Cosmology, , and Worldwide Acclaims to the Ist Edition

... a master piece ... any good library must have a copy of this classical work ..... The well-known author bases his philosophy on a very sound of the present-day scientific .... Indian Journal of Physics This is a great book, and an exciting book readable, worth reading and enlightening. The Sir Karl Popper "Gal-Or's book is really a tour de foce, which I have no doubt be widely read and appreciated by and all round the world ... a magnificent and sus• tained piece of work!". Sir Alan Cottrell, Cambridge University's Chancellor I do not know a better modern expression of , philosophy and classical • ism than that of Gal-Or's book. Ha'aretz Daily · ... inescapably fascinating ..... Stern und WeItraum · ... We are all Gal-Orians! (the editor) The task that Gal-Or has attempted is a very important one ... (he) bemoans the gulf that has grown up between philosophy and and attempts to bridge it by inform• ing philosophers about the modern theories of physics and by trying to interest physicists in philosophy. This is a very unusual book indeed, trying to unify cosmology, physics and philosophy in one extensive of lectures. Many excellent illustrations and many quotations from various sources enrich the book. Physics Bulletin Benjamin Gal-Or is a man with a message. (His book is) audacious, ambitious and pro- vocative ... (it) will appeal to of all disciplines who are prepared to open thier ... it shines a welcome in some dark corners of science. New · ... richness of and structures ... Physikalische Blatter · .. will excite everybody who is aware of the narrowness of his own field ... provocative

Die Naturwissenschaften · .. interesting to read ... integrating much scientific material ... a good introduction to relativity , and theoretical cosmology for readers interested in natural in general. Deutsche Literaturzeitung The reader learns a lot about Einstein's theory, the development of biological struc• tures and especially about the multi facet interrelations between the natural sciences and philosophy. But first of all he learns to ask questions. (This book) stimulates to think anew about "understood" and things. Sterne und Weltraum

Benjamin Gal-Or's remarkable book is an attempt to see and seize the world whole, in his own terms, "Havayism". He emphasizes that all scientists operate under some set of philo• sophical prejudices and that failure to acknowledge this is self-delusion. Furthermore, he argues that a failure to attend to the philosophical base of physics leads to an empty scien• tism.... Gal-Or's work is challenging on many levels, constituting a review (with deriva• tions) of (as applied to cosmology), thermodynamics, the current state of theoretical physics, , as well as a summary history of western phi• losophy (especially the of and ) and critiques of western society, the intelligentsia and the relationship between academic science and government.

One (and perhaps the central) theme explored is that of the interplay between symme• try and asymmetry. His primary interest is not in the recent in the unification offorces in gauge theory, although he finds support in it for his Einsteinian outlook, but is rather time, time's arrow, and the asymmetry between past and future. Around time are accumulated discussions, both mathematical and philosophical, of thermodynamic reversibility, time reversal, the nature of , and the use of advanced and retarded solutions to wave equations. The second major theme is that of gravity and its overwhelm• ing domination of the actual form of the , at all scales. The combination of these themes is not accidental; they are point and counterpoint to his thesis that the time asym• metries are connectable to and perhaps even determined by the master asymmetry given by the gravity of general relativity: the remorseless cosmological expansion. He argues that only the expansion can provide the unification of time asymmetries. The expansion pro• vides, among other things, an unsaturable sink for , which in turn permits the establishment of gradients in temperature and density which provide the basis for the physical process that leads to life.

He also criticizes the sloppy and improper use of the concepts of (and the related notions in theory) and quantum indeterminism, especially as covers for an inadequate understanding of temporal asymmetries. Taking an Einsteinian position on the interpretation of quantum mechanics, he looks forward to a revitalization of Einstein's quest for a deterministic interpretation of quantum events .

. . . the of this book for physicists lies in the challenging combination of ideas which Gal-Or presents, which goes far beyond what can be sensibly described in a review. Gal-Or's use for punctuation (up to four exclamation points), italics, and neologisms is initially distracting but is best seen as a lexical transcription of a lively lecturing style. Gal• Or's work may be too large to digest as a text in these days of the decline of academic insti• tutions (as Gal-Or describes them), but that will be the loss of both the faculty and students. American Journal of Physics

... Gal-Or takes on himself an ambitious task: to integrate the most important discoveries achieved during the last years. A Textbook which includes all major notions to be understood by anybody who intends to study contemporary science. In a very original and impressing style the Author correlates the individual areas of mod• em physics. Gal-Or gives a short course of the history of philosophy while stressing the relation to natu• ral science. Gravitation, according to this book, is the main source of asymmetry and order in the universe. Stressing the importance of gravitation in all world phenomena, leads to the formulation of the doctrine of gravitism. Gravitism is a part of the still more theory to which the Author gives an exotic name: HA VA YISM (from the Hebrew HA VA Y A, which means the substance of all , and the dynamic correlation of nature). The greatest merit of the book is in its surmounting the boundaries of artificially isolated scientific disciplines and laying stress on the interrelation of the latest scientific discover• ies with the philosophical tradition of European science, applying a pedagogicallly well• founded method which takes the reader into elevated and fascinating spheres, and, yet, enables him to continue using his own methods. Bulletin of the Czekoslovenska Biochemical Society

I have in the meantime studied your book carefully, with great interest, and made pages of notes on it. I feel as if I had been on numerous walks and talks with you on the great questions, and know that would be great to go on with them! Who cannot be impressed by your love for the great men of all and all countries, by your phrase, "working back and forth between theory and fact", by your that philosophy is too important to be left to the philosophers, by your concern for where and language lie in the scheme of things - and by so much more! I continue to reflect, again and again, on your central thesis that expansion is the origin of all asymmetry in time. What an ingen• ious phrase is your, "smuggle irreversibility in without declaring the contraband"!

I regard your book as seeking to accomplish two tasks - and two books - at the very least. One is the exposition of your central thesis with all clarity, and careful muster• ing of every argument pro and con that can lead to testable consequences. I don't see how it is possible to do proper to a thesis of such importance by mixing it in with the other great task. That is to give students an appreciation of the unity of philosophy and modem physics. You do both tasks far better than I could hope to.

I give you my personal thanks for putting the two books into a package that I person• ally have found most thought-provoking.

John Archivald Wheeler Director of the Center for Theoretical Physics, The University of Texas at Austin

The red thread that runs through everything is the conception of the author that pres• ent-day (and education) in physics, like our view about men and society, is harmed because it is not enough guided by philosophy, where he sees it as the task of phi- losophy to construct a coherent and comprehensive vision of the world, starting from the results of diverse scientific specialism. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde

Recommended to all who are interested in the great queston of the irreversibility of time. The author has a profound and extensive knowledge of these subjects. Olivier Costa de Beauregard Revue de Synthese

An interesting and original book .... supplying also an interesting review of much of modern physical science. The reader can either follow the (order of) the chapters or make his own among the various subjects. The mathematical requirements are minimal, yet they may prove too difficult for students of philosophy. The book is easy to read, interesting and fascinating. It is very useful also as a refer• ence book. Nuovo Cimento Cosmology, Physics, and Philosophy

Including a New Theory of

Benjamin Gal-Or

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Technion-Israel Institute of Technology Haifa, Israel 2nd Edition 1987

Springer-Verlag New York Inc. First Printing 1981 Second Printing 1983 Second Edition, 1987

Benjamin Gal-Or Technion - Israel Institute of Technology

© Benjamin Gal-Or 1981, 1983, 1987 Softcover reprint of the hardcover 3rd edition 1987

All rights reserved. NQ part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without permission. Sole distributors in the USA and Canada: Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 175 Fifth A venue New York, NY lOOlO U.S.A.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Gal-Or, Benjamin. Cosmology, physics, and philosophy. (Recent advances as a core curriculum course; v. I) Includes index. I. Physics - Philosophy. 2. Cosmology. I. Title. II. Series. QC6.2.G34 530'.01 81-5257 AACR2

With 61 illustrations. Printed in Israel

ISBN-13: 978-1-4615-9663-9 e-ISBN-13: 978-1-4615-9661-5 001: 10.1007/978-1-4615-9661-5 To Leah, Amir, Gil/ad, David, Yetti and Tzvi. TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface to the 2nd Edition ...... xv Sir Karl Popper: Foreword ...... xxx Sir Alan Cottrell: Foreword ...... xxxi Preface ...... xxxii Glossary...... xxxv

