Name: Date: Period: . Directions: Read the of ’s and the Queen’s letter to President McKinley before answering the critical thinking questions. America practices its Power Hawaii first occupied by both the British and the French before signing a friendship treaty with the in 1849 that would protect the islands from European . Throughout the many and businessmen travel to Hawaii. Protestant missionaries wished to convert the of locals and the businessmen are interested in establishing money making . Hawaii was a useful resource to the United States not only because of its rich land, but because of its location as well. The islands are located in a spot that U.S. leaders thought was for a naval port. This base, , would give America presence in the Ocean and a refueling port for in the middle of the ocean. When Queen Liliuokalani took the thrown in 1891 she wanted to limit the power that business have in Hawaii. America also changed the trading laws, making it extremely expensive for the Hawaiian plantations to export their sugar product back to the mainland. In 1893 these owners, led by Samuel Dole and with the support of the United States Marines against the Queen and forced her into surrendering the thrown. With American businessmen in control, they set up their own appointing Samuel Dole as . With plantation owners in control, it was in their best for their business to become a part of the United States and they requested to be annexed. President approved of Hawaii’s annexation, but while the request was at the Grover won the . President Cleveland was an anti- imperialist and withdrew the annexation request. Hawaii would not be annexed for five more , during the Spanish-. During American leaders decided it was necessary to gain Hawaii as a with its useful port. Ignoring the by the , President McKinley had Hawaii annexed to the U.S. in 1898. After a of American control, many native Hawaiians are bitter about how the United States took over the islands. In 1993, one hundred years later, President officially apologized for America’s involvement in the overthrowing of the queen.

-THE New , 24, 1897 To His HON. WILLIAM MC.KINLEY President of The United States; MY DEAR SIR; - I have this day authorized my , Mr. Joseph Heleluhe, to forward to you certain petitions of the Hawaiian people which were entrusted to him as their Commissioner by the patriotic societies they have organized. I write you these lines simply to confirm the statements made by him in his letter to you. It would have been a pleasure to me to have met you in person, and it was expected on the part of the Hawaiian nation that I would have had the opportunity to tell you of their great trust in the United States government, their of their own , and their hope that although they are without official representation in , you would be pleased willingly to listen to their prayers. But since circumstances have ordered otherwise, I can only com- mit to your careful consideration their present unhappy condition,as that of the weak in the grasp of the strong, and assure you of my unfaltering trust that the Almighty Ruler of the Universe guide your councils into the ways of justice to all and to those most interested. Very sincerely yours, Liliuokalani Reading Questions: Use what you already know and what you have read to answer these questions. Answer in sentence form.

What about Hawaii made it appealing to American Imperialists?

America was first interested in annexing Hawaii because of the want for a port in the . How could a station in Hawaii help the U.S. ?

What led the American businessmen to be the ones that started the revolt in Hawaii?

How did Hawaiians try to resist the annexation of Hawaii?

Why wasn’t Hawaii annexed to the U.S. right after the Queen lost her power? What were the disagreeing views of presidents that caused this delay?

Hawaiians petitioned and you read a letter of written by the Queen against the annexation of the islands. From what you know about imperialism, why do you think this did not help or convince American leaders to back off?