• Asexual reproduction is natural “.” Parts of the , such as or stems, produce and become an independent plant.

• Sexual reproduction requires fusion of male cells in the with cells in the . Terms to know:

• Haploid: having a single set of in each . • Diploid: having two sets of chromosomes in each cell, one set from each parent. • : , which produces two genetically identical diploid cells. • : reduction division, which produces four haploid reproductive cells. Terms to know:

: haploid reproductive cell that leads to a in plant alternation of generations. • : mature haploid male or female able to unite with another of the opposite in sexual reproduction to form a . • Zygote: diploid, eukaryotic cell formed during fertilization event between two , combining DNA of each gamete, containing the genetic information to form a new individual. Terms to know:

: diploid, multicellular stage which develops from zygote, produced when a haploid female cell is fertilized by a haploid male cell, produces haploid by meiosis. • Gametophyte: haploid, multicellular stage, develops from a spore by mitosis, produces haploid gametes by mitosis. Plant Cycle

Animals vs.

Plant Reproduction Reproduction

Alternation of No alternation of Life cycle generations generations

Gametes Haploid gametes Haploid gametes

Spores Haploid spores N/A (no spores)

Gametes made Haploid gametophyte, Diploid , by by by mitosis meiosis

Diploid sporophyte, by Spores made by N/A (no spores) meiosis Alternation of Generations • Plants have a double life cycle with two forms: • Sporophyte • Gametophyte Non-flowering plants

, , and related plants have motile, swimming . Life Cycle Life Cycle

• Conifers (also non-flowering plants) have reduced . • Male gametophyte is contained in a dry pollen grain. • Female gametophyte is a few cells inside of the structures that become the . life cycle Conifer

• Conifers are -pollinated plants. • Chance allows pollen to on scales of female cones. • Pollen germinates, grows a into , allows sperm to fertilize egg.

Pollen go-betweens

• Showy flowers are the result of selection for more efficient pollination strategies. • parts are modified leaves. Those that were brightly colored attracted in search of pollen. Flower Parts Incomplete flowers

• Flowers are complete if they have all parts, and perfect if they have both male and female parts. • Grass flowers: incomplete, usually imperfect (separate male and female flowers) • A is complete (though the are the same color as the ) and perfect. Imperfect flowers Angiosperm Life Cycle : Male Gametogenesis: Female Flower to Ovule to Seed Seed Seed