VOLUME I Introduction 2 I. Relativistic cosmology vs. modified concepts in physics and philosophy. The problem of ordering • How did it all start? • The first seven stages • 2 2. The Einsteinian • The withdrawal of philosophy from physics • The greatest ambition of physics. Unified field theories. Physico-philo• sophical gains. The expanding universe. The 1977 "Aether drift" discovery • Verification of physical laws by and astrophysics • Einstein's classification of physical theories •...... , , , , , ' , ' II

3. Economy of physical laws. Search for higher symmetries and asymmetries. Unified theories and quantum chromodynamics • Gravitism • Cosmology and physics. Gravitation-structure-life • Gravitational selection. Grav• itation, life and evolution. Valid philosophies and Popper. Task of philos- ophy • The skeptic's outlook • , , . , ' , ' , ' 26

PART I Preliminary Concepts

Lecture I From Terrestrial Gravitational Structures To Black Holes and in Astro- ~~~ .... ,.,." ...... " ...... ""'., .. " .. """' .. '" M Terminology and a word of caution • The hierarchy of structures • The main galactic structures. Gravitation, asymmetry and structure. Gravitationally- induced sedimentation, crystallisation, viruses, metamorphism, etc, • 75 Stellar structures. Main-sequence, supergiant and neutron stars. Supernovae and pulsars. Gravitational clocks • X-ray astronomy and binary sources. Black holes and violently active . Gas, dust and formation of stars •... , 88 Cosmic distances measurement • Cephei stars. astronomy • Gamma- ray astronomy • Unmanned spacecrafts exploring the universe, , ' . , , , . , . . 116 xi xii Lecture II From "Conservation" in Classical Physics to Solitons in ...... 136 What is conservation? • Micro-vs. macro-analyses • Limitations of theory • The general macroscopic equation. Continuity and momentum equation. Energy equation and dissipation • Entropy balance equation...... 136 Beyond classical physics: Solitons, Antisolitons and conservation. Solitons in biophysics...... 160 Conservation in subatomic processes • The discovery of the neutrino • ...... 163

Lecture III From General Relativity and Relativistic Cosmology to Gauge Theories...... 166 Introduction. Einstein field equations. of equivalence. Confirma- tions of Einstein's theory...... 166 Preliminary formulations in general relativity • Metric tensor and affine connec- tion • Newtonian limit • The Energy-momentum tensor • Weak static fields. Master arrow of time • Mathematical derivations • Cosmological models • Age and fate of the universe. Accelerated observers and principle of equivalence. .. 181 Unified field theories: Solitons, instanton and gauge fields. Spin-2 graviton and gauge fields. Supergravity and spin-3/2 gravitino • The skeptic's view...... 205


From Physics To Philosophical Crossroads and Back

Lecture IV The Arrows of Time 214 Asymmetry-symmetry--time and the unification of the laws of physics. Confusing concepts of time and asymmetry. The entropic asymmetry. Causality and causation • in relativity • Light cones • Cosmological asym• metries • Time-reversalinvariance • Subatomicasymmetrics • Symmetry break- ing • ...... 215 The death of scale-based physics. Quantum geometrodynamics • Superspace • Failure of time • Tachyons and macro-causality...... 242 Memory in classical physics. False entropy. Entropy-free thermodynam- ics. 247

Lecture V The Crisis in Quantum Physics...... 254 Preliminary review. Gravitation and quantum physics. The three main schools of thought • Controversies over "uncertainty" and complementary "" • Recent physico-philosophical conclusions about the state of determinism and chance. The heresy of a few skeptics. Mythologized concepts in physics. . . . . 255 The failure of quantum physics to deduce irreversibility and asymmetry • Differen- tial equations, initial and boundary conditions, and physical laws...... 267 Quantum chromodynamics and super-symmetry. Weinberg-Salam Theory. Renormalizable gauge theories and supergravity • Quarks, gluons, color, and the search for higher symmetry principles...... 272 xiii


From Physics to Cosmological Crossroads and Back

Lecture VI Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy...... 277 Reduction of thermodynamics to gravitation. Gravitation as a super -asymmetry • The earliest asymmetry • Classification of expanding . Gravitation• asymmetry principle of equivalence. Unsaturable spaces. Derivation of the Master asymmetry from gravitation theories. Irreversibility in the new theory. The origin of all dissipation •...... 277 Terrestrial thermophysics • Connections with classical and continuum thermo- physics. Electromagnetic irreversibility and the Master asymmetry. 299

Lecture VII Black Holes and the Unification of Asymmetries 329 Introduction. Observational evidence. Schwarzchild solution of the field equa- tions • Cygnus X-I • horizons • Black - hole physics and entropy • "Evaporation" of black holes. Primordial black holes') • Back to unified asym- metries ...... 330


Beyond Present Knowledge

Lecture IX Havayism-The Science of the Whole ...... 348 The futile quest for final answers. An example in Hu\'ul'ism • The interconnected- ness of Havaya • Impossibility of biotic evolution. Gravitation and geochemical evolution. Scale of biotic evolution. Generation of biomonomers • Gravita- tion and organisation • Biological clocks • • Asymmetry and memory • ...... 349 Brain and ordering of space and time • Depth • The failure of cyber• netics and information theory. Innate depth perception and gravitation. Lan• guage, thinking and asymmetry. Thinking, structure and complexity. • From to Kant and back • Fichte, Hegel, Kant and Spinoza • • Mach, Popper and Einstein • Dialectical gravitism ...... 367 Beyond present physics. Solitons and instantons in vacuum gauge fields. Pre• geometry. Quantum chromodynamics • Unified gauge fields. Skepticism and the skeptic outlook ...... 406


Critique of Western Thought

Introduction 420 Crisis as constructive catalyst? • Our universities: Are they adequate? • A proper time to reasses priorities? • Militarism, pacifism and the Einsteinian . xiv

Academe, power and survival • The of Spinoza • Why higher education has failed •...... " 420 The case for and excellence • Politics in science • The need for philosophy in a time of crisis • vs. theoretical physics •...... 430

Appendix I (Lecture X) A Few Historical Remarks on Time, Mind and Symmetry ...... 437 Symmetry at the dawn of science • Time, mind and order in Hebrew and Greek antiquity • Subjective time and causality • ...... 438

Appendix II (Lecture XI) The Philosophy of Time & Change: Some Historical Notions...... 455 and • Macro-evolution and historicism • Spencer • Doomsday theories (Spengler and Toynbee) • Dialectical and historicism. Global interdependence • Global economics and low-entropy energy resources • 456

Appendix III (Lecture XII) and the Divided American Thought...... 467 Chauncy Wright • . Operationalism • • Preoc• cupation with the analysis of language • Wittgenstein • • Struc- turalism •...... 467

Appendix IV (Lecture XIII) Policy and Publicity: A Critique ...... 483 Erosion of and abstract thinking. Scientists as laymen. Destruction of selectivity. Decision-making. Words, deeds and critics. Unity and . Science and the media • A vested interest in publications? • Time and policy • Unfunded discoveries...... 484

Appendix V Thought-Provoking and Thought-Depressing Quotations 495

Appendix VI (Lecture XIV) Critique of Western Methodology ...... 502 The decline of intelligentsia • The search for a methodology • The Einsteinian methodology vs. skepticism • Ecology and interconnected thinking • ...... 502


What is unorthodox in this book?

Much has happened in the last few years, especially in terms of the somewhat surpris• ing rate at which the theories presented herein have been gaining increasing acceptance and support even by the most skeptical professionals. Nevertheless, the purpose of this up-dated Preface is not to tell the biographical and acceptance story behind this book, but to bring together some non-physical and non• technical conclusions for those readers who find the physico-mathematical sections of this book too difficult to follow. A secondary purpose is to present here some newer conclu• sions, especially in general philosophy and in aesthetics. Yet, the main physico• philosophical conclusions presented in this book are not to be summarized here. For that purpose one must tum to the text itself. * * * The theories presented here have been developed in total isolation. They were never presented in "professional conferences", as most current writers do. Whether or not that was important remains to be seen. Hence, all I can state to critics and enthusiastic follow• ers alike is the fact that I do not belong to any 'formal discipline', 'pressure group', or 'pro• fessional organization'. In fact, all my gratitude belongs to my books; the old and the new; books which I have studied without any external 'guidance', or fashion-pressure, over a period of 17 years, from 1964, when I joined the faculty of the Johns Hopkins University, to 1981, when this book was first published. Nevertheless, part of the text is an expanded version of a formal university course entitled. '', given at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, the Johns Hopkins University, and at other American universities, over a period of years.


