Biology: Term 2, Unit 5 Topic: Cell Growth and Reproduction (Mitosis & Meiosis)
Duration: Traditional (50 minute periods): 13 - 17 days (adjust to student needs using professional discretion) Block (90 minute periods): 6 - 8 days (adjust to student needs using professional discretion)
Eligible Content This is what the State of Pennsylvania wants your students to know and be able to do by the end of the unit.
1. Cell Cycle--BIO.B.1.1.1 Describe the events that occur during the cell cycle: interphase, nuclear division (i.e., mitosis or meiosis), cytokinesis. 2. Mitosis and Meiosis--BIO.B.1.1.2 Compare the processes and outcomes of mitotic and meiotic nuclear divisions. 3. DNA Replication--BIO.B.1.2.1 Describe how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and/or conservation of genetic information. 4. Genes, Alleles, and Chromosomes--BIO.B.1.2.2 Explain the functional relationships between DNA, genes, alleles, and chromosomes and their roles in inheritance.
Performance Objectives These are examples, created by SDP teachers, of how you may translate the eligible content into learning goals for your classroom.
1. SWBAT use models IOT illustrate the role of the cell cycle, cellular division (mitosis), and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms. 2. SWBAT compare mitotic and meiotic nuclear divisions IOT differentiate between their processes and outcomes. 3. SWBAT describe the process of DNA replication IOT explain the conservation of genetic information. 4. SWBAT explain the functional relationships between DNA, genes, alleles, and chromosomes IOT articulate their roles in inheritance.
Key Terms and Definitions All key terms and definitions come from the document Keystone Exams: Biology Assessment Anchors and Eligible Content with Sample Questions and Glossary, PDE 2011.
1. Cell Cycle: The series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. The main phases of the cell cycle are interphase, nuclear division, and cytokinesis. 2. Chromosomes: A single piece of coiled DNA and associated proteins found in linear forms in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and circular forms in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells; contains genes that encode traits. Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes. 3. Crossing-over: An exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during anaphase I of meiosis; contributes to the genetic variability in gametes and ultimately in offspring. 4. Cytokinesis: The final phase of a cell cycle resulting in the division of the cytoplasm 5. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): A biological macromolecule that encodes the genetic information for living organisms and is capable of self replication and the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA). - 6. DNA Replication: the process in which DNA makes a duplicate copy of itself. 7. Gamete: a specialized cell (egg or sperm) used in sexual reproduction containing half the normal number of chromosomes of a somatic cell. 8. Gene recombination: A natural process in which a nucleic acid molecule (usually DNA but can be RNA) is broken and then joined to a different molecule; a result of crossing over. - 9. Interphase: The longest lasting phase of the cell cycle in which a cell performs the majority of its functions, such as - preparing for nuclear division and cytokinesis. Bio T2, Unit 5: Cell Growth and Reproduction (Mitosis & Meiosis) 10. Meiosis: A two phase nuclear division that results in the eventual production of gametes with half the normal number - of chromosomes. 11. Mitosis: A nuclear division resulting in the production of two somatic cells having the same genetic complement as the original cell 12. Semiconservative replication: The process in which the DNA molecule uncoils and separates into two strands. Each original strand becomes a template on which a new strand is constructed, resulting in two DNA molecules identical to the original DNA molecule.
Starting Points An overview of how the content and skills of this unit connect to students' prior knowledge.
1. Cell Cycle--BIO.B.1.1.1 Students should already know (from Unit 1) that systems of specialized cells within organisms help them perform the essential functions of life. In this unit, students will learn that cellular division and differentiation produce and maintain a complex organism composed of systems of tissues and organs that work together to meet the needs of the whole organism. 2. Mitosis and Meiosis--BIO.B.1.1.2 This unit covers both mitosis and meiosis. Students should already know that organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to their offspring. In this unit, they will learn how the replication of DNA before cell division ensures the production of two genetically identical daughter cells and how meiosis leads to the genetic recombination necessary for sexual reproduction. 3. DNA Replication--BIO.B.1.2.1 Students may have learned about the role of DNA in Unit 1, and the structure of the DNA molecule (or nucleotides in general) in Unit 2,. In this unit students will learn how the structure of DNA allows for it to be easily and accurately replicated. 4. Genes, Alleles, and Chromosomes--BIO.B.1.2.2 Students should already know that genes are located on chromosomes, but the physical and functional relationships between genes, alleles, DNA, and chromosomes is something most students need to review frequently. By the end of the unit, students should know that each chromosome consists of a single very long DNA molecule, each gene on the chromosome is a particular segment of that DNA, and alleles are different variations of a gene. 1. 1 Instructional Resources Learning activities and resources targeted to the eligible content of this unit.
1. SWBAT use models IOT illustrate the role of the cell cycle, cellular division (mitosis), and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms. a. Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis from CK-12. (Video, practice questions) b. Cell Cycle tutorial from Cells Alive. Animation, powerpoint, Cancer Cell Cam, worksheets, quiz. c. Mitosis: How Each New Cell Gets a Complete Set of Genes from Serendip. In this hands-on activity, students use model chromosomes to simulate mitosis and respond to analysis and discussion questions to further develop their understanding of mitosis. d. Control of the Cell Cycle Game from Nobelprize.org. Interactive game illustrating the cell cycle and checkpoints. Worksheet with additional questions by KD Davenport. e. Meiosis and Fertilization--Understanding How Genes Are Inherited from Serendip. In this hands-on activity, students use model chromosomes to simulate the processes of meiosis and fertilization.
