. Have good color vision, sense more wave lengths than humans. Unlike bees butterflies can see red.

Check out more info:

• xercesociety.org • thebutterflywebsite.com • butterfliesandmoths.org • Any University Extension website

• Their brain is 4.2% of their body weight, largest in the bird kingdom. • They are smart, can remember flowers. • Hear & see better than humans. • See ultraviolent light. • Heat beats 250 times a minute at rest! • Metabolism 100 times that of an elephant. • Only have 3 kinds in OHIO, 2 are not seen often – the ruby throated quite common. • Attracted to red flowers no need to put out ‘red dyed water. PLANT TO ATTRACT POLLINATORS MORE ON ATTRACTING POLLINATORS


• Maximize the yield of your fruits and vegetables, • Boost the over all health of your yard, • Delight in watching the pollinators at work, • Satisfaction in knowing you are doing your part to help. WHAT TO DO

• Landscape with plants that pollinators like. • Plant a rainbow of colors. • Plant a variety of shapes. • Plant to feed for all seasons. • Plant in clumps. • Plant in the sun. • Allow plants to bolt – flower, seed ,& die back (especially herbs) • Avoid pesticides & herbicides as much as possible. MORE ON WHAT TO DO

• Provide a water source • Mow less • Provide nesting places, a place to rear their young – shelter • Plant flowers near fruits and vegetables. • Have small patches of bare ground. • Have large rocks – butterflies to dry their wings. MORE POLLINATORS HELP

5 THINGS: GO NATIVE! DRASTICALLY REDUCE PESTICIDES & HERBICIDES. Leave things a little messy in your yard. Plant for hosts & plant for ALL seasons. TEACH our children & grandchildren.

Bees: prefer single - pedaled flowers. Butterflies: prefer lowers in sun and very little wind Hummingbirds: Tubular blossoms Don’t forget about “host” plants for egg laying.

BUTTERFLIES BEES HUMMINGBIRDS Chives Basil Pineapple Sage Marjoram Lemon Balm Mallow Catmint Lavender Rosemary Mint Anise hyssop Comfery Yarrow Hyssop Lavender Parsley Borage Bee Balm Dill Germander Hyssop Sage Mint Bee Balm Chamomile Rosemary Thyme Clover Dill Dandelion

HERBS THAT ATTRACT BENIFICIAL INSECTS • Yarrow Basil • Cilantro Calendula • Dill Lemon Balm • Fennel Anise Hyssop

Please refer to: Ohio State Fact sheet: ENT 47-14 Ohio State: Quick guide for pollinators US Fish and Wildlife Service: Pollinators University of : Bulletin # 7150 PERENNIAL FOR SUCCESSIOIN BLOOM BY MONTH For Zone 5 Early Spring: – Feb – March Lenten Rose –, crocus, daffodils, grape hyacinth, forsythia, of course dandelions Later Spring: April – May Bleeding Heart, , Candy Tuft, Dianthus, Columbine, Cora Bells, Globeflower, , Lady’s Mantle, Lungwort, , and Summer: July – August Japanese Anemone, Stokes Aster, Astilbe, Baby’s Breath, Balloon Flower, Butterfly Weed, Cardinal Flower, Black eyed Susan, Shasta Daisy, , Cora bells, , Goldenrod, Lupine, Garden Phlox, Perennial Sunflower, Yarrow, and Coneflowers Fall: September Hardy Ageratum, Japanese Anemone, Aster, Mums, Cora bells, Mallow and Sedum