This book deals not only with advanced physics, astrophysics and philosophy, but also with the unifying and aesthetic aspirations of modem physics and philosophy. From this point of view to understand, to analyse and to order our innate aesthetic motives are not less important than to understand, to analyse, and to order physics, astrophysics and the . Indeed, the concepts underlying physics and the philosophy of physics follow, as far as we know, a strange aesthetic tendency: 'To reduce the number of basic forces-fields and xv xvi Preface to the 2nd Edition fundamental laws to the fewest and most unified possible' (Assertion 1, p. 27). This, some• what loosely, defines the grand aim of modem physics (p. 16). This book, therefore, begins with the fewest fundamental concepts of physics, namely with:


It is from these four concepts that all ofphysics can be derived. Indeed, this book dem• onstrates that the ideas of time, symmetry and asymmetry are the most powerful and most unifying ones in science and philosophy. (Symmetry, for instance, is the basis of all conservation laws and asymmetry the ori• gin of mass, orientation, chemical and biological evolutions, irreversibility, energy dissi• pation, structures, etc.) All combined, they form the basis of the general (our standard theory of gravitation), of our grand unified field theories (including super• symmetry and super-gravity), of , of quantum physics, etc. The book demonstrates that, in fact, all science is nothing but combinations and trans• formations ofSTAS-derived concepts. An endless array of such concepts is thus systemati• cally constructed, an array that, in part, may be used in the 'soft sciences' (e.g., in psycholog• ical perception and at the very roots of general philosophy). Similarly, by employing ST AS-derived concepts we gradually develop a sub• philosophy called "Gravitism"; a sub-philosophy in which we also provide modified to natural (biological) selection, evolution and structure, irreversible thermody• namics, information-symbols-words, verbal thinking, etc. (Lecture IX); all in one and at one with a single central oneness in methodology and philosophy. Linguistic Arrows of Time (LA T) are then defined and employed to re-examine and re-define the meaning of sym• bols, words, sentences, thought processes and writing. LA T are thus viewed as generating the brain's direction in time, organization, and thought.


It is here that a few readers and reviewers of this book may reach hasty interpreta• tions. And it was precisely to prevent such misunderstandings that I had to postpone this grand till the last Lecture of Volume I. And it is for similar that this expanding land of intelligent complexity will ever remain open. Indeed, based on verifia• ble science, and on all evidence presented in Volumes I and II, Havayism proceeds from the earliest and the most primitive concepts of the human mind to the most advanced. It expresses as one in cause, one in origin and one in perception. In that it leaves man and his various in a humble corner of the universe, just allowing him to admire the process of creation. Caution and skepticism should, therefore, be employed by the reader; caution to the utmost possible level, for in no other Lecture have I soclosely approached, without touch• ing, the very of one unifying ; a word I use seldom and with the utmost rever• ence. Thus, skeptical understanding may first be applied before one is tempted to adopt our philosophy. What I mean by the terminology I use, how I come to write what I write, and why I write it in a given manner are all part and parcel of Havayism. Now, Havayism is based on the sub-philosophy 'gravitism'. Hence, to understand Havayism one must first study gravitism, a subject covered in Volume I and below. IS AESTHETICS THE SUBJECT OF HAVAYISM?

* Havayism is a concept derived from the Hebrew havaya - 1'1'11'1 - the very of the whole of reality. By transforming the symbols in 1'1'11'1 one obtains the tetragrammaton YHWH. (cf. pp. 350-415 and below). Preface to the 2nd Edition xvii

Are the most fundamental drives in science, philosophy, and the arts aes• thetic? Is it possible to find connections between aesthetics and the ST AS-derived con• cepts of gravitism? Is not such an attempt doomed to be called 'extreme ', or, simply, impotent? The highest level of philosophy described in this book is entitled 'Havayism' (Lecture IX). And it is only within the boundless domain of this theory that we can properly deal with aesthetics (see below). Much has been written on aesthetics, notably by Kant, Hegel and Santayana, since the word was first used by Baumgarten (about 1750) to imply the science of sensuous knowledge, whose aim is beauty and symmetry, as contrasted with , whose aim is "". However, the systematic application of the "scientific method" in aesthetics' is still regarded as non-reliable in dealing with the more subtle phenomena of art. But the progress of aesthetics toward scientific status is now proceeding well through the increas• ing use of an objective and logical approach, instead of a dogmatic or personal one, and through bringing the results of other modern sciences to bear on aesthetic problems. And it is within this new status of aesthetics, and through its increasing applications outside the domain of formal art, that we make the following preliminary assertions. A word of caution should, nevertheless, be in merit at this point, namely, that many problems in aes• thetics are parallel to problems in the philosophy 0/ mind, thought and perception, the phi• losophy o/language, structure and determinism and also to the philosophy of ethics. Some of these problems are treated in Lecture IX.


The principles of symmetry and asymmetry were extensively used in early civiliza• tions. They frequently formed the central ideas in early religious, philosophical, scientific, and artistic activities. For instance, the has been greatly influenced by the symmetry-asymmetry concepts of Yang, (the white, hot, energetic, male, positive side of nature) and Yin (the dark, cold, passive, female, negative side of nature). (cf. Appendix I. p. 438). The desire for symmetry was also marked by the "perfect spherical world" in Plato• nism, in the Orphic mysteries, in the Zoroastrian religion and in various other utopian and religious philosophies. Moreover, every language betrays the presence of symmetric-asymmetric grammar and number base. Most scientists hope to find new symmetry principles which would allow them to understand the greatest secrets of nature (cf. Assertion 2 in the Introduction). All human and animal life is, at one and the same time, symmetric and asymmetric. Things are heavy or light, up or down, gravitated or dispersed, male or female, etc. More• over, all natural processes are characterized by source and sink, order and disorder, stabil• ity and non-stability, retarded or advanced (radiation), creation or , genesis or death. Similarly, human attitudes are marked by such symmetry-asymmetry concepts as: right or wrong, rational or irrational, strong or weak, beautiful or ugly, heavenly or earthly, spiritual or physical, superior or inferior, high or low, rising or falling. Evidently, all these concepts lack philosophical exactitude and the unity of a consistent thought. Hence, following Assertion 1 of gravitism (p. 27), one may first search for those fundamental concepts which would indeed reduce philosophical speculation and increase unity. And it is here that the physico-mathematical exactitude should be given the 'upper hand'. And it is here that the main tenets of gravitism have been developed as a sub• philosophy of Havayism. Here Pythagoras was probably the first to note that proper numbers (today we would have said 'mathematical functions, symmetries, equations, etc.'), are immanent to the xviii Preface to the 2nd Edition physical world and are the very essence of all reality, i.e., the better we understand mathe• matics and physics, their symmetries and asymmetries, the better we shall be able to understand nature. This yearning for symmetry and comprehension of nature is, in itself, a most fundamental aesthetic frame of mind, a deep-rooted longing for the run-away hori• zons of truth and symmetry that we always try to reach; a most fundamental force behind the evolution of religions, philosophies, science, and art. Aesthetics, nevertheless, is non-cosmological. It is purely human. Hence, if one's mind is preoccupied by aesthetic phenomena in the most colorful galactic structures in prehu• man times, it is only in retroactivity; it is only by reversing the 'cosmological time arrow' (cf. pp. 42, 201, 283). Indeed, it is only within the confinements of time reversal that aes• thetics and science can deal with events and natural aesthetics in prehuman times. The fact remains, nevertheless, that prehuman galactic phenomena are observed and recorded today. And it is only by theory, i.e., by a relativistic time-reversal mental procedure, that we can enjoy it now as a 'prehuman' 'aesthetic '. In short, time reversal proce• dures are now interconnecting some past causally-disconnected zones. It is as if nature had waited until educated man arrived to observe and enjoy its past beauties.