2. SWBAT compare mitotic and meiotic nuclear divisions IOT differentiate between their processes and outcomes. a. Mitosis and Meiosis Card Sort from Serendip. This activity is designed to help students review the processes of mitosis and meiosis and to ensure that students understand how chromosomes move during mitosis vs. meiosis. Students arrange the cards from a shuffled deck of the stages of mitosis and meiosis in the sequence of steps that occur during cell division by mitosis and another sequence of steps that occur during cell division by meiosis. b. Mitosis and Meiosis: Doing it on the Table from Evolution & the Nature of Science Institutes. In this unfortunately-named activity, students learn the critical distinctions between what happens to chromosomes Bio T2, Unit 5: Cell Growth and Reproduction (Mitosis & Meiosis) during mitosis vs meiosis. Students manipulate pipe-cleaner chromosomes on a template showing stages of mitosis with one pair of chromosomes, then repeat the exercise for meiosis. c. How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs Meiosis from PBS Learning Media. This interactive feature provides a step-by-step, side-by-side comparison of meiosis and mitosis.
3. SWBAT describe the process of DNA replication IOT explain the conservation of genetic information. a. DNA Replication from CK-12. Reading, video, practice, quiz, and applications. b. Double Helix Game from nobelprize.org. Interactive tutorial in which students simulate DNA Replication.
4. SWBAT explain the functional relationships between DNA, genes, alleles, and chromosomes IOT articulate their roles in inheritance. a. Human Chromosomes and Genes from CK-12 b. Basic Genetics from the Genetic Science Learning Center. Tons of videos, interactives and articles about DNA, genes and chromosomes.
Quizlet - Keystone Biology Flashcards 1. Unit 5 Vocabulary Flash Cards 2. Units 1-8 Vocabulary Flash Cards
Holt Biology Textbook References Johnson, G. B., & Raven, P. H. (2004). Biology. Orlando, Fl: Holt Rinehart and Winston. 1. Ch. 6, Chromosomes & Cell Reproduction, pp.117-139 2. Ch. 7, Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction, pp.143-159 3. Ch. 9, DNA: The Genetic Material, pp.189-205
Biology Philadelphia Core Curriculum References (Green Spiral Bound Book) Cell cycles, division, mitosis, meiosis, pp.278-297
PDESAS Materials and Resources http://www.pdesas.org/module/content/resources/16633/view.ashx
Keystone Biology Released Items : see below Bio T2, Unit 5: Cell Growth and Reproduction (Mitosis & Meiosis)
Bio T2, Unit 5: Cell Growth and Reproduction (Mitosis & Meiosis)
ANS: C, D Bio T2, Unit 5: Cell Growth and Reproduction (Mitosis & Meiosis)
Bio T2, Unit 5: Cell Growth and Reproduction (Mitosis & Meiosis)
Bio T2, Unit 5: Cell Growth and Reproduction (Mitosis & Meiosis)
Essential Questions 1. How do structure and function of subcellular components and their interactions provide essential cellular processes? 2. How do living systems store, retrieve, and transmit genetic information critical to life processes? 3. How do the events of mitosis result in the production of two genetically identical cells? 4. How does the process of DNA replication ensure that the two new DNA molecules will be identical to the original?
PA Standards These are the PA Standards that underly the Eligible Content in this unit.
3.1.B.A4 Summarize the stages of the cell cycle. Examine how interactions among the different molecules in the cell cause the distinct stages of the cell cycle which can also be influenced by other signaling molecules. Explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction. Compare and contrast a virus and a cell. Relate the stages of viral cycles to the cell cycle. 3.1.B.A5 Relate the structure of cell organelles to their function (energy capture and release, transport, waste removal, protein synthesis, movement, etc). Explain the role of water in cell metabolism. Explain how the cell membrane functions as a regulatory structure and protective barrier for the cell. Describe transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane. 3.1.B.B2 Describe how the process of meiosis results in the formation of haploid gametes and analyze the importance of meiosis in sexual reproduction. Compare and contrast the function of mitosis and meiosis. Illustrate that the sorting and recombining of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations in offspring. 3.1.B.B3 Describe the basic structure of DNA, including the role of hydrogen bonding. Explain how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and conservation of the genetic code. Describe how transcription and translation result in gene expression. Differentiate among the end products of replication, transcription, and translation. Cite evidence to support that the genetic code is universal. 3.1.B.B5 Explain how the processes of replication, transcription, and translation are similar in all organisms. Explain how gene actions, patterns of heredity, and reproduction of cells and organisms account for the continuity of life. Demonstrate how inherited characteristics can be observed at the molecular, cellular, and organism levels. 3.1.B.C2 Describe how mutations in sex cells may be passed on to successive generations and that the resulting phenotype may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring’s success in its environment. Describe the relationship between environmental changes and changes in the gene pool of a population
Common Core Standards for Science and Technical Subjects These are Common Core Standards that are related to the Eligible Content in this unit.
RST.9-10.7 Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form and translate information expressed visually or mathematically into words. WHST.9-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. Bio T2, Unit 5: Cell Growth and Reproduction (Mitosis & Meiosis) WHST.9-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection and research.
Next Generation Science Standards These are Next Generation Science Standards that are related to the Eligible Content in this unit.
HS-LS1-4. Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms. HS-LS3-1. Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring. HS-LS3-2. Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to support arguments for the way variation occurs.]