To start with let us stress the fact that, in current usage, the word 'aesthetics' is nothing but a cultural-dependent concept. Of late, in academicism, it has been applied to every• thing that has to do with formal 'works of art', or with the culturally-accepted sense of 'beauty' and symmetry. To translate the word 'aesthetics' into a time-invariant term, having a fixed unifying meaning, we must first use the time-invariant concept Havayism - a term discussed in Lec• ture IX. What I mean here is an attempt to fight the human tendency to isolate concepts. For that purpose I associate the so-called 'aesthetic experience' with the whole of our expe• rience (while divorcing it from any attempt to divide, isolate and arrest it in a specific prison of 'moral philosophy', 'psychology', '', etc.). It is an attempt to render each part of our 'aesthetic experience' a relation to the whole and oneness of nature and of our being; to be part and parcel of our entire spectrum of sensations, and actions; rational and irrational; beneficial and useless; wise and foolish; pleasant or • ful; morally-sound or not. The next step is to note that the entire spectrum of our thoughts and actions is part and parcel of Havayism - a concept which does not render itself to any definition. The third step is to study the function of critical Havayism; a criticism which searches for unifying categories and definitions of any perception that is 'at one' with STAS-derived concepts and with our aesthetic experience. An example of this step is given below within the framework of gravitism.


One last remark on the so-called aesthetic ideal. This false concept is an attempt to secure a time-invariant isolation to what is acutally a cultural-dependent, religion• dependent, or socio-political-dependent element in an alleged super-aesthetics. But in actual life it is, sometimes, the 'anti-ideal', or the 'ugly', which counts quite heavily, for frequently we have to admit the undeniable beauties of the 'non-aesthetic', for everything that is beneficial, lucid, universal and helpful soon acquires a gracious element; the eye, for instance, learns to trace its form, to piece its boundaries together with a tendency to remember and remodel the in the brain for imagination, symmetry, centreity, direc- Preface to the 2nd Edition xix tion, etc. Thus, even the jet engines in my laboratory might prove beautiful, and, to some minds, may be conveying the sensation of "a great professional art". Consequently, knowl• edge of what things are, i.e., things-in-themselves, or what professional skills mean, and what all ordinary people have endured and desired, become part and parcel of aesthetics. In this sense this book should be re-entitled -Aesthetics and Meaning. * * * Are not the mountains. waves and skies a great part of me and I of them? Lord Byron, as quoted by Schopenhauer * * * NO ARTISTIC MIND IS AN ISLAND

In gravitism we cannot distinguish between the work of nature and the work of mind (e.g., a park, a weathered castle, , city and village structures). Accordingly, "formal art" is not only expressive of the unconscious rhythms (or time modulations) in our mind, but also ofthe matter-energy which underlies it. "Formal Art", may thus be considered 'at one' with any direct expression of reality. It may also be consid• ered as an insight into the ultimate ground of the universe not discoverable by present-day physics; for it goes beyond the reaches of logic, mathematics and present-day science. Nevertheless, an emerging branch of science, called "scientific approach to aesthetics ", considers aesthetic phenomena as natural phenomena; phenomena which are subject to investigation by means of empirical inductive methods. Thus, aesthetic investigations must be open to criticism by others, and must be verifiable within the limits of the preci• sion with which the object of the investigation can be described. Thus, in the same sense that the philosophic and scientific categories of human knowledge and spirit interact, so do science and aesthetics. And, in the same sense, one cannot separate aesthetics from the history ofart (nor from its moral and religious connotations). Consequently, we reach the conclusion that no artistic mind is an island, and that, in the actual world, "everything is at one with everything else".


It is, therefore, impossible to divorce man qua part and parcel of the physical world from man qua perceiver of, and listener to his "external" worlds, and from man qua link• age in a long geo-chemical, biosocial evolution. Thus, we must stop training young people to think about "separate", "uncaused", artistic events; events which are not in space, nor in time. Young people should not be educated by a narrow slice through the complex structure of nature; they should be constantly reminded of their whole environment; of the tem• poral, spatial, symmetric and asymmetric aspects of matter, energy and the basic fields of nature. This approach includes such gravitationally-induced concepts/objects, as the evolution of skeletons, legs, wings, the origin of -light, day, night, year, sky, mountains, rain, winds, seas, erosion, sedimentary clays, roots, wheels, roads, bridges, houses, walls, etc. Together they constantly affect our sense-perception and our orientation in space and time (see below). Indeed, not only the city and village structures in which we live depend upon these forces. Even our central theological, moral, and social leitmotifs are 'at one' with the basic conepts of Havayism and gravitism. For the 'critical observer'there are endless, indirect xx Preface to the 2nd Edition effects, which are caused by gravitationally-induced processes. For example, the organelles and nuclei of all living cells are "heavier" than the rest of the cell. Such an asymmetry allows plants to grow "vertically upward" (cf. weightlessness studies in biosatellites). Thus, gravitational asymmetry controls the direction of growth in seeds, roots, leaves, branches, etc. It also affects the movement of all animals (in the sense of giving a reference for orien• tation and for depth perception (see also ~ IX.2.7.2).**


All human are conscious of the "up-down" and "horizontal" surroundings; and about their weight, speed and acceleration. Indeed, whenever we sit, rise, recline, drink, leap, swim, walk, balance, jump, load, fly, dive, or simply 'rest', we are "aware" of the direction of the gravitational force. Moreover, gravity receptors, and various bio-accelerometers, control our navigational and time modulation (or "inner rhythm") capabilities. Thus, gravity controls not only all ecosystems, but the very evolution of our bones, legs, , hair, internal organs and an endless class of social activities (see Assertion 9 for additional facts and conclusions). In addition, we now know that even the embryonic development inside eggs is controlled by the gravity-vector, which forms the biological "reference line" 'head-legs'. Consequently, from our point of view, we must link gravitism with aesthetics. Now, to proceed, we must introduce the five ascending categories of aesthetics.


THE 1ST AESTHETIC CATEGORY This category is precisely identical with the four fundamental concepts of physics, i.e., it is expressible in terms of Space, Time, Asymmetry and Symmetry, and of nothing more.

THE 2ND AESTHETIC CATEGORY This category includes the 'Symmetry Laws' of physics and is expressible in terms of symmetry and space-time-derived symbols, words, laws, differential equations and field equations. It, therefore, includes the 'Group-I' concepts of Table II (P. 18).

THE 3RD AESTHETIC CATEGORY This is 'Group II' of Table II (p. 18). It consists of the 'Asymmetric Laws' of nature. Specific examples are: Initial and boundary conditions, arrows of time, recording, mem• ory, 'symmetry-breaking', mass concepts, the 2nd law of thermodynamics, directional instabilities, etc.

** As a thought exercise one may continue the following "gravitationally-induced" series: Sky, , heavenly, spiritual, sublime; lofty values, low values, earthly; groundless, bottomless, deep-rooted; upper regions vs. lowest regions, high cathedrals, high church, high mass, high priest ... ; storm, lightning, dark• ness, misty, mysty, lower class; low bred, low life; highrise; upbringing, upright, superior, upkeep, upper court, uproot, upstart, sink, 'go to the bottom', atop, towering, break down, percipitate, float, climb; nat• ural vs. gravitational selection; gravitational synthesis of all the chemical elements in the interiors of massive stars, etc. The location of eyes, eyebrows, mouth, head, tail, legs and ofthe reproduction organs; the structure and orientation of the digestive system, the orientation of hair and of nose and nostrils, the specific evolutions of insects, birds, snakes and dinosaurs; Earth-Sun- orientation and effects; and even, yes, a few verifiable tenets of "Astrology"; Atmosphere, satellites, rain, dust, smoke, chimneys, glaciers; Mountain building and erosion, earthquakes, hydroelectric stations, etc. Preface to the 2nd Edition xxi

THE 4TH AESTHETIC CATEGORY Concepts and objects in this category may be called the 'Observables'. It is the first aesthetic category to be directly comparable with ordinary human perception (while the previous three are only the 'pre-perception levels' of all human observations). Since the 'Observables' are the only ones to be directly compared with observations, they are also what we call the "Solutions" (of Group I plus Group II) in Table II (p. 18). These 'solu• tions' are, actually, 'integrated solutions', for they include symbols, functions and words associated with simple 'integrated processes' in the brain. This integration transforms asymmetric boundary conditions in category III and the symmetric laws in category II, into integra-differential equations, solutions, 'observables', or, simply. into arrays ofcombi• nations of aggregations (Lecture IX, p. 378), cubes, lumps, colors, sound notes and words, into sentences or into musical branches. etc. These, single-dimensional, order-structure• branches, possess no "centreity", nor are they "closed on themselves" to form whole pictures in the mind (see below, Lecture XII on structuralism and tIX.2.8.2 on "centreity"). Yet, no aesthetic process stops at this level.

THE 5TH AESTHETIC CATEGORY This final (body-brain-mind) category is the most familiar one. It is the ultimate cate• gory. for it represents the capacity of the individual to integrate all the available elements. parts. branches and sub-structures into wholes; wholes with "centreity"; wholes composed of the dynamically interconnected "observables" of category IV and of the symmetric and asymmetric elements ofcategories II and III; wholes "closed-on-themselves" (IX. 2. 8. 2) and characterized by "internal" and "external" boundaries in macra-space-time regions; wholes with symmetry or asymmetry. direction and orientation; wholes with unlimited organizational-aggregated levels ofform-pictures-structures in global time and space. This ultimate capability brings us, face to face, to the very limits of our brain-mind, for it often proceeds beyond the reach of our rational thought. Yet, due to symmetry• proportion, or clarity (visual, aural, tactual, or odorous), it may be investigated by means of the empirical inductive methods (which are not yet fully understood by current scien• tific and ohilosophical approaches to aesthetics). What happens here in the mind is essentially an 'over-all' transition from "OBSERVABLES" and "ELEMENTS", into "WHOLES"; a transition which takes place in the entire mind, often employing the maximum capacity of the individual to collect data, store, memorize, picture, connect, and integrate. And it is this integration which gen• erates 'meaning', i.e., 'meaningless' is the praper title to any 'unintegrated' collection of words. 'branches'. 'elements' and 'observables'. Perhaps the most important conclusion, from our point of view, is the constant syn• thesis and shifting of these five categories. To understand this one must first study care• fully the categories; a task made in this book. Thus, we shall see that the very origin of such "sublime" concepts as "proportion", "innate" depth perception, "innate" time per• ception, color composition, "structure", motion, language-text-sentence, esoteric, or mystic phenomena, as well as the various ancient religious mysteries, and "inacces• sible insights", should be re-examined and understood within a theory more at one with the whole of nature, and with our present knowledge of nature.

To conclude: Any mental process associated with aesthetics, philosophy and advanced sci• ence must be composed of five categories (or "levels"); 1) On the most fundamental level (category I): Space-time, asymmetry-symmetry xxii Preface to the 2nd Edition

2) On the 'Symmetric Laws' level This includes the fields which permeate the whole of nature; the fields which curve space-time to form all mass-energy; the pre-perception metrics which pervade all space• time and even the vacuum (p. 408). These fields form the most interconnecting agents of nature, and of our knowledge of nature. They include 'Group I' concepts of Table II.

3) On the 'Asymmetric Laws' level This includes all the asymmetric levels of the 'arrows of time' and of the geometrical boundaries of matter and radiation. Indeed, this level is the one controlling all human of time-direction, source-sink, genesis-death, irreversible processes, evolu• tion, change, growth, etc.

4) On the level involving simple thought and ordering ofelementary perception, words, etc. Here the "OBSER VABLES" are first integrated in the mind to form the first ''AESTHETIC-BRANCHES-STRINGS'' (say, of simple orientation, regularity, order, grammer, words, sound notes, trends, etc.)

5) On the most general level, and sometimes at the maximal capacity ofthe individual, the OBSERVABLES' and the 'BRANCHES-STRINGS-WORDS' are further integrated into ("closed-on-themselves") "WHOLES"; "WHOLES" and sentences with 'meaning'; wholes with characteristic "centreity" and "complexity"; wholes with unlimited organizational-aggregated levels of form-pictures-sentences-structures in 'global time'. (For the concept of time see Lecture IV, for "observables" in physics see Lecture V, and for "closed-on-themselves wholes", see #lX.2.8.2).

Yet, unless the whole picture is considered, it is 'meaningless'to speak of any bona fide 'aesthetic experience'. Indeed, at times we may not even remember every word of a gracious poem, the details of a painting, or the notes of a concert. Yet, we do remember the integrated 'aesthetic experience'. That 'total' may count most and it is usually more than the sum ofits parts. For instance, any step we make when we walk in the gravitational field is recorded somewhere. But the fact that, normally, we do not pay much attention to these details is due to the integration process of these steps in our mind; an integration which gives it 'a higher meaning' - 'a walk'. Accordingly, we cannot be satisfied with insights into elementary , or fields, or physical observables; we need to complete physics with the STAS-derived concepts of aesthetics and gravitism.

To Conclude: Physics without aesthetics is incomplete.


Most people, and probably most readers, are interested in simple, practical results that can be directly grasped and exploited in actual, self·centered life. For these utilitarian purposes we also deal with the biological-behavioral and general philosophical CONCLU• SIONS OF GRA VITISM - a word derived from gravitation - in itself a pure, "STAS• derived concept" (p, 40, 209). Thus, within the framework of gravitism, the phenomenon of gravitation provides us with: - Physical and biological Evolution/Rejection/Selectivity (p. 54-60, 459, 486). Preface to the 2nd Edition xxiii

Astrophysical and Biological clocks, including environmental - historical influences (p. 361, 506, 60). Sociobiological, anthropological and ecological effects on behavior and language (58, 59, 378, 459). Here we go as far as giving specific examples of gravitationally-STAS-deduced leitmo• tifs; in socio-economics, geology, architecture, theology and in the arts (see, e.g., Assertion 9d in the Introduction to Volume I).


This book is composed of two interwoven books and two separate volumes. The two books are: I 'A Textbook' on and Philosophy II: 'A Treatise' which presents an entirely new, updated theory in Science, Philosophy of Science and general philosophy.

The two separate volumes are: Volume I: This includes the two interwoven books mentioned above. Volume II: Entitled 'Critique of Western Thought', this volume includes a collection of articles and notes on various topics, ranging from political philosophy (p. 423, 459,488,491), criticism of academicism (p. 13,27,61,429,468,474,484), and of the current education-mass-media philosophy (p. 425, 483-494) to vari• ous appendices to Volume I. It is printed in a smallietterset for space-saving reasons. * * * Many readers who found various technical and mathematical sections of Volume I too difficult to follow have asked me to point out the easiest introduction to the main sub• ject matter of this book. While such an attempt may prove impractical, and perhaps even misleading, I can recommend the reading of Assertion 9 (pp. 53 to 60, including all the footnotes), as the 'Easiest Introduction' to some advanced tenets of Volume I. A philosophically-inclined reader may therefore proceed in the following order: - Complete the reading of this Preface. - Read Assertion 9 (pp. 53 to 60). - Study Lecture IX (Philosophy and Philosophy of Science). - Study Lectures IV, V, VI, VII and the Introduction to Volume I (Philosophy of Science). - Read the Introduction to Volume II, and Appendices IV and VI (Socio-political and educational philosophies). It should be noted that the order of the 'Lectures' in this book is intended for physicists and mathematicians. * * * Volume I proceeds from the origin of the universe, through the origin of the chemical elements, to the origin oflife and from there to the origin of intelligent thought and knowl• edge. In this it follows the that large (cosmological) systems dominate not only the evolution of smaller systems (and not vice versa), but also the very origin of order, structure, time, asymmetries, and irreversibility. In this sense 'all the primary philosophi• cal problems originate in cosmology', or rather in the advanced unified field theories which xxiv Preface to the 2nd Edition describe, at one with the basic concepts of physics, all physical structures; from the largest (cosmological) to the smallest (sub-atomic).

A Thought-Provoking Exercise Before turning to the text one may try to find the common denominator and the con• tinuation (i.e., adding more words/concepts) of the following series. These are ordered from I (the easiest) to 10 (the level requiring deep understanding of the various 'Lectures' and Appendices of this book). Levell Acceleration, climbing, flying, up-down-horizon-orientation, skiing, sitting, floating, walking, sinking, swimming, rising-falling, decline-collapse-break-down, defeat, downfall, stand-up, withstand, resting, ... Level 2 'Foundations', drainage systems, stairs, walls, floors, roofs, tables, beds, shelves, bridges, arches, road systems, airports, village and city structure, sky-scrapers, wings, air• planes, jet engines, ships, missiles, spacecraft, satellites; wells, irrigation systems, agrarian communities, landscape architecture, park, castle ruins, fossil fuels, energy crisis, ... Level 3 Sun, sunlight, sky, moon, stars, year, seasons, climate, tectonics, day, night, clocks, time, geophysical periodicities, tides, waterfalls, rivers, lakes, seas, mountain crests, lagoons, erosion, sedimentation, eco-systems, volcanic effects, wind, rain, snow, fractional crystallization, synthesis of all the chemical elements in the interiors of massive stars, , prebiotic evolution, biotic evolution, ... Level 4 Seeds, roots, trees, branches, geomorphism, gravimorphism, gravimorphogenesis, geoepinasty, geotrophism, form and structure of the organism, growth direction, heavier organelles in the living cells, gravity-induced cell-division-symmetry-asymmetry, ... LevelS Animal movement and orientation, gravity-crystal-virus structures, bioaccelerometers, g-perception, depth-perception, biological clocks, flying and navigating capabilities, grav• ity receptors, gravity sensing mechanisms, motion sickness, statoliths in the cytoplasm of living cells, gravity and the organism, gravity-induced embryonic symmetry-asymmetry effects, ... Level 6 Sociobiological structures, ecobiological 'Iebensraums' and monopolization in the spatial, temporal and sexual coordinates, gravitationally-induced territoriality and key resource control in natural evolution, historical times and in anthropology; natural vs. gravitational selection, ... Level 7 Theological and socio-biologicalleitmotifs, as well as various aesthetic and philosoph• ical theories (e.g., dadaism and surrealism vs. realism and ); high values, low values, sublime, lofty values, misty, mysty, High Church, heavenly, upper regions, high alter, highness, high priest, fallen angels, low bred, low born, low life, low class, low deck, low court, high born, high commissioner, sky-high cathedrals, heavenly-spiritual-sublime- Preface to the 2nd Edition xxv idealistic ; the exploration of , the preservation of 'lasting' structures in the composition of , in the writing of books and in the construction of new theor• ies; Aesthetic supremacy and preeminence in human sexual selectivity, reproduction and evolutionary trends; symmetric-asymmetric leitmotifs in art and in law enforcement ... Level 8 The claim that most of science is nothing but evolution of cosmology; the physico• philosophical and aesthetic tenets of this book. An endless array of STAS-derived concepts/objects, Gravitism, curved space-time, gravitation without gravitation, dialecti• cal gravitism. Philosophy of science, evolution, time and change. Gravitational thermody• namics. Relativistic cosmology and astrophysics. The history of the world and the history of historicism. Level 9 Physics of the vacuum, pre-perception, pregeometry, prequarks, preons, pre-preons, geometry within geometry, fields within fields, asymmetries within symmetries, 'worlds' inside 'worlds', composite gauge fields, composite 'elementary particles', time before cre• ation, super noosphere, beyond aesthetics, beyond time, beyond present knowledge, ... Level 10 Human fights against gravitational control of nature; - i.e., - even though we know that in the end we will not be able to "get up" again; that a day will come when staying "upright" becomes an impossibility, we do not "break down". By the same knowledge that foresees our own "collapse" in the journey "from dust to dust", we "withstand" that which will "bring us down". In the end we know that it will "tear down" almost everything that we build; that ultimate "downfall", and "defeat" of every mobile creature is the fate of individual life - a life that must terminate in "deaggregation" and gravitational "precipi• tation". Yet, we "stand up". Perhaps not all is "on the downgrade"? Perhaps not all is vanity? Indeed, to stay "upright", we hope for the unreachable, aspire to the unsurmounta• ble and long for the unobtainable. For not all is "up". * * * POLITICAL SCIENCE: A FEW NOTES TO VOLUME II

While critical of present Western thought and , this volume is essen• tially optimistic in contents and purpose. It argues that in the midst of our crisis we can regenerate our with a more unified philosophy than any we have tried so far. More unified? Indeed, as far as this book is founded on unified physico-philosophical principles that, in turn, are based on the most updatedfacts and theories ofmodern science, it offers a relatively unified philosophy of science. Then, as we extend these physico• philosophical principles into the realm of socio-political, and socio-economic systems, that 'degree of unification' is decreased. Nevertheless, we shall try to unfold here a single, uni• fied plan of nature; a structure which no idea-assassin can rush and destroy, a look at nature-at-large which attempts to preserve what ought to be preserved and rejects the obsolete, the impractical and the absurd. To start with, we attempt to answer the following questions: Why cannot we develop a workable philosophy and employ it as a guide to thought and action, as a catalyst, and as a practical tool in shaping the course of events in reference to the Western nations' own goals? But, most important, what are these goals? Indeed, what is the origin of the (often undeclared) "Western doctrine" that "there is something inherently wrong with (a democracy) having a philosophy-doctrine at all"? xxvi Preface to the 2nd Edition

The answer to this question may be a valuable clue as to why the Western nations may not be able to win or even maintain a status quo with their opponents; the Soviets and their allies have a working philosophy-doctrine; we have none. Moreover, we possess a deep-rooted aversion to develop or employ one (pp. 13-15). This aversion, as we shall see in the text, has its origin in our universities. It is, therefore, important to prove the fallacy of such academic assertions. Yet, it is equally important to see what can be gained by changing the present situation. How? By what philosophy? On what grounds? At what cost? These are some of the topics discussed in Volume II. But most important, in spite of the apparent indetermination of the West, this volume contends that beneath the superficial pessimism lies a very optimistic current that is feeding our vital domains of thought and practice. Thus, in spite of the triumph of mediocrity in government (cf. pp. 420-421), the low standards in many academic circles (cf. pp. 421-435), the frantic - in the media (cf. app. 483-494) and the preference of ego-centered mentality of instant comfort and profitability above long-term survival, our culture tends to regenerate itself - appar• ently without a formally declared philosophy. Nevertheless, some attitudes, unleashed since World War II, and reinforced in the '60's, have so corroded our culture that no educational renewal appears possible now unless some current attitudes are replaced with a new way of thinking. Here, the wide• spread attitude of self-fulfillment and narcisism are not only crippling the schools and other vital institutions that mediate between the individual and the community at large; they also undercut the very roots of our culture, threatening to destroy it from within. So, unless we do something now, our opponents may just have to hold on for a while. Indeed, the great majority of the Western nations stumble nowadays from-crisis to crisis; apparently without an overall plan; without the benefits and security of a formal philosophy and an accepted ideology. Crises and problems are frequently treated without connection to one another, as if they are random, independent events. The rise of terrorism, the decline of the Western intelligentsia (cf. p. 504), the growing East-West competition, the spread of the mass-media totalitarianism (cf. p. 483-494), the crack-up of the nuclear family, the emergence of endless cults and separatist movements, and the diminishing Western unity (cf. p. 488), are not isolated processes. These, and many other, seemingly unrelated trends, are all interconnected. They are, in fact, parts of a much larger process: the partial death of a unified philosophy-ideology and the gradual rise of meaningless activities. * * * Almost drowned in the greatest storm in history of (apparently) unrelated technologi• cal and political data, our armada appears now to float without compass and without navigational plan. Yet, our Western captains are still unprepared to adopt any agreed-upon navigational plan. Indeed, it is an unfortunate fact, that the great majority oftoday's leaders - the vari• ous heads of state, government, religious, educational, and media institutions - would not change the very institutions that, no matter how obsolete, give them power and the illusion of being in control of events. The preservation of a dangerous nationalistic status quo is still preferred to any unified course and the adaptation of a unified plan. However, amazing as it is, the emerging 'high technologies' have already unified a part of our differ• ent . What I mean is related to the new global networks; networks that will soon turn the entire Western globe into an interconnected global village; a village characterized by much uniformity in thought and practice. Preface to the 2nd Edition xxvii

Indeed, it is well-known now that the emerging info-sphere is centered around advanced TV -computerized networks which can remember and interconnect large amounts of data; networks which can rapidly construct new, complex structures (physico• mathematical, economic, pictorial, artistic, literary, musical, etc.) and further intercon• nect them into larger "wholes". The emerging networks are also changing our aesthetic views of everything. "includ• ing our sense of proportion-composition of the parts within the whole", and our synthesis of 'aggregates' and analytic concepts into unified "structures-pictures," and a defendable civilization. Thus, the emerging technology will be adding to our civilization a new dimension of thought-practice, which, in turn, is based on an expanded meaning of "wholes", "parts". analysis, "interconnectedness" and survival. These terms require philosophical clarifica• tion, a task attempted in the two volumes of this book.


But, most important, as computer languages become simplified, and as the cost of desktop TV-computer networks goes down, more and more people set up shops in their homes. There have always been people who worked at home; professionals such as writers, architects, lawyers, and some executives. Now, joining them, are many young, conducting their work at a distance from the main office. Indeed, a larger percentage of the future pop• ulation may spend a significant part of its working and creating activities at home, doing also what might be termed "self-education". Thus, instead of "body presence at work, or at school", a link to the network may suf• fice, to many, to become autodidacts. For instance, by hooking up to an updated "univer• sity data bank", one may instantly reach any level of science and technology. upgraded with all the cross references, and teaching aids that one can imagine. Crossing old• fashioned disciplinary lines would thus become a routine. "Branches" and "Wholes", instead of scattered fragments of disjointed pieces of knowledge; interconnected informa• tion, instead of pieces of evidence, would soon form a new "Methodology of Network Interconnectedness ". In fact, an entirely new type of knowledge is already engulfing us; at least in the more advanced countries. But, are we capable of working with such new "wholes"? of under• standing the secrets of advanced (interconnected) knowledge?; of handling modified mind reflections/commands/communications/operations?; of push-button operations or view• ing and reviewing methods which are instantly spreadable with the highest professional level? to anyone, at any place, at any time? Practically anything known on any subject may now be at reach; exact, updated, interactively programmed, graphically displayed, with multi-colors, facsimiles, alpha-numeric characters, graphs, video films, camera zooming, tele-instant-copying, input digitizers, plotters, tapes, audio-visual aids, robots, and beyond. Thus, as old norms are reduced to symbols of a passing culture, we are left with a new need; the need to be prepared for this kind of change; the need to avoid drowning in a sea oj data and . Little would be spared. But it is now that we should pause and contem• plate: How can we maintain creative minds in this new world? And how should we prepare our children? That is to say, not for the very operation of these machines, but for the new interconnected practice that these machines bring forth. Unable to control this kind of irreversible change, we often stand amazed, and con• fused; just monitoring the change; just yearning for the aspiration of a new "order" in the endless sea of new facts, hardware and software; just hoping for a cold cutting guide to the TV-computer-editor-bigot. who. as always. mixes the vast meaningless with the small mean• ingful; the most dangerous editor/programmer/Moloch afthe new networks! xxviii Preface to the 2nd Edition

Obviously, the positive potentials ofthis change include the return to a kind of self• education. Other benefits include higher efficiency, reduced transportation and overhead costs, and increased satisfaction, resulting, in part, from greater privacy and lower com• muting time and from more convenient working habits. Still other advantages include increased leisure time, and reduced pressure away from "the office". Thus, the new net• works may "decompress" people, especially in stressful working situations, improving their creativity, reliability and synthesizing capability. This interaction would, in itself, create a new kind of thOUght and practice. A novel type of thinking methodology would thus emerge; with new strategies in art, education, science, defence and social life. And it is at this point in time that students must also be reminded that original ideas are made in isolation. Of course, this attitude stands out in a glaring contradiction to the current belief in schools and frontal university courses. Obviously, the network users are never alone. Yet, it is the "degree of isolation ", and the "degree ofindependence" that we stress here. Not isolation from nature at large, nor from original guides and advanced books. It is, mostly, a much greater potential to develop independently, as "free-thinking individuals", that the new change will bring forth. Yet, these "free-thinking individuals" would be able to interact frequently with each other, using the same global language and employing a single unified methodology in thought and in practice. To Conclude: Volume II stresses the unsurmountable potentials of unity among the various Western sub-philosophies and sub-cultures; a unity that can only be based on an accepted unified philosophy-methodology. No attempt is made in this book to define such a philosophy• methodology. What is proposed, however, is a unifying theory of science and philosophy that can be us~d as a strong foundation in building the required philosophy in the future.


Since permanent innovation is the basis on which we, or any other civilization depend, it is pertinent to show where and when it is subdued. Thus, identification and elimination of the obstacles to innovation should acquire the highest priority in any soci• ety seeking ever-higher levels of science and technology. In this connection, one of the most inhibiting factors to innovation is the lack of proper philosophical tools and the lack of courage to think, act, accept responsibility, use and defend the results of your thinking. Indeed, it is the common tendency to conform and guard habits which prevents much useful work and higher acceleration of science and technology in any culture. Most of us are well aware of mankind's hostility to change. This obstinacy in clinging to habits, this suspicion of the unfamiliar, are exactly behind the solid walls of cultivated prejudice which even the best innovation is faced with. On the one hand uninformed, non-motivated, pre-conditoned individuals are reluc• tant to endorse new concepts and novel designs when presented to them on a straight-away, relevant "professional" basis; on the other, they tend to adopt those same concepts and designs when these become known to them through their "boss", their competitors or the public-supported, "tribal Moloch" - the media (cf.lecture XIII, pp. 484 to 494). It is left, nevertheless, to the individual, to fight against unwarranted opposition, conformity, iner• tia and the semi-sacrosanct acceptance of a static practice, by adopting updated informa• tion and principles of change; the semi-philosophical, semi-practical methodology of a per• manent criticism of "established traditions" (cf. e.g. pp. 27, 46, 49, 60-70, 255, 309, 349, 393-408,415-418,420-435,453,456-466,467-479, 483-494, 503-507). Preface to the 2nd Edition xxix

Consequently, what we try to establish in this book, among other things, is a simple connection between rapid development of a high-technology society and its own, a priori capacity to practice updated philosophical tools. Indeed, if this conclusion is inadequate for a "practical person" to start searching for the changing tools of his age, one may start wondering if he is as practical as he thinks he is.


Most people tend to trust "exact", "scientific" formulations (in engineering, science, law, political science, etc.), especially those written by "famous" people and taught by "authoritative" professors at "established" universities. Hence, they do not stop to ques• tion the very assumptions (declared or undeclared), which had been introduced into the theories before the first letter of any formulation was actually written down. These assump• tions were deeply installed into the foundations of any of our theories, often without a due declaration, or out of ignorance of their possible misuse in a future time. Indeed, this book describes many "mathematical", or word-play "procedures", by which respectable scientists, and philosophers, try to conceal the uncomfortable fact, that, to secure agreement with a "currently-accepted science", or with an "expected" socio• political practice, they must impose such "procedures" on their theory. The object of any such jargon, or "procedure", is often the same:


And it is precisely here that I tell my students: REBEL!, i.e., 'if you can, and if you want, use updated information and philosophical tools, to question, and, therefore, to ver• ify, change, or reject, the artificial "results" (mathematical or verbal) on which "every• body" appears to be building too much confidence' (cf., e.g., pp. 257-8, 431-2).

Should One Rebel Against the Tyranny of Rebels? Revolutions are always exciting, but seldom useful. Indeed, uncontrolled by updated information, and philosophical tools, they often lead to disasters, as history testifies. Moreover, successful revolutions, the organized ones, as well as the individual, unpublicized ones, may soon become totalitarian, rigid and too dangerous to further prog• ress. Sometimes the "new ideas" become so embarrassing, and heavy, like prison shackles, that there is no alternative but to break them; i.e., any revolution in our basic thinking soon acquires and there is no alternative but to rebel against it. In fact, there is something provisional about all theories, and about all revolutions. They have to be constantly re-tested by fresh information from any subfield of human activity, and, hence, are subject to constant revision, or even replacement. Thus, each suc• ceeding generation of free-thinking people must try to take a measurable step beyond the position of its predecessors (pp. 3).

July 1986, Haifa. B. Gal-Or The Jet Propulsion Laboratory FOREWORD I by Sir Karl Popper

This is a great book, and an exciting book. I say so even though I happen to dis• agree with the author in many minor points and one or two major points. Some of the minor points are merely terminological, and therefore very minor. I dislike the term '', because of its use since Hegel and Marx; and I dislike the term 'gravitism', perhaps without a good reason. Thus I dislike the name which Professor Gal-Or has given to his theory. But the theory seems to me a great and a very beauti• ful theory, so far as I can judge. Other minor points of disagreement are connected with Gal-Or's original and remarkable views of the great philosophers, including Spinoza and Kant. I mention these critical points rather in order to emphasize how strongly I am impressed by Professor Gal-Or's gteat book. Even in the very unlikely case that, wherever we disagree, he should be in the wrong and I right, even if that should be the case (which is improbable in the extreme), it would remain a great book: readable, worth reading and enlightening; with a most fascinating cosmological story of time, expansion, and gravitation.

xxx FOREWORD II by Sir Alan Cottrell

For several years Professor Gal-Or has devoted himself to the physics of time and especially to the question of time's arrow. This has taken him into many far-flung branches of science, such as cosmology, thermodynamics, elementary particle physics, physiology and psychology. He has now brought together in this fascinating and highly original book his considered views on these and related topics. His net is widely cast-it even reaches as far as science policy and political philosophy-but it is centred mainly round the Einsteinian view of space, time and matter, and the explanation of the directionality of time in terms of cosmological processes. The book thus provides a most stimulat• ing survey of a large area of modem physical science and the reader can study in it many subjects, such as astrophysics, fluid mechanics and general relativity, at the same time as he is beguiled into taking a universal view of things and provoked into thinking afresh about the foundations of physics. Science used to be called , a term still used in Scottish uni• versities. Yet, science and philosophy today stand rather far apart. To the laboratory scientist, the philosopher seems to be merely playing with words. Equally, to the philosopher, such a scientist seems to be merely playing with things. Yet, in the end, science and philosophy cannot do without each other. Without the scientific fountain of empirical facts, philosophy indeed becomes mere word-spinning. And equally, science without philosophy can descend into mere factgrubbing and technicality. Of course, some people have tried to hold the two together, have tried to sketch a grand system of the world in terms of modem science. Professor Gal-Or is one of them. This has necessarily led him to some of the hardest philosophical problems facing modem scientific theory-such as the role of the observer in quantum me• chanics, the nature of perception, above all the nature of time itself-but the chapters are stratified so as to be accessible, in part or whole, to a wide range of readers. Gal-Or's general outlook is grounded securely in skeptical science and his bias is towards the more classical and objective forms of scientific theories. The reader can thus learn a lot of orthodox science at the same time as his vision of the world is expanded. xxxi PREFACE

There are a number of useful sequences by which this book may be read. This is, of course, left to the reader's interests, discretion and background. However, readers whose main interests are in the 'humanities', especially those interested in socio- , political studies and in the potentials of education, philosophy and ideology in a time of crisis, may prefer to begin with Volume II. As to condensed courses, one alternative may be designed in the following order: Volmne I Volmne II Introduction Introduction Lecture I Lecture X Lecture IV Lecture XII Lecture VI Lecture XIII Lecture IX Lecture XIV

Volume I contains a core of knowledge that, according to the latest trends in higher education, should be mastered by all advanced students in the natural sciences, or in philosophy. It departs from traditional texts in its emphasis on the intercon• nectedness of up-dated information in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, physics, and the theory of knowledge, as well as in its critique of present academic methodol• ogies. Hence, teacher!: ~nd students in the natural sciences, or in philosophy, may find it useful as a textbook for a basic 'Core Curriculum Course'. Part of the text is an expanded version of three university courses entitled, 'Introduction to Astrophysics', 'Thermodynamics', and 'Philosophy of Science', given at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, The Johns Hopkins University, the University of Pittsburgh, and the State University of New York, over a period of years. However, today the college student is not content with isolated courses on astro• physics, classical physics, relativity, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, evolu• tion, and philosophy; he wants to know not only the physical laws that lie behind the observational data but also how to use these laws as tools to further discoveries, xxxii xxxiii Preface or as guides to a better understanding of observational data in other disciplines; that is to say, to gain a better understanding of nature at large; an all-embracing view which so often results from a close cooperation between the various sciences. This, somewhat loosely, defines the aim of this book. For the sake of unification and simplicity the physical laws are first introduced in the main text in as simple a manner as possible. For the more advanced students I supply Accessory Sections that demand a greater degree of competence in astro• physics, philosophy of science, general relativity and classical physics. Consequently, two tracks through the subjects are supplied. The first track focuses on 'interdisciplinary' material of general interest. As such, it is suitable for a one-semester course at the junior or senior level or (combined with "track two" material) in graduate school. Much of "track one" material should prove fairly easy reading, though a few mathematical formulations of some diffi• culty had to be included in their tum. The second track is intended to provide a greater degree of competence in a few selected fields of study. Readers and teachers-especially those in need of enrich• ment material on physico-philosophical foundations, physico-mathematical formal• isms, or some observational data that have recently gained special importance-are invited to select these sections of 'track two' that interest them the most. With a few exceptions, "track two" material can be understood by readers who have studied only "Freshman" physics and mathematics, and, in addition, have read the earlier "track one" material. Both tracks combined may suffice-depending on the students' background-for a basic two-semester course. All "track two" material is marked with e. It includes the more specific mathe• matical formulations and various technical details. It is believed that such an ordering will help those readers who are either unfamiliar with, or uninterested in detailed formulations and empirical data, and would rather consider the general arguments involved without interruption. Hence, a substantial part of this book is also suitable for the general educated reader.

* * * The subject matter of this book has never before been investigated or presented as a unified field of study, though some fragments of it may be found scattered throughout the on specific problems. As a result, different authors have approached the problems discussed from widely varying viewpoints, employing dis• jointed concepts to what should be a unified system. A few years ago, during a course of lectures (Weizmann Institute of Science, Yale, Princeton and Harvard) I found that the three combined subjects-cosmology, physics and philosophy-command the attention not only of astrophysicists, astronomers, physicists and philosophers of science, but of other disciplines as well. This trend has been reflected in recent years by the growing number of papers and books which refer to, or reflect on new theories which deal with these three subjects as well as with their wide implications in other fields of modem human thought. Preface xxxiv Because of this growing interest and because of the somewhat surprising rate at which a unified approach to these three disciplines has recently been gaining wide acceptance, a very definite need has been felt for an up-to-date book that gathers together separate though related strands of modern thought and research, combine them into an interdisciplinary field of study, with a uniform terminology and a careful attention to the elucidation of updated scientific concepts, and, then, offer critical and/or new viewpoints on the issues involved. GLOSSARY

CPT invariance - Charge-Parity-Time symmetry theorem in particle physics (p. 240, 327). See also T-violations; Gauge Theories. GUT - Grand Unified Theories; cf. Super-Symmetry, Super-Gravity. H-theorem; - a false 'proof of time symmetry in physics (p. 257). H-R diagram; - Hertzsprung-Russel diagram (p. 88-89) QCD - Quantum Chromo-Dynamics(p. 34-41,272-276(4),407-414 (see also gauge the• ories». It is a field theory of the strong interaction, a non-Abelian generalization of QED. In QCD the quarks (p. 37, 39, 276), like the electrons in QED, are the basic matter fields with interactions mediated by electrically-neutral vector fields, the gluons (somewhat similar to the mode the photon mediates the electro• magnetic interactions among electrons). QED - Quantum Electrodynamics (p. 272-273, 409); cf. U(1) local symmetry. It is an Abelian gauge theory. QFD - Quantum Flavor-Dynamics (p. 273-276 (4». SSB - Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking (p. 34, 208). STAS -Space-Time-Asymmetry-Symmetry (p. 17, 28-41). SU(3) -see p. 276. SU(5) -the simplest unification gauge group of 'color' and 'flavor'. T - violations; - time reversal violations (p. 240, 236-8, 259, 270, 447-8). U(I) - a symmetry group related to charge conservation. An Abelian local symmetry• gauge symmetry (see also gauge theories). * * * Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories; - QED, for instance, is an Abelian gauge theory while the Yang-Mills (p. 208), QCD and GUT are examples of non-Abelian gauge theories (see also gauge theories). Non-Abelian gauge fields have spin and obey Bose-Einstein sta• tistics. Unlike the Abelian photon, they carry the gauge symmetry charges themselves. Affine connections - see p. 186. Baryons - half-integer spin hadrons (p. 37). Color - three quantum numbers; see p. 276(1) (no connection with ordinary color). Field equations - see, e.g., p. 193,209,407,412. Flavor - p. 276-(1), 39. Gauge theories - theories with local symmetries, i.e., theories where the symmetry trans• formations are space-time dependent (p. 31, 35, 205, 408). Global Symmetry - symmetry transformations, such as in the special theory of relativity, which are independent of space-time, as opposed to local or gauge symmetries (p. 31, 206). Gluons - see p. 276-(1). Massless spin-I quanta which mediate the strong interaction. Gravitino - see p. 208, 32. xxxv Glossary xxxvi

Hadrons - strongly interacting particles (p. 37). Instantons - see p. 205. Local Symmetry - Space-time dependent symmetry transformations (see gauge theories and p. 31). Lorentz covariance - see p. 183, 193,207. Leptons - p. 51, 342, 415. Mesons - see p. 37. Pregeometry - p. 414, 410. Preons - p. 415. Quarks - see p. 276-1, 37, 39, 415. Super-Symmetry - see p. 31-32, and gauge theories. Super-Gravity - local (see p. 208-9 and gauge theories). Vacuum - see p. 408, 410, 414 and also p. 33, 39, 211 (a dynamic physical entity). Weinberg-Salam Theory - see p. 273 and QFD.